Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/433

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1099 b) is sometimes used with locative-case value: e. g. iha samaye (H.) at this conjuncture.

b. tāt, which is added to words having already a local or directive value: thus, to adverbial accusatives, prā́ktāt, údaktāt, tā́vattāt; to adverbial ablatives, ārā́ttāt, uttarā́ttāt, parākā́ttāt; and to prepositional adverbs, paçcā́tāt, adhā́stāt, avástāt, parástāt, purástāt, bahíṣṭāt. Apparently by analogy with these last, the suffix has the form stāt in upáriṣṭāt (and BhP. has udastāt).

c. hi, in uttarā́hi (ÇB.) and dakṣiṇāhi (not quotable).

1101. By the suffix thā are made adverbs of manner, especially from pronominal roots or stems.

a. Thus, táthā, yáthā; kathā́ and itthā́ (by the side of which stand kathám and itthám; and ÇB. has itthā́t); and the rare imáthā and amúthā. And átha (V. often áthā) so then doubtless belongs with them. Further, from a few adjective and noun stems, mostly of quasi-pronominal character: thus, viçváthā, sarváthā, anyáthā, ubhayáthā, aparathā, itaráthā, yataráthā, yatamáthā, katarathā, katamathā, pūrváthā, pratnáthā, ūrdhváthā, tiraçcáthā, ekathā (JB.), ṛtuthā́, nāmáthā (once, AV.); and eváthā.

b. Yáthā becomes usually toneless in V., when used in the sense of iva after a noun forming the subject of comparison: thus, tāyávo yathā (RV.) like thieves.

1102. One or two other suffixes of manner are:

a. ti, in íti thus, very commonly used, from the earliest period, especially as particle of quotation, following the words quoted.

b. Examples are: brahmajāyé ’yám íti céd ávocan (RV.) if they have said "this is a Brahman's wife"; táṁ devā́ abruvan vrā́tya kíṁ nú tiṣṭasī́ ’ti (AV.) the gods said to him: Vrātya, why do you stand?" Often, the iti is used more pregnantly: thus, yáḥ çraddádhāti sánti devā́ íti (AV.) whoever has faith that the gods exist; taṁ vyāghram munir mūṣiko ‘yam iti paçyati (H.) the sage looks upon that tiger as being really a mouse; yūyaṁ kim iti sīdatha (H.) why (lit. alleging what reason) do you sit?

c. But iti is sometimes used in a less specialized way, to mark an onomatopoeia, or to indicate a gesture: e. g. bahíṣ ṭe astu bā́l íti (AV.) let it come out of you with a splash; íty ágre kṛṣáty áthé ’ti (ÇB.) he ploughs first this way, then this way; or it points forward to something to be said: e. g. yan nv ity āhur anyāni chandāṅsi varṣīyāṅsi kasmād bṛhaty ucyata iti (PB.) when now they say thus: "the other metres are greater; why is the bṛhatī spoken?" It also makes a number of derivatives and compounds: e. g. ititha the so-many-eth; itivat in this fashion; ityartham for this purpose; itihāsa a story or legend (lit. thus forsooth it was). As to the use of a nominative with iti as predicate to an accusative, see 268 b.