c. In a very few cases, the negative a appears to be made long: thus, ā́sat non-existent, ā́deva godless, ā́rāti enemy, āçāuca impurity, ā́tura ill (?).
d. The independent negative adverbs, ná and mā́, are only in exceptional instances used in composition: see below, 1122e.
e. The comitative prefix sa, used instead of the preposition sám, and interchangeably with sahá, before nouns and adjectives.
f. The prefix of dispraise dus ill, badly (identical with √duṣ: 225 a).
g. It is combined in the same manner as a or an. Of combinations with a verbal form, at least a single example appears to be quotable: duçcaranti (R.) behave ill.
h. The corresponding laudatory prefix su well is in general so closely accordant in its use with the preceding that it is best mentioned here, though it occurs not rarely as an independent particle in the oldest language (in RV., more than two hundred times; in the peculiar parts of AV., only fourteen times), and even occasionally later.
i. The particle su sometimes appears in B. and later before a verb-form, and considering its rapid loss of independent use in V., and the analogy of a and dus (above, b, g) it is probably at least in part to be regarded as in composition with the verb. The pada-text of AV. xix. 49. 10 reads su-ápāyati, but its testimony is of little or no value. K. has na su vijñāyete and na vāi su viduḥ, and KeU. has su veda; TB. has susámbodháyati (?); MBh. and BhP. have sūpatasthe; R. has suçakyante.
j. The exclamatory and usually depreciative prefixed forms of the interrogative pronoun (506) are most analogous with the inseparable prefixes.
1122. Miscellaneous Adverbs. Other words of adverbial character and office, not clearly referable to any of the classes hitherto treated, may be mentioned as follows:
a. Asseverative particles (in part, only in the older language): thus, an̄gá, hánta, kíla, khálu, tú (rare in older language), vāí, vā́vá (in Brāhmaṇa language only), hi, hiná, u, áha, ha, gha, samaha, sma, bhala.
b. Of these, hánta is a word of assent and incitement; hí has won also an illative meaning, and accents the verb with which it stands in connection (595 e); sma sometimes appears to give a past meaning to a present tense (778 b); u is often combined with the final a of other particles: thus, átho, nó, mó, utó, úpo, pró; but also with that of verb-forms, as dattó, vidmó. The final o thus produced is pragṛhya or uncombinable (138c). Particles of kindred value, already mentioned above,