Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/504

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c. With the accent thrown forward upon the ending: asimánt with knives, agnimánt having fire, iṣudhimánt with a quiver, paçumánt possessing cattle, vāyumánt with wind, pitṛmánt (AV. pitṛ́mant) accompanied by the Fathers, mātṛmánt having a mother; no long final vowels are found before the suffix in this division, and only once a consonant, in dasmát (RV., once).

d. Protraction of a final vowel is seen in tvíṣīmant, dhrájīmant, hírīmant; in jyótiṣīmant is irregularly inserted an ī (after the analogy of táviṣīmant); in çuciṣmant, mahiṣmant, an s; suṣumánt (RV., once) appears to be primary.

e. The adverb āçumát appears to be related to adverbs in vát as the suffix mant to vant.

f. By the side of derivatives made with internal combination appears vidyúnmant even in RV.; and other like cases occur later: thus, parisrúnmant, kakunmant, kṣunmant, puronún̄mant, vān̄mant, kakummant, gudaliṇmant, yaçomant.

1236. It has been seen above (especially in connection with the suffixes a and ya) that the neuter of a derivative adjective is frequently used as an abstract noun. There are, however, two suffixes which have in the later language the specific office of making abstract nouns from adjectives and nouns; and these are found also, more sparingly used, in the oldest language, each having there one or two other evidently related suffixes beside it.

a. For derivatives of the same value made with the suffix iman, see above, 1168 i–k.

1237. ता . With this suffix are made feminine abstract nouns, denoting the quality of being so and so, from both adjectives and nouns.

a. The form of the primitive is unchanged, and the accent is uniformly on the syllable preceding the suffix.

b. Examples (from the older language) are: devátā divinity, vīrátā manliness, puruṣátā human nature, agnítā firehood, apaçútā cattle-lessness, bandhútā relationship, vasútā wealth; nagnátā nakedness, suvīrátā wealth in retainers, anapatyátā lack of descendants, agótā poverty in cattle, abrahmátā lack of devotion, aprajástā absence of progeny; also doubtless sūnṛ́tā (from sūnára), although the word is a few times used as an adjective (like çaṁtāti and satyatāti: see next paragraph).

c. Of special formation are mamátā selfishness, trétā triplicity, astitā actuality. RV. has avī́ratā, with exceptional accent. In ekapatnitā is seen a shortened final vowel of the primitive. Janátā has acquired a concrete meaning, people, folk; also grāmatā (once) villages collectively.

1238. ताति tāti, तात् tāt. These suffixes are Vedic only, and the latter is limited to RV. Their relationship to the preceding is