Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/524

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been validated.

it is greatly extended, and forms a numerous class of appositional compounds: see below, 1302.

f. This whole subdivision, of nouns with preceding qualifying adjectives, is not uncommon; but it is greatly (in AV., for example, more than five times) exceeded in frequency by the sub-class of possessives of the same form: see below, 1298.

1281. The adverbial words which are most freely and commonly used as prior members of compounds, qualifying the final member, are the verbal prefixes and the words of direction related with them, and the inseparable prefixes, a or an, su, dus, etc. (1121). These are combined not only with adjectives, but also, in quasi-adjectival value, with nouns; and the two classes of combinations will best be treated together.

1282. Verbal adjectives and nouns with preceding adverbs. As the largest and most important class under this head might properly enough be regarded the derivatives with preceding verbal prefixes. These, however, have been here reckoned rather as derivatives from roots combined with prefixes (1141), and have been treated under the head of derivation, in the preceding chapter. In taking up the others, we will begin with the participles.

1283. The participles belonging to the tense-systems — those in ant (or at), māna, āna, vāṅs — are only rarely compounded with any other adverbial element than the negative a or an, which then takes the accent.

a. Examples are: ánadant, ádadat, ánaçnant, ásravant, álubhyant, ádāsyant, áditsant, ádevayant; ámanyamāna, áhiṅsāna, áchidyamāna; ádadivāṅs, ábibhīvāṅs, atasthāna; and, with verbal prefixes, ánapasphurant, ánāgamiṣyant, ánabhyāgamiṣyant, ávirādhayant, ávicācalat, ápratimanyūyamāna.

b. Exceptions in regard to accent are very few: arundhatī́, ajárantī, acodánt (RV., once: doubtless a false reading; the simple participle is códant); AV. has anipádyamāna for RV. ánipadyamāna (and the published text has asaṁyánt, with a part of the manuscripts); ÇB. has akāmáyamāna.

c. Of other compounds than with the negative prefix have been noted in the Veda -punardīyamāna (in ápunard-) and súvidvāṅs. In alalābhávant and jañjanābhávant (RV.), as in astaṁyánt and astameṣyánt (AV.), we have participles of a compound conjugation (1091), in which, as has been pointed out, the accent is as in combinations with the verbal prefixes.