Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/531

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possessive (compare the similar exceptions under possessive suffixes, 1230 g, 1233 f). Examples are: viçvā́nara of or for all men, belonging to all (and so viçvákṛṣṭi, -carṣaṇi, -kṣiti, -gotra, -manus, -āyu, and sarvápaçu, saptámānuṣa), viçváçārada of every autumn, vipathá for bad roads, dvirājá [battle] of two kings, áçvapṛṣṭha carried on horseback, vīrápastya abiding with heroes, pūrṇámāsa at full moon, adévaka for no divinity, bahudevata or -tyà for many divinities, aparisaṁvatsara not lasting a fall year, ekādaçakapāla for eleven dishes, somendrá for Soma and Indra. And the compounds with final member in ana mentioned at 1296 b are probably of the same character. But also in the later language, some of the so-called dvigu-compounds (1312) belong with these: so dvigu itself, as meaning worth two cows, dvināu bought for two ships; also occasional cases like devāsura [saṁgrāma] of the gods and demons, narahaya of man and horse, cakramusala with discus and club, gurutalpa violating the teacher's bed.

1295. The possessive compound is distinguished from its substrate, the determinative, generally by a difference of accent. This difference is not of the same nature in all the divisions of the class; but oftenest, the possessive has as a compound the natural accent of its prior member (as in most of the examples given above).

1296. Possessively used dependent compounds, or possessive dependents, are very much less common than those corresponding to the other division of determinatives.

a. Further examples are: mayū́raroman having the plumes of peacocks, agnítejas having the brightness of fire, jñatímukha wearing the aspect of relatives, pátikāma desiring a husband, hastipāda having an elephant's feet, rājanyàbandhu having kshatriyas for relatives.

b. The accent is, as in the examples given, regularly that of the prior member, and exceptions are rare and of doubtful character. A few compounds with derivatives in ana have the accent of the final member: e. g. indrapā́na serving as drink for Indra, devasádana serving as seat for the gods, rayisthā́na being source of wealth; but they contain no implication of possession, and are possibly in character, as in accent, dependent (but compare 1294 b). Also a few in as, as nṛcákṣas men-beholding, nṛvā́has men-bearing, kṣetrasā́dhas field-prospering, are probably to be judged in the same way.

1297. Possessively used descriptive compounds, or possessive descriptives, are extremely numerous and of every variety of character; and some kinds of combination which are rare in proper descriptive use are very common as possessives.

a. They will be taken up below in order, according to the character-