Korschelt states that the ideograph for "Ko" means "talent" or "skilfulness," in which he is very likely wrong, as it is more accurately translated by our word "threat"; but be this as it may, it is certainly true that the rule in regard to "Ko" gives opportunity for a great display of skill, and as the better players take advantage of this rule with much greater ingenuity, it is a good idea for the weaker player as far as possible to avoid situations where its application arises.
There is a situation which sometimes arises and which might be mistaken for "Ko." It is where a player takes more than one stone and the attacking stone is threatened on three sides, or where only one stone is taken, but the adversary in replying can take not only the last stone played, but others also. In these cases the opponent can retake immediately, because it will at once be seen that an endless exchange of moves (which makes necessary the rule of "Ko") would not occur. A situation of this kind is shown on Plate 6, Diagrams iii, iv, and v, where White playng at C 8 (Diagram iii) takes the tree black stones, producing the situation shown in Diagram iv, and Black is permitted immediately to retake the white stone, producing the state of affairs in Diagram v. The Japanese call such a situation "Ute keashi," which means "returning a blow." It forms no exception to the ordinary rules of the game, and only needs to be pointed out because a beginner might think that the rule of "Ko" applied to it.We will now take up the situation called "Seki." "Seki" means a "barrier" or "impasse"—it is a different word from the "Seki" in the phrase "Jo seki." "Seki" also is somewhat analagous to perpetual check. It arises when a