488 Southern Historical Society Papers.
which were provided by the Constitution itself, to be " sufficient for the establishment" of it.
At the conclusion of his most exhaustive historical and constitu- tional argument, the author asserts that the whole case against Davis, Lee et als, is based on a perversion of the principles of our polity — "based," to use his own language — "solely on falsehood, fraud and violence; " and he contends that " it is only on ground, composed of these detestable ingredients that their gibbet can be erected."
In December, 1865, Charles O'Connor characterized the work as "an admirably prepared and overwhelmingly conclusive brief " for Davis's defence, and, some time afterward, he employed the author in the case ; the Philadelphia Ledger stated that " a most important argument had been received by the President from London, in which are set forth the reasons why Davis carinot be convicted in any court ; " and many leading papers of that day noticed the work as one of ex- traordinary research and ability, specially designed to show that Davis was no traitor and was not punishable as such. In short, all that was valuable in the defensive argument of Professor Bledsoe, delivered in 1866, was given to the world by " P. C. Centz, Barrister," in 1865 ; though as a criticism and refutation of the consolidation dogmas of Story and Webster, Professor B.'s work is unsurpassed.
II. so WITH "the war between THE STATES,"
Which Hon. A. H. Stephens published in 1868. One of its most im- portant demonstrations had been given, in the same general form, and for the same purpose, by " P. C. Centz, Barrister," early in 1865. If Mr. Stephens had quoted from " Davis and Lee," pp. 22-47, his g^;ound would have been completely covered. In those pages Mr. Centz carefully gave the history of each State's convention, debate and ratification, and showed that "the people" who were organized mid capable of acting only as States, and were actually named as such in the Constitution, did, as such political bodies, give to the said Constitution its entirety of life and legal force — three of them ratifying, and pro tanto establishing, the said Constitution in 1787, eight in 1788, one in 1789, and the last, Rhode Island, in 1790; and moreover clearly demonstrated that the said States themselves intended to be and remain the government — intended, in short, to remain republics or self-governing societies of people, each to select her gtwta of the federal agency from her own members or citizens, who, on being selected, were empowered and sent by the State, under her commis- sion and seal, to speak her federal voice, and dp her federal duty.