(hi,- T<>rjK'</o Bo"/. 293
it was expected to destroy the Goliaths of the Union fleet. The original David, from which its successor differed only in minor de- tails, was cigar shaped, and resembled in general design the Holland submarines of the twentieth century. It had a conning tower, which, when the boat floated, was about all that appeared. The boat was about thirty-five feet long and built of sheet iron. Its principal differences from the modern submarine, those which made it imperfect and manageable only under the most favorable circum- stances, were these:
HOW IT WAS SUBMERGED.
The Holland is always buoyant; it is submerged by deflecting a horizontal rudder when the boat is under way, not by filling it to a weight a little more than that of the displaced water. The David was submerged by filling, and possessed only an upright rudder. In case of an accident to the Holland' s machinery the boat will float to the top. It was vice versa with the David. The Holland is run by gasoline when on the surface and electricity when beneath. The propeller wheel of the David was turned by eight men. The Hol- land lies steady in the water. It is perfect ballasted when water is taken into the tanks, because they hold just the required amount to bring the boat to " fighting weight " or " diving 1 trim " and it can- not shift. The David was . unstable in this respect. The Holland fires the torpedoes after a moment's rise to the surface, when within range, to sight the vessel to be destroyed and get a direct line upon her. The David dragged her torpedo after her under the keel of the vessel, and it was exploded by the knock, when it struck.
The original David was designed for coast and river work in the gulf and Mississippi river. When it was put out of commission and the second boat was finished the ships of the North were blockading the principal Southern ports, and there was a brilliant opportunity for a submarine torpedo-boat to do the most effective kind of work, if she proved manageable. This she did not do. On her trial trip she sank before her proper time, and did not come up again. Her crew of ten men were suflocated. She was raised, and Lieutenant Payne, of the Confederate navy, volunteered to take command of her. In 1864 he took her to Charleston to undertake operations against the powerful blockading fleet. As she was nearing Charles- ton, a passing steamer sent its swells over her. Too heavy to rise to the waves, she rolled like a waterlogged tree trunk, and the wash went over her, pouring down her open hatch and quickly carrying