so the coverer must be careful that all glue is removed from the back and sides before he attempts to cover any of his books with calf. It is rather provoking to find some favourite colour when dry, having a tortoiseshell appearance, which no amount of washing will take out. When dry the ends of the bands are to be cut off with a bevel, and a little piece of the boards from the corners nearest the back also taken off on the bevel, that there may not be a sharp point to fret through the leather when the book is opened. This is also necessary so that the head-band may be properly set. A sharp knife should be inserted between the hollow and should separate it from the back at head and tail on each side so far as to allow the leather to be turned in. Morocco may have the back glued, as it will not show through, and will facilitate the adhesion of the leather.
Flexible Work.—This class of work is not lined-up. The leather is fastened directly upon the book; the head-band is set as before explained, and held tight by gluing a piece of fine linen against it, and when quite dry, the overplus is to be cut away, and the back made quite smooth. The bands are then knocked up gently with a blunt chisel to make them perfectly straight, being first damped and made soft with a little paste to facilitate the working and to prevent the thread from being cut. Any holes caused by sawing-in, in previous binding, must be filled up with a piece of frayed cord, pasted. Any holes thus filled up must be made quite smooth when dry, as the least unevenness will show when the book is covered.
In "throw up" backs, or in "flexible not to show," a piece of thin linen (muslin) or stuff called mull is glued on the back first, and one piece of paper on the top. For the hollow, three, four, or even five pieces are stuck one on the other, so that it may be firm; whilst the book itself will be as if it had a flexible back. The bands, if any, are then