Page:The European Concert in the Eastern Question.djvu/41

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25
THE TREATY OF BERLIN.

The Congress of Berlin.The 13th Protocol of the Congress of Berlin records the opinion of the Powers that 'the rectification of the Turko-Greek frontier might follow the valley of the Selmyrias (the ancient Peneus) on the side of the Aegaean Sea, that of the Calamos on the side of the Ionian Sea[1].'

The Treaty of Berlin, 1878.Article 24 of the Treaty of Berlin provides that 'In the event of the Sublime Porte and Greece being unable to agree upon the rectification of frontier suggested in the 13th Protocol of the Congress of Berlin, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia reserve to themselves to offer their mediation to the two parties to facilitate negotiations[2].'

The Greeks lost no time in attempting to gain the accession of territory suggested by the Congress. Only four days after the signature of the Treaty of Berlin the Government of Athens addressed a note to the Porte, requesting it to appoint Commissioners for the purpose. After much dilatory diplomacy, a Conference took place at Prévéza between Commissioners of the two Powers, from 8th February to 18th March, 1879, but without result[3]. A Conference held at Constantinople, from 2,2nd August to 17th November of the same year, was equally fruitless[4]; and early in 1880 the Greek Minister was recalled from Constantinople. A new era in the negotiations dates from the appearance on the scene of Mr. Goschen, as British Ambassador to Turkey, in the following May. On 11th June identic notes were presented to the Porte, in which it was informed that the representatives of the Powers accredited to the Emperor of Germany would meet at Berlin, on the 16th of the month, 'in order to decide by a majority of votes, and with the assistance of officers possessed of the necessary technical knowledge, the line of frontier it will be best to adopt[5].'

The Conference of Berlin.The Conference met and traced its line[6], which the Powers,
  1. Prot. No. 13, Parl. Papers, 1878.
  2. Infra, chapter VI.
  3. Martens, N. R. G., 2me série, vi, pp. 1-14.
  4. Ib. pp. 14-95.
  5. Parl. Papers, 1880, Turkey, No. 9.
  6. Parl. Papers, 1880, Turkey, No. 9; N. R. G., 2me Série, vi. 95. The new frontier is defined as follows: 'La frontière suivra le thalweg du Kalamas