of the Ouataouaks in America, and the bear festival of the Ainus in Japan. Frazer has given a full account of these and similar cases in the two divisions of his great work that have last appeared. An Indian tribe in California which reveres the buzzard, a large bird of prey, kills it once a year with solemn ceremony, whereupon the bird is mourned and its skin and feathers preserved. The Zuni Indians in New Mexico do the same thing with their holy turtle.
In the Intichiuma ceremonies of Central Australian tribes a trait has been observed which fits in excellently with the assumptions of Robertson Smith. Every tribe that practices magic for the increase of its totem, which it cannot eat itself, is bound to eat a part of its totem at the ceremony before it can be touched by the other tribes. According to Frazer the best example of the sacramental consumption of the otherwise forbidden totem is to be found among the Bini in West Africa, in connection with the burial ceremony of this tribe.
But we shall follow Robertson Smith in the assumption that the sacramental killing and the common consumption of the otherwise forbidden
- “The Golden Bough,” Part V, “Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild,” 1912, in the chapters: “Eating the God and Killing the Divine Animal.”
- Frazer, “Totem and Exogamy,” Vol. II, p. 590.