108 STAT. 1510 PUBLIC LAW 103-296—AUG. 15, 1994 (1) IN GENERAL.— Title XI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 1128B the following: 42 USC 1320a-8. "SEC. 1129. CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS FOR TITLES HAND XVI. "(a)(1) Any person (including an organization, agency, or other entity) who makes, or causes to be made, a statement or representation of a material fact for use in determining any initial or continuing right to or the amount of— "(A) monthly insurance benefits under title II, or "(B) benefits or payments under title XVI, that the person knows or should know is false or misleading or knows or should know omits a material fact or makes such a statement with knowing disregard for the truth shall be subject to, in addition to any other penalties that may be prescribed by law, a civil money penalty of not more than $5,000 for each such statement or representation. Such person also shall be subject to an assessment, in lieu of damages sustained by the United States because of such statement or representation, of not more than twice the amount of benefits or payments paid as a result of such a statement or representation. In addition, the Secretary may make a determination in the same proceeding to exclude, as provided in section 1128, such a person who is a medical provider or physician from participation in the programs under title XVIII and to direct the appropriate State agency to exclude the person from participation in any State health care program permanently or for such period as the Secretary determines. "(2) For purposes of this section, a material fact is one which the Secretary may consider in evaluating whether an applicant is entitled to benefits under title II or eligible for benefits or payments under title XVI. "(b)(1) The Secretary may initiate a proceeding to determine whether to impose a civil money penalty or assessment, or whether to recommend exclusion under subsection (a) only as authorized by the Attorney General pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary and the Attorney General. The Secretary may not initiate an action under this section with respect to any violation described in subsection (a) later than 6 years after the date the violation was committed. The Secretary may initiate an action under this section by serving notice of the action in any manner authorized by Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. "(2) The Secretary shall not make a determination adverse to any person under this section until the person has been given written notice and an opportunity for the determination to be made on the record after a hearing at which the person is entitled to be represented by counsel, to present witnesses, and to cross-examine witnesses against the person. "(3) In a proceeding under this section which— "(A) is against a person who has been convicted (whether upon a verdict after trial or upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere) of a Federal or State crime charging fraud or false statements; and "(B) involves the same transaction as in the criminal action; the person is estopped from denying the essential elements of the criminal offense.