Llyfr Cynog, the Book of Cynog, referred to both in the
of Ystrad Tywi around Dinevwr, plus Ceredigion. Deheubarth, Gwynedd, Powys, and Lloegr (England) are mentioned as four distinct gwlads in the present work. The Latin Peniarth MS. 28 of the late twelfth century quotes the same passage, viz. ' Homo de Powyss ab homine de Gwynet, similiter de Deheubarth, et de Anglico, in suo sayrhaed non habet nisi tres uaccas et IIIes untias argenti.' In the preface also of the same early and important text are mentioned the Gwynedoti, the Powyssi, and the Dextrales. Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth are also distinguished in the North Welsh books of the MS. A type. This seems to fix the earliest recensions which we possess of the Laws of Howel Dda to a period subsequent to the fall of the majority of the South Welsh gwlads, that is, roughly speaking, subsequent to the end of the eleventh century.
gwrda, a noble ; in the Latin texts optimas. See breyr.
gwyl [Lat. vigilia], a festival. G. Giric, June 16 ; G. Ieuan y Moch (St. John of the Swine), August 29 ; G. Badric, March 17 ; G. Vihagel (St. Michael), September 29; G. yr Holl Seint (All Saints), November 1 ( = Calan Gaeaf, the Calends of Winter).
Gwynedd, roughly equivalent to North West Wales inclusive of the three counties of Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth. See Deheubarth.
gwyr nod, nod-men. ' The term gwr nod (literally, man of mark) is very ambiguous. Sometimes it looks as if it meant a taeog or aillt' Not in present text. See p. 312 supra (U 27 b).
llan. In the early Breton Vita Pauli Aureliani we gather that the old meaning of llan was monastery, e.g. Lanna Pauli id est monasterium Pauli. In the Vita Gildae, c. 27, we have also coetlann interpreted as monasterium nemoris, which, whether it be right or no, shows that llan to the writer meant monastery. The numerous llans of old Welsh place-names, therefore, signify the monasteries of those whose names generally follow them, e.g. Llangolman, the monastery of Colman, and so on. The llan would naturally include under its name the lands and rights which pertained to it. Llan in process of time came also to mean a church, but as a rule in the present text eglwys (ecclesia) is used for a church. On p. 114 llan and eglwys appear to be in some sense contrasted, for the llan has an abbot and the eglwys has lay proprietors, whose duty is to protect it.
land maer. See maer biswail.
- Anc. Laws II. 789.
- Ibid. II. 749.
- The Welsh People, 236, note 4. Cf. Anc. Laws II. 1118.