Popular Science Monthly/Volume 20/April 1882/Literary Notices

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Popular Science Monthly Volume 20 April 1882  (1882) 
Literary Notices



The Brain and its Functions. By Dr. J. Luys, Physician to the Hospice de la Salpêtrière. D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 327. Price, $1.50.

We have here one of those striking cases, unfortunately too rare, in which the very ablest man makes the most thoroughly popular book. Dr. Luys, at the head of the great French Insane Asylum, is also one of the most eminent and successful investigators of cerebral science now living; and he 8 4 8


��has given, unquestionably, the clearest and most interesting brief account yet made of the structure and operations of the brain. The books of Drs. Luys and Bastian are to a great degree supplementary to each other. Dr. Luys, in treating " The Brain and its Functions," confines himself to the human brain, and makes his work an exclusively human study. Dr. Bastian, in his " Brain as an Organ of Mind," deals comprehensively with the supreme nerve-centers of the whole animal series. His work is profusely illus- trated with diagrams of the figure and an- atomical structure of the brains of all grades of animals ; while Dr. Luys, passing by the whole scheme of inferior life, has but six illustrations in his book, and these are de- signed simply to make clear the offices and relations of fundamental parts, so as to ex. plain the corporeal conditions of psychical processes.

We have been fascinated by this volume more than by any other treatise we have yet seen on the machinery of sensibility and thought ; and we have been instructed not only by much that is new, but by many sagacious practical hints such as it is well for everybody to understand. Lest we be thought to speak too strongly in commenda- tion of the sterling character of this work, and in order to give some idea of the au- thor's method, we quote the following excel- lent statement concerning it from the col- umns of the " St. James Gazette " :

No living physiologist is better entitled to speak with authority upon the structure and functions of the braiu than Dr. Luys. His studies on the anaiomy of the nervous system are acknowledged to be the fullest and most systematic ever undertaken. He begins by treating the soft and delicate material of the brain-tissues with chromic acid, which hardens it so as to fix it sufficiently for the purposes of laboratory work, without altering or distorting its essential constitution. He then cuts off very thin slices of the tissue one after another, and, by employing different chemical reagents for which the various minute elements of the brain have varying susceptibilities, he obtains trans- parent colored sections of the nervous matter, which throw into strong relief the distinction between cells and fibers, besides exhibiting clearly the nature and direction of their intri- cate ramifications. In this manner he has sys tcmatically made many thousand delicate sec- tions of brains, horizontally, vertically, and laterally, at distances of a millimetre from one another, each of which he photographs, till at

��. last he has succeeded in producing a series of I maps of its entire structure which place the relations of its organs in strikingly novel lights. The first division of his present volume is de- voted to summing up briefly the main results of these important researches. The late Professor Clifford has already popularized them in part for the English reader ; but we believe this is the first time that they have been definitely set forth in any fullness before the general public on this side of the Channel.

Confining his attention to the cerebral hemi- spheres alone, without entering into any par- ticulars as to the cerebellum and other minor appendages, Dr. Luys begins by pointing out the fundamental distinction between the nerve- cell or real central organ and the nerve-fiber or connecting thread. The first answers to the telegraph-office, the second to the wire uniting one office with another. The gray matter which forms the outer covering of the convolutions consists of closely packed cells, and is thus really the essentia] brain ; the white matter in the center consists of fibers aggregated into bundles, and is thus really a mass of large nerves. Of thfc single cells themselves, with their nu- merous converging fibers, as well as of their arrangement in superimposed layers, Dr. Luys gives very graphic and instructive diagrams. The business of the cells individually and of Ihe gray matter as a whole is to receive sensory messages from the external organs of the senses and to transform or to co-ordinate their im- pulses into the proper movements as, for ex- ample, when we see a fruit orflower, and stretch out our hands to pick it. The white substance is shown to consist of numerous interlacing fibers, having for their function the conveyance of such information from without inward, or the carrying down of such motor impulses from within outward. Their definite arrangement in regular lines between the two hemispheres, as well as between the surface of the convolutions and the optic thalami and corpus striatum, is admirably shown by diagrammatic figures. This is the most important result of all Dr. Luys's work. He has made it clear that sense-impres- sions traveling from the eyes, ears, or skin, arrive first at the bodies known as the optic thalami ; that they are there re-enforced and worked up, as it were, in special ganglia ; and that they are thence reflected to the surface of the hemispheres, where they are finally con- verted into appropriate movements. He has also fairly settled the fact that certain minor bodies within the optic thalami are closely con- nected with the main nerves of sight, smell, taste, and hearing respectively, and that they must be considered as subordinate or inter- mediate centers where the data supplied by those senses are put into shape for considera- tion on the surface of the brain. The normal course of an excitation in the sense-organs seems to be this : it first proceeds along the fibers to its own subordinate center in the thalami ; it then passes up to the correspond- ing portion of the convolutions ; it there for the



��first, time affects consciousness ; and it is finally reflected back to the corpus striatum, whence it goes down the motor fibers to perform what- ever actions have been decided upou for it by the conscious cells.

Adolph Streckeu's Shout Text-Book of

Organic Chemistry. By Dr. Johannes

WlSLlCBNUS, Professor of Chemistry in

the University of Wiirzburg. Translated

and edited, with Extensive Additions, by

W. II. Hodgkinson, Ph. D., and A. J.

Greenaway, F. 1. C. New York : D. Ap-

pleton & Co. Pp. 789. Price, $5.

Let no one suppose that m this " short

text-book " we have to deal with a primer.

Everything is comparative, and the term

" short " here has relation to the enormous

development and extent of recent organic

chemistry. This solid and comprehensive

volume is intended to represent the present

condition of the science in its main facts

and leading principles, as demanded by the

systematic chemical student.

We have here, probably, the best extant text-book of organic chemistry. Not only is it full and comprehensive and remarkably clear and methodical, but it is up to the very latest moment, and it has been, more- over, prepared in a way to secure the great- est excellences in such a treatise. The orie- inal " Text-Book of Organic Chemistry," by Adolph Strecker, was a work of great merit, which stood high in Germany, and passed through several editions. The author was vigilant in keeping it up to the time, and was about to enter upon the preparation of the sixth edition, making important changes required by chemical progress, when his la- bors were cut short by death in 1871. Pro- fessor Wislicenus, the accomplished chem- ist of Wiirzburg, was then induced after considerable reluctance, owing to the press- ure of his official duties, to undertake the task which the author was prevented from accomplishing. This was done in so thor- ough a manner that, while much of Stack- er's best work remained, it received a new cast and a more perfect adaptation, both to the state of the science and to the require- ments of those for whom it was primarily in- tended. So largely was the treatise impressed by the originality of Professor Wislicenus that it became generally recognized as his work ; and, when it was proposed to repro- duce the book in English, Professor Wisli- cenus only consented on the condition that vol. xx. 54

��the very latest results of research in organ- ic chemistry should be embodied in it. He stipulated that " regard shall be had to the largely increased material and essentially nearer insight into the relations and nature of organic compounds already known, that have been obtained since the publication of the book." Drs. Hodgkinson and Green- away seem to have faithfully carried out this conscientious purpose of the author.

It is not necessary to attempt here any statement of the method or classification of the book, as it would take more room than we can give, and, after all, would concern chiefly the special students of organic chem- istry. The names upon the title-page are the best guarantee of the character of the volume, and an examination of its pages shows that it has been executed with re- markable clearness and accuracy. In regard to the formula? based upon the atomic the- ory which now play so prominent a part in organic chemistry, Professor Wislicenus ad- monishes students that they must be taken with great reserve. On this point he says : " In the present state of our science we can not neglect the frequent use of structural formulas based on the valency of the chem- ical elements. Their partial uncertainty and, in many points, tangible short-comings, need not prevent their use to some extent in a text-book, although their use requires care. With regard to the manner of writ- ing the constitutional formulae, no dogmatic adherence to any single method will be adopted, so that the formula of one and the same substance may be found varyingly written in different places. With every one of these systems of formulas there is the danger of substituting a concrete image in place of an idea. These images we certainly can not do without, but we must keep the idea lying behind such an image as far as possible pure, and also mobile, seeing that in comparison with older views we have in it only relative not absolute truth."

Sensation and Pain. By Charles Fayette Taylor, M. D. A Lecture delivered be- fore the New York Academy of Sciences, March 21, 1881. New York : G. P. Put- nam's Sons. Pp. 77. Price, 75 cents.

This interesting monograph is an impor- tant practical contribution to what may be called the science of illusions. It is a curi-

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��ous study in medical psychology, in which the author draws upon an extensive practice for illustrations of the phenomena of self- deception in the processes of sensation and the experience of pain. The first por- tion of Dr. Taylor's lecture is devoted to a brief account of the action of the nerv- ous system, not only as a receptive appa- ratus for the production of sensibility, but as a reacting mechanism in which sensa- tions are stored and accumulated to give rise to centrally-initiated feelings and im- pulses. " Up to a certain point," says Dr. Taylor, " and in a certain degree and man- ner, we are unquestionably automata. If it were otherwise, life would be simply im- possible. The sensations which wo receive through the five senses set a-going certain machinery, the result of which is sensory life, as certainly as the open valve lets in the steam which makes the ponderous en- gine throb with motion and power. But steam, having once been used, flows out life- less, a simple waste. Not so the sensations. Once received, they are never wholly spent, but in various forms remain as a portion of our vital selves so long as we live. And, once received, we may use and control their accumulated substance much as we will."

But if illusions arise in the action of the peripheral senses, so definite in their action and so open to observation, they are far more liable to arise in regard to the. feel- ings which come from centrally-ir.itiated im- pulses, and prominent among these decep- tions are the false location of pain and the false interpretation of centrally-initiated im- pressions. On this point Dr. Taylor re- marks : " If the direct evidence of our spe- cial senses can not be depended on, as previously shown, how much greater must be the liability to error, when conclusions are drawn from feelings depending on those pulses of nerve-force which have been set up in the cerebral end of the nervous sys- tem ! And yet, large numbers of people take the evidence of their feelings, having nothing but an emotional origin, as evidence of bodily conditions. An emotional tem- perament is simply one in which the pulse of action in the nerve-centers rises higher than the occasion requires. There is a throb or explosion of energy, under a stimulus which would produce only a pulse in ordi-

��nary persons. ^Esthetic education, particu- larly when not accompanied b# special dis- cipline, tends to increase inherited habits, until the existence of some persons consists of successions of nerve-center explosions, with all the prodigal waste of energy which accompanies that state. Such a person is thrown into ecstasies of pleasure or pain by causes by which a balanced temperament would not be affected. If a lady, she has a large variety of feelings, many of them dis- agreeable ; and, if for any reason her atten- tion becomes engaged with them, it is apt to become absorbed in their contemplation. If she has feelings along the back, she con- cludes she has spinal disease. If it is the head which disturbs her and why should it not, with regular batteries of nerve-center explosions, touched off by her own untrained and rampant emotions ? she thinks there must be brain-disease or something horrible there ; the more horrible in name the bet- ter it will suit the particular ebullition which names the disease."

Many interesting cases are given illus- trating the illusions that thus arise; we quote a single one : " A young lady of seven- teen came to me about ten years ago for what she and her friends supposed was dis- ease of the hip-joint. After examination, I told her that there was no disease of the joint whatever. I tried to explain to her comprehension that, for some reason, she had become anxious about the hip-joint, and that her attention was so fixed on it that all sensations transmitted from that vicinity caused such throbs of the nerve-centers that an ordinary sensation was converted into an extraordinary one, and the anxious attention which she directed to that part made her painfully conscious of what would otherwise be normal sensations and thus unnoticed. But I failed to impress her sufficiently to divert her attention from the part, and she continued to walk on crutches, in all, during eight years. At last she suddenly found that she was not lame. I had the pleasure of examining her about six months after she had ascertained that she was not lame, and I found a wholly unaffected joint, pre- cisely as it was seven years previously when I first saw her."

Sufficient has been said to illustrate the principal points of Dr. Taylor's discourse.



��The subject is clearly presented, and his views and conclusions are not only practical, but so important that they can not receive too much popular attention.

Antiseptic Surgery : The Principles, Modes of Application, and Results of the Lister Dressing. By Dr. Just Lucas-Championniere, Surgeon to the Hopital Tenon. Translated and edited by Frederic Henry Gerrish, A. M., M. D., Professor of Materia Mediea and Therapeutics in Bowdoin College. Port- land: Lorin<r, Short & Hannon. 1881. Pp. 240. Price, $2.25.

The editor's object in introducing this work is to enable his fellow-practitioners in America, in the absence of any low-priced treatise on the subject in the English lan- guage, to gain such a knowledge of Lister's method as will enable them to apply it with essential accuracy. The method has become thoroughly established in medical science, and is being rapidly adopted by intelligent practitioners in all countries. It is recog- nized in England, " reigns supreme " in Denmark, " has its enthusiasts " in Ger- many, "has gained a firm foothold" in France, and is represented among the sur- geons in Austria, Switzerland, Holland, Rus- sia, Italy, and America. " Nelaton," says the author, " was accustomed to say that the man who should discover the means of suppressing purulent infection deserved a statue of gold. If this view of Nelaton's was generally entertained, the statue would be raised to Professor Lister, for purulent infection has disappeared from the list of wound complications in the services in which his method is followed."

��The Origin of Primitive Superstitions, and their Development into the Wor- ship of Spirits, and the Doctrine of Spiritual Agency among the Aborigi- nes of America. By Rushton M. Dor- man. Twenty-six Illustrations. Phil- adelphia: J. B. Lippiucott & Co. 1881. Pp. 398. Price, $3.

Mythology, as considered by the au- thor, includes in its broadest definition all pagan religious beliefs, commonly called superstitions, and can not be confined to collections of fables and traditions, which are the folk-lore of peoples. In this, its larger sense, it is a very important branch

��of archaeological science, and its study re- flects much light into a past which written history has not penetrated. The author is struck with the universality of mythology, and with the evidence it presents of the homogeneity of man's religious beliefs, and his purpose is to collate the facts that show this homogeneity, to reduce to a system of religious beliefs the multitude of supersti- tions that have germinated among uncult- ured peoples, and to trace all superstitions to a common origin. The general preva- lence of the same superstitions and folk- stories among primitive peoples has led to exaggerated efforts to trace a derivation of one system of mythological belief from another by contact or migration of myths. Mr. Dorman believes that these efforts have been wrongly directed; that the mytholo- gies in question *are all of natural develop- ment among each people ; and that their similarities among all peoples in the same successive stages are explained by the fact that their growth has always and every- where taken place according to the laws of man's spiritual being, nence we have uo need to assume communications between the negroes and the American Indians and other uncultured peoples, of the existence of which we have no evidence, to account for the coincidence of such myths as the "Uncle Remus" stories of the plantation negroes with similar stories among tribes strange to them. Mr. Dorman takes issue with those who believe that the higher phases of belief and worship have been the most ancient, and have become debased in the ruder forms. According to his view, " all primitive religious belief is polytheis- tic. All savage tribes are full of the terror of invisible spirits which have been liberated by death," which fill all nature, animate and inanimate, are in the air, the wind, the storm, the rock, the vale, the river, the water-fall, and which " transmigrate into human beings, animals, plants, and even into inanimate stones, idols, and heavenly bodies, which are supposed to be animate thereafter. Hence originates the worship of ancestors, and also of animals, plants, stones, idols, and the heavenly bodies." He is also convinced that those writers are wrong who have affirmed of any people that they are destitute of religious feeling, and as-

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��serts that many such authors have contra- dicted themselves unwittingly by giving lists of the superstitions of the people against whom they made the charge. In all his own studies on the subject he has not found a people, " no matter how savage, who have no religion, if the word is used in its broad- est sense, to embrace all superstitions." He also denies that any of our Indians were primarily monotheists, or that the belief in a Supreme Being has existed among them for any considerable time, and asserts that no approach to monotheism had been made before the discovery of America by Euro- peans, and that the idea of the Great Spirit mentioned in books on the aboriginal tribes of America is an introduction by Chris- tianity. The body of the work consists of citations from a host of authors illustrative of the condition of Indian thought and development in respect to religion, and es- pecially in regard to the doctrine of spirits, fetichistic superstitions, rites, and cere- monies connected with the dead, animal- worship, the worship of trees and plants, of remarkable natural objects, and of the heavenly bodies, the animistic theory of meteorology, and priestcraft. The whole is as interesting as it is instructive, and as instructive as it is interesting, and is be- lieved by Mr. Dorman to show that a gradual development from the rudest superstition, rather than a degeneracy from monotheism, has taken place ; and that " the religion of the aboriginal tribes of America was a sys- tem of superstitions, all of which are expli- cable by the doctrine of the agency of mul- titudes of spirits, and in no other way."

Tokio Daigaku (University of Tokio). The Calendar of the Departments of Law, Science, and Literature. 2540 to 2541 (1880 to 1881). Tokio, Japan : Published by the University. Pp. (in English) 199.

Attention is first drawn to the histor- ical summary which immediately follows the list of officers and professors, and relates the different steps in the organization and ' development of the university in detail. It shows that the introduction of Western learning into Japan dates from between 1703 and 1*711 ; that an observatory was established in 1744 ; that a translation- office was instituted in 1811 to translate

��Dutch books ; that the Dutch language was taught in 1858, and the English, French, German, and Russian languages were intro- duced, and courses in mathematics, botany, and chemistry were established in and after 1858 ; and that instruction was given mainly in the English language in 1867. The sub- sequent course of the university has been in the direction of expansive development, and need not be reviewed minutely. In- struction is given in the departments of law, science, and literature, which names cover nearly all that is included in similar departments in Western institutions, and some other matters peculiarly Japanese and Chinese, by American and European and Japanese professors. The law department includes English and French law, and an- cient and present Japanese law ; the scien- tific department is comprehensive ; the lit- erary department includes English literature, philosophy, political philosophy and econ- omy, history, Buddhism, and Japanese and Chinese literature. More than fifty pro- fessors, assistants, and teachers are em- ployed, two hundred and five students and ninety-two graduates are registered, and fifteen students are entered as sent abroad to England, France, and Germany.

English Philosophers : Bacon. By Thom- as Fowler, M. A., F. S. A., Professor of Losric in the University of Oxford. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1881. Pp. 202. Price, $1.25.

Professor Fowler's object is, to pre- sent the character of the revolution which Bacon endeavored to effect in scientific method, as well as the nature of his philo- sophical opinions generally, in a form in- telligible and interesting to readers who have no technical acquaintance with logic or philosophy. The several chapters in- clude the life of Bacon, an account of his works, reviews of his " Survey of the Sci- ences," and his " Reform of Scientific Meth- od," an examination of his philosophical and religious opinions, and an estimation of his influence on philosophy aud science. On the last point, Professor Fowler believes that the influence and direction given by Bacon to science were of " the very highest importance." lie called men to study the I ways and imitate the processes of nature,



��insisted on the importance of experiment as well as of observation, recalled men to the study of facts, promoted their emancipation from the bonds of authority and the en- chantments of imagination, insisted on the subordination of scientific inquiries to prac- tical aims, promoted hopefulness, and clothed his thoughts in marvelous language.

Elements of Geometry. By Simon New- comb, Professor of Mathematics, U. S. Navy. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 1881. Pp. 399. Price, $1.75.

Professor Newcomb does not, like many who have written on this subject, consider Euclid's system periect, but believes that it fails in several points to meet modern re- quirements, and needs remodeling. This he attempts in a few features, most noticeably in the recognition of angles of a larger measurement than 180. He accordingly treats the sum of two right angles as itself an angle, to which he gives the name of a " straight angle," and explicitly defines it. He also uses language more in accordance with modern ideas in speaking of planes. In an introductory book, besides the usual fundamental axioms and definitions, practi- cal exercises are given in the practice of the analysis of geometric relations by means of the eye. Some of the first principles of conic sections have been developed, as a preliminary study of that subject, or to give some knowledge of those curves to those who do not intend to study analytical geom- etry. In proportion, a middle course has been adopted between the rigorous and pro- lix treatment of Euclid and the easier and simpler, but ungeometrical, method of Amer- ican works.

Documents relating to the History and Settlements of the Towns along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers (with the Exception of Albany), from 1630 to 1684. By B. Fernow, Keeper of the " Historical Records." Albanv, New York : Weed, Parsons & Co. Pp. 617.

This is the thirteenth volume of the series of documents relating to the colonial history of the State of New York, published officially under the direction of the Secre- tary of State. It embraces deeds, bargains, transactions of councils, memoirs, and cor- respondence, the general bearing of which

��illustrates the relations of the early settlers with the Indians. An important lesson drawn from these relations and their work- ings is that of the practical value of fair dealing with the Indians. It was the rule of the settlement of New Netherland, in- variably enforced from the beginning, that no man could settle upon Indian land un- less the Indian title was first extinguished in a manner satisfactory to the Indian pro- prietors. The consequence of the observ- ance of the rule was that "the Dutch, living at the door of the powerful Five Nations, could always count upon the friendship of their Indian neighbors." This friendship had a momentous bearing upon the future of the continent, for it kept the Hudson River, the only natural route to the North and West, always open and safe for the white man, and thus greatly facilitated set- tlement.

Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. By Lewis H. Morgan. Washington : Government Printing-of- fice. Pp. 2S1, with numerous Plates.

This, the last work of the lamented author, was completed by him during the later days of his failing strength for pub- lication in Major Powell's reports of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain region. It formed sub- stantially the fifth part of the original manuscript of the author's " Ancient Soci. ety," but was omitted from that work on account of the size which it had reached. Parts of it have appeared in detached ar- ticles ; a summary of the whole as a cyclo- paedia article ; the substance of two of the chapters, as " Montezuma's Dinner " and the " Houses of the Mound-Builders," in the " North American Review " ; and other parts, as "A Study of the nouses and House-Life of the Indian Tribes," with a scheme for exploring the ruins in New Mexico, Arizona, the San Juan region, Yucatan, and Cen- tral America, in the "Transactions of the Archaeological Institute of America." The facts and views embodied in these articles being placed now in their proper connection, with others bearing upon the same point, the full force and clearness which they are capable of furnishing are given to the author's theory. That theory is that the

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��communal houses of the Indians at the time of the first white settlements in our country, the pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona, the structures whose ruins abound in Mex- ico and Central America, and the mounds of the mound-builders, illustrate a common type of house-construction and a communis- tic mode of living by the gens or tribe, which are not peculiar to the American aborigi- nes, but have appeared as elements in prim- itive life at a stage between savagery and barbarism, among many other nations. The illustrations, drawn from and applied to all the classes of structures under review, and the historical citations, afford strong re-en- forcements to the author's presentation.

Geology of the Environs of Tokio. By David Brauns, Ph. D., M. D., Professor of Geology in Tokio Daigaku. Tokio, Japan : Tokio Daigaku. 1881. Pp. 85, with Eight Plates.

This is Number IV of the " Memoirs " of the Science Department of the University of Tokio, and contains accounts of the ex- aminations of the alluvial, diluvial, and ter- tiary deposits of the neighborhood of Tokio, Yokohama, and other parts of Japan, some of which present difficult problems, and de- scriptions of the fossils (mollusks). The conclusion is reached that the Japanese shell-layers which were examined have the greatest resemblance with the Crag, and next to it with the younger sub Apennine j deposits, while the rocks resemble very closely the European Faluns. The plates, ! besides a sketch-map of the environs of Tokio, give representations of earth-sections and of some thirty typical fossils.

Report on the Geology and Resources of the Black Hills of Dakota. By Henry Newton, E. M., and Walter P. Jenney, E. M. Washington : Government Print- ing-Office. Pp. 566, with Atlas.

Professor Newton's part of this work includes the general introduction, observa- tions on the routes to and from the Black Hills, and the account of the geological for- mations of the region, as observed in his survey during the summer of 1875. The author died in 1877, before completing his report, and the work of finishing it fell to Mr. C. K. Gilbert, who has performed it with fidelity to the author's intention, bear-

��ing in mind what has been learned concern- ing the gold of the Black Hills since the survey was made. Mr. Jenney's part of the report is his own exclusively, and includes a detailed review of the mineral resources, and the climate and general resources, of the Black Hills. Additional chapters, with plates of illustrations, are furnished : On " Paleontology," by R. P. Whitfield ; " Mi- croscopic Petrography," by John II. Cas- well ; "Botany," by Asa Gray; and "As- tronomy" and "Barometric Hypsometry," by Horace F. Tuttle.

Measurements of the Force of Gravity at Tokio and on the Summit of Fujino- yama. By T . C. Mendenhall, Ph. D., Professor of Experimental Physics in Tokio Daigaku. Tokio, Japan : Pub- lished by Tokio Daigaku. 1881. Pp. 17.

This is Number V of the " Memoirs " of the Science Department of the Univer- sity of Tokio. The experiments were con- ducted with a pendulum, in 1880, and pro- duced results that seemed to show that the mountain is deficient in attraction.


Chemical and Physical Analysis of Condensed Milk and Infants" Milk Foods. By Dr. Nicho- las Gerbor. Translated and edited by Dr. H. Endemann. New York. 1882. Pp. 101. Nine- teen Plates.

The Establishment of an International Tri- bunal. By A. H. Stoiber. New York. 1882. Pp. 24.

Catalogue of Southwick & Jenck's Natural History Goods. Providence, Khode island. 1881. Pp. 23.

Quarterly Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics for the Three Months ended Sep- tember 30, 1881. Washington: Government Print- ing-Office. 1882. Pp. 130. '

Circulars of Information of the Bureau of Education. No. 5. 1881. Washington : Govern- ment Printing-office. 1881. Pp.47.

Pulpit Talks on Topics of the Time. By the Rev. J. II. Rylance, D. D. New York : I. K. Funk & Co. 1882. Pp.46.

Question-Book of Natural Philosophy. With Notes, etc. Bv Albert P. Southwick. Ansonia, Ohio. 1881. Pp. 16. 10 cents.

Transactions of the New York Academy of Si-iences, 1KS1-1882. Vol. i, No. 2. November, 1881. Published for the Academy. Pp. 29.

Contributions to the Hi>tory of the Vertcbra- ta of the Lower Eocene of Wyoming and New Mexico. Made during 1881. By E. D. Cope. Philadelphia, 1881. Pp. 98.

Report of the Proceedings of the Ensilage Coneross. Published by the New York Plow Company. 1882. Illustrated. Pp.66. 30 cents.

The Development History of the Flowers of the Gunncra Chileusis. By William A. Keller-

�� � Keilermann. Oshkosh, Wisconsin. 1881. Illustrated. Pp. 23.

The Chemical Cause of Life Theoretically and Experimentally Demonstrated. By Oscar Loew and Thomas Bokorny. Munich. 1881. Illustrated. Pp. 60.

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Vol xx, Part IV, January to April, 1330; and vol. xxi. Part I, May to December, 1880. Boston. 1830.

Scientific Proceedings of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute. Vol. i, No. 1. Cincinnati, January, 1882. Pp. 48. Quarterly, $1 a year.

Gold-hearing Drift, of Indiana. By George Sutton, M. D. Reprinted from the "Proceedings of the A. A. A. S." Salem, Massachusetts. 1882.

Publications of the Cincinnati Observatory. Micrometrical Measurements of Four Hundred and Fifty-five Double Stars observed with the Eleven-Inch Refractor during the Year ending September 1, 1880, under the Direction of Or mond Stone, A. M., Astronomer. Cincinnati. 1882. Pp. 69.

Ninety-sixth Annual Report of the Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York. Prepared by the Finance Committee. New York: Henry Bessey, printer. 1882.

On the Effect of Prolonged Stress upon the Strength and Elasticity of Pine Timber. By R. H. Thurston. Reprint from the "Proceedings of the Cincinnati Meeting of the A. A. A. S." Pp. 8.

Boston Society of Natural History. Guides for Science Teaching. No. I. About Pebbles. By Alpheus Hyatt. 1879. Pp. 26. No. II. Concerning a Few Common Plants By George L. Goodale. 1881. Pp. 61. No. III. Commercial and other Sponges. By Alpheus Hyatt. Illustrated. 1879. Pp. 43. No IV. A First Lesson in Natural History. By Mrs. Agassiz. Illustrated. 1879. Pp. 64 No. V. Common Hydroids, Corals, and Echinoderms. By Alpheus Hyatt. Illustrated. 1831. Pp. 32. No VI. The Oyster, Clam, and other Common Mollusks. By Alpheus Hyatt. Illustrated. 1831. Pp. 65. No. XII. Common Minerals and Rocks. By William C. Crosby. 1881. Pp. 130. Boston: Gin 11, Heath & Co. Annual Reports of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1879-1880; 1880-1881. Boston. 1832. Pp. 35.

Fifth Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park. By P. W. Norris. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1882. Pp. 81. With Map.

Soluble Compressed Pellets. A Nw Form of Remedies for Hypodermic Use. By H. Augustus Wilson, M.D. Reprint from "Transactions of the American Medical Association," 1881. Philadelphia. 1831. Pp. 4.

Science in Public Schools. By George Davidson. Reprint from "Mining and Scientific Press." Pp. 5

The Distribution of Plant Life. By Dr. B. W. Barton. Address before the Maryland Horticultural Society, April, 1881. Pp. 8.

Report on Diphtheria. By Franklin Staples, M.D. Winona, Minnesota. Pp. 44.

The Oyster Industry, by Ernest Engersoll, illustrated, 1881, pp. 250, and A Monograph on the Seal Islands of Alaska, by Henry W. Elliott, illustrated, 1882. pp. 176. Washington: Government Printing-Office.

Trance and Muscle Reading. By G. M. Beard, M.D. New York. 1882. Pp. 40.

Incandescent Electric Lights. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1882. Pp. 176. 50 cents.

A Year of Miracle. A Poem in Four Sermons. By W. C. Gannett. Boston: George H. Ellis. 1382. Pp. 106. 50 cents.

Paine Genealogy, Ipswich Branch. By Albert W. Paine. Bangor, Maine. 1881. Pp. 184.

The Burgomaster's Wife. A Romance. By Georg Ebers. New York: William S. Gottsberger. 1882.

The Art of Voice Production. By A. A. Pattou. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1382. Pp. 106. $1.

The Use of Tobacco. By J. L. D. Hinds, Ph.D. Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House. 1882. 75 cents.

Marriage and Parentage. By a Physician and Sanitarian. New York: M. L. Holbrook & Co. 1882. Pp. 185.

The Temple Rebuilt. A Poem. By Frederick R. Abbe. Boston: D. Lothrop & Co. 1882. $1.25.

Beliefs about Man. By M. J. Savage. Boston: George H. Ellis. 1882. Pp. 130. $1.50.

The Gospel in the Stars, or Primeval Astronomy. By Joseph A. Seiss, D.D. Philadelphia: E. Clayton & Co. 1881. Pp. 452.

A Practical Treatise on Hernia. By Joseph H. Warren. M.D. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co. 1882. Illustrated. Pp. 428. $5.

The Voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe. By A. E Nordenskiold. Translated by Alexander Leslie. New York: Macmillan & Co. 1882. Pp. 756. Illustrated. $6.