Popular Science Monthly/Volume 22/January 1883/Literary Notices
|←Editor's Table||Popular Science Monthly Volume 22 January 1883 (1883)
James Mill. A Biography. By Alexander Bain, LL.D. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 426. Price, $2.
The influence of John Stuart Mill upon the reputation of his father, James Mill, has been twofold: he has advertised him, and at the same time eclipsed him. It is frequently said of James Mill that his greatest work was John Mill; and there are many who suppose that this is his chief title to be remembered. Others think that, though the father may have been a man of some consideration in his time, yet that he has been so superseded by his son that all interest in him has disappeared.
But James Mill is not to be disposed of in this way. It is hardly questionable if James Mill is not, in fact, the greater and more original man of the two. If one is to be regarded as an appendage to the other, the order of time will correspond to the order of rank. No doubt the two Mills will have to be taken together as representative of one system of ideas. But the system, as such, belongs to the father much more than to the son. James Mill led in its development and John Mill followed. The son continued the father's work, expanding, extending, and elaborating it; but he inherited it as a half-constructed system, and, if the father was unable directly to give it its more developed form, he did it indirectly by educating his son entirely with reference to the LITERARY NOTICES.
��fulfillment of his own mission as the founder of a new school of philosophy.
In seeking to rectify past judgments and to form a more just idea of the relative greatness of these two eminent men, we must remember, not only that the father was self-made, while John Stuart Mill had James Mill for a teacher, but we must re- member also that the father had to make himself over again after he had at first been very bady constructed. He was educated as a clergyman in the orthodox school of Scotch Calvinism, and was of course early saturated with the whole order of ideas which belongs to that system. From this he got himself free by a total rejection of the whole body of theological belief that belongs to Christianity. He therefore be- gan the reconstruction of his views and opinions late in life, and had to work them all out for himself. His son, on the con- trary, had the immense advantage of begin- ning early a systematic training in the line which he pursued without a break through life. James Mill was an independent and indeed a masterly thinker in the fields of psychology, of political economy, of logic and the philosophy of government, and he was a pioneer of modern English liberalism. John Stuart Mill ran in upon all these sub- jects, revising, amplifying, and making them his own through the accomplishments of a wider erudition and a more thorough prep- aration ; but if he had possessed more of his father's quality he would have broken loose from more of his father's errors, and the system of thought that is now identi- fied with both names might have been made more enduring than it is.
Dr. Bain's life of James Mill is a very interesting book. It is interesting in its biographical features and as a delineation of a strong and remarkable character ; and it is also especially instructive as a history of the times, as illustrated by the active and influential career of a man who had much to do with the reshaping of modern liberal opinion in social and political affairs. James Mill was a man of immense intellect- ual activity, as shown not only by the " Anal- ysis. of the Human Mind " and the " History of India," but by a host of lesser produc- tions, such as articles contributed to cyclo- paedias and to many of the leading reviews,
��all of which were able in thought and writ- ten with remarkable clearness and force.
The Winners in Life's Race; or, the Great Backboned Family. By Ara- bella B. Buckley. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 36V. Price, $1.50.
As a popular scientific writer the po- sition of Miss Buckley is now assured. Her knowledge is sound, her judgment trust- worthy, and her power of elementary expo- sition much above the common standard. Her first book, " A Short History of Natu- ral Science," was needed and was well done. The "Fairy Land of Science" was also excellent. " Life and her Children " struck into the new biological path, and gave an interesting account of the invertebrates, or the lower forms of living creatures. The present work is a continuation of it into a higher field, although the present is an in- dependent and self-explanatory work.
The work we now have from Miss Buck- ley was much demanded. "We wanted a popular book on the vertebrates, the back- boned family from the historic or evolution point of view. This made necessary un- usual qualifications in the writer, and im- plied a knowledge of geology and paleon- tology, as well as natural history. Miss Buckley had been for many years the secre- tary and special student of Sir Charles Lyell,
- and had therefore the best opportunities to
become familiar with those branches that have now become indispensable parts of biology. Miss Buckley says of the method of her book :
" I have therefore endeavored to de- scribe graphically the early history of the backboned animals, so far as it is yet known I to us, keep strictly to such broad facts as ought in these days to be familiar to every child and ordinarily well-educated person, if they are to have any true conception of natural history. At the same time I have dwelt, as fully as space would allow, upon the lives of such modern animals as best illustrate the present divisions of the ver- tebrates upon the earth ; my object being rather to follow the tide of life, and sketch in broad outline how structure and habit have gone hand-in-hand in filling every available space with living beings, than to
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��multiply descriptions of the various species. If my younger readers will try and become familiar with the types selected, either alive in zoological gardens or preserved in good museums, they will, I hope, acquire a very fair idea of the main branches of the Backboned Family."
This acceptance of the evolution stand- point, this tracing of the stream of life along the great course of terrestrial changes, this marking of the epochs of advancing or- ganization in the ascending movement, and this tracing of genetic relationships, all con- cur in giving a new and impressive signifi- cance to the idea of unity in the great scheme of life, and give to natural history a new element of almost romantic interest. Miss Buckley has given attractiveness to the subject by her wealth of information, the clearness and simplicity of her descriptions, and she has heightened the effect by the skillfully conceived and finely executed illustrations with which the volume is filled.
��Herbert Spencer on the Americans, and the Americans on Herbert Spencer. Being a Full Report of Mr. Spencer's Interview, and of the Proceedings at the Farewell Banquet. New York : D. Applcton & Co. Pp. 96. Price, ten cents, or $5 per hundred.
This pamphlet contains the most for the money of anything that can be found in the market. It has been carefully prepared, so as to be entirely correct and authentic. The newspaper reports were defective and incomplete. The revised addresses of Hon. William M. Evarts, Mr. Spencer, Professor W. G. Sumner, Mr. Carl Schurz, Pro- fessor 0. C. Marsh, Mr. John Fiske, and Rev. Henry Ward Beecher are given in full ; and to these are added the unspoken speeches of Mr. E. L. Youmans, Mr. Lester F. Ward, and Mr. E. R. Leland, together with all the letters sent to the committee, and which have not before been published. The document is weighty with important thought that can not fail to dispel much prejudice, and every one who cares for the dissemination of truth should send on his five dollars and get a hundred to distribute among his neighbors. They will be sure to appreciate the favor.
��Unity Pui.pit. Sermons of M. J. Savage.
Vol. IV. No. 9. Herbert Spencer : his
Influence on Religion and Morality.
Published weekly. Boston : George H.
Ellis. Price, $1.50 a year, or six cents
There is no more encouraging sign of the times than the indications we see that the pulpit is beginning to yield to the spirit of progress. As science slowly advances in the reformation of knowledge, bringing new subjects under the influence of its method, regenerating the ideals of mankind, and making truth the supreme object of quest and devotion, it is, of course, impossible for the pulpit to remain unaffected by the gen- eral movement. The highest victory of evolution will be to transform the biased preacher into the unbiased teacher. The pulpit, as we have inherited it, is becoming more and more anomalous in these times. It is the place that has been sacredly pro- tected from the competitions of inquiry. Everywhere else error goes merely for what it is worth, and must take its chances in the open conflicts of discussion, but in the pul- pit error is consecrated. It is the bulwark of tradition. Beliefs that are outgrown and abandoned everywhere else find refuge in the pulpit. The preacher is the expositor of ancient creeds, the leader of a sect, a rhetorical homilist, anything except an in- dependent seeker after truth. The virtue of the pulpit is submissive faith, its crime free- thinking. This characterization, of course, applies more to the past than to the pres- ent, but it is still too extensively true. There is, however, a silent, insidious, but inevitable change going on in a great num- ber of pulpits that is loosening ancient prejudices, undermining past bigotries, soft- ening theological asperities, and tending to a larger liberality in all religious matters. The position of the clergyman in a time of transition like the present is difficult, and, if he be a deeply conscientious as well as a clear-sighted man, is often painful. But many of them are learning how to meet the emergency, to yield gracefully that which must go, and to accept cordially that which must unavoidably come. Some pulpits, in- deed, and their number is increasing, are already free. Their occupants are content to be simply teachers, and have liberated themselves from all trammels that tend to
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��hinder the promulgation of truth. The doctrine of evolution will certainly sweep away a large amount of old belief that has hitherto been venerated by its religious asso- ciations, but in various qualified forms the essential truth of that doctrine is already acknowledged in many pulpits where it is sure, as time goes on, to yield its liberal- izing fruits.
Unity pulpit, in Boston, occupied by the Rev. Minot J. Savage, has long been eman- cipated from those restraints of dogma which hinder the acceptance of the great truths established by science. Mr. Savage has met the new questions of the time with- out hesitation and with a cordial welcome, holding that neither will a sound morality be weakened nor pure religion suffer through the extensions of science and the enlarge- ment of the domain of truth. lie maintains ! rather that a more authoritative ethics and more ennobling religious conceptions must be the inevitable result of that progress of thought which now finds its highest expres- sion in the evolution philosophy. Unity pulpit at any rate is free, and its occupant is unable to perceive why in his sphere of inquiry he should not have exactly the same liberty of investigation that is exercised by every member of the National Academy of Sciences. His last sermon, now before us, is devoted to Herbert Spencer, and to an esti- mate of his influence on religion and moral- ity. It certainly can not be said that the pulpit has hitherto sinned in the way of neglecting this representative thinker ; but the utterance of Mr. Savage differs so widely from what we have been accustomed to hear from the lips of clergymen, that we have pleasure in quoting its opening pas- sages :
A quiet, modest unassuming gentleman, with no assumption of greatness, with no air of pre- tense, with not the slightest approach to an ap- pearance of patronage toward those who may he considered as less noted or great than himself, has been for the last two or three months seeking rest and refreshment here in America. Heard in public but once, seen in private only by a few, the country has still felt that a great man was here, a man like those to whom Emerson refers when he says, " A great man is himself an occa- sion." We have all felt this presence, and noted some indication of it now and then. For, when he has chosen to utter himself concerning the impressions that have been made upon him in this country, the whole nation has listened as
vol. xxii. 27
��though something were being said that was worthy of attention. The newspapers have caught it up ; and all the leading organs for the expression of public opinion have commented on it, recognizing the (act that here at least was something not to be passed by in silence.
This man, to whom we have been so ready to listen, has during the last quarter of a century wrought a work that, I think I may say, without exaggeration, has no parallel in the history of human thought, lie has so wrought himself into the very fiber, the warp and woof of this modern world, that I can say of him, what can be said of no other man living, and what has never been said of any man who has ever lived : he has made himself so vital a part of science, of philosophy, of education, of the science of government, of sociology, of ethics, of religion he has so mastered and entered into the pos- session of all these great realms of human thought and human life, which in their totality almost make up what is meant by life itself, that to-day no serious and intelligent thinker can discuss any importaut question pertaining to any one of these departments without being compelled to reckon with Herbert Spencer. You can not discuss science, you can not discuss philosophy, you can not discuss education, poli- tics, society, and the laws that underlie them, you can not discuss ethics, you can not touch the subject of religion, without either agreeing with or differing from this quiet scholar. And to have wrought himself so intimately and so essentially into the very life of the world this, I say, is an achievement unparalleled in the history of human thought. I care not in which depart- ment you pick up a book to-day, you will find that the writer, if he comprehends his theme, is either working along the lines which Herbert Spencer has laid out, or else he is telling the world why he does not do so. He does not ig- nore him he can not ignore him. About a week ago, it was my privilege and pleasure to join one or two hundred gentlemen in giving Mr. Spencer a public dinner in New York, on the eve of his departure. It was something striking and wonderful to sec there the leading men of the nation in all departments of thought and culture, sitting at his feet and acknowledg- ing his supremacy.
A Practical Treatise on Hernia. By Joseph H. Warren, M. D. Second and revised edition. With Illustrations. Boston : James R. Osgood & Co. Pp. 428. Price, $5.
The author of this book is widely known as a successful practitioner and writer on hernia and kindred affections, and his aim has been to make this a trustworthy work of reference on the subject. The first edi- tion was received in the most favorable manner by the profession ; the present new edition has been improved with all the advantages that further studies and
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��continued experience in practice could en- able the author to add. A new introduc- tion has been written, and six new and care- fully prepared chapters have been added, while a part of the old work, considered less essential, has been omitted. The vol- ume contains a condensation of whatever seems most worth preserving from the world's literature on the subject, and much that is original with the author, embody- ing the results of his own studies for many years, and having never before been given to the public in a printed form. The trea- tise begins with a discussion of the causa- tion of hernia, in fetal and infantile life and in adults, to which are added some re- marks on its effects. Next are considered its kinds and frequency; its anatomy, de- scriptive and surgical, and strangulation. The essential purpose of the work is devel- oped in the fifth chapter, in which the op- erations for hernia are considered generally ; and the sixth, in which the author's own method is described and explained. Under the former head full justice is done to pre- vious operators, all of whose methods that seem to have merit are candidly and im- partially described and estimated ; and ac- knowledgment is given for what the author has derived from them, particularly from Ileaton's method, of which Dr. Warren's is a modification and improvement. The principle of Warren's method is the in- jection of an astringent solution to induce closure of the rings and canals, to produce what is commonly called a radical cure. This principle was suggested by Dr. Pan- coast, of Philadelphia, extended and ap- plied with much success by Dr. Heaton, and was brought to a higher degree of per- fection by a more complete adaptation of the injecting instrument to the conditions required by the delicate tissues operated upon, and some modifications in the in- jected fluid, by Dr. Warren. All of the operations, from that of Chauliac to that of Wood, are declared to be " severe, and likely to be attended with great danger to life, if not absolute loss of it." No such arguments, Dr. Warren adds, "can be used against the operation that I recommend, as no fatal results have ever occurred in any of the operations performed by the various .surgeons who have undertaken them " ; and
��the only losses likely to occur, he intimates, are from blunders and awkwardness. He is particularly at pains to demonstrate that no danger of peritonitis, so much feared by physicians, is incurred in it. A great deal, however, is acknowledged to depend on the proper selection of cases to be operated upon. Beaton's great success may be largely ascribed to the disci imination he ex- ercised in this matter, and we arc told that " when speaking of his invariable success, he was in the habit of giving me a peculiar wise and knowing look of the eye, and he would say that he cured all, or about all, that he would operate on." The general health of the patient has, of course, much to do with the success of the operation, and something depends on the kind of hernia. The succeeding chapters to those on opera- tions are devoted to the treatment of stran- gulated hernia, kelotomy, or herniotomy, "Artificial Anus and Wounds of the Intes- tines," hydrocele and varicocele, some ob- servations on trusses which might be made of general application, copious accounts of cases, an extensive bibliography, and a list of operators. The work is presented by the publishers in excellent shape, with the best of paper and print, and an abundance of clearly delineated illustrations.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Vol. I. Washington : Printed for the Society. (G. Brown Goode, Secretary.) Pp. 110.
This volume contains the constitution of the society, the list of honorary, correspond- ing, and active members, and the proceed- ings from the first meeting, for organization, November 19, 1880, to May 26,' 1882. In addition are given in full the addresses de- livered on the occasion of the Darwin Me- morial Meeting, May 12, 1SS2, comprising " The Doctrine of Darwin," by Theodore Gill ; a " Biographical Sketch," by William H. Dall ; " Darwin's Work in Entomology," by Dr. Riley ; " Darwin as a Botanist," by Lester P. Ward ; " Darwin on the Expres- sion of the Emotions," by Frank Baker, M. D. ; and " A Darwinian Bibliography," by Frederick W. True. President Gill's inau- gural address of 1881, on "The Proper Use of the Term Biology," is also published in full.
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��A Guide to Modern English History. By William Cory. Part II, 1830 to 1835. New York : Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 567. Price, $3.50.
The first part of this work related to the first fifteen years of the great peace. The expansion of the present volume, which in- cludes only about a third as much time, is justified by the author, on the ground of the " excessive value of the work done for the British Commonwealth in the years now surveyed." These years, the author adds, " are full of the virtue and wisdom which make modern England supremely worthy of a student's contemplation ; it seems not too much to say that they form a period of paramount importance in the history of legislation and government." The work is the composition of a sharp observer, and is marked by vigorous thought and forcible expression, and a bold, captivating style that engages the reader and holds him. Mr. Samuel R. Gardiner, who may be regarded as an expert in the specialty of English his- tory, characterizes it as " one not very well calculated to guide those who do not know a good deal of the way already, but admira- bly fitted to enable those who do to test those opinions which they have sometimes too hastily formed."
Address delivered by Edward Atkinson at the Opening of the Second Annu- al Fair of the New England Manu- facturers' and Mechanics' Institute in Boston, September, 6, 1882. Pp. 32.
The end to be subserved by such indus- trial exhibitions, Mr. Atkinson tells us, is to make less arduous the daily work whereby the larger part of the community earn their daily bread. The author is not one who takes a pessimist's view of life, and, al- though he shows that the measure of com- fort that each man, woman, and child can yet enjoy, even in our prosperous land, does not exceed on an average fifty or sixty cents per day, he does not think or believe that increase of wealth is of necessity comple- mented by increase of poverty. Still the small minority of people who can become possessors of capital in any large measure must justify the leisure which they or their fathers have earned, by the use which they make of the time and means at their dispos- al. After showing how it is possible for our
��railroad kings to put money in our pockets while amassing fortunes themselves, he com- pares our happy lot with the unfortunate condition, from an economic point of view, of those countries that are burdened by huge standing armies, and where the cpian- tity produced, although relatively less, must be divided among a greater number. The advantages of developing the hand and brain together are then referred to. The last man or woman whom you desire to dis. charge from the works which you control, when the times are hard, is the one earning the most for himself or herself ; the first to be discharged is the unfortunate one whose hand and brain have not been developed together, and who can, in hard times, no loncer reo- der you a service, even if paid a sum barely sufficient to support life. " Owing to the great natural, social, and political advan- tages that we enjoy, the wages of labor and the remuneration of capital must be greater in proportion to the effort used than in any other section of the world's surface ; and these facts prove that the cost of produc- tion is less in ratio to product than it can be anywhere else."
Although intended for delivery before a limited audience on a particular occasion, the address is of such general interest as to deserve a wide circulation.
Contributions to Mineralogy. By F. A. Genth. Read before the American Phil- osophical Society, August 18, 1882. This pamphlet of twenty -four finely- printed pages represents a large amount of actual labor, and contains several important contributions to science, in the form of analyses and observations on altered min- erals. That one mineral should be grad- ually changed, particle by particle, mole- cule by molecule, into a different mineral having other chemical and physical proper- ties, is a curious and interesting phenome- non, worthy the study of such a chemist a3 Professor Genth. The first case described is the alteration of corundum, in Madison County, North Carolina ; it is found partially altered to a massive greenish-black spinel ; in Towns County, Georgia, a pink corundum is found surrounded by greenish-white, cleav- able zoisite ; an interesting occurrence of the alteration of corundum into a feldspar is near Media, Pennsylvania, at the " Black-
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��Horse" tavern; Haywood County, North Carolina, has furnished specimens of co- rundum altered into feldspar, as well as mica ; examples of corundum altered into margarite (calcium mica), cases of the alter- ation of corundum into fibrolite and cyanite are also mentioned. The altered minerals were more or less water-worn and rounded, while the corundum which they inclose is sharp and angular, which proves that since the great gravel deposits were formed no alteration of the corundum has taken place in these deposits.
The other interesting alterations de- scribed by Professor Genth are the altera- tion of orthoclase into albite, and talc into anthophyllite, and pseudomorphs of talc after magnetite. Several other investiga- tions of mineral species follow, among them gahnite, rutile and zircon, sphalerite and prehnite, pyrophyllite, beryl, niccolite, and artificial alisonite. The author also de- scribes the accidental formation of artificial crystals of rutile during fusion with potas- sium hydrogen sulphate ; two crystals of octahedrite were likewise produced at the same time, and had a decided blue color.
On the Age of the Tejon Rocks op Cali- fornia, and the Occurrence of Am- monitic Remains in Tertiary Deposits. By Angelo Heilprin. From " Proceed- ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," July, 1882.
The author undertakes to settle the point in dispute between Conrad and Gabb, as to the age of the Tejon rocks, referred by the former to the Eocene series, and by the latter to the Cretaceous. A list of one hundred and twelve species is given, repre- senting the fauna of the Tejon group with the various localities of occurrence, as claimed by Gabb, and evidence presented to show that Gabb was in error in many cases, and hence that the tables do not afford a safe criterion for the solution of the prob- lem. The author then goes on to show that, of the seventy-seven genera represented in the Tejon group, at the very least twenty-two are more or less distinctively Tertiary, and out of these eleven are not positively known to have appeared before that geological epoch. Also that, with the exception of six or seven fragments of Ammonitidm, there is not a single distinctively Cretaceous generic
��type in the entire number. He therefore concludes that the rocks of the Tejon group, despite their comprising in their contained faunas a limited number of forms from the subjacent (cretaceous) deposits, and a few undoubted representatives of the Ammoni- lidce, are of Tertiary (Eocene) age.
The Eocene age of the Tejon rocks is likewise maintained by Professor Jules Mar- con, who made a personal examination of the region.
Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Vol. Ill, Part II. Davenport, Iowa : Published by the Academy. Pp. 192, with Four Plates.
The present number contains the pro- ceedings of the Academy during 18*79 and 1880, with the president's addresses of Mrs. M. L. D. Putnam and Mr. W. H. Pratt. The numerous papers testify to the great activity of the members of the Academy in the lead- ing departments of investigation, predomi- nantly in archaeology, to the study of which the location of the society offers excellent facilities. A very interesting paper is that of Professor G. Seyffarth on the inscrip- tions of the Davenport Tablets, the con- clusions of which are startling for their boldness.
How to Succeed : A Series of Essays by Various Authors. Edited by the Rev. Lyman Adbott, D. D. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 131. Price, 50 cents.
This is a republication of a series of papers which appeared last winter in the " Christian Union," on the general subject and its applications, headed with articles by Senators Bayard and Edmunds on " Success in Public Life," and continued with other ar- ticles, by men who have attained eminence in their various professions or arts, on the ele- ments of success in their respective callings.
Cerebral Hyperemia : Does it exist ? A Consideration of some Views of Dr. William A. Hammond. By C. F. Buck- ley, B. A., M. D., formerly Superintend- ent of Haydock Lodge Asylum, Eng- land. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 129.
The author opposes the theory which Dr. Hammond has published concerning the effects of excess or deficiency of blood in
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��the brain with an earnestness which it is safe to call extreme. lie assails with con- troversial ardor the logic of Dr. Hammond's views, and endeavors to show that they are inconsistent with themselves, and are not supported by the facts whence they are drawn, or by the authors from whose works Dr. Hammond has endeavored to substan- tiate particular points of his theory.
The Solution of the Pyramid Problem, or Pyramid Discoveries, with a New Theory as to their Ancient Use. By Robert Ballard, of Queensland. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1882. Pp. 109.
Mr. Ballard is not the first who has ad- vanced a theory as to the purpose for which the pyramids were built, nor even the first to conjecture that they were of use in resur- veying the land after the annual inundations of the Nile. "Built by scientific men, well versed in geometry, these great stone monu- ments are so suited in shape for the pur- poses of land-surveying, that the practical engineer or surveyor must, after considera- tion, admit that they may have been built mainly for this purpose." The author also thinks that he has discovered the unit of measure used in their construction, and to which he gives the name of Royal Babylonian cubit. This cubit he makes equal to 20 - 22 British inches, and as there are 77,Y60,OOD royal Babylonian cubits to the polar circum- ference of the earth, the cubit represents the -(/a of a second. This he claims is the most perfect ancient measure yet discovered. It is a perfect, natural, and convenient measure which fits the plan of the pyramids and fits the circumference of the earth. The author also states that the pyramid of Cheops is situated on one acute angle of a right-angled triangle, and the pyramid called Mycerinus is on the other acute angle, the other two sides of which run respectively east and south from these pyramids. The sides of this triangle are respectively 3, 4, and 5. The pyramids of Cheops and Cephren are situated on the acute angles of a still more remarkable triangle, the sides of which are to each other as 20, 21, and 29. Many other curious facts are mentioned regarding the dimensions, position, and slope of the pyra- mids, and a description of the method in which the author supposes them to have
��been used as the " theodolites of the Egyp- tians." Many of the obelisks, he thinks, were probably marks on pyramid lines of survey, and the pyramid may have been a develop- ment of the obelisk for this purpose.
A Guide to Collodio-Etching. By Ben- jamin Hartley. Illustrated by the au- thor. New York : The Industrial Pub- lication Company. Pp. 48, with Six Plates.
This little work is for the benefit of amateurs, who feel the need of some simple and inexpensive method of duplicating their sketches and studies for the benefit of their friends. The various methods by lithog- raphy, photography, and the photo-engrav- ing of pen-and-ink drawings which have been suggested by different persons, have been found by the author to be inconven- ient, expensive, and troublesome. He de- scribes, as more nearly realizing than any other one the conditions required by the amateur, a process for drawing the sketch with a needle upon the glass plate, as pre- pared by the photographer for the camera, and printing from the etching as an ordi- nary photograph is printed. He undertakes to give all the practical information neces- sary on the subject, so that persons who know nothing about photography may be able to carry into effect all the details of his system.
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Report of the Commission- er for 1879. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 846.
The report embraces an inquiry into the history and statistics of food-fishes, and a summary of what has been accomplished in the matter of their propagation in the waters of the United States. Among the collateral subjects of attention by the com- mission have been an investigation into the chemical composition of fish under the varying circumstances of age, sex, and the condition of the reproductive apparatus ; re- searches into the temperature of fishes, ex- periments in the production of cold for the preservation of fish, and the preparation of a series of casts in plaster and papier- mache of the larger species. The pole- flounder, which was discovered off the coast of New England in 1877, proves to be one
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��of the most abundant of the flat-fish family, and promises to be an important addition to the food resources of the country. A second species of fish, known as the tile- fish, and constituting a genus and species entirely new to science, was discovered dur- ing the summer of 1S79. The most im- portant item of the year in the work of propagation was the beginning of the dis- tribution of young carp to various points in the United States. The demand for the fish was very great, even with a relatively small supply, and the calls increased so rapidly that it became doubtful whether, even with a much larger production, all the requirements could be met. Good progress is reported in the propagation and distri- bution of salmon and trout of the vari- ous species, shad, codfish, and striped bass. Among the valuable papers with which the report proper is supplemented are one by Professor W. G. Farlow, on the "Marine Algae of New England," containing tech- nical descriptions of all the known species ; an account of the cephalopods of the north- eastern coast of America, by A. E. Verrill ; and articles on the propagation of the eel, the food of marine animals, the Iceland herring fisheries, the periodicity of the great herring-fisheries, the herring's mode of life, the fisheries of the west coast of South America, the scientific examination of the German seas, the effects of sawdust and the pollution of waters by factory refuse on fishes; and articles and reports bearing upon more special features of fish propa- gation.
The Gulf Stream. Additional Data from the Investigations of the Coast and Geo- detic Steamer Blake. By Commander J. R. Bartlett. Pp. 16.
This publication embodies the substance of a paper which was read by the author before the American Geographical Society, and is supplementary to a previous paper. The author states that he is " not hampered with any theories," and merely gives his deductions from the actual facts obtained by the Blake's party, which may serve to correct a few popular errors, even if they do not throw much new light on the subject. His principal conclusions have already been noticed in " The Popular Science Monthly."
��Proceedings of the Department of Super- intendence of the National Educa- tional Association, March 21 to 23, 1882. Washington: Government Print- ing-Office. Pp. 112.
Value is added to the report of the ordi- nary discussions of this body by the papers of Drs. Billings and Charles Smart relating to " Ventilation " ; of the Hon. H. S. Jones on " Obstacles in the Way of a Better Primary Education " ; of Professor G. Stan- ley Hall on " Chairs of Pedagogy in our Higher Institutions of Learning "; of Drs. A. D. Mayo and J. L. M. Curry on " National Aid to Education " ; of Dr. Sheldon Jackson on " Education (or the Want of it) in Alaska " ; of Dr. John M. Gregory on the " Common- School Studies. "
Putnam's Art Hand-Books. Edited by Susan N. Carter. Drawing in Black- and - White. Sketching in Water- Colors. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 55 and 69. Price, 50 cents each.
The first manual, by the editor, is an effort to show beginners why they had best choose one material in black-and-white, or another ; and to tell them, by a few plain directions, how they can best manage their charcoals, crayons, pen-and-ink, or lead- pencils." The directions are clear, and are complemented by typical illustrations, from masters, in each of the styles ; but it would be better, perhaps, if the directions and illustrations were more conformed to each other. The second book is by Thomas Ilatton, and is intended for the use of such students " as arc accustomed to copy water- color drawings, and find no difficulty in sketching natural objects in black-and- white," yet need the instructions it under- takes to give them, to enable them to re- produce Nature expressively in her own colors.
A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by George Grove, D. C. L. Parts XV and XVI (Double Part). London and New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 272. Price, $2.
We have already called attention to the fullness and the other merits of this excel- lent work. The present double number contains the articles under the titles from " Schoberlechner " to " Sketches."
�� � LITERARY NOTICES.
��4 2 3
��The " Hoffman Cover and Binder " is a very useful aid for the convenient handling and preservation of magazines and pam- phlets while in use and afterward. It is a well-finished book-cover, so arranged that a magazine can be placed and fastened within it in a moment, so as to form a substantial bound book; then, when the next number arrives, can be taken out and replaced by the new one ; or it can be left in Und de- posited as a single volume in the library. The magazine is thus kept in perfect order, whether it is intended to be bound with its fellow-numbers or filed singly. Six sizes arc kept in stock, to accommodate the variously shaped publications from "The Popular Science Monthly r ' to " Harper's Weekly " or the " Illustrated London News," and other sizes will be furnished to order, by Joseph A. Hoffman, 208 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. "
" The American Journal of Physiology " is a new monthly periodical, each number of which will consist of sixteen pages, edited and published by D. II. Fernandes, M. D., Indianapolis, Indiana. It is intended to sup- ply what the editor believes to be a lack in American scientific literature, and is prom- ised communications from several promi- nent specialists.
" The Modern Stenographic Journal " is a new Phonographic Magazine, published at Buffalo, New York, by George H. Thorn- ton, editor, and Emory P. Close, associate editor. It will keep its readers in the cur- rent of what is going on in the stenographic world ; will contain a department of in- struction, with serial lessons, and a depart- ment devoted to the type-writer and calli- graph ; and will endeavor to popularize " a simple and rapid system of writing "
Address before Section B (Physics') or the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at the Montreal Meeting:. By T. C. Mendenhall. Salem, Mass., 1882. Pp. 14.
Test of Building Material, made at Watertown Arsenal, Mass., August, 1882. Philadelphia, 1882. Pp. 33.
Aberrations of Audibility of Fog-Sitrnals. By Arnold B. Johnson. Washington : Jndd & Det- weiler, Printers. 1882. Pp. 14, with Two Maps.
The Longfellow Calendar for 1883, with Se- lections for Every Bay iii the Year. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin' & Co.
��Statement of Work done at the Harvard Col- lege Observatory during the Years 18i"7-1832. Pp.23: and, A Plan for securing Ouservatious of the Variable Stars. Pp. 15. By Edward C. Pickering. Cambridge: John Whson & Son, 188a.
The Worship of the eciprocal Principles of Nat lire among the Ancient Hebrews. By J. P. MacLean. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. 1S82. Pp. -a. 25 cents.
Seventh Annual Report of Johns nopkins University. Baltimore, Md. 1882. Pp. 122.
' Paleontological Bulletin," No. 35. By Pro- fessor E. D. Cope. Philadelphia : A. E. Foote. 1882. Pp.44.
Northern Transcontinental Survey. First An- nual Report of Rapnae! Puinpelly, Director. NewYorii: Wells backelt & i.ankin, Printers. 1882. Pp. 16.
Some Observations on Ostriches and Ostrich- Farming. Pp. 11.
Some Indications of an Early Race of Men in New England. By Henry W. Haynes. From the " Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natu- ral History." lp. 9.
On the Determination of the Flashing Point of Petroleum. By John T. Stoddard. Pp. 4.
Radiant Heat an Exception to the Second Law of Thermo-Dynamics. By H. T. Eddy, Ph. D. 1882. Pp. 10.
The Sense of Dizziness in Deaf-Mutes. By William James, M. D. Cambridge, 1882. Pp.16. Transactions of the Anthropological Society of Washington. From February, 18 r i9, to Janu- ary, 1882. Vol. I. Washington. 1882. Pp. 142. Food Adulterations. By Professor Albert B. Prescott, M. D. Reprint from "Annual Report of Michigan State Board of Health for 1882." Pp. 6.
The Tides. By John Nader, Civil Engineer. 1879. Pp. 31.
Sketch of Lewis H. Morgan. By F. W. Put- nam. From the " Proceedings of (he American Academy of Arts and Sciences," May, 1882. Pp. 8. Facts and Phases of Animal Life. By Vernon S. Morwood. Illustrated. Netv York : D. Ap- pleton & Co. Pp.286. Price, $150.
Winners in Life's Race ; or. The Great Back- boned Family. Bv Arabella B. Bucklev. Illus- trated. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp.367. Price, $1.50.
Lectures on Art, delivered in Support of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings Bv Reginald Stuart Poole and others. London : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 232. Price, $1.50.
Anatomical Technology as applied to the Do- mestic Cat. An Introduction to Human. Verte- brate, and Comparative Anatomy. By Burt G. Wilder and Simon H. Gage. New York and Chicago: A. S. Barnes & Co. Pp. 575. Price, $4.50.'
The Life of James Clerk Maxwell, with a Se- lection from his Correspondence and Occasional Writings, and a Sketch of his Contributions to Science. By Lewis Campbell and William Gar- nett. London : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 662. Price, $6.
New Method of Learning the French Lan- guage. By F. Berber. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp\ 138. Price. $1.
A Study, with Notes, of "The Princess" (Tennyson's poemV By S. E. Dawson. Mon- treal: "Dawson Brothers. Pp. 120.
American Hero-Myths : A Study in the Na- tive Religions of the Western Continent. By Daniel G. Brinton, M. D. Philadelphia: H. C. Watts & Co. Pp. 251. Price. $1.75.
Traits of Representative Men. By George W. Bungav. Illustrated. New York : Fowler & Wells. "Pp. 286. Price, $1.50.
�� � Charles Darwin. Memorial Notices, reprinted from "Nature." London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 82. Price, 75 cents.
A Whimsical Wooing. By Anton Giulio Barili. From the Italian by Clara Bell. New York: William S. Gottsberger. Pp. 88.
Experimental Physiology. Its Benefits to Mankind. By Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., F.R.S., etc. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 216. Price, five shillings.
Youth: Its Care and Culture. By J. Mortimer Granville. New York: M. A. Holbrook & Co. Pp. 107.
The Scientific and Technical Reader. London: T Nelson & Sons. Pp. 400. Price, 2s. 6d.
The Factors of Civilization, Real and Assumed. Considered in their Relation to Vice, Misery, Happiness, Unhappiness, and Progress. Vol. II. Atlanta, Georgia; James P. Harrison & Co. Pp. 359.
Text-Book of Geology. By Archibald Geikie. London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 971. Price, $7.50.
The Coues Check-List of North American Birds. Second edition. Boston: Estes & Lauriat. Pp. 165.
The Diseases of the Liver, with and without Jaundice. By George Harley. M.D. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 751. Price, $5.
Novissimum Organon: The Certainties, Guesses, and Observations of John Thinking-machine. By James Ferdinand Mallinckrodt. St. Louis: Hugh R. Hildreth Printing Co. Pp. 116.
Quintus Claudius: A Romance of Imperial Rome. By Ernst Eckstein. From the German by Clara Bell. In two vols. New York: William S. Gottsberger. Pp. 616. Price, $1.75.
Dress and Care of the Feet. By Dr. P. Kahler. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 39.