Popular Science Monthly/Volume 27/August 1885/Literary Notices

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Popular Science Monthly Volume 27 August 1885  (1885) 
Literary Notices
 

LITERARY NOTICES.


Transactions of the New York State Medical Association for the Year 1884. Edited, for the Association, by Dr. Austin Flint, Jr. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 654. Price, $5.

The first meeting of the Association was held in the city of New York on the 18th, LITERARY NOTICES.

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��19th, and 20th, of November, 1884, and was attended by two hundred and forty -two fel- lows. The titles of fifty papers to be read were entered on the official programme of the meeting, by members representing fif- teen counties of the State, besides papers the titles of which were received after the programme was published. Of these pa- pers, seventeen were on topics of surgery, fifteen on medicine, eleven on obstetrics and gynaecology, three on ophthalmology, two on materia medica, one on physiology, and one on insanity. The present volume con- tains three papers, with the president's (Henry D. Didama, M. D., of Onondaga County) annual address, lists of officers and council, fellows, etc. ; the " Articles of In- corporation and Constitution and By-laws " ; the " Code of Medical Ethics " ; the " Pro- ceedings of the Annual Meeting" ; and the " Report and Minutes of the Council."

Representative American Orators. To illustrate American Political History. Edited, with Introductions, by Alex- ander Johnston. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 3 vols. Pp. 282, 314, 405. Price, $3.75.

The present generation of Americans is far behind the one that preceded it in a realizing knowledge of the political history of our country and of the principles on which our government is founded. The civil war and its sequences seem to have obscured the living knowledge of our earlier history, and left it nearly as colorless as some matter of a remote age ; while the anomalous meas- ures that have had to be devised to meet the unprecedented exigencies of the last twenty-five years have tended to consign the safe traditions of our old statesmen to oblivion, and contributed to the spread of novel and dangerous heresies. Hence we regard anything that will help to make liv- ing again among us the fundamental prin- ciples of American politics and the debates of the past, and the ultimate objects which our statesmen sought to reach, as of public benefit. We can conceive nothing better adapted to set these matters vividly before American youth than the orderly present- ment of the best and most pertinent words of the best orators who took part in the shaping of them, such as Mr. Johnston has aimed to make in these three volumes. His

��compilation is divided into seven parts, il- lustrating seven epochs in our history: "Colonialism, to 1789"; "Constitutional Government, to 1801 " ; " The Rise of De- mocracy, to 1S15"; "The Rise of Nation- ality, to 1S40" ; " The Slavery Struggle, to 1860 " ; " Secession and Reconstruction, to 1876 " ; and " Free Trade and Protection " ; in all of which, except the last, a kind of chronological order is maintained. In each of these epochs the orators are presented, so far as is found practicable, on either side, whose voices were most potent in put- ting the issues into shape and molding opinion upon them. The earlier periods are represented, among other oraters, by Patrick Henry, Hamilton, Washington, Fisher Ames, Jefferson, Randolph, Quincy, Clay, Hayne, and Webster ; the issues of the antislavery struggle by Phillips, Clay, Sumner, Douglas, Preston Brooks, Burlingame, Lincoln, Breck- inridge, and Seward ; and the periods of se- cession and reconstruction by other names equally prominent and representative ; while the question of " Free Trade and Protec- tion " is illustrated by Henry Clay's " The American System," and Frank Hurd'a "Tariff for Revenue only." Each of the groups of orations is preceded by an intro- duction giving the historical thread by which the speeches were connected, and describing the condition of the questions to which they related.

Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian Dis- pute. By Theodore F. Rodendough. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 139, with Maps and Illustrations. Price, 50 cents.

This is a convenient hand-book for per- sons wishing to follow the Afghanistan question, which is yet, despite the seemingly smiling aspect of the negotiations, far from settled. It gives a plain view of the situa- tion as it was at the moment when the re- cent passages between England and Russia began to be lively. It first relates the suc- cessive steps by which Russia has advanced during the last century and a half from the Ural into Central Asia, and to its present position near the Afghan frontier. Thi3 history is followed by accounts of " the British forces and routes," and " the Rus- sian forces and approaches," and by a review of the military situation.

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��An Inglorious Columbus ; or, Evidence that Hwui Shan and a Party of Buddhist Monks, from Afghanistan, discovered America in the Fifth Century a. d. By Edward P. Vining. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 788, with Map. Price, $5.

The term " inglorious " is not intended to be applied to our Christopher Columbus, but, in the sense in which Gray, in his " Elegy," speaks of " some mute, inglorious Milton," to the Buddhist monk who, known only to a few special scholars, has failed to receive the universality of fame which should be his due. According to the au- thor's statement, and as is known to Asiatic scholars, there is, among the records of China, an account of a Buddhist priest who, in the year 499 a. d., reached China, and stated that he had returned from a trip to a country lying an immense distance east. In the case of other travelers, whose narra- tives are also preserved in ancient Chinese literature, the accounts which we possess of their journeys were either written by them- selves or their followers ; but, in the case of Hwui Shan, the interest excited in his story was so great that the imperial histo- riographer, whose duty it was to record the principal events of the time, entered upon his omcial records a digest of the informa- tion obtained from the traveler as to the country which he had visited. It is this official record, or rather a copy of it con- tained in the writings of Ma Twanlin, which is discussed in this work. But little doubt, if any, exists as to the authenticity of the record, but there are considerable differences of opinion respecting what country it was which the monks (who were missionaries of Buddhism) visited, and described as Fusang. Some of the critics believe it to have been Japan, others America. Mr. Vining be- lieves it was Mexico, and, in adducing the considerations to support his belief, he tran- scribes, or makes a summary of, all the pa- pers that have been written on the subject, except Mr. Leland's large book, which read- ers are advised to buy. He believes that the route followed by the priests, which is obscurely described in their itinerary, was from Japan, or the Asiatic mainland, along the course of the Aleutian Islands " the land of the marked bodies " to Alaska "the Great Han" and thence along the

��Pacific coast to the " land of the Fusang- trce," which plant is not yet identified, and the " country of women," in Mexico. Among the arguments relied upon to support this view, are the correspondences of distances, which, according to Mr. Vining's computa- tions, are close enough ; the description of the country of Fusang, the customs of its people, and the characteristics of its vege- tation, which is faithful as to Mexico, and includes details that would not be true of any other country ; accounts, in the tradi- tions of Mexico, of the arrival of a party of men similar to what the Buddhist party must have been ; and the state of civiliza- tion in Mexico at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards, which was such as might have grown up from an Asiatic implanta- tion. On the other hand, the history of Japan is reviewed, for the purpose of show- ing that that could not have been the coun- try visited. The book also contains a translation of that part of the " Chinese Classic of Mountains and Seas " which re- lates to lands east of China a work which is thought to be the oldest geography of the world, and which has never before been translated into any European language.

Assyriology: Its Use and Abuse in Old Testament Study. By Francis Brown. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 96. Price, $1.

The author of this book is Associate Professor of Biblical Theology in Union Theological Seminary in this city. The purpose of the book is to utter a caution against too hasty and extensive generaliza- tions upon the discoveries that are made, one at a time, amid much groping in the dark, among the ruins of the ancient em- pires of the East, and which often seem to have a bearing upon the records given in the Bible. It is human nature to grasp eagerly at evidence that seems to favor what one wants proved, and to reject obsti- nately what seems of an opposite charac- ter ; and biblical scholars are prone to the fault. Professor Brown advises such to wait in matters of Assyriology for the re- sults of searching criticism. The discov- eries in that field, though undoubtedly des- tined in the end to be of vast importance, are, many of them not all as yet too fragmentary and uncertain to build any-

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��thing on that must depend upon them. The cause of truth may be injured by over- haste ; it can only be benefited by delibera- tion and careful examination.

Local Institutions in Virginia. By Ed- ward Ingle. Baltimore : N. Murray. Pp. 127. Price, 75 cents.

This essay, constituting numbers two and three of the third series of the " Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science," is not inferior in in- terest and importance to any of the num- bers of either series that has preceded it. Virginia was a " mother of commonwealths," and the results of her development and her policy were impressed, in one shape or an- other, and to a greater or less extent, in Kentucky and the States that were formed out of the Northwest Territory. The pur- pose of Mr. Ingle's study is to ascertain from what these results were developed, and hew. In pursuing it, he considers the character of the country and its settlers (" Virginia and the Virginians ") " The Land- Tenure of the Colony," " The Organization of the Hundred," " The Fortunes of the English Parish in America," " The County System of Colonial Virginia," and " The Town." Un- der the last head, the curious fact is devel- oped that towns which in other States ap- pear variously as the original form of set- tlement, of spontaneons growth, or as the ready creatures of speculation, were not nat- ural to Virginia ; and that the formation of them was the object of several laborious efforts, prosecuted against a chronic indis- position of the people to settle in them or to favor them at all.

Geology of the Comstock Lode and the Washoe District. By George F. Beck- er. Pp. 422, with Plates and an Atlas. Price, 111. Comstock Mining and Min- ers. By Eliot Lord. Pp. 451.

The surveys upon which Mr. Becker's report is based were conducted by him as aid to Mr. Clarence King, and chiefly in the lower parts of the lode. Mr. King has al- ready made the upper part familiar to ge- ologists. In his work Mr. Becker had the assistance of Dr. Carl Barus, physicist, who made researches in the electrical activity of ore-bodies and in kaolinization, the results of which are incorporated here. In the re-

��port, the general account of the Comstock mines and the review of previous investiga- tions of the lode are followed by chapters on the " Lithology of the Washoe District," with detailed descriptions of sections of the rocks prepared for microscopic examination ; on the structural results of faulting, the oc- currence and succession of the rocks, the heat-phenomena of the lode, and Dr. Barus's papers on " Kaolinization and on the Electri- cal Activity of Ore-Bodies." The relations of the minerals and the changes they have undergone are discussed very fully in the chapters on "Lithology" and "Chemistry," and the character and causes of the heat- phenomena of the lode, with the various theories that have been proposed to account for them, as fully in the chapter on that sub- ject. These heat-phenomena are one of the most famous peculiarities of the Comstock Lode, and distinguish it from all other mines and excavations under the earth's surface. The unusually high temperature was mani- fested in the upper levels, and has increased with the depth. The present workings are intensely hot ; and, during the winter of 1880-'81, the water in one of the levels reached a temperature of 170 Fahr., at which food may be cooked, and the human epidermis is destroyed. The rapidity of the ventilation required to reduce the tempera- ture of the air is something unknown else- where, yet deaths in ventilated workings from heat alone are common, and there are drifts which without ventilation the most seasoned miner can not enter for a moment. The origin of this high temperature has been at- tributed to the kaolinization of the feldspar in the country rock and to residual volcanic activity. No positive evidence is adduced that it is due to kaolinization, and the results of Dr. Barus's experiments on the thermal effect of the action of aqueous vapor on feld- spathic rocks, so far as they have been car- ried out, were wholly negative. No heating effect due to this cause could be detected with an apparatus delicate enough to register a change of temperature of one thousandth of a degree C. On the other hand, there is much geological evidence pointing to a deep- seated source of heat, probably of volcanic origin, or solfataric. The floods of waters which have been met in the mines can not be accounted for by any hypothesis connect-

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��ed with the rainfall of the district. Mr. Becker proposes a theory that the Comstock fissure taps water-ways leading from the crests of the great range of the Sierra Ne- vada. Under this theory, if the heat is conveyed to the lode by water from great depths, the variations in temperature are readily explained, by supposing variations in the distribution of the heated water.

Mr. Lord's volume " Comstock Mining and Miners " is chiefly historical, and has a peculiar interest in that it describes an epi- sode in the development of one of the most important American enterprises, and relates one of the most wonderful stories in mine- working that it has ever been given to tell. The dangers faced by the miners from the extreme heat and other causes are vividly sketched. " The service demonstrates anew how elastic are the limits of human endur- ance when men are drawn on by some mas- terful passion. The bounds of possibility then confine their achievements but not their attempts. . . . Death alone has the power to say to miners, ' Thus far shall ye go and no farther ! ' for no endurable suffering will bar their progress ; nor will the loss of life even make them pause, unless the scourge of heat shall strike them down like a pestilence. Of late years heat has killed strong men in almost every deep mine in the lode, and in some mines the deaths so caused have been frequent." The ultimate effect of this extreme heat on the miner's constitution, even when it does not result in immediate death, is also to be considered ; and, besides this, all the ordinary dangers of deep mining exist here in aggravated forms.

Contributions to the Fossil Flora of the Western Territories. Part III. The Cretaceous and Tertiary Flora. By Leo Lesquereijx. Washington : Government Printing-Office. Pp. 283, with 60 Plates.

This, although published under the di- rection of Major Powell, is the eighth vol- ume of the Hayden reports. It contains, first, descriptions of the cretaceous flora, including a large number of new species, some representing rare and very remarkable plants, accompanied with general remarks on the geology of the Dakota group, and on the character of the plants with regard to climate and their affinities with plants of succeeding geological periods. The second

��part contains a revision of the plants of the Laramie group. The third part reviews the floras of the White and Green River regions, which are separated into two groups. The relations of these plants with the flora of the Gypses of Aix, France, which is generally regarded as of the lowest Miocene or Oli- gocene, are indicated. The fourth part re- lates to Miocene plants described from spe- cimens obtained from the Bad Lands, Cali- fornia, and Oregon. The plants of the cretaceous Dakota group, as known mostly from their detached leaves, are striking from the beauty, the elegance, and the variety of their forms, and from their size. The multiplicity of forms recognized for a single species is quite as marked as it might be upon any tree of our forests. In analyzing the leaves by detail, " we are by-and-by forcibly impressed by the strangeness of the characters of some of them, which seem at variance with any of those recognized any- where in the floras of our time, and unob- served also in those of the geological inter- mediate periods. Not less surprised are we to see united in a single leaf, or species, char- acters which are now generally found sep- arated in far -distant families of plants." The flora of the Laramie group (Eocene) is quite distinct from the cretaceous. The Green River group includes the famous Flo- rissante Basin, of which we have already given some account. The Miocene plants, which are described by groups according to where they occur, have not been sufficiently recovered to authorize any reliable conclu- sion regarding their relative stage in either group.

Madam Row and Ladt Why. By Charles Kingsley. New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 321. Price, 50 cents.

Tnis book, which now appears in a con- venient volume of the series of " Globe Readings from Standard Authors," is de- scribed in the title-page as " First Lessons in Earth-Lore for Children." It presents, in the form of a pleasing allegory, the work- ings of the geological agencies that have contributed to the shaping of the globe, and the present appearance of its surface, and their results ; the operations being supposed to be performed by a " Madam How," under the direction of a mysterious " Lady Why."

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��Photo-Micrography. By A. Cowley Mal- ley, F. R. M. S. Second edition. Lon- don: H. K. Lewis, 136 Gower Street, Pp. 166.

Drawing can not be wholly relied upon for the representation of minute microscopic objects, because of the difficulty of seeing such delicate things accurately, and of com- manding the pencil to give a perfectly cor- rect reproduction of what is seen. At the best, a drawing is apt to show evidence of preconceived notions of the structure in the mind of the observer. Photography, though not infallible, always accurately returns what is sent to the plate, and is almost uni- versally true. In the present work, the author gives the methods he has himself adopted, and the most applicable parts of the methods used by others ; and, by show- ing the facility of their application, he hopes to make photo-micrography more popular, and place it within the reach of all. In this second edition have been incorporated the advances that have been made in micros- copy, and the more recent improvements in photography. Descriptions of the wet collodion and gelatino- bromide processes, and of the best methods of mounting and preparing microscopic objects for photo- micrography, are given.

The Occdlt World. By A. P. Sinnett. Second American, from the fourth English edition, with the Author's Corrections and a New Preface. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 228. $1.25.

The readers of " The Popular Science Monthly " have already been informed, to some extent, respecting the doctrines of the theosophists, of which this may be consid- ered one of the text-books. Among their beliefs is that in the existence among some privileged or specially instructed classes of persons of mysterious knowledge and power which are hidden from the mass of man- kind, to which are referred and by which may be explained many wonderful things in ancient and modern lore, the reality of which appears supported by evidence we can not despise, but belief in which, so con- trary are they to our ideas of nature, taxes the most credulous. The " science " which represents this knowledge and power has made some advances since the first edition of " The Occult World " was published, and vol. xxvn. 36

��its votaries believe that they have received additional confirmation of its reality. The new developments are given in the form of additional matter and notes, the original text of the book having been changed but little.

Russia under the Tzars. By Stepniak, author of " Underground Russia." New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 381. Price, $1.50..

This book is divided into three parts. In Part I, " The Past," is shown how the original fundamental principle of the Rus- sian Government was the sovereignty of the people, full, free, spontaneous, and indis- putable in the highest possible degree, as it still is in the Mir, or the rural communes ; and how Czarism gained a footing, and gradually crushed that sovereignty entirely out within the empire at large, and in all the great centers. Part II, " Dark Places," is made up of the relations of incidents in the lives of political suspects and their expe- riences with the police. In Part III " Ad- ministrative Exiles " are described, a num- ber of features characterizing the despotism of the military and the police, and the meas- ures of administrative repression which the Government is compelled to adopt in its struggles against the forces of human na- ture to which it has set itself in opposition.

Third Annual Report op thh United States Geological Survey, 1881, 1882. By J. W. Powell, Director. Washing- ton: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 564, with Plates.

This volume contains the reports of progress for the year of the heads of the divisions of the survey, and six monographs on special features of the survey. The administrative reports are, that of Mr. Clar- ence King, prepared for him in his absence by Dr. Carl Barus, on the " Determinations of the Physical Constants of Rocks " ; of Mr. Arnold Hague, on " Operations in the Divis- ion of the Pacific" ; of Mr. C. K. Gilbert, of the " Division of the Great Basin, chiefly relating to the Survey of the Quaternary Lake Bonneville " ; of Mr. T. C. Chamber- lin, on the " Survey of the Glacial Moraine, from the North Border of Dakota to the Atlanti'c " ; of Mr. S. F. Emmons, of the "Di- vision of the Rocky Mountains " ; of Mr. G.

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��F. Becker, on the " Comstock Lode and the Washoe District " ; of Mr. Lester F. Ward, on " Vegetable Paleontology " ; and of Messrs. J. Howard Gore and Gilbert Thompson, on " Triangulations and Topographical Sur- veys." The " accompanying papers " are those of Professor 0. C. Marsh, on " Birds with Teeth " ; of Roland D. Irving, on the " Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Superior " ; of Israel C. Russell, on the " Geological History of Lake Lahontan " ; of Mr. Arnold Hague, on the "Geology of the Eureka District " ; of Mr. T. C. Chamberlin, on the " Terminal Moraine " ; and of Dr. C. A. White, on the " Non-Marine Fossil Mollusca of North America." Mr. Hague's prelimi- nary report promises much interesting in- formation when the papers are published in full, concerning the lithological structure of the volcanic cones of Mounts Rainier, Hood, Shasta, and Lassen's Peak, which play so im- portant a part in the geology of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. Mr. Chamber- lin's paper reveals the interesting facts that the glacial moraine formation consists, not of a single moraine, but of a group of three or more concentric and rudely parallel ones, that sometimes coalesce and sometimes separate, so as to occupy a belt occasion- ally twenty or thirty miles in width ; that the individual moraines, instead of being sharp ridges, consist of a broad belt of ir- regular, tumultuous hills and hollows, giv- ing rise to a peculiar knob-and-basin topog- raphy ; that the massiveness of the moraine finds its development in great width rather than in abrupt and conspicuous height ; that throughout a considerable portion of its course, instead of pursuing a direct or mod- erately undulatory line, it is disposed in great loops, formed at the margins of ice- tongues, between which re-entrant portions formed extensive intermediate moraines ; and that these ice -tongues occupied the great valleys of the interior, and manifestly owed their origin to topographical influ- ences. Mr. Becker mentions the interest- ing fact that in the caves above the ore- bodies, on Ruby Ilill, the crystals of ara- gonite are still in process of rapid forma- tion ; and Mr. Curtis is conducting accurate experiments to ascertain the rate of growth and the physical and chemical conditions attending their formation.

��Tables to facilitate Chemical Calcula- tions. Compiled by W. Dittmar, F. R. S. Second edition. London : Williams & Norgate. Pp. 43, small 4to. Price, 5 shillings.

This little volume contains tables of atomic weights, analytical factors, loga- rithms, reciprocals, physical constants of gases, etc., together with rules for gasome- try, a chapter on the arithmetic of gas analysis, and other minor data, of value for daily reference in the laboratory. Its utility to the analyst is obvious, although, to a well-trained chemist, much of the matter contained in it is too familiar to need quota- tion in this form. To the elementary stu- dent, on the other hand, works cf this char- acter are of questionable value. The pupil who works out his analysis by the aid of factors too often fails to learn the principles upon which they depend, and does not ac- quire that command of stoichiometry which every good chemist should have. Of its kind, however, and in its proper place, the volume appears to be satisfactory. It is announced as being preliminary to a forth- coming work upon chemical arithmetic, which, when issued, will replace it.

Contributions to North American Eth- nology. Vol. V. Washington: Gov- ernment Printing-Ofnce. Pp. about 400, with Plates.

In this volume are bound up the mono- graphs of Mr. Charles Rau, on " Cup-shaped and other Lapidarian Sculpture in the Old World and in America " ; of Dr. Robert Fletcher, on " Prehistoric Trephining and Cranial Amulets " ; and of Dr. Cyrus Thom- as, on the " Manuscript Troano." The last two works have already been fully noticed by us. Mr. Rau's paper relates to some curi- ous kinds of rock-sculptures, which are de- scribed as "cups" of various sizes, rings surrounding the " cups," or independent of them, and other designs, which have been found on rocks, and on and near megalithic stones and buildings, in various parts of Eu- rope, and similar figures which have been discovered in America. The origin and pur- pose of these designs have been variously accounted for. Some persons regard them as Phoenician Baal sculptures ; some as origi- nating at a remote period in the history of the Aryan race ; some as having a phallic

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��significance ; some as direction-marks, etc. Mr. Rau suggests that some of the smaller cup-stones may have been used for cracking nuts, and others as paint-cups. Another class of American relics coming under this category consists of stones of larger size, on which several cup-like cavities are worked out. They usually occur as flat fragments of sandstone without definite contours. The cups are either on one of the flat sur- faces or on both, and their number on a surface varies, so far as has been observed, from two to ten. They are irregularly dis- tributed, and generally measure an inch and a half in diameter, but sometimes less. Ac- cording to Colonel Charles Whittlesey, these stones occur quite frequently in Northern Ohio, more particularly in the valley of the Cuyahoga River, while he is not aware of any having been found in the mounds. He believes the holes were sockets in which spindles were made to revolve, and calls the stones " spindle-socket stones," but Mr. Rau does not agree with him. A bowlder in the rooms of the Society of Natural His- tory, of Cincinnati, which was found near Ironton, Ohio, weighing between one thou- sand and twelve hundred pounds, contains one hundred and sixteen of these cups. A bowlder found at Niantic, Connecticut, has six cups, with a number of lines, which may be natural. Stones, bearing figures resem- bling these, appear worked into the walls of churches, and the designs may be found even in holy-water fonts. Altogether, the cup-stones present a curious field of inquiry. Mr. Rau considers the forms more or less related, and as having a similar origin and meaning ; as to what these are, he is in- clined to agree with M. Rivett-Carnac, in attributing to them a significance like that indicated in the Siva figures of India.

The Lenape and their Legends : with the Complete Text and Symbols of the Wa- lam Olum. By Daniel G. Brinton. Phil- adelphia : D. G. Brinton. Pp. 262.

In the present volume, which is the fifth in 'his " Library of Aboriginal Ameri- can Literature," Dr. Brinton has grouped a series of ethnological studies of the In- dians of Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland, around what is asserted to be one of the most curious records of ancient American history the "Walam Olum," or

��Red Score. The interest in the subject ex- cited by his inquiries into the authenticity of this document prompted him to a gen- eral review of our knowledge of the Lenap6, or Delawares, of their history and tradi- tions, and of their languages and customs. This study disclosed the existence of manu- scripts not mentioned in the bibliographies. Whether the Walam Olum be genuine or not concerning which Dr. Brinton does not express a decisive opinion, though his in- quiries have resulted favorably to its being regarded as an oral reproduction of a gen- uine native work, repeated to some one indifferently conversant with the Delaware language, who wrote it down to the best of his ability it is believed that there is suf- ficient in the volume to justify its appear- ance, apart from that document.

The Philosophic Grammar op American Languages, as set forth by Wilhelm von Homboldt. By Danikl G. Brinton, M. D. Philadelphia : McCalla & Stavely. Pp. 51.

The philosophy of language owes much to Wilhelm von Humboldt, who was its sub- stantial founder. The American languages occupied his attention for many years, and he wrote to Alexander von Rennenkampff, in 1812, that he had selected them as the special subject of his investigations. He was often accustomed to draw " illustrations of his principles from them, and in every way showed a high appreciation of their importance. In the present essay, Dr. Brinton has given a general exposition of Humboldt's views on these languages, and studies of them, and has added the trans- lation of an unpublished memoir by him on the American verb, which was originally read before the Berlin Academy of Sci- ences, and of which only the manuscript is preserved in the Royal Library at Berlin.

The Protestant Faith; or Salvation by Belief. By Dwight Hinckley Olm- stead. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 77. Price, 60 cents.

The author 6tyles this work " An Essay on the Errors of the Protestant Church," those errors consisting, in his vision, princi- pally in the imposition of an intellectual belief in certain doctrines as a fundamental conditionof salvation.

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��Man's Birthright, or the Higher Law of Property. By Edward H. G. Clark. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 133. Price, 75 cents.

This work seems to be the result of an attempt by the author to edit the " Owner- ship and Sovereignty" of Mr. David Reese Smith. The theory erf that book was judged correct, but very inadequately presented ; hence this attempt to redress, rearrange, and elaborate it from beginning to end. Mr. Clark accepts Uenry George's theory of the right of each generation to own the soil, but differs from him as to the manner in which it is to be carried out. He announces the true law of ownership to be : " Mankind as a whole own the entire wealth of the world, natural and fabricated ; but every individual in the world can command and control any piece of that wealth according to his normal purchasing power, which is the exact index of the value of his labor, his skill, his pecuniary ability. But, if he wishes to set aside for his private uses any portion of the general wealth, whether the piece of property contains his own labor or that of some one else, then he must pay on that piece of property the rest of the peo- ple's share of value bound up in it ; and, if every other member of society pays his ap- propriate share of such values, exact justice is reached in every respect." This share is calculated to be an ad valorem tax on the property of every generation, exactly pro- portioned to the death-rate of the popula- tion.

Hegel's ./Esthetics : A Critical Exposition. By John Steinford Kedney. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 302. Price, $1.25.

This is the fourth volume of Messrs. Griggs & Co.'s series of " German Philosophi- cal Classics," the design of w hich is to present, under the editorial supervision of competent American scholars, the more essential parts of the important works of the masters of German thought. Hegel's " ^Esthetics " is one of the most important works on the subject in existence, but it is voluminous. In the present adaptation, the first part, which gives the fundamental philosophy of the whole, is reproduced faithfully, but in a condensed form, with criticisms by the edit- or interspersed. A translation of the sec-

��ond part, which traces the logical and his- torical development of the art-impulse, be- ing easily accessible (D. Appleton & Co.), the editor has substituted for it an original disquisition having more immediate regard to present aesthetic problems, but in a line with Hegel's thought. Of the third part, all the important definitions and fundamental ideas are given, but the minute illustrations and the properly technical part are omitted.

The Invalid's Tea-Tray. By Susan Anna Brown. Boston : J. R. Osgood & Co. Pp. 67. Price, 50 cents.

A dainty volume, as becomes a book of recipes of dishes designed to tempt the dainty appetite of an invalid. It contains fifty or more such recipes, of those things which arc considered best adapted to the invalid's condition, most nourishing or most easily digested, according as that condition may require ; for the serving of which " the first requisite is absolute neatness." Also, the author says, " vary the meals as much as possible, and let each little delicacy be a surprise. Have the hot things really hot, and the cold ones perfectly cold ; and offer only a very small quantity of food at a time, or you will never be able to tempt the ca- pricious appetite of an invalid."

Materials for German Prose Composition. By C. A. Buchheim. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 252. Price, $1.25.

This book consists of selections from modern English writers, to be translated into German, to aid in which work gram- matical notes are furnished, with idiomatic renderings of difficult passages, a general introduction, and a grammatical index. It has been the compiler's purpose to furnish a practical and theoretical guide to persons who, having a full knowledge of German accidence, and of the rules of the order of words, desire to gain skill in translating from English into German. The extracts have been made from the body of the au- thor's work, with deliberate avoidance of " hackneyed " passages, and from the more modern authors. The matter is graduated into four parts, beginning with easy, de- tached sentences and minor extracts, and rising to more difficult passages and those involving idiomatic construction.

�� � LITERARY NOTICES.

��565

��On Oxygen as a Remedial Agent. By Samuel S. Wallian, M. D. New York : Trow's Company. Pp. 52.

Dr. Wallian holds that oxygen stands at the head of the list of natural agencies for the removal of disease, and that " it is quite time we should practically realize, for we already theoretically admit, that this omnipresent, almost omnipotent, and yet commonplace element, can not be replaced, scarcely supplemented ; that there is no known alterative, eliminator, or disinfectant comparable with it ; . . . and that the origi- nal, normal, and only unobjectionable and universally efficient antiseptic is pure oxy- gen. ... As a therapeutic agent, oxygen is not yet popular, nor yet the fashion; al- though for years enterprising quacks have been gathering a generous harvest, from honest dupes who have sickened of cruder quackery, by broadcast heralding of the magic virtues of some impossible ' com- pound ' of it. Is it not high time that its intelligent use should be undertaken at the hands of legitimate and competent physi- cians, who have no secret wares to hawk about the country ? "

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Sanitary Suggestions. How to disinfect our Homes. By B. W. Palmer, M. D. Detroit, Mich. : George S. Davis. 1885. Pp.58. 25 cents.

Ethical Culture. Four Lectures. By Samuel Burns Weston. Philadelphia. 18S5. Pp. 70. 20 cents.

The Abdominal Brain. By Leila G. Bedell, M. D. Chicago : Gross & Delbridge. 18S5. Pp. 45.

A New Philological Theory. By Professor A. J. Mogyorosi, Allegany, N. Y. Buffalo : Lockwood& Ough, Printers. 1885. Pp. 11.

Foul Brood. Its Management and Care. By D. A. Jones. Press of " Canadian Bee Journal," Beeton, Ontario. Pp. 82. 10 cents.

Shall we hang the Insane who commit Homi- cides? By Clark Bell, Esq., of New York. Re- printed from the " Medico-Legal Journal." Pp. 40.

Illinois State Board of Health. Sanitary Sched- ule of the State Sanitary Survey.

The Biogen Series. No. 2. The Demon of Dar- win. Coues. Pp. 64. No. 3. A Buddhist Cate- chism. Olcott. Pp. 84. 75 cents each.

The Composition of American Wheat and Corn. By Clifford Richardson. Washington : Government Printing-Office. 18S4. Pp.98.

Proceedings of the Modern Language Associa- tion of America, 1884. Baltimore. 1885. Pp.100.

Actinism. By Professor C. F. Himes, Ph. D. Reprinted from the " Journnl of the Franklin Insti- tute," May, 1885. Pp. 22. Illustrated.

The Periodical Cicada. By Charles V. Riley, Ph. D. Washington : Government Printing-Office, 1885. Pp. 46. Illustrated.

Public Health in Minnesota. The Official Pub- lication of the State Board of Health. Monthly. Vol. I, No. 2, April, 1885. Pp. 8.

��Remarks upon Chipped Stone Implements. By F. W. Putnam. Salem, Mass. 1885. Pp. 8. Illus- trated.

Bulletin of the Brookville Society of Natural His- tory of Franklin County, Indiana. O. M. Meyncke &G.F. Goodwin, Editors. No. 1. 1885. Published by the Society. Pp. 45.

The " Sanitary Monitor." J. T. Winn, M. D., Editor. Monthly, Richmond, Va. Vol. I, No. 1, May, 1885. Pp. 14. $1 a year.

Descriptions of some Peculiar Screw-like Fos- sils from the Chemung Rocks. By Professor John 8. Newberry. Reprint from the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Pp. 4. Illustrated.

Local Institutions of Maryland. By Lewis W. Wilhelm, Ph. D. Baltimore : Johns Uopkins Uni- versity. 1885. Pp.120. $1.

Sixth Annual Report of the Archnpological Insti- tute of America. Cambridge : John Wilson & Son, 1885. Pp.48.

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- ington. Smithsonian Institution, 1885. Vol. II. Pp. 195.

Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, No. 2. On the Quaternary and Recent Mollusca of the Great Basin, with Descriptions of New Forms. By R. Ellsworth Call. Washington : Government Printing-Office. 1884. Pp. 56. Illustrated.

Transactions of the Society for the Promotion of Medical Science in Japan. Tokio, May, 1885.

Bulletin of the Des Moines Academy of Science- Des Moines, la. Published by the Academy. Vol. 1, No. 1. 1885. Pp. 57.

Medical Thoughts of Shakespeare. By B. Rush Field, M. D. Easton, Pa. 1885. Pp. 86.

The Ohio State Sanitary Association. Proceed- ings of the Second Annual Meeting. From "Tho Sanitarian," May, 1885. Pp. 64.

Architectural Studies, Part I. Twelve Designs for Low -Cost Houses. New York: William T. Comstock. 1885.

International Electric Exhibition of 18S4. Re- ports of the Examiners of Sections V, VI, and VI [I. Electric Lamps. Carbons for Arc-Lamps. Phila- delphia : The Franklin Institute. 1885. Pp. 12. Il- lustrated.

Healthy Foundations for Houses. By Glenn Brown. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1885. Pp. 143. 50 cents.

Lectures on the Science and Art of Edncatioti. By the late Joseph Payne. Syracuse : C. W. Bar- deen, 1885. Pp. 281. $1.

Practical Botany. By F. O. Bower, and Sidney H. Vines, with a Preface by W. Thiselton Dyer. Lon- don : Macmillan &, Co. 1885. $1.50.

Matilda, Princess of England. A Romance of the Crusades. By Mme. Sophie Cottin. From the French bv Jennie W. Rann. 2 vols. New York : W. S. Go'ttsberger. 1885. $1.75.

Talks Afield about Plants and the Science of Plants. By L. H. Bailey, Jr. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1885. Pp. 173. $1.

History of the Surplus Revenue of 1R37. By Edward G. Bourne. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1885. Pp. 161. $1.25.

Forests and Forestry of Poland, Lithuania, the Ukraine, and the Baltic Provinces of Russia. Com- piled by John Croumbie Brown, LL D. Edin- burgh : Oliver & Boyd. 1S85. Pp. 276.

An Elementary Treatise on Hydro-Mechanics. By Edward A. Bowser, LL. D. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1S85. Pp. 298. $2.50.

List of Tests. Bv Hans M. Wilder. New York: P. W. Bedford. 1885. Pp. 88. $1.

Lessons in Elementary Practical Pbvsics. By Balfour Stewart, F. R. S , 'and W. W. Haldane Gee. Vol. I. General Physical Processes. London : Macmillan & Co. 1885. Pp.291. $1.50.

Properties of Matter. By P. G. Tait, R. S. E. Edinburgh : A. & C. Black. 1885. Pp. 320. $2.25.

�� � The Q. P. Index Annual for 1884. Bangor: Q. P. Index, Publisher. 1885. Pp. 78.

The Magnetism of Iron and Steel Ships. By T. A. Lyons. Washington: Government Printing-office. 1884. Pp. 181. Illustrated.

A Manual of the Theory and Practice of Topographical Surveying by Means of the Transit and Stadia. By J. H. Johnson, C.E. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1885. Pp. 111. $1.25.

Commercial Organic Analysis By Alfred H. Allen, F. C. S. Vol. I. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. 1885. Pp. 476. $4.50.

The French Revolution. By Hippolyte Adolphe Taine, D. C. L. Oxon. Translated by John Durand. Vol. III. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1885. Pp. 509. $2.50.

Christian Thought. Lectures and Papers on Philosophy, Christian Evidence, Biblical Elucidation. Second Series. Edited by Charles F. Deems, LL. D. New York: Phillips & Sons. 1885. Pp. 476.

Contributions to the Knowledge of the Older Mesozoic Flora of Virginia. By William Morris Fontaine. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1883. Pp. 143. With Fifty-four Plates.