Popular Science Monthly/Volume 27/October 1885/Literary Notices

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
Popular Science Monthly Volume 27 October 1885  (1885) 
Literary Notices
 

LITERARY NOTICES.

Collected Essays on Political and Social Science. By William Graham Sumner, Professor of Political and Social Science in Yale College. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 173. Price, $1.50.

This volume consists of discussions upon the following subjects: "Bimetallism";

8+8

��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

��" Wages " ; " The Argument against Pro- tective Taxes " ; " Sociology " ; " Theory aud Practice of Elections," Parts I and II ; " Presidential Elections and Civil-Service Reform " ; and " Our Colleges before the Country." These are all "topics of the time," dealing with questions not only of great public moment, but which are being much agitated in many quarters. The vol- ume is therefore timely in its appearance, and, more than this, it is the kind of book that is greatly needed. In reading it, we have been much reimpressed with the au- thor's rare ability in handling economical and social questions. A clear, logical, inde- pendent thinker ; a sound theorist, because he always defers to facts ; a practical man, because he trusts in established principles ; and withal a vigorous, pointed, and attract- ive writer, Professor Sumner is the man to do eminently valuable work in educating the public mind on subjects of economical and social science. And sound teachers upon these subjects are none too numerous. The propagators of error, in numberless forms, have the field. Some are misled by half-knowledge, some prejudiced by party feeling, some perverted and blinded by self- interest, some fascinated by specious hob- bies, so that the press teems with magazine articles, pamphlets, and books, not calcu- lated, to say the> least, to strengthen scien- tific conceptions, or to bring men into the agreement of reason on the various topics of public and social concern. Perhaps the worst of it is that the effect of all this chaos of opinion is to undermine confidence in principles and all belief in the possibility of anything like valid and trustworthy social and political science. In the present state of things, where great pecuniary interests are involved, the temptation to favor this view is strong. No service, therefore, is more important to the community than to strip away the multitudinous fallacies in which these subjects are involved, and to show that there are clear, comprehensive, and solid principles governing social and political phenomena which must be recog- nized and trusted before society can realize anything like permanent prosperity. This is the kind of work which Professor Sumner is eminently fitted to accomplish, and we cordially welcome his present work, as we

��have welcomed all his previous books, be- cause it brings out and popularizes views which it is of the utmost moment that our citizens should understand and maintain. We can here give no indication of the doc- trines expounded in the varied discussions of the work, and must be content to urge, especially upon our young men, that this is the kind of book to be thoroughly studied, until its contents are assimilated and re- duced to an established political and social creed.

The Microscope in Botany: A Guide to the Microscopical Investigation of Vegetable Substances. From the Ger- man of Dr. Julius Wilhelm Behrens. Translated and edited by Bev. A. B. Henry, assisted by R. H. Ward, M. D. Boston : S. E. Cassino & Co. Pp. 466, with Thirteen Plates. Price, $5.

According to the translator, this treatise occupies a field almost entirely to itself in the botanical literature both of Germany and now of the English-speaking world, and it is published with the hope that its influence will be to stimulate in this country investigations into the deeper problems of plant-life. The study of the literature of the subject shows that there is an open field for American botanists, for existing works almost exclusively involve the results of Ger- man research, while a few are of French origin, fewer still of English, and none what- ever of American. The first purpose of the work is to guide students in all those in- quiries relating to the physical products of cell-life in plants which may be conducted under the microscope, by means of chemi- cal and other reactions. While it deals with the anatomical constitution of the cell, and of plant - tissue, its inquiries relate much more to physiological and biological pro- cesses than to matters purely anatomical and histological. The part of Dr. R. H. Ward in the preparation of the work con- sists in the revision of the two chapters which deal with the microscope and its ac- cessories ; and in these considerable changes have been made, as is proper in a work of the kind intended for American study, in the omission of illustrations and descrip- tions in the Continental style, which is com- paratively unused and unavailable here, and the substitution of American forms. All

�� � LITERARY NOTICES.

��849

��the matter introduced by the American edit- ors is distinguished by plain typographical devices.

The Treatment of Opium - Addiction. By J. B. Mattison, M. I). New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 49. Price, 50 cents.

This work embodies the substance of a paper read at the last meeting of the Ameri- can Association for the Cure of Inebriates, and details the author's special method of treatment, which he has successfully prac- ticed for several years. The author main- tains that opium-addiction is a disease, sel- dom a vice, and should be treated as a dis- ease. He advises against breaking off the practice abruptly, while he finds the other ordinary method of treatment, by gradual decrease of the opiate with tonics, incon- veniently slow. His own method is a mean between the two extremes, and is based on the power of certain remedial resources to control abnormal reflex sensibility ; and he claims for it the advantages of minimum duration of treatment and maximum free- j dom from pain.

The Field of Disease: A Book of Pre- ventive Medicine. By Benjamin Ward Richardson, M. D. Philadelphia : Henry C. Lea's Son & Co. Pp. 737.

The author has written this work, he says, " for those members of the intelligent reading public who, without desiring to trench on the province of the physician and surgeon, or to dabble in the science and art of medical treatment of disease, wish to know the loading facts about the diseases of the human family, their causes and prevention. Any one, therefore, who opens this book with the expectation of find- ing in it receipts and nostrums will not have that expectation fulfilled, and will discover reference to no remedies except such as are purely preventive in character." The old historical terms are used in preference to the new ; that classification of diseases is preferred which has descended from the best scholars in medical science and art, and which is best known to the people at large. Of the relative value of curative and pre- ventive medicine, the latter " is not a science, it is not an art separated neeessarily or prop- erly from so-called curative medicine. On vol. xxvii. 54

��the contrary, the study of cure and preven- tion proceed well together, and he is the most perfect sanitarian, and he is the most accomplished and useful physician, who knows most both of the prevention of dis- ease and of the nature and treatment of disease ; he who knows, in fact, the before and the after of each striking phenomenon of disease that is presented for his observa- tion." The investigation of the subject is directed to the tracing of diseases from their actual representation, as they exist before us, in their natural progress after their birth, back to their origin, and, as far as is prac- ticable, to seek the conditions out of which they spring; and, further, to investigate the conditions, to see how far they are remov- able and how far they arc avoidable.

The Windmill as a Prime Mover. By Alfred R. Wolff, M. E. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 159. Price, $.3.

There may have been a time when windmills were considered antiquated and of no further use, but it is so no longer. These simple and economical sources of power are quite generally employed in all parts of our country, and their use is in- creasing, and, according to Mr. Wolff, it is now greater than at any other period in the history of the world. " To place the num- ber of windmills at work in America," he says, " at s%vcral hundred thousand is to give an estimate which those who have been interested in this department of engineering, and who have traveled along the main rail- road lines of the country, must pronounce as low." And we are further informed that in some single cities of the Union over five thousand windmills are manufactured, on an average, each year. For those kinds of work in which the power is not required to be constant, but can be taken when it comes such as pumping and storing water, com- pressing and storing air, and driving dyna- mo-machines to charge electrical accumu- lators no machines can be cheaper than windmills, and they are efficient enough. American manufacturers have made great improvements in the machines, and their patterns are pronounced much better than the European patterns, and destined to su- persede them. Mr. Wolff's treatise is prac- tical and a little literary, for it gives a very

�� � 850

��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

��interesting chapter on the " Early History of Windmills." On the practical and eco- nomical side it has chapters on " Wind, its Velocity and Pressure"; "The Impulse of Wind on Windmill-Blades " ; " Experiments on Windmills " ; " The Capacity and Econ- omy of the Windmill" ; and " Useful Data in Connection with Windmill Practice " ; with full accounts of the various European and American machines.

Proceedings of the United States Na- tional Museum. 1884. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 661, with Two Plates.

This is the seventh volume of the series of papers established in 1878, which the In- stitution publishes regularly in "signatures," as sixteen pages are accumulated from time to time, in order to present the matter as early as possible to the public. At the end of the "year the sheets are gathered up and embodied in a volume. The articles in this series consist, first, of papers published by the scientific corps of the National Museum ; and, second, of interesting facts and memo- randa from the correspondence of the Smith- sonian Institution.

��there has been a corresponding contraction of the jurisdiction of its representative offi- cer, and a diffusion of his powers among many associates. When we recall the full meaning of patria potestas, we are led to exclaim, ' The fathers, where are they ? ' and the patriarchs, do they live forever? Quite often the serfs have become the sov- ereigns, and the sovereign has been reduced to a subject. Could great Augustus have seen the base uses to which the title ' em- peror ' had been put by barbarians, his heart would have died within him* And who would recognize in the common hangman, or in the distrainer of house-rents, the sher- iff or the constable of the proud Norman court ? Could the voice of prophecy have told Charles Mart el, who ruled the ruler of the Franks, that his title of major or mayor would descend to administrators of petty villages, he would have had additional rea- sons for moralizing upon the deceits of hu- man greatness."

Report or the Operations of the United States Life-saving Service, for the Year ending June SO, 1884. Washing- ton: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 476.

��Local Institutions of Maryland. By Lewis W. Wilhelm, Ph. D. Baltimore : N. Murray. Pp. 129. Price, $1. This work is a triple number of the se- ries of "Johns Hopkins University Stud- ies in Historical and Political Science." It presents a careful review of the course of growth of the institutions of the Common- wraith in question, including the organiza- tion of the land system: the constitution and functions of the hundred ; the forma- tion of the county ; with the history of the beginnings of each, and the more tardy growth of the towns. In the last section we meet the interesting and suggestive ob- servation, which we quote, that "no student of society can have watched the operations of the vital processes of the social organism and failed to notice the complex growth of certain institutions, and the corresponding decay in authority of officers associated with their development. The brooding, in so- ciety, of the spirit of democracy has tended tf> develop the institution, to multiply its organs, to strengthen its members, and fos- ter its general growth, but at the same time

��Five stations were added during the year, and the number of stations at its close was 201. Of these, 56 were on the Atlan- tic, 37 on the lakes, seven on the Pacific, and one at the Falls of the Ohio. The whole number of disasters reported was 430, en- dangering $10,607,940 of property, and the lives of 4,432 persons. Of the persons, all but twenty were saved, and only $1,446,- 586 of the property was lost. The number of vessels totally lost was 64. The Service has co-operated in scientific movements by assisting investigations in marine zoology, and by collecting " singing-sands " for ex- amination by Professor II. C. Bolton. The concluding statement in the summarized re- port, regarding the character of the Serv- ice's men, is very suggestive. It is : " It is felt that seldom in the history of organi- zations has a body of men been assembled

��* Not only did the " sole power of constituting and appoynting the Emperor of Pascattoway reside with a subject of the English kins, the pro- prietary of Maryland, but the " King of Ohoptico" was presented for pig-stealing at a court-leet of a Maryland manor.

�� � LITERARY NOTICES.

��851

��so equal in qualification for the stern tasks set them, and so splendid in their efficiency. That they can have such a character col- lectively is clearly attributable to their hav- ing been selected for their posts solely on professional and moral grounds, without the slightest reference to their politics. The constant purpose of the officers in charge has ever been to obtain for station duty the ablest and trustiest surfmen. Previous re- ports of the Service have made apparent how difficult it was, for years, to limit the choice of these agents to the simple tests of their ability and trustworthiness, and how great and absolute a help in this regard has been the statute of 1882, peremptorily ex- empting the selection from political influ- ences. It can be safely said that in no instance have the requirements of that stat- ute been disregarded, either in spirit or let- ter."

A Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals (1665 to 1882). Together with Chronological Tables and a Library Check-List. By Henry Carrington Bol- ton. Washington : Published by the Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 776. The mass of periodical literature has be- come stupendous ; and the real importance it has attained is hardly less striking than its magnitude. The literature in some de- partments embodied in periodicals has near- ly overtaken in value that which has been collected in books, and in the present course and tendencies of publication bids fair, be- fore long, to pass it. In science, especially, is that which is comprehended in periodical publications indispensable to the investi- gator who would make real progress. A large proportion of the experiments of the past and of the details of results attained can not be given in books, but must always be sought for in the periodicals in which the records first appeared. A perfect index to this literature would lead the inquirer directly to every experiment ; but such an index can hardly be hoped for at present, and would be of inconvenient bulk, if it ex- isted. We must take it in parts. In this work Professor Bolton has given a very im- portant part a list of scientific periodicals, alphabetically arranged, with the cross-ref- erences so necessary in every work of the dictionary class ; classified according to the

��subject ; with a chronological table show- ing the date when each volume of each periodical was published ; and an alpha- betical index to that ; and a partial list as complete as it could be made for the first issue of the libraries in the United States and Canada where the several peri- odicals may be found. This catalogue and the " Catalogue of Scientific Serials," pub- lished by Mr. Scudder in 1879, complement one another. Mr. Scudder's catalogue in- cludes the transactions of learned societies in the natural, physical, and mathematical sciences, and technical journals only to a limited extent ; the present work is confined to scientific and technical " periodicals " proper, excluding society proceedings and transactions, but including periodicals de- voted to the " applications " of science. Medicine has been excluded, but anatomy, physiology, and veterinary science, being related to zoology, have been admitted. Of the category of included subjects, it con- tains the principal independent periodicals of all branches published in all countries, from the rise of the literature in question to the close of the year 1882. The effort has been made to give full titles and names of editors. In some debatable cases titles have been admitted, on the ground, as enun- ciated by Buchold, that " in a bibliography it is much better that a book should be found which is not sought, than that one should be sought for and not found." The cross-references are from the later to the first title of a periodical which has suffered changes in title ; from short titles in com- mon use to the accurate designations ; from the names of the principal editors to the journals conducted by them ; and, in the case of astronomical publications, from the places in which the observatories arc situ- ated to the titles of the periodicals issued therefrom. The library check-list has been prepared from the data afforded in the an- swers to circulars which were sent out to two hundred libraries, of which one hundred and twenty librarians responded. The mate- rial for the work was gathered from all avail- able bibliographies, personal examination of the shelves and the catalogues of many libraries in the United States, as well as of important libraries in England, France, and Germany, and from the answers to circulars

�� � 852

��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

��sent to publishers asking for specimen num- bers of their periodicals. The catalogue in- cludes the titles of five thousand one hun- dred and five periodicals in the English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portu- guese, Dutch, Scandinavian, Hungarian, and Slavic languages, of which two thousand one hundred and fifty are placed in the li- brary check-list. Ninety-four subjects are included in the classified list, in which peri- odicals devoted to general science do not enter. Of these subjects, the most numer- ously represented is that of agriculture.

Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. By N. H. Winchell, State Geologist. First Annual Report, 1872, pp. 112; Tenth do., 1881, pp. 254, with Fifteen Plates ; Eleventh do., 1882, pp. 219; Twelfth do., 1883, pp. 387, with Map and Plates.

THE'first report includes an historical sketch and list of publications relating to the geology and natural history of Minne- sota, beginning with Father Hennepin's book, and a general sketch of the geology of the State. The " tenth report " contains descriptions of about four hundred rock samples and notes on their geological re- lations, continued from the previous report ; a paper on the Potsdam sandstone, papers on the Crustacea of the fresh waters of Min- nesota, etc. The " eleventh report " in- cludes a report on the mineralogy of the State ; and papers on the crystalline rocks ; rock outcrops in Central Minnesota ; Lake Agassiz (a large, ancient lake, of which traces are found in an extensive region) ; the iron region of Northern Minnesota, etc. The " twelfth report " is mainly devoted to paleontology and the fauna and flora.

Life of Frank Buckland. By his Broth- er-in-Law, George C. Bompas. Phila- delphia : J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 433. Price, $2.

Few men have been privileged to do more to popularize science, as represented in natural history, and to spread abroad love for animals, than the subject of this memoir. His life was very largely devoted to the study of animated nature, to the de- velopment of its economical value, and the collection and increase of information on every aspect of it. The objects with which

��he labored, and the principles by which he was guided are well expressed in the coun- sel he gave in the first number of " Land and Water," in January, 1866 : "Let none," he said, " think himself unable to advance the great cause of natural history. Thou- sands of Englishmen and Englishwomen have knowledge and experience, acquired by their actual observation of useful facts relating to animated beings, be they beasts, birds, insects, reptiles, fishes, or plants. Friendly controversy and argument are in- vited on all questions of practical natural history, and although the odium salmonicum not unfrequcntly assumes more virulence than even the odium theologicum of the good old days of fagot and stake, no writer need fear that his pet theory shall be ruth- lessly set on fire, or that his arguments shall be decapitated, without a fair and friendly hearing." Mr. Bompas has given a very picturesque and engaging story of a man who was certainly one of the liveliest char- acters in the history of science.

Fcrests and Forestry in Poland, Lithu- ania, the Ukraine, and the Baltic Provinces of Russia. Compiled by John Croumbie Brown. Edinburgh": Oliver & Boyd ; Montreal : Dawson Brothers. Pp. 276.

Dr. Brown follows up his review of the condition of the forests and of forestry in the several countries of Europe with praisewor- thy industry and devotion to the cause of reclothing the waste places of the earth. The present volume is like the others of the series which we have noticed in plan and style. It gives accounts of the coun- tries and peoples, and their history so far as it is connected with forestry, and detailed information concerning the present extent, use, and care of the forests.

Magneto- and Dynamo-Electric Machines ; with a Description of Electric Accumu- lators. From the German of Glaserde Cew. New York : D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 301.

This is the first volume of a new series, called " The Specialist Series," to be edited by Dr. Paget Higgs and Professor Charles Forbes, the purpose of which is to impart information on recent technical subjects in a manner suited to the popular intelligence. Concerning the immediate subjeet of the

�� � LITERARY NOTICES.

��853

��present volume, after noticing the extrava- gant views that were at first entertained of the machines, the editors say : " Now the dynamo is likely to take a fair stand in the rank of useful machines ; for a time it was a machine regarded as likely to revolution- ize all the mechanical world ; now it is coming to be considered in its true light as a very valuable aid and auxiliary to steam and other prime movers, extending their sphere, and making more easy their appli- cation. For these reasons, it is assumed that the public interested in such technical matters are desirous of a more intimate knowledge of the principles of these ma- chines, and this knowledge it is the object of the present hand-book to supply."

Lectures on the Science and Art of Edu- cation, with other Lectures and Essays by the late Joseph Payne. Reading- Club edition. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardeen, publisher. Pp. 281.

Among the multitude of books that are teeming from the press on the subject of education, this is one of the soundest and safest, and really the most advanced in its spirit, and in the principles it labors to in- culcate. Its editor says in his preface: "It must be remembered that this volume was not prepared by the author as a text-book, but is simply a compilation of addresses and papers delivered at different times and un- der different circumstances. Hence the same truth is often repeated, not only in different expression, but with different application." Only by an intelligent comparison of these various statements can Professor Payne's views be thoroughly understood ; and, for this comparison, these analyses are almost indispensable. The central principle of Pro- fessor Payne's system stands out boldly, and is reiterated at every opportunity, that the pupil " knows only what he has discovered for himself, and that in this process of dis- covery the teacher is only a guide."

He thus closes his masterly lecture on " The True Foundation of Science-Teach- ing " : "I do not for a moment deny that much is to be gained from the study of sci- entific text-books. It would be absurd to do so. What I do deny is, that the reading- up of books on science which is, strictly speaking, a literary study either is or can possibly be a training in scientific method.

��To receive facts in science on any other au- thority than that of the facts themselves ; to get up the observations, experiments, and comments of others instead of observing, experimenting, and commenting ourselves ; to learn definitions, rules, abstract propo- sitions, technicalities, before we personally deal with the facts which lead up to them all this, whether in literary or scientific edu- cation and especially the latter is of the essence of cramming, and is therefore en- tirely opposed to, and destructive of, true mental training and discipline."

Lectures on Teaching, delivered in the University of Cambridge, during the Lent Term, 1880. By J. G. Fitch, M. A., Assistant Commissioner to the late Endowed Schools Commission, and one of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools. New edition. With a Preface by an American Normal Teacher. New York : Macmillan & Co. 1885. Pp. 393. Price, $1.

We have previously spoken in emphatic praise of this able educational work, and are glad to see that it has now been brought out in a cheaper edition. Fitch is probably the best authority on general education con- nected with the English school system. He is thoroughly informed and thoroughly prac- tical, and his book should be in the hands of every teacher who has capacity or liberty to think upon the subject of teaching.

Talks Afield : About Plants and the Science of Plants. By L. H. Bailey, Jr. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 173. Price, $1.

This little book has many pictures, and contains many interesting explanations and descriptions of vegetable processes and gen- eral plant phenomena. It will interest all who have botanical tastes, and will assist to develop those tastes where they do not exist.

Lessons in Elementary Practical Physics. By Balfour Stewart, F. R. S., and W. W. Haldengee. Vol. I. General Physi- cal Processes. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 291. Price, $1.50.

This is a manual for the physical labo- ratory, and is mainly devoted to instruments and apparatus. It deals chiefly with experi- mental determinations of length, angular measurement, mass, density, elasticity, press-

�� � 8 54

��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

��ure, gravitation, and kindred conceptions, but is to be followed in due course by a volume on " Electricity and Magnetism," and by a third work on " Heat, Light, and Sound." The names of Balfour Stewart, Professor of Physics in the Owens College, Manchester, and of his assistant demon- strator in physics, are sufficient guarantee that the work is thoroughly done.

The Nature of Mind and Human Automa- tism. By Morton Prince, M. D. Phila- delphia : J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 173. Price, $1.50.

This is a closely reasoned discussion of the essential issues of materialism. It first took form several years ago as a graduating medical thesis, which the author did not publish at the time, as he preferred to wait for further reflection and investigation of the subject. It is predominantly polemic, as Dr. Prince finds himself brought into col- lision with the views of Tyndall, Eiske, Hux- ley, and Spencer, which he controverts with much acuteness. He ranks himself as a materialist under his own view of what ma- terialism is, and finds himself in more de- cided harmony with the doctrines of Pro- fessor Clifford than with those of any other recent or contemporary thinkers upon this subject. We can not undertake to expound the view of the relations of body and mind which seems to him most rational, but un- hesitatingly recommends his work to all who are looking for a vigorous and original treat- ment of the profound problems to which the volume is devoted.

Outlines op Psychology. Dictations from Lectures by Hermann Lotze. Trans- lated, with a chapter on " The Anatomy of the Brain," by C. L. IIerrick. Illus- trated. Minneapolis, Minn. : S. M. Will- iams. Pp. 149, with Plates. Price, $1.25. '

Much has been said of the claims of Lotze as a philosopher, psychologist, physi- ologist, etc., and, as his translator here re- marks, he " is rapidly gaining recognition even in America." It was time, therefore, that he should be translated, and a good beginning is here made in this little volume. Those who can not read him in the original may now judge of his claims, and get the benefit of his contributions to philosophy.

��On Teaching: Its Ends and Means. By Henry Calderwood, Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edin- burgh. Third edition. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 126. Price, 50 cents.

This book emanates from a distinguished source, and, while Professor Calderwood has a recognized prominence as a philoso- pher, he is also a practical teacher of long experience in every grade, and besides has had much to do with the management of the Edinburgh public schools. It would be unjust to say that his book is without merit.; there is much in it that is worth attending to, but it is not of the high grade that we should expect from the position and oppor- tunities of its author. A better book was due from him than any we have on the sub- ject of moral education ; but he contributes nothing new or of moment to that most im- portant branch of the art of school manage- ment. He seems to be steeped in the peda- gogical idea, and is more dominated by the old methods than becomes an original and independent critic of the subject. The first words of his introduction are, " Every one recognizes that a person can teach on iy wuat he knows " ; but this is so far from being true, that the most successful study may take the form of self-teaching, where the teacher is ignorant of a subject and joins the pupil as a student in pursuing it. Pro- fessor Calderwood, however, guards against such an interpretation of his dictum as would imply that instruction is the sole end of teaching ; but self-instruction has no such leading place in his system as we think it should have in any rational system of edu- cation.

Properties of Matter. By P. G. Tait, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. Edinburgh : Adam & Charles Black. Pp.320. Price, $2.25.

Though the name of Black appears upon the title-page of this work as publisher, yet that of Macmillan & Co. is stamped upon the back, and it is announced as one of Mac- millan's " Manuals for Students." It is, of course, a good book of its kind, for Tait knows how to do good work. But, though claiming to be an elementary book, it must still be regarded as an advanced text-book, and is intended for students who are " sup-

�� � LITERARY NOTICES.

��855

��posed to hare a sound knowledge of ordi- nary geometry and a moderate acquaintance with the elements of algebra and trigonome- try." The author adds in his preface, but he (the student) "is also supposed to have what he can easily obtain from the simple parts of the first two chapters of Thompson & Tait's ' Elements of Natural Philosophy,' or from Clerk Maxwell's excellent little trea- tise on ' Matter and Motion ' a general ac- quaintance with the fundamental principles of kinematics of a point and of kinetics of a particle." It was the author's intention to complete his series of text-books by simi- lar volumes on " Dynamics," " Sound," and " Electricity."

Theory and Practice of Teaching. By Rev. Edward Turing. New and revised edition. Cambridge: University Press. Pp. 262. Price, $1.

We noticed the first edition of this spir- ited book at the time of its appearance. It is very readable, but full of English views upon the subject, although many of them are as applicable here as anywhere. We are glad to see that it has been amplified and improved.

Third Biennial Report of the Bureau of

Labor Statistics of Illinois. 1884.

John S. Lord, Secretary. Springfield.

Pp. 654.

The contents of this report are presented in three parts, each of which is devoted to some special fine of statistical inquiry on the general topic of industrial affairs in Illinois, and the relations which the differ- ent classes engaged in them sustain to each other and to the State. The first part con- tains an investigation designed to ascertain what proportion of the results of manual labor in manufactures accrues to the pro- prietor and what to the workman. In part Becond are presented the results of special investigations made by the bureau into the economical and social condition of the in- dustrial classes of the State ; and the third part gives comprehensive statistics of coal- mining and the manufacture of drain-tile in Illinois ; with a report on the model indus- trial community at Pullman, in which are expressed the conclusions reached by a number of representatives from the various State Bureaus of Labor Statistics, after an in- vestigation extending through several days.

��PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Progress of Astronomy in the Year 16S4, by Professor Kdward S. Holden, pp. 55; Progress in Zoology in the Year last, by Professor Theodore Gill, pp. 93; Progress in Yuleanology and Seismolo- gy in the Years 1SS3, 1884, by Professor Charles G. Rockwood, Jr., pp. 21 ; Antiquities at Pantaleon, Guatemala, by Lieutenant, Charles E. Vreeland, U. S. IN., and J. F. Bransford, U. S. N , pp. 12; Papers relating to Anthropology, pp. 88. All trom the Smithsonian Report for'lS.st. Washington: Gov- ernment Printing-Office. 1SS5.

Crystallization, by Dr. Persifor Frazcr, pp.11; The Tehuantepee Ship Railway, by E. L. Corthill, C. E., pp. 33. Reprints from the -'Journal of the Franklin Institute," Philadelphia. 1885.

Report of a Special Committee of the Franklin Institute on the Efficiency and Duration of Incan- descent Electric Lamps. Philadelphia : The Frank- lin Institute. 1S85. Pp. 127.

Publications of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College, Mass. Pp. S.

Proceedings of the Illinois State Board of Health. Quarterly Meeting, Chicago, July 2-3, 18S5. Pp. 2(3.

Notes on the Island of Jura, Scotland, pp. 5; and Syenite and Gabbro in Massachusetts, pp. 3. By Dr. M. E. Wadsworth.

An Olivine-bearing Diabase from St. Georges, Maine. By Q. E. Dickerman and M. E. Wadsworth. Pp.2.

Meteorology of the 'Mountains and Plains of North America, as affecting the Cattle-growing Industries of the United States. By Silas Burt. St. Louis, Mo. 1S85. Pp. 7.

Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. Edited by II. Newell Mar- tin and W. K. Brooks. Vol. Ill, No. 3. Baltimore: N. Murray. June, 1885. Pp. 72. 75 cents.

Influence of the Proprietors in founding the State of New Jersey. By Austin Scott, Ph. D. Baltimore : N. Murray. August. 1S5. Pp.26.

Niagara Park. Original and Selected Descriptions, Poems, and Adventures, by Various Writers. Edit- ed by Alice Hyneman Rhine. New York : Niagara Publishing Company. 1885. Pp. 112. Illustrated. 50 cents.

A Canterbury Pilgrimage, Ridden, Written, and Illustrated, by Joseph and Elizabeth Pobins Pen- ned. New York: Charles Seribner's Sons. I&s5. Pp. 78. ceuts.

Creation. Man's Fall explained in the Light of Modern Science. New York : Lawrence S. Benson. 18j5. Pp. 15. 15 cents.

The Modification of Plants by Climate. By A. A. Crozier, Ann Arbor, Mich. : The Author. 1885. Pp. 35. 25 cents.

The Song Budcret, for Schools and Educational Gatherings. Compiled by E. V. De Graff, A.M. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardeen. 18s5. Pp. 76. 15 cents.

" The Black Diamond." Published in the inter- est of the coal-trade industry, h. S. Jervis and 11. A. Bischoff, Editors. Chicago : The National Coal Exchange. Monthly. Pp. 12. $1 a year.

" The Hoosier Naturalist." A. C. Jones. R. B. Trouslot, Editors and Publishers. Valparaiso, Ind. Monthly. Pp. 8. 50 cents a year.

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College. Vol. XII. No. 1. Chlamydose- lachus Anguineus Garm A Living Species of Clado- dont Stork. By S. Garman. Cambridge. 18S5. Pp. 35, and numerous Plates.

The Utilization of the Sun's Rays in heating and ventilating Apartments. By Professor E. S. Morse. Pp. 8.

The Attraction and the Figure of Equilibrium of a Rotating Fluid Mass and the Interior Density and Temperature of the Earth. By D. P. Blackstone. Madison, Wis. 1885. Pp. 58.

Fiat Money. A Review of the Decisions of the

�� � United States Supreme Court as to its Constitutionality. By Francis A. Brooks. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1885. Pp. 28.

Sanitary Engineering. A Course of Study recently established at the school of Mines of Columbia College, New York.

Sibley College, Cornell University, Schools of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts. 1885.

A. Memoir of Charles Hilton Fogge, M.D. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 7.

The Relation of Annual Rings of Exogens to Age. By D. P. Penhallow. From the "Canadian Record of Science." 1885. Pp. 14.

Valdimir. A Poem of the Snow. New York: H. Lockwood. 1885. Pp. 46. 25 cents.

Second Annual Report of the State Agricultural Experiment Station at Amherst, Mass. 1884. Boston: Wright & Potter. 1885. Pp. 166.

Transactions of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Annual Meetings of the Kansas Academy of Sciences, with the Report of the Secretary. Vol. IX. Topeka: T. D. Thatcher. 1885. Pp. 146.

Success in Life physiologically considered. By James T. Seavey, M.D. Tuscaloosa, Ala. Pp. 39.

Possibility of Errors in Scientific Researches due to Thought Transference. By E. C. Pickering. From Proceedings of American Society for Psychical Research. Pp. 43.

Contributions to our Knowledge of Sewage. By William Ripley Nichols and C. R. Allen. Pp. 6.

"The Sun." A bi-monthly publication devoted to Coöperation. Vol. I, No. 1. Subject: Prohibition. Kansas City, Mo. C. T. Fowler. Pp. 28. 10 cents.

The Story of Manitou. Denver, Col. S. K. Hooper. Pp. 64. Illustrated.

"The Journal of Physiology." Vol. VI, Nos. 4 and 5. Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. July, 1885.

The Minting of Gold and Silver, pp. 20; and Placer Mines and Mining Ditches, pp. 64. By Albert Williams, Jr. From the Report of the Tenth Census of the United States.

Zoölogic Whist and Zoönomia. Representing the Orders of the Animal Kingdom. By Hyland C. Kirk. New York: McLoughlin Bros. 1885. $1.

Philosophic Series: No. I, Criteria of Diverse Kinds of Truth as Opposed to Agnosticism, pp. 60; No. II, Energy, Efficient and Final Cause, pp. 55; No. Ill, Development, what it can do and what it can not do, pp. 50; No. IV, Certitude, Providence, and Prayer, pp. 46; No. V, Locke's Theory of Knowledge with a Notice of Berkeley, pp. 77; No. VI, Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley, with a Notice of the Scottish School, pp. 70; No. VII. A Criticism of the Critical Philosophy, pp. 60; No. VIII, Herbert Spencer's Philosophy as Culminated in his Ethics, pp. 71. By James McCosh, D.D., LL.D., D.L, President of Princeton College, etc. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1883-1885.

The America's Cup. How it was won by the Yacht America in 1851, and has been since defended. By Captain Roland P. Coffin. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1885. Pp. 155. $1.

Lawn Tennis as a Game of Skill. By Lieutenant 9. C. F. Peile, M. S. C. Edited by Richard D. Sears. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1885. Pp. 90. 75 cents.

The Student's Manual of Exercises for translating into German. By A. Lodemon, A. M. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1885. Pp. 87. 50 cents.

Chemical Problems. By Dr. Karl Stammer. From the German, by W. S. Hoskinson, A. M. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. 1885. Pp. 112. 75 cents.

Ballooning. A Concise Sketch of its History and Principles. By G. May. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1885. Pp. 04.

The Chronicle Fire-Tables for 1885. A Record of the Fire-Losses in the United States, by Risks, States, and Causes during 1885, with Exhibits of the Monthly. Annual, and Aggregate Fire-Losses in the United States and Canada during the Years 1875-1884. New York: "The Chronicle." 1885. Pp 150.

Barbara Heathcote's Trial. A Novel. By Rosa Nouchette Carey. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1885. Pp. 503. 50 cents.

The Will. A Novel. By Ernst Eckstein. From the German, by Clara Bell. New York: W. S. Gottsberger. 1885. 2 vols. $1.75.

Modern Molding and Pattern-Making. By Joseph H. Mullin, M.E. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1885. Pp. 257.

Malthus and his Work. By Joseph Bonar, M.A. London: Macmillan & Co. 1885. Pp. 432. $4.

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1883. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1885. Pp. 959.

Paleontology of the Eureka District. By Charles Doolittle Walcott. Vol. VIII. Monographs of the United States Geological Survey. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1885. Pp. 298, and Twenty-four Plates.