Popular Science Monthly/Volume 29/September 1886/Literary Notices
|←Editor's Table||Popular Science Monthly Volume 29 September 1886 (1886)
The Elements of Economics. By H. D. Macleod. Vol II, Part I. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1886. Pp. 376. Price, 81.75.
This is a work that departs widely from current economic doctrine. It is an attempt to reconstitute the science solely upon the basis of the law of supply and demand; and, while this may not at first sight seem a very novel proceeding, the results arrived at certainly differ greatly from those commonly taught. The main thesis to the support of which the author brings much ingenuity of argument is that debt or credit is wealth—not in the sense of being a representative of existing wealth, but a distinct addition thereto, and he holds that the too narrow conception of wealth heretofore held by economists has incapacitated them for dealing with the complicated phenomena of modern credit in any satisfactory way. The conclusion that debt or credit is wealth is a direct consequence of his definition of wealth, which he maintains is anything which is exchangeable whose value can be measured in money.
All property consists of rights, whether to material things, one's own labor, or to a participation in the future profits of any undertaking. A debt as an exchangeable commodity is simply a "right of action." It lies wholly in the future; but it has a present value; and when put in the form of a negotiable instrument can be bought and sold equally with any material com- modity. As instruments of credit can be multiplied indefinitely beyond existing ma- terial property, they form a distinct addi- tion to existing wealth.
All wealth being produced in order to be exchanged, the problem of economics, according to our author, is to determine the conditions in conformity with which ex- changes take place that is the law of value. In arriving at this he sweeps aside the doc- trine that value is due to labor, or is de- termined by the cost of production. Cost of production is simply the lower limit be- low which the value of anything can not stay for any considerable time and the thing continue to be produced. The labor em- bodied in anything bears no definite rela- tion to its value. Many valuable things have no labor whatever associated with them. The sole cause of value, the author contends, is demand. If anything will ex- change for something else, it has value; if it can not be exchanged, it has no value. Value, therefore, is not something which re- sides in a thing, but is given to it by the consumer. The same thing may consequent- ly have very different values in different times and places. Value always being a ratio a relation between two things it follows that intrinsic value is a contradic- tion. The search for an invariable standard of value which is based upon the conception of intrinsic value is a wholly futile proceed- ing. Money may, indeed, be a measure of value that is, the medium in terms of which all other values are reckoned and this is quite sufficient. An invariable standard of value is not only unobtainable, but would be wholly useless if it were obtainable.
With these two postulates, that anything is wealth which can be bought and sold, and that the value of anything depends solely upon the relation between supply and demand, the author undertakes a considera- tion of the various problems of the science. We can not here undertake to follow him in his exposition, but will simply indicate the scope of his inquiry. The first volume,
which was published some five years ago, is mainly devoted to establishing his proposi- tions with regard to wealth and value. As if afraid to get too far away from the economists of acknowledged position, he fortifies himself at every step by numerous quotations from their works, showing that they have at one time or another admitted the validity of his own position. In the pres- ent volume, which closes his discussion of " Pure Economics," he considers the rela- tion of labor to value, and the conditions affecting the wages of labor. He scouts the wage-fund theory, and contends, in agreement with various other economical writers, that the wages of labor come out of production,; but he has nothing hopeful to offer to wage-workers, simply content- ing himself with admonishing them to keep their numbers down.
Upon the subject of the rent of land, the auth'or is quite at variance with the most authoritative economic teaching. He has small respect for the Ricardian theory, and maintains that Ricardo has uniformly inverted cause and effect. He does not see that land offers any special feature that takes it out of the realm of other economic quantities. The owner of a piece of land has the right to the successive crops for- ever, and its purchase-price is simply the summation of the present value of the suc- cessive future returns. The rent of land is simply the interest on the purchase-price.
Rights, or incorporeal wealth, the foreign exchanges, the currency, Law's theory of paper money, and a consideration of the legislation affecting the Bank of England, make up the remainder of the volume.
Proceedings of the Colorado Scientific Society. Vol.11. Parti. 1885. Den- ver, Colorado. Pp. 36. Price, 50 cents.
The most important paper in the report is the address of the retiring president, Richard Pearce, on the growth and work of the society, particularly as they are related to the interests of Colorado. It claims that the science of mineralogy has been espe- cially benefited by the society's labors, through which a great many additions have been made to the list of strictly Western minerals. The most important achievement is the discovery of three distinct new minerals. Psychology: The Cognitive Powers. By James McCosh, D. D., LL. D., Litt. D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1886. Pp. 245. Price, $1.50.
The author says in his preface: "For the last thirty-four years I have been teaching psychology. . . . From year to year I have been improving my course, and I claim to have advanced with the times." No one acquainted with Dr. McCosh's earlier trea- tises would deny upon examining this one that he has "advanced." The trouble is, he has not advanced fast enough nor far enough " the times " have distanced him in the race; and, after we have given all due credit, we have to confess to ourselves that this latest work leaves us with the con- sciousness of a good deal to be desired. We suppose the author would maintain that his account of the cognitive powers is scientific. But at the very outset a suspicion is cast upon its scientific character by the opening sentence: "Psychology is the science of the soul. ... By soul is meant that self of which every one is conscious." Now, we fear Dr. McCosh's Scotch fondness for theological battles has interfered in this case with that simplicity of truth which the faithful ex- positor of science ought to exhibit in his statements. The implications of the word soul extend much further than is indicated. Dr. Keid expressed them when he said, "It is a primitive belief that the thinking prin- ciple is something different from the bodily organism, and, when we wish to signalize its peculiar nature and destiny, we call it soul or spirit." In a word, soul has reference distinctively to mind as immortal or as capa- ble of existing independently of the present bodily organism. This meaning is not open- ly declared by Dr. McCosh, but by the use of the term an argument is quietly instilled into the mind of the reader. President Por- ter, who also calls psychology the "science of the soul," is much more frank in his ex- position. But, certainly, inasmuch as the immortality of the soul is something which we all hope psychology will demonstrate as a result of the examination of mental pro- cesses and powers, would it not be more satisfactory to every one and add to the value of our researches if we did not start out with assuming the point to be proved? This same disposition to study mind for the
purpose of substantiating some theory crops out all too noticeably throughout the whole work. To refer again to the preface, we are informed that idealism and agnosticism are to be exploded, and, as we go on, the claws of polemical metaphysics protrude far too often for the scientific value of the book. The writer is fond of u laying down " positions which "deliver us" from great philosophical errors of the day. No doubt they do, but the warrant for laying them down is unfortunately not always so plain as the eagerness to establish them.
This is a very serious defect. Besides, although we find much to approve in par- ticular statements, the latest, the clearest, the best results of psychological study are not brought out nor recognized as they should be. The same cloudiness and contradiction which perplex the student in the " Intu- itions of the Mind" annoy us here. The classification of mental powers and their modes of exercise is cumbrous and anti- quated. It is not so good as that of Sir William Hamilton, and is inferior to that of President Porter. We have, for exam- ple, no less than " six different capacities " of the representative powers, among which is placed association. But association is as much concerned with presentative knowl- edge as it is with representative; and even the old divisions of reproductive and pro- ductive imagination or memory and imagi- nation would be quite sufficient to cover all not included under association. Moreover, it is very confusing to find afterward as dis- tinct powers the comparative, including the apprehension of relations and discursive operations, as if the associative and rep- resentative powers were not adequate to explain all these mental acts. Moreover, under the " relations " classified, we notice identity and difference, and then resem- blance. Obviously, identity is only com- plete agreement, and resemblance less com- plete; while it may be said of the whole catalogue of relations mentioned, that it would certainly be greatly simplified by al- most every authority in psychological and logical science.
The treatment of the discursive opera- tions is exceedingly meager, but doubtless the author thinks this should be left for logic. The exposition of sense-perception is in the main good. Here the work is least anachronistic. We are glad to see that Dr. McCosh enunciates clearly that sensation and perception go together, there being no sensation without perception. We wish he had also made evident the fact that there can be no perception without repre- sentation. There is some useful informa- tion in the finer print notes, and the student ought not to overlook it. This last is true of other parts of the book as well.
However much fault we may be disposed to find with this treatise, considered as a scientific account of the cognitive powers, we think no one can deny that it contains much valuable moral didactic. The dangers of novel - reading are vividly portrayed; " some even of our Sabbath-school stories " tend "to dissipate and weaken the mind." Attention is called to the fact that " those who would allure the thoughtless know well how to set off sin and folly by theatrical ac- companiments, by the setting of cut flowers which look pretty by night, but which are faded on the morrow "; and warnings are uttered in great profusion against evil hab- its of all sorts. This is, of course, very ex- cellent. It makes the book a safe one to put in the hands of youth. It also adds to its merit that we can unreservedly say, as the critic whom Leslie Stephen quotes in the preface to his " Science of Ethics " re- marked of Dr. Watts's sermons, that there is nothing in President McCosh's work " calculated to call a blush to the cheek of modesty."
Manual Training. By Charles H. Ham. New York: Harper & Brothers. Pp. 403, with Illustrations.
Mr. Ham is evidently an enthusiastic believer in the full efficacy and competency of manual training habitude in the use of tools and the execution of designs to work out the solution of social and industrial problems. He regards tools as the great civilizing agency of the world; believes that " it is through the arts alone that all branches of learning find expression, and touch human life "; and accepts as the true definition of education u the development of all the powers of man to the culminating point of action; and this power in the con- crete the power to do some useful thing
for man this must be the last analysis of educational truth." A study of the methods of the manual training department of Wash- ington University at St. Louis brought him to the conclusion that the philosopher's stone in education had been discovered there. He wrote constantly on the sub- ject for three years, and in the mean time the Chicago Manual Training-School was established. The account of this institution and its operations forms the basis of this work, which includes also a kind of general survey of the whole theory and histery of education from the point of view which the author has described himself as occupy- ing. In the book are included descriptions of the various laboratory class processes of the Chicago school during the course of three years; arguments to prove that tool practice is highly promotive of intel- lectual growth, and in a still higher degree of the upbuilding of character; a sketch of the historical period, in order to show that the decay of civilization and the destruction of social organisms have resulted directly from defects in methods of education; and a brief sketch of the history of manual training as an educational force. The dis- position to exalt the "new education," which is one of the most striking characteristics of this book, is deserving of all honor. That education, most men will admit, has been too much neglected in our times, and is un- appreciated and discouraged to-day by the very men who ought to be most interested in upholding it the artisans themselves, as represented by their trades-unions. It is well for it to have an advocate whose heart is full of it. Another disposition, and a still more striking characteristic of the book, is not so commendable: we mean the disposition to decry the old education and its fruits. To say that the value to man of the services of such a statesman as Mr. Gladstone who is undoubtedly one of the best fruits of the old system of education is relatively unimportant, while that of Mr. Bessemer's services is "enormous, incal- culable," is rank nonsense; and this we may say without underrating the benefit mankind have derived from Mr. Bessemer's invention. The old education, which ha3 given us Mr. Gladstone and the statesmen, and numerous artists and illustrious inventors, and made Mr. Bessemer possible, has contributed a large part toward making the world what it is. That it is not perfect, and has from time to time to be supple- mented to meet the constantly developing wants of society, does not detract from its real value, or from the fact that whatever is brought in in addition to it is closely con- nected with it, and largely dependent upon it for the power to perfect itself. It was supplemented in the middle ages by some- thing very like the manual training-schools, in the shape of the guilds, and the systems of apprenticeship and journeymen; and it is the workmen, who have deliberately cast these systems away, and are decrying all distinctions founded on excellence, and not the advocates of the old education, that have made the new training-schools neces- sary.
Contributions to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of the United States. By Angelo Heilprin, Profess- or of Invertebrate Paleontology at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- delphia. Philadelphia: Published by the Author. 1884. Pp. 117.
Professor Heilprin has, in the present volume, made a valuable addition to the literature on this subject.
Besides offering a general systematic review and analysis of the formation taken as a whole, a concise statement is given of the geology of the tertiary period in all of those States of the Atlantic and Gulf bor- der where the formation has been deter- mined; each of these States is separately considered.
The second division of the book treats of the relative ages and classification of the post-eocene tertiary deposits of the Atlan- tic slope; and contains carefully prepared faunal lists of Maryland, Virginia, and North and South Carolina.
The other divisions of the volume re- late respectively to the stratigraphical evi- dence afforded by the tertiary fossils of the peninsula of Maryland; to the occurrence of nummulitic deposits in Florida, and the association of nummulites with a fresh- water fauna; a comparison of the tertiary mollusca of the Southeastern United States and Western Europe in relation to the de- termination of identical forms , and to the
age of the Tejon rocks of California, and the occurrence of ammonitic remains in tertiary deposits. A map accompanies the volume.
The whole work bears the mark of care- ful study and research, and will undoubted- ly greatly assist the labor of future workers in this field.
Annual Address. By C. Y. Riley, as President of the Entomological Society of Washington for 1884. Pp. 10.
The society had just closed its first year when this address was delivered (March 18, 1885). The address notices some of the more striking entomological events of the year, and brings forward some general observations that are suggestive. With reference to the Entomological Division of the Agricultural Department, of which Dr. Riley is the head, no one more fully than himself appreciates how far it falls short of his own ideal and of the necessi- ties of the country, or "how difficult it is to build up to that ideal under the unfortu- nate political unscientific atmosphere that pervades the department. ... It was to get away from official surroundings, away from the work of the United States entomologist, that the members of the division decided to join in the organization of this society. It was still more to get acquainted with those of kindred tastes outside the department, in Baltimore and elsewhere, as well as in Washington, and to cultivate social inter- course and interchange of views and expe- rience." The various branches of the sci- ence are well represented in the society and in the various collections in Washington.
The Climatic Treatment of Disease: West- ern North Carolina as a Health Re- soRt. By Henry 0. Marcy. Pp. 24.
The former subject mentioned in the title is considered in the first fourteen pages of this pamphlet. Concerning the second subject, we have a description of the tri- angular region between the Blue Ridge and the Smoky Mountains of Northern North Carolina, where, within an area of fifty miles, there are twenty peaks over six thousand feet high; nine tenths of the en- tire district is an unbroken, primeval for- est of the largest growth, chiefly of decidu- cms trees; and not a lake or a swamp is to be found in the entire region. The water is pure and abundant, and sulphur and iron springs are not rare. "One great benefit to invalids of all classes lies in the purity of the air, which the extraordinary forest- growth does much to render equable in temperature and moisture. Dust is un- known. The electrical phenomena of the summer storms are exceptional. . . . Not- withstanding the utter disregard of the laws of health by the inhabitants, they are a long-lived race of people."
Kant's Ethics: A Critical Exposition. By Noah Porter. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 249. Price, $1.25.
This volume is the fifth of Griggs's series of Philosophical Classics. President Porter enforces the description implied in the title that his treatise is both expository and criti- cal. It proposes first to interpret and then to criticise the principal features of Kant's ethical system, and the one in order to ef- fect the other. In performing his work, the author has thought it best to state the theory very largely in Kant's own language, with such comments as might be required to make it intelligible; and he has done this, both in order that he might be en- tirely just to Kant himself, and that he might aid the unpracticed student in the task of interpreting the German philoso- pher. Besides a brief general introduction, President Porter gives a summary or con- densed review of the distinctive positions taken by Kant upon the most important topics as compared with those of other writers, and strictures upon Kant by a few German critics.
The Economical Fact -Book and Free- Trader's Guide. Edited by R. R. Bow- ker. New York: The New York Free- Trade Club. Pp. 151.
This volume is in the main a statement of facts, given in their most concise shape, without varnish, with some statements of opinion in which both sides are represented for guidance in making up the mind on the tariff issue. It is prepared for the further- ance of free-trade principles, which the ed- itor assumes in the introduction, are sup- ported by the facts of history and of pres- ent experience, as well as by the principles
vol. xxix. 45
of economics. In it are a short history of the tariff, quotations from American lead- ers and party utterances on revenue re- form, "Protectionist Points and Free-Trade Facts," and valuable tables. Free trade is admitted to have several shades of mean- ing. The free -trade cause is said to in- clude the great body of men who oppose the principle of trade-restriction called protec- tion, and whose common aim is to get this " mischievous element " out of the tariff and confine taxes to the support of the Govern- ment. This implies a "tariff for revenue only. . . . The immediate steps to this end are the freeing of crude materials from duty at the bottom, and the reduction of excessive duties at the top. All shades of revenue reformers unite in these steps, and are willing that their success should be the test of further advances in freeing trade."
Municipal Administration. By Robert Mathews. Rochester, N. Y. Pp. 16.
This pamphlet embodies the substance of an address delivered before the Fort- nightly Club of Rochester. After review- ing the whole subject, the author reaches the conclusions that the misgovernment of cities is due to the imperfections of human nature, imperfections of our election ma- chinery, and mistaken ideas about the proper functions of city government. The reforms needed are proportional represeu- tation, business administration, and that elevation of humanity which is both a cause and a consequence of good govern- ment.
Bulletin op the United States Geologi- cal Survey. Nos. 15 to 26. Washing- ton: Government Printing-Office.
No. 15 is "On the Mesozoic and Ceno- zoic Fauna of California," by Dr. C. A. White. No. 16 is "On the Higher Devo- nian Fauna of Ontario County, New York," by J. M. Clarke. No. 17 is "On the Develop- ment of Crystallization in the Igneous Rocks of Washoe, Nevada," etc., by Arnold Hague and J. P. Iddings. No. 18 is "On Marine Eocene, Fresh -Water Miocene, and other Fossil Mollusca of Western North Ameri- ca," by Dr. C. A. White. No. 19 is "Notes on the Stratigraphy of California," by George F. Becker. No. 20 is " Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Rocky Mount- ains," by Whitman Cross and W. F. Hille- TDrand. No. 21 is "The Lignites of the Grand Sioux Reservation," and a "Report on the Region between the Grand and Mo- rcau Rivers, Dakota," by Bailey Willis. No. 22 is "On New Cretaceous Fossils from Cali- fornia," by Charles A. White. No. 23 is " Observations on the Junction between the Eastern Sandstone and the Keweenaw Se- ries on Keweenaw Point," by E. D. Irving and T. C. Chamberlin. These constitute Volume III of the "Bulletin," a volume of 498 pages, with many plates, and are sold separately at five cents each, except No. 20, the price of which is ten cents, and No. 23, fifteen cents. No. 24, which will be the be- ginning of Volume IV, is a "List of Marine Mollusca, comprising the Quaternary Fossils and Recent Forms from American Locali- ties between Cape Hatteras and Cape Roque> including the Bermudas," by W. H. Dall, twenty-five cents. No. 25 is "On the Pres- ent Technical Condition of the Steel Indus- try in the United States," by Phineas Barnes, ten cents. No. 26 is "On Copper-Smelting," by H. M. Howe, ten cents.
An Introduction to the Study of the Con- stitutional and Political History of the States. By Franklin Jameson. Pp. 29. A Puritan Colony in Mary- land. By Daniel R. Randall. Pp. 47. Baltimore: N. Murray. Price, 50 cents each.
These essays are, respectively, Nos. 5 and 6 of the fourth series of the "Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science." Mr. Jameson's es- say is an endeavor to illustrate the impor- tance of the study of local political move- ments, from those of the town and town- ship to those of the State, in their bearing on the constitutional development of State and national governments. In it, he no- tices the tendency, which is not a good one, to insert provisions respecting details, mere temporary elements, into constitutions, as tending to impair the reverence with which those charters ought to be regarded, to lower their authority, and to introduce into our governments a most undesirable insta- bility. Mr. Randall's study relates to the history and influence of a colony of Puri- tans whose first leader, the Rev. Alexan-
der Whittaker, performed the baptismal and marriage ceremonies for Pocahontas that was planted at Norfolk, Virginia, in 1611, and removed thence on account of persecu- tion, and settled at the mouth of the Severn River, in Maryland, in 1649. It formed the nucleus of the democratic party in Maryland. A parallel is drawn between its history and that of Providence Plantations, in Rhode Island: " As Roger Williams was driven from the mother Commonwealth of Massa- chusetts for holding heretical doctrine, so Durand, the Puritan elder, was expelled from the mother colony in Virginia, to seek a new home for religious toleration. Both leaders came to lands unoccupied, save by Indians, and invited their brethren to follow. Both called the land to which they came through divine guidance, ' Provi- dence.' "
Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. W. H. Pratt, Recording Secretary. Vol. IV. 1882-1884. Dav- enport, Iowa. Pp. 358, with Six Plates. Price, paper, $4.
The present volume contains a brief synopsis of the proceedings of the Acade- my for the years 1882, 1883, and 1884, in which the memoirs, chiefly on subjects of botany, fossils, and archaeology, hold the prominent place, with the contributions to the museum during 1879, 1880, and 1881. Among the memoirs are several of value to the flora of Iowa, and some of value to botany, including a few carefully prepared special papers. Concerning fossils, are some descriptions of new crinoids and blastoids. In archaeology, Dr. W. J. Hoffman contrib- utes " Remarks on Aboriginal Art in Cali- fornia and Queen Charlotte's Island "; Mr. William H. Holmes a monograph on "An- cient Pottery in the Mississippi Valley," the fruit of studies in the collections of the Academy's museum; and Mr. C. E. Harrison and Dr. C. H. Preston accounts of mound explorations. Mr. Putnam's paper on "Ele- phant Pipes and Inscribed Tablets," con- cerning which subjects Mr. Powell, of the United States Geological Survey, has con- troverted the views held and put forward by the Davenport investigators, is published as a supplement, to place on permanent rec- ord the position and arguments of the lat- ter. The publication of Volume V of the " Proceedings " has been begun, and four papers intended for it are in the hands of the printers. Notice is taken of the fact that the indebtedness on the building of the Academy has been paid, and the for- mation of a permanent endowment fund has been begun. Two chapters of the Agassiz Association of America for the study of natural history, and a "Hum- boldt Society," which seeks to unite philo- sophical speculations with scientific inves- tigations, have been formed in Davenport, and hold their meetings in the rooms of the Academy. It is observed that the membership of these organizations is made up wholly of young men and women, large- ly students in the public schools of the city. These facts, and everything connect- ed with this volume, speak well for the earnest interest that prevails at Davenport in the study of science.
On Small Differences of Sensation. By C. S. Peirce and J. Jastrow. Pp. 11.
A record of experiments to determine the point at which differences in the inten- sities of nerve excitations cease to be per- ceptible. Among the points brought out is the probability that we gather what is pass- ing in one another's minds in large measure from sensations so faint that we are not fair- ly aware of having them, and can give no ac- count of how we reach our conclusions about such matters. The insight of women as well as certain " telepathic " phenomena may be explained in this way.
A Treatise on the Diseases of the Nerv- ous System. By William A. Hammond, M. D. Eighth edition; with Corrections and Additions. New York: D. Apple- ton & Co. Pp. 945. Price, $5.
It would be hardly possible to give a better evidence of the merit of this work than is afforded by the appearance of this, the eighth edition, testifying that during the fifteen years it has been before the public it has been tried and found not wanting. The first edition was published in 1871, as resting to a great extent on the author's own experience. Its declared purpose was to be a treatise which, without being super- ficial, should be concise and explicit, and, without claiming to be exhaustive, should be sufficiently complete for the instruction
and guidance of those who might consult it. The 6ixth edition, in 1876, was entirely re- modeled and greatly enlarged. The seventh edition received extensive additions, and was translated into Italian under the su- pervision of Professor Borrelli, of Naples. The opportunity given by the appearance of this eighth edition has been improved to revise the work thoroughly, make several changes, and add a section on "Certain Ob- scure Diseases of the Nervous System."
A Critical History of the Sabbath and the Sunday in the Christian Church. By A. H. Lewis, D. D. Alfred Centre, New York: The American Sabbath Tract Society. Pp. 583. Price, $1.25.
Dr. Lewis is a prominent minister of the Seventh - Day Baptist Church, which teaches, according to his own statement, " that the law of God as contained in the Decalogue is eternal and universal, both as to its letter and its spirit; therefore, the seventh day is the only Sabbath; that un- der the gospel it should be observed with Christian freedom and not Judaic strictness, but that the change which Christ taught was a change in the spirit and manner of the observance, and not in the day to be ob- served." The argument pursued in this work is exclusively historical, and is in- tended to show that no authority worthy of respect exists or ever existed for the change that has been made in the day to be observed from the seventh day to the first. The evidence, which is intended to be full and continuous from the gospels down, is given in the exact words of the texts cited, and in all the words that bear on the subject, and not in paraphrases or abstracts, so that, if any mistake be made in its import, it shall not be the author's fault. In this way Dr. Lewis attempts to show that no change is authorized in the Gospels, or in the words of any of the apostles; that the change was not made or recognized in the first two centuries; that the first signs of it appear in the days of Constantine, when the seventh day was still observed as the Sab- bath, and Sunday, being the day of the res- urrection, was celebrated in addition, as a religious festival; that Sunday observance gradually grew at the expense of the sev- enth-day observance, particularly under the auspices of the Latin Church, and under the impulse of a spirit of concession to pagan- ism and worldliness; that the seventh-day Sabbath was preserved much longer in the Eastern churches; and that the present decay of Sunday is a logical outcome of the disregard of the sanctity of the origi- nal, divinely instituted, but never divinely changed Sabbath. Dr. Lewis believes that the general results of civil legislation re- specting the Sabbath like those of legisla- tion on all religious questions have been evil. "Take the question," he says, "out of politics, out of the realm of caucussing and plotting, and let the Church settle it as it would any other religious issue. For . . . if the day ought to be kept by divine au- thority, the civil law can not strengthen that authority, and by a false application it may weaken and destroy it; and if he who does not rest out of regard to the Lord, does not truly Sabbatize, his resting is only an empty form or a blasphemous pretense. Under the working of the civil law as the prominent element of authority, Sunday has tended and must tend to holidayism; and, with the masses, toward debauchery."
Medicine of the Future. By Austin Flint (Senior), M. D. New York: D. Apple- ton & Co. Pp. 37, with Portrait. Price,
The manuscript of this paper, which was the address the author had intended to read, by special appointment, before the British Medical Association at its meeting in 1886, was found after Dr. Flint's death among his papers. Considering the progress which has been made in medicine during the past fifty years, the author anticipates as great, or greater, in store for the next half-century, and indicates the lines along which, in his view, it may be expected to be realized.
Life, its Nature, Origin, Development, and the Psychical related to the Physical. By Salem Wilder. Bos- ton: Rockwell & Churchill. Pp. 350. Price, $1.50.
The author, whose business is an agency for the sale of goods, has been interested in questions indicated by the title of his book, and is not satisfied with the manner in which the physical philosophers of the day try to answer them. He has, therefore, in-
quired what science and scientific men teach respecting them, and presents the results of his investigation in the first part of the book. The second part is devoted mainly to ethical questions.
The Olden Time Series. No. 1, Curiosi- ties of the Lottery, pp. 73; No. 2, Days of the Spinning- Wheel, pp. 99; No. 3, New England Sunday, pp. 65. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Price, 50 cents each.
A series of collections of advertise- ments, items, and articles illustrating, by contemporary representations, the usages and the ways of thought, as well as the eco- nomical condition, of the people of the " olden time " in New England, culled chief- ly from old newspapers of Boston and Salem, Massachusetts, and arranged, with brief comments, by Henry M. Brooks. The volumes are adapted to gratify a growing taste, and are of a size convenient for the pocket. The matter of numbers one and three i3 all closely related to the subjects expressed in the titles; that of number two takes a range beyond the spinning- wheel, and is varied.
Lessons in Qualitative Chemical Analy- sis. By Dr. F. Beilstein. Arranged, on the Basis of the fifth German edition, by Charles 0. Curtman, M. D. St. Louis, Mo.: Druggist Publishing Co. Pp. 200.
This is the second edition of a transla- tion of Dr. Beilstein's "Anleitung," a popu- lar German text-book on chemical analysis. Dr. Curtman has, however, considerably en- larged on the original, and made numerous additions. The opening chapter is given to chemical manipulations: it contains sugges- tions on the management of the blow-pipe, the handling of glass-tubing, the working with corks, etc. These directions are sup- plemented by a series of examples for prac- tice in the qualitative analysis of inorganic substances. Directions for the systematic examination of substances containing one base and one acid come next in order, and these again are followed by instructions for a systematic course of qualitative analysis.
The remaining chapters are devoted to examples for practice on the analysis of organic substances, to volumetric analysis, to the examination of drinking-water, the analysis of urine, urinary sediments, and calculi. A colored plate of flame and ab- sorption spectra and a plate illustrating various urinary sediments, are added; more- over, some illustrations are given in the text. This book is primarily intended to be used as a class-book in the laboratories of medical and pharmaceutical schools, but it is also well adapted for self-instruction in the principles of chemical analysis.
Watts's "Manual of Chemistry." (Based on Fownes's "Manual)." Vol. II. Or- ganic Chemistry. Second edition. By Professor William A. Tilden. Phila- delphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. 1 886. Pp. 662.
The general favor which is accorded to Mr: Watts's editions of Fownes's "Manual of Chemistry," shows how well adapted is the work to meet the wants of teachers and students.
Professor Tilden, of Birmingham, the editor of this issue, has closely adhered to the plan of his predecessor, and has mainly endeavored to make the corrections and additions rendered necessary by the progress and development of the science. The no- menclature has been made as uniform as possible, and has been brought into accord- ance with the system adopted by the Lon- don Chemical Society.
The introduction treats of the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic mate- rials, of ultimate analysis, the classification of organic compounds, their physical prop- erties, and the decompositions and trans- formations of these bodies.
The chief division of the carbon com- pounds is, of course, into the fatty and the aromatic groups, or, as they are styled, into methane - derivatives and benzene - deriva- tives.
In the subdivisions of these groups the organic compounds are classified according to their chemical structure and functions; the compounds in each group are arranged in homologous series, and the several groups are separately considered. While the editor has tried to avoid swelling the volume to too large a size, he has aimed to give in it an account of, or at least a refer- ence to, all carbon compounds which can fairly be regarded as having any consider- able theoretical interest or practical im- portance.
The State Control of Medical Education and Practice (in the negative). By Romaine J. Curtiss, M. D. Joiiet, Illi- nois. Pp. 32.
Dr. Ccjrtiss writes in the spirit of a man who considers himself engaged in a contro- versy. His situation, in fact, invites vigor on the part of a disputant who speaks from his side, for he is a physician in a State where State control is exercised quite fully. Along with many expressions which might be softened without diminishing their argu- mentative strength, we find points presented that apply with much force in favor of the negative side of the question; among them the one embodied in the opening paragraph: " The modern method of throwing physic to the dogs seems to be to put the matter of medical education and practice under the control of the State; which means, of course, nothing more or less than making medical education and practice a factor of State politics. This method assumes that politics is a better criterion of the standard of medi- cal education than any educational test, or any life-test, and also assumes that colleges are not qualified, by reason of natural fa- voritism, to judge of the merit of their work." This description may not now ap- ply, as a fact, in any State, but, the political factor once introduced, there is danger, as the political machines have been running, that the ultimate result may be fitted to it.
On the Development of Viviparous Os- seous Fishes, and of the Atlantic Salmon. By John A. Ryder. Wash- ington: Government Printing - Office. Pp. 36, with Seven Plates.
The former paper is intended to give a summary of our knowledge respecting the best known of the truly viviparous osseous fishes characterized by an intra-follicular or intra-ovarian development. The second pa- per is based on the investigation of recently hatched embryos of the landlocked salmon.
Wilder, Burt G., M. D. The Paroccipital; a newly recognized Pissural Integer. Pp. 15.
Drummond, A. T. (Canada). Our Northwest Prairies. Pp. 8.
"Journal of the American Chemical Society. " Monthly. May, 186. Pp.24. $5 a year.
Netto, Dr. Ladislao. Conference faite au Museum National. (Lecture at the National Museum, on Brazilian Archaeology.) Pp. 28. Lettre a M. Ernest Renan à propos de l'Inscription Phénicienne Apocryphe. (Letter to M. Ernest Renan, respecting the Apocryphal Phoenician Inscription.) Pp. 39 Rio de Janeiro.
Green. Edgar Moore, Easton, Pa. On the Value of Brücke’s Method in testing Urine for Glucose. Pp. 14.
Andrew, William. Supplement to Creation. Providence, R.I. Pp. 15.
Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. (Archives of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro.) Vol. VI. Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 569, with Plates.
National University, Washington, D. C. Announcements of the Medical and Dental Departments, for 1886-'87. Pp. 12.
Boehmer, George H. List of Foreign Correspondents of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 190. Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes in Iceland. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp 47.
James, Professor Joseph F. The Geology of Cincinnati, and other Papers. Pp. 16.
State Board of Health of Illinois. Seventh Annual Report. Springfield, Ill. Pp. 613.
Hunt, A. O. Dental Directory of the Northwestern States and Territories. Iowa City, Iowa. Pp. 57.
Foster, Michael, and others. The Journal of Physiology. June, 1886. Pp. 72, with Plates. $5 a volume.
Putnam, F. W. Report of the Curator of the Peabody Museum of American Archæology and Ethnology. Pp. 25. Central American Jades. Pp. 3. Lectures on American Archæology (Programme). Pp. 6. Cambridge, Mass.
Henderson, J. T. Crop Report, Georgia, for July, 1886. Pp. 25.
Alabama Weather Service. June. 1886. Pp. 7. Special Paper of the same, on Preparation of the Soil. By Captain W. H. Gardner. Pp. 6. Auburn, Ala.
Vassar Brothers' Institute, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Transactions, 1884-'85. Pp. 216.
Patton, A. A., New York. Responsibility of Vocal Teachers as Voice-Builders. Pp. 20.
Shufeldt, E. W. A Navajo Skull. Pp. 4. with Plates. Remarks of Professor Sir William Turner on this Paper. Pp. 2. Osteology of Conurus Carolinensis. Pp. 18, with Plates.
Ohio State Sanitary Association. Third Annual Meeting. 1886. Columbus, O. Pp. 106.
Kneeland, Samuel. The Subsidence Theory of Earthquakes. Pp. 8.
Sternberg, George M., M.D. Disinfection and Individual Prophylaxis against Infectious Diseases. Pp. 40.
Roby, Henry W., M.D. The Treatment of Disease from the Homœopathic Standpoint. Pp. 37.
Spooner, Lysander. A Letter to Grover Cleveland. Boston: Benjamin E. Tucker. Pp. 110.
State University of Iowa. Announcement of the Dental Department. Pp. 9.
Mulford, Prentice. The Process of Re-embodiment. Boston: F. J. Needham. Pp. 9. 10 cents.
Sato Chosuke. History of the Land Question in the United States. Baltimore: N. Murray. Pp. 181. $1.
Observatory in Yale College, Report for 1885-'86. Pp. 15.
Modern Language Association of America. Proceedings. 1885. Baltimore: A.M. Elliott, Secretary, Johns Hopkins University. Pp. 126.
Gill. Professor Theodore. Account of Progress in Zoölogy in 1885. Washington: Government Printing-office. Pp. 53.
Massachusetts Agricultural College. General Catalogue. 1862-1886. Pp. 129.
Michigan Mining School. 1886-'87. Houghton, Mich. Pp. 10.
Holbrook, M. L., New York. Development of the Cartilage in the Embryo of the Chick and Man. Pp 7. First Development of Muscle in the Embryo of the Chick and Man. Pp. 5.
Marcou, John Belknap. Biographies of American Naturalists. Publications relating to Fossil Invertebrates. Washington: Government Printing-office. Pp. 333.
Cassell's National Library. No. 23. Hamlet. By William Shakespeare. No. 24. Voyagers’ Tales, from the Collections of Richard Hakluyt. No. 25. Nature and Art. By Mrs. Inchbald. No. 26. Plutarch’s Lives of Alcibiades and Coriolanus, Aristides and Cato the Censor. Pp, 192 each. 10 cents each.
Sargent, Frederick Leroy. Guide to the Recognition of the Principal Orders of. Cambridge: Charles W. Sever. Pp. 39, with alternate blanks.
Sidgwick, Henry. Outlines of the History of Ethics. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 276. $1.50.
Painter, F. V. N. A History of Education. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 335. $1.50.
Rickoff. A. J., and Davis, E. C. Numbers Illustrated. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 160. 42 cents.
Mackenzie, Morell, M.D. The Hygiene of the Vocal Organs. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 224. $1.50.
Winchell, Alexander. Geological Studies. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 513. $3.
Cameron, James. Oils and Varnishes. Philadelphia; P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 376. $2.50.
Stevenson, Robert Louis. Kidnapped. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 324. $1.
Whitfield, Robert P. Brachiopoda and Lamellibranchiata of the Raritan Clays and Greensand Marls of New Jersey. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 269, with Thirty-five Plates.
Logan, John A. The Great Conspiracy: Its Origin and History. New York: A. R. Hart & Co. Pp. 810. (Subscription.)
Riley, Charles V. Report on the Cotton-Worm and the Boll-Worm. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 550, with Maps and Plates.