Popular Science Monthly/Volume 31/August 1887/Literary Notices

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The Problem of Evil. An Introduction to the Practical Sciences. By Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, author of "A System of Psychology." London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1887. Cloth. 8vo. Pp. 281.

"The Problem of Evil," though modestly heralded by its author as "An Introduction to the Practical Sciences," and not assuming to present a complete exposition of ethical science, is in reality a noteworthy contribution to that department of philosophical inquiry. Aiming to clear the way for a popular understanding of the scienentific method as applied to moral and social problems, Mr. Thompson's treatment of his topic is less technical and systematic than readers of "A System of Psychology" would naturally be led to expect. The present work, however, loses little, if anything, in value to the philosophical student on this account, while its more popular style, and the practical nature of many of the questions herein discussed, will doubtless render it more attractive to the general reader, and introduce its author to many new acquaintances among thinking people.

The question presented in the earlier chapters of this book, and ably discussed in all its various phases throughout the succeeding pages, is none other than the great problem of all the theologies and moral philosophies: How shall we interpret the startling but undeniable fact of moral evil? How may we most wisely strive for its abatement and cure?

After briefly and fairly stating the chief theological explanations of evil — "those which look to a supernatural source and cause" — and expressing his dissent from this method of approaching the subject, our author proceeds to define moral evil as "pain caused by human volition" (p. 17); and to investigate briefly its causes and offices in the human economy. "Pain," he concludes, "is a universal concomitant of mind, so far as we are able to make mind a subject of science." As we are unable to trace, scientifically, the origin of mind or life, we are therefore baffled in our attempt to disclose the ultimate origin of evil. The practical problem, accordingly, to which we should turn our attention is, How may we seek for its elimination by the most effectual means? In other words, How may we best strive for the advancement of human happiness?

Readers of "A System of Psychology" will be prepared to find our author in accord with utilitarian theories of ethics. The psychological and philosophical elements involved in the problem of evil, however, are assumed, or briefly sketched, rather than presented in the form of a complete argumentative exposition, in the present work the philosophical foundations of this study having been laid by the author in the work — before mentioned. From the standpoint of a rational utilitarianism, he criticises with great acuteness and force what he terms the "Æstho-Egoistic" philosophy of Thomas Hill Green, and other representatives of the intuitional school. In the "subjective feeling or consciousness of self-satisfaction," which expresses the summum bonum of intuitional ethics, he discovers an ideal which is essentially egoistic. His own interpretation of utilitarian ethics, on the other hand, issues in an altruism which is widely removed from the alleged "selfishness" of the hedonistic philosophers. The "Chief Ideal Good "being" the existence of all individuals without pain, presentative or representative, during this period of existence," right conduct is that which tends toward this ideal, and right volition is the will to act according to its requirements (p. 71).

The four chief methods of reducing evil are found to be — 1. "The Control of Material Forces," through industrial effort and scientific discovery and investigation; 2. "Security and Justice," through political action; 3. "Direct Altruistic Effort"; and, 4. "The Development of Individual Character," through education and moral training. The chief hindrances to this work are — 1. The artificial morality of supernatural theology; 2. The unwarranted elevation of institutions above the individual; 3. The notion that social ends are more perfectly realized through the concentration of power in or- ganizations; and, finally, the formation and retention of egoistic ideals of life.

In the section on "The Great Theologi- cal Superstition," Mr. Thompson criticises unsparingly, but in no dogmatic tone, the theological doctrine of sin. The idea that there can be a sin against God other than a violation of the rights and happiness of in- dividual men, is found to be untrue, im- moral in its implications and results one of the chief obstacles, indeed, to human progress. Man's " sin against God, if it exist, is in his sin against his fellows "; in other words, theological sin, per se, is a fic- tion of the imagination; the only reality which can answer in any way to this concep- tion is natural moral evil. Incidentally Mr. Thompson condemns the laws against blas- phemy, the exercise of temporal power by the Church, the Pharisaical self-righteous- ness which he conceives to be the outcome of theological supernaturalism, the " bale- ful dogma" of eternal punishment, and the mystical conception of "spirituality," as something other than simple goodness, stimulating men to altruistic endeavor.

In the section on "The Institutional Fetich," a rational individualism is main- tained as a higher ethical ideal than that which sinks the individual in the mass, and emphasizes institutions at the expense of personal liberties. "Man is the measure of all things." Institutions are made for man, not man for institutions. Authority must give way to the right of private judg- ment. The doctrine that "the family, the state, the Church, exist superior to any con- siderations of utility," must be condemned as inimical to the highest development of human character, and as an obstacle to the moral advancement of the race. The prin- ciple of authority in the family has resulted in the degradation of woman and the ignor- ing of the rights of children. "The hus- band owes to the wife just as many duties as she to him." "Children are to be worked for as human beings having their own inde- pendent ends, which are to be respected." "The doctrine of authority has been from

the beginning, and is to-day, a stumbling- block in the way of woman's liberty and advancement." These sentences strike the key-note of Mr. Thompson's liberal and hu- mane treatment of these important social problems, which we can only thus briefly out- line within the limits of this review. The di- vine authority and perfect character of the state is of course condemned as an irration- al dogma. The right to agitate against an existing social order is strenuously affirmed. " Any system which does not permit the title of a governing power to be questioned by the governed, in the light of what is best for the general happiness, is a system of rule by force and fear, disguise it as you may under high-sounding phrases, as ' inherent sacred- ness,' or ' divine authority.' "

Under the head of "The Socialistic Fal- lacy," the questions of the "Co-operative Idea," "Socialism," "The Political Party," " Industrial Co-operation," are treated with great clearness and in an admirable spirit, as the reader will agree, even if he does not find himself wholly in accord with our au- thor's conclusions. He cries "Halt!" to the active socialistic tendencies of our time, be- lieving that they must ultimate, if success- ful, in an increase of egoism and restriction of individual liberty, which would be fatal to the highest ethical advancement of the race. Not in individualism, but in egoism, he affirms, is to be found the most serious obstacle to our moral progress.

Finally, the root of existing moral evil is found in the continued elevation of the egoistic ideal as an incentive to human ac- tion. War and the militant system are con- demned as outgrowths and perpetuators of this ideal. The injustices and immoralities of our industrial system are referred to the predominance of egoism in our industrial methods; and the relief for all these social evila is indicated in the two rules:

1. "Aim at the minimum of extrinsic restraint, and the maximum of liberty for the individual."

2. "Aim at the most complete and uni- versal development of the altruistic char- acter."

While Mr. Thompson is in general ac- cord with the English utilitarian school of philosophy, he is evidently an independent and original thinker no mere servile follower of sect or leader. In many respects his conclusions agree with those of Mr. Her- bert Spencer; but he is no imitator of Mr. Spencer's style, and he docs not hesitate to express a frank disagreement with his opin- ions upon occasion as in the matter of state education, which Mr. Thompson ad- vocates, while Mr. Spencer condemns. A multitude of the pressing problems of our Bocial life are suggested and discussed in this compact volume, with such frankness, sincerity, ability, and good feeling, that we can heartily commend it not only to the professional scholar, but to all thoughtful men and women. The interest which it will awaken will doubtless bespeak far Mr. Thompson's larger work "A System of Psychology" a wider circle of readers than it has hitherto had in this country.

The Factors of Organic Evolution. By Herbert Spencer. New York: D. Ap- pleton & Co. Pp. 76.

The two parts of which this essay con- sists were originally published in succes- sive numbers of "The Nineteenth Century," and also of "The Popular Science Monthly." They are now given in a single volume, together with some passages of considerable: length which were omitted, for the sake of; brevity, from the magazine publication. Mr. Spencer believes that though mental phe- nomena of many kinds are explicable only as resulting from the natural selection of j favorable variations there are others, still more numerous, which can not be explained otherwise than as the results of the inherit- ance of functionally-produced modifications. Not only the conceptions we form of the genesis and nature of our higher emotions and moral intuitions, but our sociological beliefs, are profoundly affected by the con- clusions we draw on this point. "If a na- tion is modified en masse by transmission of the effects produced on the natures of its members by those modes of activity which its institutions and circumstances in- volve, then we must infer that such insti- tutions and circumstances mold its members far more rapidly and comprehensively than they can do if the sole cause of adaptation to them is the more frequent survival of individuals who happen to have varied in favorable ways." Considering the effects

which the acceptance of one or other of these hypotheses must have on our views, life, mind, morals, and politics, the question which of them is true, Mr. Spencer adds, "demands, beyond all other questions what- ever, the attention of scientific men."

The Ruling Princi?le of Method applied to Education. By Antonio Rosmini Serbati. Translated by Mrs. William Grey. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 363. Price, $1.50.

Rosmini proposed to apply to education the principles which were independently worked out by Froebel into the Kinder- garten the principles, as the translator describes them, on which Nature herself works. He contemplated a complete trea- tise on pedagogy, to be worked out in de- partments corresponding with the several stages of the unfolding and building up of the pupil's mind, having in view, however, not only the child at school, but, to use the words of Francesco Paoli, "the adult and the old, the whole race, in short, because in the man, at every stage of life, there ia something of the child; there is a new de- velopment going on within him, which re- quires to be guided and assisted that it may reach a successful issue, and the man learn to educate himself." With this view, he divided his subjects into periods computed by the degrees of cognition which the hu- man mind successively attains in its intel- lectual development. The first of these pe- riods begins at birth, and includes about six weeks, during which no definite cognitions can be assigned to the child, except that primary and fundamental one of being; the second begins with the first smile and tears, with the simple perception of things as sub- sisting constituting its cognitions, to which correspond the volitions, which have these things as their object. The third period is marked by the acquisition of speech, which shows that the child has attained the power of analysis and abstraction, with volitions having sensible qualities as their object. The fourth period shows itself in the apti- tude to learn to read, and is characterized by the exercise of the faculties of judgment and comparison, and by the development of the moral sense, which was already existing in the germ. Thence are developed conscience, synthetic cognitions, and the free use of the reason. The executed work of Rosmini was terminated at this period; but he left notes from which it appears that he had intended to treat of four other periods, each marked by the development or perfecting of its pecul- iar faculties. We miss much by not having the completion of a work so well planned, but, "fortunately, the earlier part, which is preserved to us, contains the fundamental principles both of method and practice, which remain the same for all periods of life, and of which only the application va- ries with the varying degrees of individual development."

Text-Book or Zoology; for Junior Stu- dents. By Henry A. Nicholson, Regius Professor of Natural History in the Uni- versity of Aberdeen. Fourth edition. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 888. Price, $1.60.

Professor Niciiolson introduces the study of animals by some general consider- ations of the scope of zoology, the condi- tions of life, classification, and the distri- bution of animals in space and in time. The present edition of the work has been thoroughly revised and brought up to the present standard of zoological knowledge. Recent additions to our acquaintance with the existing or extinct fauna of the world have been noticed in the text, and some fresh illustrations have been added. The scope of the work does not allow space for long descriptions of extinct animals, but those whose characteristics throw light on the relations of living species are briefly described. The definitions of important di- visions are printed in italics, and the book is copiously illustrated. A glossary and an index are appended.

Watson's Phonographic Instructor. By John Watson. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 144.

The chief peculiarities in the method of teaching Pitman's phonography, which is embodied in this manual, are that vowel- placing and reading are postponed until considerable speed has been attained in writing the consonant outlines of words. When this point has been reached, the au- thor claims that the pupil has become so well acquainted with word -forms that he can read the bulk of his writing without

vowels. The pupil is then taught to place a vowel-mark here and there where it will do the most good, until he learns to use as many vowels as a reporter must use. Ability to read comes almost insensibly. A key to exercises occupies twenty-four pages of the volume, and several other pages are devoted to model outlines, contractions, and select phrases, but the author deems reading-les- sons useless.

Railway Practice: Its Principles and Suggested Reforms Reviewed. By E. Porter Alexander. Pp. 60. Price, 75 cents. The Interstate Commerce Act: An Analysis of its Provisions. By John R. Dos Passos. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 125. Price, $1.25.

Both of these books belong to the " Questions of the Day " series. The essay of Mr. Alexander appears to have been pre- pared with especial reference to Mr. T. F. Hudson's book and the articles of Mr. Ely on railroad questions, and to the Reagan bill. The three solutions offered by these persons disagreeing radically in principle, and being also at odds with the methods of reform which the railway managers them- selves have instituted, there is some confu- sion in the premises from which the different parties start. The author's effort is to find means for removing the confusion. Thero must be a few principles at least settled by actual test and put beyond question or dis- pute to constitute what we might call the present state of the science of railway man- agement. He therefore takes up the most im- portant questions of railway management, and examines them in the light of those principles. Mr. Dos Passos gives in his book a systematic and detailed analysis of the provisions of the Interstate Commerce Act, preceded by a history of legislation on the subject, and supplemented by the text of the act itself. His exposition is as lucid as the law, which is far from being free from obscurities, will permit a commentator to make it.

A New Basis for Chemistry: A Chemical Philosophy. By Thomas Stehry Hunt, M.A., LL. D. (Cantab.). Boston: Samuel E. Cassino. Pp. 165.

Fhom time to time since 1848 the author has been publishing portions of a theory of chemistry, designed to fill more perfectly the place occupied by the atomic hypothesis. The solution of one problem, namely, that of the relation of equivalent weight to spe- cific gravity in liquids and solids, which was necessary to a complete chemical philosophy, was wanting till 1886, so that in the present volume the author first presents as a whole his new basis for chemistry. The several parts of the theory are set forth largely in quotations from the author's earlier writ- ings. Professor Hunt agrees in the belief that such matter as forms the substances called elements on the earth exists in stars and nebula? in a still more elementary and tenuous form. From this primary matter he deems all known substances to be formed by greater or less degrees of condensation. He regards chemical combination as an in- terpenetration of masses, by which "the uniting bodies come to occupy the same space at the same time," and names solu- tion as the type of such union. What we are accustomed to call the liquid and solid states of a substance, he regards as poly- mers of the corresponding vapor, whose equivalent weights are as much higher as their densities are greater than that of the vapor. He deems the atomic theory un- necessary for explaining the law of definite proportions, and, from its making combi- nation consist in juxtaposition, untenable. His views are supported by his studies in mineralogy, which have shown that the hardness of isomeric species and their in- difference to chemical reagents increase with their condensation.

Brazil, its Condition and Prospects. By C. C. Andrews. New York: D. Apple ton & Co. Pp. 352. Price, $1.50.

Brazil, the only other country on the Western Continent approaching our own in extent, and with 15,000,000 inhabitants, is to us well worth knowing. Yet there are few people in the United States to whom the information in this volume would not have the charm of novelty. The author gained his acquaintance with Brazilian af- fairs and customs during a residence of three years in Rio Janeiro as United States consul-general. His pages teem with facts in regard to routes of travel, houses, mar- kets, conveyances, religion, business cus-

toms, the emperor, special localities, climate, foreign commerce, education, government, literature, agriculture, animals, slavery, im- migration, and a host of other topics. The impression which the book conveys is that Brazil is not an especially desirable country for an American to emigrate to. It is diffi- cult for a stranger to procure desirable land3 for agriculture or stock-raising, and foreign- ers who attempt professional careers must struggle with jealousy and suspicion, besides formidable competition. The seclusion of young women seems to be still practiced with almost Oriental strictness on the plan- tations, as witness the following extract:

Presently the senhora reappeared, leading one very modest looking damsel of about eighteen or nineteen years of age, and closely followed by three others, apparently somewhat younger. All ap- peared to be overwhelmed with iDtense shyness, and an almost hysterical desire to laugh. After a formal and separate introduction of each one be it noted that the lady was here introduced to the gen- tleman they all retired back agiiin into the secret chamber, and their papa once more turned the key upon them. At this time we were ignorant of the custom, which I afterward found to be so general in these out-of-the-way parts, of keeping the women, or rather the daughters of the family, locked up like wild beasts.

Controlling Sex in Generation. By Sam- uel H. Terry. Second edition. With an Appendix of Corroborative Proofs. New York: Fowler & Wells Company. Pp. 209.

In order to more fully corroborate the views advanced in the body of this work, the author has added in this edition an ap- pendix, consisting of extracts from " The Popular Science Monthly" and other peri- odicals, letters from cattle-breeders, etc , and a chapter in answer to objections.

The Cremation of the Dead. By Hugo Erichsen, M. D., with an Introductory Note by Sir T. Spencer Wells. Detroit: D. O. Haynes & Co. Pp. 264. Price, $2.

In this book the subject is considered from the aesthetic, sanitary, religious, his- torical, medico-legal, and economical points of view. The author is a warm advocate of cremation, and closes with a prediction that it will make more progress in the United States than in any other country of the world. The text is illustrated with sev- eral views and plans of crematoriums, urns, etc. A Junior Course of Practical Zoology. By A. Milnes Marshall, M.D., F. R. S., assisted by C. Herbert Hurst. London: Smith, Elder & Co. For sale by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. Pp. xxiv-440.

This book is a laboratory manual de- signed as a guide to a practical acquaint- ance with the elements of animal morphol- ogy. In almost all cases the descriptions of animals are so arranged that the whole dis- section can be performed on a single speci- men. Strict uniformity of treatment has not been specially aimed at; thus the more difficult portions of the subject are treated at considerable length, while systems of subordinate educational value, such as the muscular, occupy little space. Few illus- trations have been introduced lest the stu- dent should give too little attention to the drawings which he must make from his own dissections. The animals selected for description are amoeba, and three other protozoa, hydra, liver-fluke, leech, earth- worm, fresh-water mussel, edible snail, cray- fish, cockroach, lancelet, dog-fish, rabbit, fowl, and pigeon.

Sanitary Examinations of Water, Air, and Food. By Cornelius B. Fox, M. D., F. R. C. P., London. With 1 10 Illus- trations. Second edition. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 563. Price, $4.

The reliability of Dr. Fox's sanitary work led to the expansion of his pamphlet on " Water Analysis "into a volume con- taining sections on examinations of air and food, in 1878, and has now brought this volume to a second edition. The chief new features of this edition are the extension of water and air examination in the direction of those biological methods that have been introduced of late years, and that are deemed by German and French sanitarians as im- portant as the chemical analysis. Recently devised improvements in the examination of milk are also recorded.

Due North: or Glimpses of Scandinavia and Russia. By Maturin M. Ballou. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 373.

The author visited Copenhagen and El- sinore, in Denmark, traveled over much of Sweden and Norway, saw the midnight sun, had a glimpse of Finland, visited St. Peters- burg, Moscow, and Nijni-Novgorod, and

spent a few days in Poland. His sketches of all these parts include accounts of scen- ery, buildings, people, customs, sites having historical interest or interesting by personal association, and observations on moral, so- cial, political, and religious conditions. His view of the Czar and his government is de- cidedly more favorable than those which we are accustomed to hear expressed.

The True Doctrine of Orbits: An Origi- nal Treatise on Central Forces. By H. G. Rush, of New Danville, Pennsyl- vania. Pp. 133.

The author endeavors, by mathematical demonstrations, to prove that the orbits of the planets, and even of the comets, are not elliptical, as the Newtonian astronomy supposes, but circular.

Report of the Proceedings of the Ameri- can Historical Association. Third An- nual Meeting, April 27-29, 1886. Her- bert B. Adams, Secretary. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 104. Price, $1.

The membership of the Association has grown since its organization in September, 1884, from forty to four hundred and twen- ty-two members, seventy-eight of whom are life-members. The third meeting was held in Washington, and the discussions included such topics as the capture of Washington in 1814, and the campaigns of our late war, besides many others of a more general char- acter, and some bearing upon what used to be called the philosophy of history. Among the achievements claimed for this meeting are the friendly reunion of military histo- rians from the North and from the South; the peaceful discussion of the campaigns before Washington, and in the Valley of Virginia; the historical representation of the new South and the Northwest, as well as of the Northern States and Canada; the treatment of almost every branch of our American history; the meeting of the youngest historians with the very oldest Mr. Bancroft; the mingling of representa- tives from various historical schools; and the presence of Congressmen and visitors from different parts of the Union."It was a veritable national convention, in the political center of the United States, for the furtherance of American history and of his- tory in America." PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Henderson, C. Hanford. Philadelphia. Notes on the Modifications of the Bessemer Steel Process. Pp 9.

Miles, Manly, Lansin g, Mich. The Microbes of Nitrification.

"The Ottawa Naturalist," June, 1887, Ottawa, Canada. Pp. 16. $1 a year.

"Civics." Vol. I, No. 1. June, 1887. Quar- terly. Pp.56. $1 a year.

Stoney, Wilbur L., Goshen, Ind. The Circula- tion of the Blood: A Theory. Pp. 3.

Outerbridge. A. E., Jr. A New Process of casting Iron and other Metals upon Lace, Embroid- eries, Fern-Leaves, and other Combustible Materi- als. Pp. 4.

New York Ladies' Health Protective Associa- tion. Memorial to Mayor Hewitt on Street-Clean- ing. Pp. 12. Memorial on Slaughter-Houses. Pp. 7.

Cooper Union. Twenty-sixth, Twenty-seventh, and Twenty-eighth Annual Reports of the Trustees. Pp. 44.

Oliver. Charles A., M. D. A New Series of Ber- lin Wools for Color-Blindness Tests. Pp 41. A New Series of Metric Tost Letters and Words for Accommodation-Tests. Pp. 1.

Groh, Israel W. Is the God of Israel the True God? New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp.79. Boll, Clark. Seventh Inaugural Address as President of the Medico-Legal Society of New York. Pp. 13. Insanity and the Care of the In- sane Pp. 48

Foerste, A. F., Denison University. "Flint Ridge" Bryozoa. l'p. IK, with Plato.

Allen Gymnasium, Boston. Circulars for 18S6 ond 1887.

Hubbell, Alvin A.. M. D., Buffalo. N. Y. Con- genital Occlusion of the Posterior Nares. Pp. 16

West, James H. The Work of a True Chureh. Chicago. Pp. 14.

Bell, A. N., M. D. The Physiological Conditions and Sanitary Requirements of School-Houses and School-Life. New 1'ork: Medical Society of the State of New York. Pp. 83.

Romero, Senor Don Matias. Speech on the Birthday of General U. S. Grant. Pp. 16.

Campbell, M. M.. Topeka, Kansas. Open Let- ter No. 1 and Open Letter No. 2. To American Rulers, and to all who write or read American Literature

"The Woman's Argosy," June, 1887. Monthly. Chicago and New York. Pp. 64, with Plates. $3 a year.

Davis, W. M., Cambridge, Mass. Water- Vapor and Radiation. The Koehn in the Andes; and other Meteorological Papers.

Upton, Winslow, Providence, R. I. An Investi- gation of Cyclonic Phenomena in New England. Pp. 54.

Niinmo, Joseph Jr., Huntington. L. I The In- terstate Commerce Act, Third and Fourth Sec- tions. Pp. 8.

Woman's Medical College of the New York In- firmary. Nineteenth Annual Catalogue and An- nouncement. Pp. 19.

Ohio State University, School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, l586-'S7.

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Colum- bus. Report for 1856. Pp. 316

Peabody Museum of American Archirology and Ethnology, Cambridge, Mass. Twentieth Annual Ruport of the Trustees. Pp. 84.

Putnam, F. W. Conventionalism in Ancient American Art. Pp. 12, with Plates.

Rotch, A. Lawrence. Results of Meteorological Observations at Blue Hill Observatory, Mass. Pp. 45, with Plates.

" Social Science." Vol. I, No. 1. Weekly. New York. Pp. 16. $3 a year.

Queen, James W., & Co., Philadelphia. "Micro- scopical Bulletin and Science News," Edward Pen- nock, Editor. Monthly. Pp. 16. 25 cents a year. Eggleston, E. R., Mount Vernon, Ohio. Malaria: Its Origin and Cause as a Factor in the Production of Disease. Pp.8.

Indiana Signal Service, H. A. Huston, Purdue University, Lafayette, Director, "Bulletin" for May, 1SS7. Pp. 8.

Austen, Peter T, Ph. D., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. The Study of Analytical Chem- istry. Address to Class of '06, Rutgers Grammar- School. Pp. 3.

Buller, Nicholas Murray, Ph. D. The Effect of the War of 1S12 upon the Consolidation of the Union. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. Pp. 30. 25 cents.

"The American Weekly," San Francisco. Pp. 16. 10 cents, $3 a year.

Vasey, George. Grasses of the South. Wash- ington: Government Printing-Office. Pp.63.

Pohlman, Julius, Buffalo, N. Y. The Niagara Gorge. Pp. 2. The Human Teeth viewed in the Light of Evolution. Pp. 6.

Engelmann, George J., M. D.. St. Louis. The Use of Electricity in Gynecological Practice. Pp. 149. Galvanic and Faradic Electricity in the Treat- ment of Uterine Displacements. Pp. 30.

Board of Education, Rochester, N. Y. Thirty- ninth Annual Report. Pp. 189.

Kneass, Philadelphia. ' Magazine for the Blind." May, 18S7. Pp. 16. 30 cents, $3.50 a year.

Moury, William A., Editor. ' Common-School Education Monthly," Boston, Eastern Educational Bureau. Pp. 40. 15 cents, $1 a year

" Medical Classics." Vol I, No. 1. June, 1887. Medical Classics Company, New York. Pp. 16.

" American Journal of the Medical Sciences," I. M. Hays, Philadelphia, and Malcolm Morris, Lon don, Editors Quarterly. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co. Pp. 3U4. $5 a year.

Lewis, T. H., St. Paul, Minn. Snake and Snake- like Mounds in Minnesota. Pp. 3.

" Home Knowledge," Robert A. Gunn, Editor. June, lb87. New York: Home-Knowledge Asso- ciation. Pp. 64. 20 cents, $2 a year.

Tidy, Dr. O. Mevmott The Treatment of Sew- age New York: D. Van Nostiand. Pp. 224. 50 cents.

Johnson, Virginia W. The House of the Musi- cian. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 256. 50 cents. Wiley, John, & Sons, New York. Practical W T orks and Text-Books on Civil, Mechanical. Min- ing, and Marine Engineering, etc. Catalogue and Descriptions. Pp. 175.

Wellcome, Henry S. The Story of Metlakabt- la. New York: Saxon & Co. Pp. 4S3. $1.50.

Heermans, Forbes. Thirteen Stories of the Far West. Syracuse,';N. Y.: C. W. Bardeen. Pp. 268. Brown, John Allen. Palaeolithic Man in North- western Middlesex. London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 204, with Plates.

Greenwood, J. M. Principles of Education Prac- tically Applied. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp.192. $1.

White, James C, M. D. Dermatitis Venenata Action of ' External Irritants upon the Skin. Bos- ton: Cupples & Ilurd. Pp. 216.

Hubbard, Bela. Memorials of a Half-Century. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 5S1, with Plates.

Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of the Board of Regents to July. 18>5. Part I. Wash- ington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 996

Powell, J. W., Director. Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Elhm.logy 1882-'83. Washing- ton: Government Printing-Office. Pp.532.