Popular Science Monthly/Volume 34/December 1888/Literary Notices

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On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals: with Special Reference to Insects. "International Scientific Series," Vol. LXIV. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 292. Price, $1.75.

The name of Lubbock will cause the reader to open this volume with an eager interest that will be amply justified. It is an extension of the investigations recorded by the author in his fascinating work on "Ants, Bees, and Wasps," going further into details of structure and function of the sense-organs of insects, together with some discussion of the intelligence displayed by higher animals. In the first half of the book, he gives us the results of his own observations, combined with what other investigators have learned as to the location of each sense in insects, and the structure of the organs in which each resides. He explains the purpose of this part of the work as follows: "While attempting to understand the manners and customs, habits and behavior of animals, as well as for the purpose of devising test experiments, I have found it necessary to make myself acquainted, as far as possible, with the mechanism of the senses, and the organs by means of which sensations are transmitted. With this object I had to look up a great number of memoirs, in various languages, and scattered through many different periodicals; and it seemed to me that it might be interesting, and save others some of the labor I had to undergo myself, if I were to bring together the notes I had made, and give a list of the principal memoirs consulted. I have accordingly attempted to give, very briefly, some idea of the organs of sense, commencing in each case with those of man himself." The list of memoirs to which he alludes is an extended one, occupying eight pages. He begins his descriptions with the sense of touch, "as being the one which is most generally distributed, and from which the others appear to have been in some cases developed. The senses are not, indeed, as already mentioned, always to be easily distinguished from one another; and it would seem that the same nerve may be capable of carrying different sensations according to the structure of the end organs." The inner skin of insects and crustaceans being covered with a layer of horny substance, the sensations of insects, excepting sight, are transmitted by means of hairs projecting through this hard integument. The organs of taste in insects are certain modified hairs situated either in the mouth itself, or on organs immediately surrounding it. Experiments which have been made seem to prove that the sense of smell resides partly in the antennae and partly in the palpi. "This distribution would be manifestly advantageous. The palpi are more suited for the examination of food; while the antennae are more conveniently situated for the perception of more distant objects." The antennae probably serve partly as organs of touch, and some as organs of protection. The author deems it very probable also that some of them, at least, perform still another function, such as hearing, "while some of these peculiar antennal organs," he says, "though obviously organs of sense, seem to have no special adaptation to any sense of which we are cognizant." That insects may have senses of which we are not cognizant, he deems very probable. There are, without doubt, causes in nature which would produce sensations different from any we know of on organs capable of receiving them. For instance. Sir John has shown elsewhere that animals hear sounds which are beyond the range of our hearing, and can perceive the ultra-violet rays, which are invisible to our eyes. Sound and light are both produced by vibrations. The shrillest sound audible to us results from forty thousand vibrations a second, and no light that we can see is produced by less than four hundred million millions of vibrations in a second. "But between forty thousand vibrations in a second and four hundred million millions we have no organ of sense capable of receiving the impression. Yet between these limits any number of sensations may exist. We have five senses, and sometimes fancy that no others are possible. But it is obvious that we can not measure the infinite by our LITERARY NOTICES.


��own narrow limitations, lloreover, looking at the question from the other side, we find in animals complex organs of sense, richly supphed with nerves, but the function of which we are as yet powerless to explain. There may be fifty other senses as different from ours as sound is from sight." It has been thought that the antennje in all insects are the organs of hearing, but it has since been shown that the sense of hearing is not confined to one spot, and indeed there is no reason why it should be. Grasshoppers and crickets have ears on their legs, and the crustacean genus Mysis has ears in its tail. Organs of sight, which are the most complex and varied of sense-organs, are treated in this book at greatest length. In regard to the mode of vision by means of compound eyes, the author supports Miiller's view that "the picture perceived by the insect will be a mosaic, in which the number of points will correspond with the number of facets." Two interesting chapters are those in which he describes an extension of his earlier ex- periments on the power of bees and ants to distinguish colors, and answers the objection that the power which he ascribes to ants of perceiving the ultra-violet rays is not true sight, but a sensitiveness of the skin to light. Recognition among ants he believes is effect- ed to a great extent by the antennae, whether or not smell is the sense which serves for this purpose. Along with some extraordinary manifestations of intelligence in insects, he tells of some interesting cases of apparent stupidity observed by him and by M. Fabre. The closing chapter is on the intelligence of the dog, and is occupied mainly with an ac- count of Sir John's application to his black poodle "Van" of the method used in teach- ing Laura Bridgman. The poodle apparently learned to bringacard marked "food," "out," "bone," " tea," etc., according to his wants, but when a card of a particular color, or having one, two, or three dark bands on it, was held up to him, and he was sent to fetch a duplicate from among several cards, he generally failed. The author also discusses briefly the question, " Can animals count ? " but has reached no definite conclusion on this point. The mental faculties of man and the lower animals are now being investigated as never before. The problems relating to these faculties are being attacked from many dif-

��ferent sides, and while much valuable knowl- edge is resulting from these labors, a great deal of careless observation, unjustified as- sumption, and baseless theory is being put forth at the same time. Sir John Lubbock, however, is a careful and patient experi- menter and a cautious reasoner, and on every page of his writings he shows that his object is the attainment of truth, and not the de- fense of pet theories.

Darwinism. By David Starr Jordan, Ph. D. Chicago : A. B. Gehman & Co. Pp. 63. Price, 25 cents.

Evert one who has read any of President Jordan's popular articles on scientific sub- jects will want a copy of this essay. In it he sets forth, with his well-known vigor and captivating clearness, the main features of the Darwinian theory of the origin of species, and gives samples of the evidence on which this theory rests. He begins by alluding to the variety of the forms of life on the earth, and then calls attention to the unity which exists in this diversity. For instance, "there are dogs and dogs, of all sizes and styles, yet enough alike for us to regard them as belonging to one original species." Then there are other dog-like animals — wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes — which we must re- gard as first-cousins to the dogs. Each of these races has still other relatives, further removed from the dog-type, and, proceeding thus, we have at last all animals of the mammalian class " joined together by a branching chain of apparent relationship — a chain of homologies." The problem before us is, " What is the origin of variety in life, and how does it come that this variety is based on essential unity ? " The author then reviews the answers which have been given to this problem by Linnaeus, Cuvier, La- marck, Saint-Hi laire, Goethe, and Agassiz. Darwin's answer to the problem follows, and is stated partly in quotations from his works and his letters, and is supplemented by illustrative cases by the author. How Darwinism explains the facts of geological distribution, and of degeneration both of type and of individual parts in the organism, is next explained, and a brief accoimt of the evidence which embryology brings to the support of the theory of evolution, contrib- uted by Dr. J. S. Kingsley, is here inserted.

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��" The various attacks on the theory of de- scent," says President Jordan, " have nearly all centered on the question of the origin of man." But these attacks are wholly un- reasonable. " Our objections to recognizing our kinship with the lower forms — if we have any such objections — rest on reasons outside the domain of knowledge. They do not rest on religious grounds. . . . Looking over the history of human thought, we see the attempt to fasten to Christianity each decaying behef in science. That the earth is round, that it moves about the sun, that it is old, that granite ever was melted — all these beliefs, now part of our common knowledge, have been declared contrary to religion ; and Christian men who knew these things to be true have suffered all manner of evil for their sake." A short sketch of the life of Darwin is prefixed to the essay.

Researches on Diamagnetism and Magne- Crystallic Action. By John Tyndall, D. C. L., LL. D., F. R. S. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 288. Price, $1.50.

The researches embodied in this volume cover the first six years of Prof. Tyndall's experimental work. The first investigation of the series treats of the deportment of crystals, and of other bodies possessing a definite structure, in the magnetic field. Pliicker had discovered that deportment, and had attempted to account for it by sup- posing new forces and new laws. Faraday followed and corroborated Pliicker, and add- ed one more hypothetical force. These forces were held to be wholly distinct from magnetism and diamagnetism. Tyndall and Knoblauch found a much simpler way of accounting for the phenomena observed, which, in place of the assumption of three new forces, required only a simple modifica- tion of known forces, to which they gave the name elective polarity. Prof. Tyndall's first investigation on the subject of diamagnetic polarity is described in the " Third Memoir " of this volume. Supplied with more ade- quate apparatus and material, he prosecuted the research as recorded in the " Fourth Mem- oir," subjecting the deportment of diamag- netic bodies to an exhaustive comparison with that of magnetic bodies, which showed that the diamagnetic force had the same claim to be called a polar force as the mag-

��netic. In the " Fifth Memoir " are described experiments made with a very delicate ap- paratus, which proved that the theory of diamagnetic polarity would stand the severest tests. The application of the doctrine of polarity to magne-ciystallic phenomena is the subject of the "Sixth Memoir." Ap- pended to these papers are letters by We- ber, Faraday, and Tyndall, relating to the investigations, together with some brief de- scriptions of apparatus.

Journal of Morphology. Yol. II, Xo. 1. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 190.

This number of the " Journal " contains five papers. The first is a brief account of " Observations on the Structure of the Gus- tatory Organs of the Bat ( VcspertiUo suhula- ius),^ by Frederick Tuckerman, M. D. This is followed by a paper by Prof. E. D. Cope, " On the Tritubercular Molar in Human Den- tition." Prof. Cope has investigated the variation in the number of tubercles form- ing the crown of the superior true molars in man, and has concluded that " the quadri- tubercular type of molar crown, illustrated by the first superior true molar of man, be- longs to the primitive form from which all the crest-crowned (lophodont; molars of the hoofed placental mammals have been de- rived ; and second, this quadritubercular type of molar has itself been derived from a still earlier tritubercular crown by the addition of a cusp at the posterior internal part of it." He says, further, that " the trituber- cular superior molars of man constitute a reversion to the dentition of the LcmuridcB of the Eocene period of the family of Anap- tomorphidce ; and, second, that this rever- sion is principally seen among the Eski- mos, and the Slavic, French, and American branches of the European race." In the low- est existing races the quadritubercular type predominates, while the neolithic dentitions examined are of an intermediate character, thus showing a superior position to these races. The third paper is by C. 0. Whit- man, on " The Seat of Formative and Re- generative Energy," and deals with the ques- tion whether the cytoplasm is a passive body, moving only as it is acted upon by external forces and influences emanating from the nucleus, or whether it has powers of its own which make it capable also of au-



��tomatic action. Prof. Henry F. Osborn pre- sents " A Contribution to the Internal Struct- ure of the Amphibian Brain," in which are reported certain studies of nerve-fiber courses and determinations of motor and sensory nuclei. Dr, William Patten contributes a second installment of his " Studies on the Eyes of Arthropods," devoted to the eyes of Acilius. Thirteen plates accompany this number.

Index to the Literaturk of the Spectro- scope. By Alfred Tuckerman, Ph. D. Washington : Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 423.

The literature of science is becoming so voluminous that classified indexes are abso- lutely essential to the student who would obtain an adequate idea of what is going on in his specialty. This index, in its own full- ness, illustrates the fact. It is intended to be a bibliography of the spectroscope and spectrum analysis, and to be a list of all the books and smaller treatises, especially con- tributions to scientific periodicals, from the beginning of our knowledge on the subject till July, 18S7. The time covered by this description is not very great, but the num- ber and variety of the titles recorded show how incessant has been the activity of re- search during the period. An admirable system of arrangement is adopted, under which a strictly alphabetical order of the subjects is followed. Titles have often been repeated more than once, so as to make sure of their being found, and a list of authors is added.

Essays on Practical Politics. By Theo- dore Roosevelt. New York : G. P. Put- nam's Sons. Pp. 74. Price, 40 cents.

The two essays comprised in this volume have appeared in " The Century," and are now reprinted in the " Questions of the Day " series. Prefixed to them is an introduction, in which the author replies to the criticism made at the first appearance of his essays, that they offer no cure for the evils they portray, by saying that he attempted only to make a diagnosis of the disease, and not to prescribe for it. He says further that, just as many sick men demand a pleasant medicine which will cure all their complaints without their making any change in their work or pleasure, or their eating and drink- VOL. XXXIV. — 18

��ing, so certain other men " expect some scheme of reform that will at a single fell swoop do away with every evil from which the body politic is suffering. ... No law or laws," he continues, " can give us good gov- ernment ; at the utmost, they can only give us the opportunity to ourselves get good government." He then specifies several things that good citizens ought to work for, and says, " Above all, we can strive to fulfill our own poHtical duties, as they arise, and thereby to do each of us his part in raising to a healthier level the moral standard of the whole community." The first of the essays is on " Phases of State Legislation," and is based mainly on Mr. Roosevelt's ex- perience as a member for three terms of the New York Legislature. It reveals a great deal of viciousness and weakness, and also gives credit for a great deal of good work. It contains, too, a number of very amusing incidents. The other essay describes " Ma- chine Politics in New York City," and deals with not only the methods of the men who run politics for the benefit of themselves and their followers, but also the neglect of public duties by respectable men, which makes the doings of political jobbers possible.

Manual of Chemistry. By W. Simon, Ph. D., M. D. Second edition. Phila- delphia : Lea Brothers & Co. Pp. 479.

The present edition of this manual, while retaining the general character of the first, embodies also a considerable number of changes and additions. The work is specially adapted for students of pharma- cy and medicine. It assumes no previous knowledge of chemistry, and hence may be called a text-book for beginners, though it is not suited to the needs of young pupils. The first twenty pages are devoted to a brief consideration of the fundamental properties of matter, and are followed by thirty pages on the principles of chemistry. The author is in the habit of scattering these principles along through his course of lectures, but in a text-book to accompany the lectures he prefers to collect them in one place. The third and fourth parts of the volume are de- voted respectively to the consideration of the non-metallic and the metallic elements and their compounds. Only those elements are taken up which have a practical interest, and

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��for the special benefit of pharmaceutical and medical students space is given to all chemi- cals mentioned in the " United States Phar- macopoeia." The fifth part deals with qualita- tive analysis, including also a chapter giving the principal methods for volumetric de- terminations. Organic chemistry occupies a little over one fourth of the volume, and in this department special prominence is given to those substances most important in medi- cine and pharmacy. In the closing part physiological chemistry is treated, including a consideration of the chemical changes which take place in animals and plants, and of the chemical composition of animal fluids and tissues, with full directions for testing urine. A notable feature of the book is seven plates showing the colors of fifty-six precipitates and liquids, which beginners often have difficulty in becoming familiar •with. There are also forty-four cuts repre- senting apparatus.

A Synopsis of the Medical Botany of the United States. By J. M. G. Carter, M. D., Ph. D. St. Louis : George H. Field. Pp. ] 76. Price, $2.

Dr. Carter has accomplished a laborious service for the physicians of the United States. The book consists of a list of the species under each genus which are known to be useful in medicine, giving their medici- nal properties, and telling what parts of the plant are used, and the dose. The medicinal plants of the United States embrace about 140 orders, 620 genera, and more than 1,300 species and varieties. The botanical arrange- ment is chiefly that of Dr. Asa Gray. The names of introduced species are distinguished by small capitals, and the habitat of rare plants i3 given. The volume is supplied with a table of orders, and indexes of generic names and of common names of plants, and an index of diseases.

The Journal of Physiology, Vol. IX, Nos. 2 and 3 (Cambridge (England) Scientific In- strument Company) contains eight papers giving the results of laboratory investiga- tions. The first is " On the Physiology of tlie Salivary Secretion," by J. N. Langley, of Cambridge, and records experiments made to determine whether the "trophic" and " anabolic " fibers of the secretory nerves are paralyzed by atropine at the same time

��as the " secretory " fibers. This is followed by a paper on " The Physiological Action of Borneol," by Ralph Stockman, M. D., of Edinburgh, and "A Note on the Cause of the Failure of very Rapid Electrical Stimula- tion to produce Tetanus in Muscle," by Hen- ry Sewall, of Ann Arbor, Mich. " An Experi- mental Investigation of Strychnine-Poison- ing" is contributed by Robert W. Lovett, M. D., of Boston, who concludes that the spinal cord, upon which strychnine exercises peculiar power, takes up more of the drug than the other organs ; but whether or not it is more susceptible to the drug than the other organs we have no means of ascer- taining. The next paper is " On the Circum- stances which modify the Action of Caffeine and Theine upon Voluntary Muscle," by T. Lauder Brunton and J. Theodore Cash ; this is followed by a report of an investigation " On the Electrical Organ of the Skate," by J. Burdon- Sanderson and Francis Gotch. The remaining papers are " On the Rhythm of the Mammalian Heart," by John A. Mc- William, M. D., of Aberdeen, illustrated by plates of tracings ; and " Further Researches on the Apparent Change produced by Stimu- lation in the Polarization of Nerve," by George N. Stewart, of Manchester.

Prof. E. D. Cope read before the Ameri- can Philosophical Society in January last a paper entitled Synopsis of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Puereo Series. The Puerco formation rests on the Laramie in north- western New Mexico and southwestern Colo- rado, and was discovered by Prof. Cope in 1874, and vertebrate remains were found in it by Mr. David Baldwin in 1880. One hun- dred and six vertebrate species have been found so far, which differ so much from the fauna which preceded and followed them, as to show that this foi-mation represents an immense interval that had not been pre- viously suspected. These species are de- scribed in the present paper, and the de- scriptions are illustrated by two plates, and by cuts showing dentition.

University Studies is the name of a pe- riodical published by the University of Ne- braska, at Lincoln, the first number of which, dated July, 1888, is before us. The price of a single number is $1 ; yearly subscription, $3. There is no announcement of the pur- pose or times of publication of the journal



��in this number. Its contents comprise three papers ; " On the Transparency of the Ether," by D. B. Brace ; " On the Propriety of Re- taining the Eighth Verb-Class in Sanscrit," by A. H. Edgren ; and " On the History of the Auxiliary Verbs in the Romance Lan- guages," by J. A. Fontaine. The first paper is an investigation of the phenomena which would occur if there were any absorption of the light-energy of stars by the ether, through frictional forces or imperfect elas- ticity. The result of the author's calcula- tions is, that the apparent finiteness of the stellar universe can not be due to absorp- tion, as Struve supposed ; and that, if the universe is infinite in extent, " the average density of distribution of self-luminous bodies outside our own system must be ex- ceedingly small, as otherwise the sky would appear of a uniform brightness, approxi- mating that of the sun."

In his Annual Report of the Division of Forestry for 1887, the chief, Mr. B. E. Fer- now, defines the work of the division as in the main that of a bureau of information. During the past year the division has dis- tributed different circulars of information to wood-consumers in general, to railroad man- agers, to educational men, and to members of the National Grange. Those, together with a letter to the Commissioner of the Land-OfBce on what is a timber-tree, are re- produced in full or in substance in the report. The pamphlet also contains statistics in re- gard to exports and imports of wood and wood products, from 1880 to 1887, and the mill capacity of the country. Seeds and seedlings, mainly of cone-bearing trees and willows, have been distributed to some ex- tent. Mr. Fernow thinks it is time for the division to undertake systematic original in- vestigations. The scientific basis of forest management must be built up from research- es in forest biology, timber physics, soil physics, and soil chemistry ; its economic basis will consist of forest statistics, tech- nology of woods, and forest policy ; and its practical basis will comprise knowledge of methods of planting, managing, and harvest- ing forests. The report contains notes on certain species of trees, the seed of which has been distributed from the department during the season, telling their value and the mode of their propagation. These notes

��are followed by statements of the condition of the forestry interests in the several States and Territories.

The Toyo Gakugei Zasshi (" Eastern Sci- ence Journal " ), in Japanese, is edited by a committee consisting chiefly of professors in the Imperial University at Tokio, Japan, and has the large circulation, for a country like Japan, of three thousand copies. The num- ber which has been sent to us as a specimen has articles on the primeval world of Japan (accompanied by illustrations of Japanese geology), the aborigines of Japan, the sub- marine world, "A Great Eastern Problem," and "The Standard Time of Japan," with notes and miscellanies on various subjects, and reviews of books.

The Kitchen, a Magazine devoted to Sci- entific Cookery in all its Branches (J. II. Lewis, publisher, Chicago), is a monthly magazine devoted to what the publisher justly considers the central and predominant interest of all housekeeping. Subjects per- taining to cookery are presented in an un- technical, common-sense style, and occupy about half of each number. The rest of the space is devoted to matters of different char- acter, the object seeming to be, besides culti- vating well the special field of the periodical, to furnish a variety of reading, and make it attractive in other directions. Price, 20 cents each number ; 82 a year.

The character of Chemical Experiments for Medical Students, by W. S. Christopher, M. D. (R. Clarke, $1), has been conformed to the limited time allowed for the study of chemistry in most medical schools. Hence it includes only such methods and facts as the student will need to use in the practice of his profession. It is a laboratory manual, the experiments covering work with the prin- cipal metals and acids, using Beilstein's ex- amples. In addition, the more important alkaloids and some organic compounds of medical interest are considered. In physio- logical chemistry the work deals with the proteids and carbohydrates, the digestive processes, blood, bile, milk, and urine. The acid tests recently introduced for the clinical examination of stomach contents are also given. It is intended to be used with some systematic treatise on chemistry.

"We have received from Thomas Prosser & Son, the New York agents of Friedrich

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��Krupp, a volume entitled Krupp and Be Bange, by E. Montliai/e, captain in the Bel- gian general staff. Its object is to show that the Krupp system of ordnance is supe- rior to the De Bange system, from which it differs in material, construction, and mode of breech-closure. The first chapter is a discussion of various methods of preparing steel for gun-metal ; the second compares the construction of the Krupp and the De Bange guns ; this is followed by an essay on ballistic performance, and a statement of the extent to which the European states use the Krupp guns. The next chapter answers the objections of the adherents of the French gun against the Krupp, and there is a review of the "Belgrade competition" of 1884, in which a Krupp, a De Bange, and an Arm- strong gun participated. An account of a visit to the Krupp works concludes the main part of the book, and to this is appended an analysis by another hand of some criticisms made upon Captain Monthaye's book. The volume is illustrated with diagrams, views, and a portrait of Alfred Krupp.

A decidedly vigorous pamphlet has been contributed to the " Questions of the Day " series, by Mr. J. S. Moore, entitled Friendly Letters to American Farmers and Others (Putnam, 25 cents). Its purpose is to show the people of the country, regarded as con- sumers, what the present tariff costs them. The letters are strengthened by abundant statistics, and the following specimen head- ings will indicate their character: " What it costs the Farmer for Lumber," " What it costs the Farmer for Crockery, Glassware, and Cooking Utensils," "Female Labor on Farms and in Factories," "As to Luxuries and Necessities," and " The Champion Tariff Swindle of the World."

The subject of the next number of the " Questions of the Day " series is American Prisons in the Tenth United States Census (Putnam, 25 cents). It is by Frederick H. Wines, special agent of the tenth census, and presents the numbers of inmates in the prisons of the country, and the crimes for which they are imprisoned, in a great variety of aspects, such as with regard to birth- place, age, sex, color, length of term, and number of arrests by the police. The figures are embodied in a discussion which includes

��suggestions for the improvement of certain State and national prison laws. An inter- esting statement, which reverses the popular judgment somewhat, shows the proportion of prisoners to the number of residents from each of twenty foreign countries. From this it appears that the West Indies send us the most criminals, 1 in 117, while the best showing is made by the Austrians (includ- ing Hungarians and Bohemians), 1 in 1,936. The Scandinavians stand next to the Aus- trians, and the Hollanders are third. The Germans are eighth, with one prisoner in 949 German -born residents, the English eleventh, French twelfth, Irish fourteenth, 1 in 350, Italians sixteenth, and Chinese next below them, with a proportion of 1 in 199.

Two editions of the PresidenCs Message of 1887 (Putnam, each 25 cents) have been received. One contains annotations by R. R. Boivker, which embrace a large number and variety of facts and figures showing the receipts and expenses of the Government for a number of years, the effects of buying bonds at a premium, what the tariff tax amounts to on many items of the consumer's purchases, the percentages of tax laid on important articles at various times since 1789, the variation of wages in Europe and different parts of this country, the amount of wool raised in the United States, the oper- ations of trusts, etc. The other edition is illustrated by Thomas Nast, in his well- known style.

The most extended and important papers in Reports from the Consuls of the United States, No. 93 (Department of State), are those on " The Cost of Manufacturing Print- Cloths in Massachusetts, Lancashire, and Switzerland," by J. Schoenhof ; " The Prov- ince of Kiang-su," by J. D. Kennedy ; " The Exhibition for the Prevention of Accidents to be held at Berlin in 1889," by F. Raine; "The Trade of South America," by John E. Bacon ; " The Trade and Industries of Rus- sia," by Charlton H. Way ; and " The Re- sources and Trade Relations of Japan," by T. R. Jernigan.

The pamphlet on Aspects of Education, by Oscar Browning (Industrial Education Association, 20 cents), is a contribution to the history of pedagogy. It discusses the



��three modifications of educational theory — humanism, realism, and naturalism — to one or another of which all schemes of instruc- tion that have taken practical form in the last three hundred years may be referred. The essay includes also some remarks on the EngUsh public school.

The children will be sure to like The New Model First Reader (Sherwood, 35 cents) for its colored pictures, which are supplied with a liberal hand. The mode of teaching to which it is adapted is that known as the sentence-method. It familiarizes the pupil with script as well as with Roman letters.


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelpliia. Proceedings continued. Pp. 24.

Allen, John H. The Tariflf and its Evils. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 1-22. $1.

Bain, Alexander. English Composition and Rhetoric. Enlarged edition. Part II. Emotional Qualities of Style. New York : D. Appleton «& Co. Pp.325. $1.40.

Baker, Henry B , M. D., Lansing, Mich. The Causation of Cold- Weather Diseases. Pp. 15.— Recent Advances in State Medicine. Pp. 27. The Prevention of the Communicable Diseases. Pp. 7.

Barton, Samuel. The B.attle of the Swash and the Capture of Canada. New York : Charles T. Dillingham. Pp. 131. 50 cents.

Berger, Franfois. French Conversations— Idio- matic Expressions— Proverbs. 853 Broadway, New York. Pp. 32. 25 cents.

Brandt, Prof. H. C. G., Hamilton College. Should the Elements of French and German be required for Admission to all Colleges? Pp. 8. — A First Book in German. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Pp. 87. $1.

Browning, T. B., Toronto. Chart of Elocution- ary Drill. Pp. 83.

Calkins. Mary "Whiton. Sharing the Profits. Boston : Ginn & Co. Pp. 70.

Cameron, James. Soaps and Candles. Phila- delphia : P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp.306. $2 2.5.

Clokey, Rev. Joseph Waddell. Dying at the Top. Chicago : Woman's Temperance Publishing Association. Pp. 56. 10 cents.

Coi)e, E. D. Topinard on the Latest Steps in the Genealogy of Man. Pp. 4.

Crozier, John Beattie. Civilization and Progress. London : Longmans & Co. Pp. 447.

Cruger, Mary. How she did it : or Comfort on $150 a Year. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 212.

Dawson, Sir J. William. Specimens of Eozoon Canadense and their Geological and other Relations. Montreal : Uawson Brothers Pp. 107. 50 cents.

Evans, George, k Hand-Book of Historical and Geographical Phthisiology. New York : D. Apple- ton & Co. Pp. 295. $2.

Fletcher, W. Q. " The Co-operative Index to Pe- riodicals." Quarterly. Vol. IV, No. 3. 330 Pe.arl Street, New York. Pp. 29. 50 cents. %1 a year.

Frieze, Henry S. The Tenth and Twelfth Books of the Institutes of Quintilian, with Explanatory Notes. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 294. $1.40.

Gald6s, B. Perez. The Court of Charles IV, a Romance of the Escorial. New York : William S. Gottsberger. Pp. 295.

��Gardner, E. C. Town and Country School Buildings. Prospectus. New York and Chicago : £. L. Kellogg & Co.

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