Popular Science Monthly/Volume 41/May 1892/Literary Notices

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Popular Science Monthly Volume 41 May 1892  (1892) 
Literary Notices
 

LITERARY NOTICES.

New Fragments. By John Tyndall, F. R. S. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 500. Price, $2.

The contents of this volume consist of essays and addresses prepared for various occasions and embracing a considerable range of topics. Among those dealing with natural science are a review of Goethe's Farbenlehre, a magazine article on Atoms, Molecules, and Ether Waves, another with the title About Common Water, and a paper on the Origin, Propagation, and Prevention of Phthisis. Tyndall's well-known power of making scientific subjects luminous and fascinating is abundantly shown throughout this volume. Take this passage from About Common Water:

The most striking' example of the color of water is probably that furnished by the Blue Grotto of Capri, in the Bay of Naples. Capri is one of the islands of the bay. At the bottom of one of its sea-cliffs there is a small arch, barely sufficient to admit a boat in fine weather, and through this arch you pass into a spacious cavern, the walls and water of which shimmer forth a magical blue light. This light has caught its color from the water through which it has passed. The entrance, as just stated, is very small, so that the illumination of the cave is almost entirely due to light which has plunged to the bottom of the sea, and returned thence to the cave. Hence the exquisite azure. The white body of a diver who plunges into the water for the amusement of visitors is also strikingly affected by the colored liquid through which he moves.

The wonderful style above illustrated contributes a great part to the effectiveness of Prof. Tyndall's teachings in science. Many a student, using one of Tyndall's treatises on Heat, Light, or Electricity as a text-book, has found himself drawn on to read far beyond the limits set for the next lesson. Obviously the books that get themselves read are the ones that produce results; hence it is probably safe to say that no book has done more to spread an understanding of the nature and behavior of one of the great forces of Nature than his Heat as a Mode of Motion.

Tyndall is still more fascinating and becomes even inspiring when he discourses of his favorite recreation, climbing the Alps. There are two essays dealing with Alpine experiences in this collection, and many of the phenomena of glaciers, snow-fields, and mountain mists are introduced into the scientific papers. The following is a description of the sort with which his Alpine chapters abound:

At half past one o'clock on the morning of the 11th we started from the Wengern Alp. No trace of cloud was visible in the heavens, which were sown broadcast with stars. Those low down twinkled with extraordinary vivacity, many of them flashing, in quick succession, lights of different colors. . . . Over the summit of the Wetterhorn the Pleiades hung like a diadem, while at intervals a solitary meteor shot across the sky. We passed along the Alp, and then over the balled snow and broken ice shot down from the end of a glacier which fronted us. Here the ascent began; we passed by turns from snow to rock and from rock to snow. The steepness for a time was moderate, the only thing requiring caution being the thin crusts of ice upon the rocks over which water had trickled the previous day* The east gradually brightened, the stars became paler and disappeared, and at length the crown of the adjacent Jungfrau rose out of the twilight into the purple of the rising sun. The bloom crept gradually downward over the snows, until the whole mountain world partook of the color. It is not in the night nor in the day — it is not in any statical condition of the atmosphere — that the mountains look most sublime. It is during the few minutes of transition from twilight to full day through the splendors of the dawn.

Among the New Fragments are several biographical sketches, and these are fully as vivid as the essays already mentioned. The power of expression that can so greatly enliven inanimate objects is naturally no less potent in dealing with subjects that have lived. It is well for science that Tyndall's bent was turned so strongly toward scientific matters, for otherwise biography would long since have monopolized him. In reading his sketch of Count Rumford one is made to feel that the investigator of a century ago was also a man, and, moreover, what manner of man he was. The same applies to the account of Thomas Young; and when our author speaks of one whom he has known in the flesh, as in his Personal Recollections of Thomas Carlyle, and his address on unveiling the statue of Carlyle, the image of his subject stands out with marvelous distinctness.

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��volume should be mentioned an address on the Sabbath, in which a strict and dismal mode of observing the day is deprecated ; and an address delivered at the Birkbeck In- stitution, which tells much of Tyndall's own student-life. Persons who have read the Fragments of Science by Tyndall will find the present volume no less interesting.

A Treatise on the Ligation of the Great Arteries in Continuity, with Obser- vations on the Nature, Progress, and Treatment of Aneurism. By Charles A. Ballance, F. R. C. S., and Walter Edmunds, F. R. C. S. London and New York : Macmillian & Co. Pp. 568. Price, $10.

This elegant volume embodies the results of extended researches and of many experi- ments upon the lower animals undertaken with the view of lessening the liability to haemorrhage after the ligation of an artery. After two brief introductory chapters the nature of arteries and the processes of physi- ological occlusion and pathological oblitera- tion are described. Then the conduct and fate of the corpuscles, the clot, the coats, and the ligature are successively discussed. The phenomena of suppuration and haemor- rhage are next examined, and a chapter on the conduct and fate of the aneurism follows. Taking up the surgery of the arteries in de- tail, the authors give the views and practice of the earlier and later surgeons, and discuss the choice of the operation, the ligature, the knot, and the force. A concluding chapter treats of the conduct of the operation and the fate of the patient. The work is printed in large type, with wide margins, and is il- lustrated with ten plates, including a front- ispiece portrait of Scarpa, and 232 figures.

The Genesis of Genesis. A Study of the Documentary Sources of the First Book of Moses, in Accordance with the Results of Critical Science, illustrating the Pres- ence of Bibles within the Bible. By Benjamin Wisner Bacon. Hartford : The Student Publishing Company. Pp. 352. Price, $2.50.

In preparing this book, the author has assumed that the reading public are entitled to judge for themselves concerning the value of what is called the higher criticism. For this end they require, not controversial argu- ment, but explanation ; and he does not con-

��sider it necessary that the presentation of the case should be made from the point of view of hostility to the new theory, or even from one of indifference. An introduction by Prof. George F. Moore, of Andover The- ological Seminary, gives the history of the higher criticism, or of questions of the au- thorship of Genesis from the time it was started by Aben Ezra, in the twelfth century. The introductory part of the work proper contains chapters on Higher Criticism and the Science of Documentary Analysis, The Science of Biblical Criticism, and The Docu- mentary Theory of To-day. In Part II is shown the text of Genesis according to the Revised Version, in varieties of type to ex- hibit the constituent sources and method of their compilation according to the general consensus of critical analysis, with notes ex- planatory of the phenomena of reduction. Part III presents the separate documents designated as J, E, and P, conjecturally re- stored, with revised translation according to emended text and conjectural readings of good authority. In the appendix are given " the great flood interpolation and connected passages, placed in juxtaposition with a translation of their cuneiform parallels."

��A Text-Book of Bacteriology. By Carl Fraenkel, M. D., Professor of Hygiene, University of Kbnigsberg. Translated and edited from the third German edi- tion by J. H. Linsley, M. D., Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology in the Uni- versity of Vermont. New York : Will- iam Wood & Co. Pp. 380. Price, $3.75.

Systematic study of the bacteria is in- cluded at present not only in the curriculum of medical schools, but also forms part of a biological course in many of our universities. Its interpretation of the causes of disease has led to a sense of its value, and the meth- ods of German and French investigators are followed with increasing eagerness by stu- dents. A considerable number of volumes consisting of translations and original lect- ures upon the subject is already accessible in English, but no one of these is perhaps an adequate text-book. Dr. Linsley has there- fore translated and adapted to use Fraenkel's Orundriss der Bakterienkunde, a manual whose worth is attested by its rendering into six different languages.

In this work little space is allowed for

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��argument. The bacteria are classified at once as " the lowest members of the vegeta- ble kingdom, closely related to the algse." Separate species are found among them, dif- ferentiated by growth and shape. Accord- ing to their forms they are divided into the globular bacteria or micrococci, the rod- shaped or bacilli, and the screw-like or spi- rilla. Their structure, multiplication, con- ditions necessary for growth, and resultant phenomena are next considered.

The benefits of oil immersion and of the Abbe illuminating apparatus are unfolded in Methods of Investigation, and the learner is instructed in the handling of the microscope and making of stains. Even the common errors of beginners are outlined for the stu- dent, and he is warned not to mistake the broken nuclei of white blood-cells for ba- cilli, when the glasses have been too hastily pulled apart, or to fancy he has discovered a colony of micrococci when some plasma-cells betray idiosyncrasies in absorbing aniline colors.

Full directions are given for the various processes involved in successful breeding, sterilization, and the preparation of liquid and solid food media.

The noxious character of pathogenic bac- teria is shown to consist not in the mechani- cal effect of their presence, nor in the hospi- tality they may exact from their host, but in the alkaloidal poisons they generate. Fraen- kel inclines to the belief that the organ- ism resists through a germ-killing power which resides in the living albumin of the serum, and that victory over invading ba- cilli is a chemical one and not the pitched battle of the phagocytes. Some of the inter- esting experiments of Metschnikoff in de- fense of his theory are not quoted, but his views are fairly represented. The author ad- mits as pathogenic bacteria only those which comply with three conditions : first, that they are invariably present with the morbid affec- tion ; second, that they can be cultivated outside of the organism ; thirdly, when the same pathological effects follow inoculation of the artificial culture. Petri's method of finding the number of bacteria in a given quantity of air is preferred. Only three to five germs in a litre is the average amount computed for an ordinary dwelling. Bacte- riological examination of the soil is compli-

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��cated and of little use, but that of water is extremely important, although the determi- nation of species is difficult. " Water may be harmless and contain five thousand germs of the hay bacillus to the cubic centimetre, but ten germs among which are two cholera vibrios and two typhoid bacilli render it dan- gerous."

The principal mold and yeast fungi are briefly noticed in the appendix. The book is indexed, but lacks illustrations. Minute descriptions atone for this ; however, the student is expected to illustrate for himself in the best way by observation of the liv- ing object.

The Electric Railway in Theory and Prac- tice. By Oscar T. Crosby and Louis Bell, Ph. D. New York : W. J. John- ston Co., Limited. Pp. 400. Illustrated. Price, $2.50.

Although electric traction in the United States only dates from 1884, its development has been so rapid that for public transit in towns and cities it would seem that the days of the horse are numbered. Of electric loco- motion as a science and art this book is a clear and thorough presentation. Beginning with an outline of electrical theory, the au- thors proceed at once to practical details. The considerations which should determine the placing of a station are first discussed, as also the economical adaptation of plant to a specific volume of traffic and frequency of service. Steam-engines and water-wheels of the best models are described and their mer- its carefully discriminated. Motors and car equipment are then canvassed, and the vari- ous approved methods of building lines and track are illustrated. The trolley, under- ground conduit, and storage-battery systems are next compared, with a complete array of evidence pro and con.

Mr. Crosby, one of the authors, has con- ducted the only series of experiments ever undertaken with intent to double railroad speeds. In one of the most interesting chap- ters in the book he gives all the facts in the case, with cautiously deduced estimates. His conclusion is, that with electric motors of the highest efficiency, there is an advantage over the locomotive at all speeds. This ad- vantage is fifteen per cent at twenty miles an hour, and steadily increases as the rate is quickened. Where motors are liable to a

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��loss of one fifth in efficiency they are on an equality with locomatives at sixty miles an hour ; below that speed the locomotive is to be preferred ; beyond it, the motor is the cheaper servant.

While this work shows evidence on every page of the scientific mastery of its subject, the authors are plainly men desirous of meet- ing the practical difficulties which the opera- tion of electric railways presents every day. They are also fully aware that the investor is less interested in the analysis of electrical machinery than in the simple question, Will it pay ? Commercial considerations receive full and sensible treatment. Others than superintendents and investors can read this work with profit. It is as good an example as American literature contains of scientific principles applied to the solution of practical problems problems, too, as important in their social as in their commercial bearings. Progress in electric traction means the relief of congested cities, the expansion of whole- some suburbs, on a scale impossible to the steam locomotive. In long-distance service it stands for an advance second only to that due to George Stephenson.

Scientific Correspondence of Joseph Priestley. Edited, with Copious Notes, by Henry Carrington Bolton. New York : privately printed. Pp. 240. Price, $2.50. E. F. Brown, 180 Warren Street, Brooklyn, Agent.

The " Father of Pneumatic Chemistry " expected to be remembered chiefly for the theological views which he put forth, having been in early life a Unitarian minister, and a writer on theological subjects throughout his career. Hence his modest autobiography, which was expanded into two volumes, with the addition of several hundred letters, by his son and J. T. Rutt, contains almost noth- ing about his scientific investigations. To supply the lack of material relating to his work in the latter field, Dr. Bolton has col- lected ninety-seven letters, nearly all written by Priestley, his correspondents being Josiah Wedgwood, Captain James Keir, Sir Joseph Banks, and others in England, and Dr. Ben- jamin Rush and others in America after he came to this country. They contain many interesting details concerning the progress of his researches on the gases, several of the most important of which were discovered by

��him. The letters are supplemented by many biographical, bibliographical, and explana- tory notes by the editor, and the volume con- tains a portrait of Priestley and one of Jo- siah Wedgwood. There is also a synopsis of correspondence of Dr. Priestley, consist- ing chiefly of letters from him to his brother- in-law, Mr. Wilkinson, from 1790 to 1802. An appendix contains a descriptive list of the likenesses of Joseph Priestley in oil, ink, marble, and metal, embracing ninety-three items ; an account of the Lunar Society, in Birmingham, founded by Matthew Boulton, Erasmus Darwin, and others, and of which Priestley was a member ; and an inventory of Dr. Priestley's laboratory, which was sacked by rioters in 1791.

Diphtheria: its Natural History and Pre- tention. By R. Thorne Thorne, F. R. S. London and New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 266. Price, $2.

Statistics show that the death-rate from diphtheria in England and Wales has been increasing during the last twenty years, and more rapidly in the cities than in the coun- try. This disease thus presents a contrast to the majority of zymotic diseases, the death- rate from which has been lessened as physi- cians have gained more knowledge of their nature and as sanitary conditions have been improved. In view of its fatal and little un- derstood character, the author has under- taken to collect what is known in regard to diphtheria. It appears that the broad geo- logical features of a district have no influ- ence on the development or diffusion of the disease. A chart prepared by Dr. G. B. Longstaff shows that the death-rate has been high in some counties and low in others on the same geological formation. Yet the au- thor is convinced that a surface soil which retains wetness and organic refuse, together with an aspect exposed to cold wet winds, tend to the fatality of diphtheria. He fur- ther discusses' the general nature of the dis- ease, its relation to scarlet fever and to croup, the influence of schools in spreading the in- fection, and milk as a vehicle in which it may be carried. The measures of prevention which are suggested by his study of the sub- ject are stated in detail, and his general con- clusions as to the natural history of diph- theria are also given. The volume contains

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��three folded plates illustrating the relation of diphtheria to geology and topography.

Direct Legislation by the Citizenship through the initiative and referen- DUM. By J. W. Sullivan. New York : Twentieth Century Co. Pp. 120. Price, cloth, 75 cents ; paper, 25 cents.

When an American learns that Switzer- land is far in the lead of her sister republics in the practice of democratic government, many questions arise in his mind. This lit- tle book is designed to answer them. Mr. Sullivan concisely recounts the progress of Switzerland in direct legislation during the past sixty years, and shows the remarkable influence of this legislation on the institu- tions of the country. The statistics he cites prove a very notable diffusion of prosperity. He next shows that to a considerable length direct legislation is practiced in the United States in township, county, and State gov- ernments, as well as in the national trades and labor organizations. In his concluding chapter Mr. Sullivan, although a strenuous individualist, argues that in direct legislation lies an open way to a peaceful political and economic revolution. To the Swiss referen- dum it is often objected that many legisla- tive questions are above the ordinary voter's comprehension, and demand the specially trained mind of his representative. But would not this check of comprehensibility keep law-making within legitimate bounds, and abolish the antagonism which so often exists between the interests of the people and those of their legislators ?

Elementary Text-Book of Zoology. By Dr. C. Claus. Translated and edited by Prof. Adam Sedgwick. Second edition. London and New York : Macmillan & Co. Two vols. Price, $8.

Among the German scientific text-books that have won high favor among American instructors is this work on zoology by Dr. Claus. It is in two volumes, the first comprising the General Part and the first Special Part Protozoa to Insecta ; the sec- ond volume containing the other Special Part Mollusca to Man. In the General Part a bird's-eye view of the organization and development of animals in general is given, and this is followed by a brief histori- cal review of the science of zoology, an ex-

��planation of the classification of the present day, and a statement of the evidence in favor of Darwin's theory of descent. In the spe- cial chapters which constitute the rest of the work, types of the several families are de- scribed with considerable detail. The text is illustrated with seven hundred and six woodcuts in Volume I and two hundred and five in the smaller Volume II.

Besides the list of towns and cities hav- ing water- works, and accounts of their works, The Manual of American Water - Works con- tains summaries and statistical information of great value to persons who are concerned in this subject. From it we learn that there were 2,037 water-works in operation on July 1, 1891, supplying 2,187 cities, towns, and villages ; while in Canada there are 95 works, supplying 102 towns. Tables are given showing the distribution of this supply in the several States and provinces and groups of the same; towns having more than one plant; summaries of populations supplied ; miles of mains, etc., also by States and groups. The last tables show that 22,- 814,061, or about 36 per cent of the inhab- itants of the United States, live in towns having public water-works, and that only a few towns having 8,000 or more inhabitants are without works. The reported cost of 1,802 of the water-works in the United States and Canada aggregates $504,035,492. Other tables represent growth by number of works and populations supplied ; dates of construction by groups of States and half decades ; like summaries of works com- pleted or under construction since 1880, and of works projected ; information respecting the management of public water-works and tenure of office of governing bodies; con- sumption of water and use of metres ; own- ership, whether by the public or by private companies; franchises of water-works com- panies ; and other facts of related character. The main part of the book comprises the list of water-works, given by States according to their geographical arrangement and by towns alphabetically, and comprising the items of history, source of supply, mechanism, finan- cial condition, and managing boards.

A Preliminary Report on the Coal De- posits of Missouri has been prepared by the State Geologist, Arthur Winslow, in order

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��that something may be at hand to meet im- mediate calls upon the survey for information concerning the coal deposits of the State. It embodies part of the results of such obser- vations in the coal-fields as the author was able personally to make in 1890 and 1891. While the descriptions of the details of sec- tions, the correlation of the different coal- beds, the definition of the individual areas of the coal-beds, and the adaptabilities of the coals for steaming purposes are reserved for future reports or only briefly touched upon, and the report is not exhaustive or elaborate, it is comprehensive. It aims to present, in general terms, an outline of the conditions of occurrence and distribution of coal in the entire State, and contains a de- scriptive reference to every county in which coal is known to exist. Special effort has been made to obtain and include all infor- mation and results particularly relating to coal that were not obtainable at the time the earlier surveys of the State were in op- eration. Of especial value are the records of the various deep shafts and drill-holes which are included in the report. The well- executed sectional diagrams of the several coal mines described contribute much to the satisfactory impression made by the re- port.

The principles of sound physical develop- ment, graceful carriage, and easy posture are taught in the little manual on Dclsarkan Physical Culture, which has been prepared for seminaries, classes, private teachers, and individuals by Carrica Le Favre, and is pub- lished by the Fowler & Wells Company. The rules and exercises prescribed are simple and plain, and such as, with patience and attention, are easily carried out.

In The Modern Cook-book (Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick, Springfield, Ohio) an accept- able addition has been made to this class of books by Mrs. T. J. Kirkpatrick. The recipes are numerous, various, and simple, and are classified. The author has found that all the cook-books that have come under her observation lack something of complete- ness, and has endeavored to fill the want so far as she could by presenting a book con- taining a moderate number of recipes, all practical and working. The recipes are tabu- lated wherever it is possible ; the bills of fare are not for state occasions, but for

��plain, every-day cooking ; and the directions are full, minute, and systematic.

In the series of catalogues compiled by W. M. Griswold (Cambridge, Mass.), we no- tice the Descriptive List of Romantic N. vels, the object of which is to direct readers, who would enjoy books of this kind, to a num- ber of novels, easily obtainable, but which, in many cases, have been forgotten within a year or two after publication. The purpose has been to include only such works as are well written, interesting, and free from sen- sationalism, sentimentality, and pretense. The list is alphabetical, by titles, and is sup- plemented by an alphabetical index of au- thors.

A pamphlet on Roads Improvement, pub- lished by the League of American Wheelmen, contains three papers enforcing the impor- tance of good roads, and showing by citations of what has been accomplished abroad what can be done toward making them. The papers are : The Common Roads of Europe and America, by Isaac B. Potter ; Highways and National Prosperity, by Edward P. North ; and The Importance of Good Wagon- roads, by Prof. Lewis M. Haupt. The argu- ments of these papers are re-enforced in the most striking style by contrasted photo- graphic views of scenes on the common roads of the United States, even near large cities, and the finished highways, even in rural districts, of England, Ireland, and Brit- tany.

A summary of Recent Advances in Elec- tricity, Electric Lighting, Magnetism, Telegra- phy, Telephony, etc., edited by Henry Greer and published at the New York Agent College of Electrical Engineering, contains articles on The Storage of Electricity ; The Brush Stor- age System ; other notices of storage bat- teries, accumulators, etc. ; Telegraphing from a Moving Railway Train (Phelps's system) ; Navigable Trains of Air-ships (electricity being the motive power) ; and Edison's paper on his Pyromagnetic Dynamo, or machine for producing electricity directly from fuel, Price, $1.

A second series of Papers in Penology, compiled by the Editor of the Summary, and published at the New York State Reforma- tory at Elmira, contains papers on The Pris- ons of Great Britain, by Jay S. Butler; Mod- ern Prison Science, by Prof. Charles A. Col-

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��lin; The Philosophy of Crime, by William T. Harris ; Criminal Anthropology, by Ham- ilton D. Wey ; New York's Prison Laws, by Eugene Smith ; Prison Labor Systems ; and The Elmira Reformatory of To-day. The mechanical work upon the publication, in- cluding the etching of the cover, has been done by inmates of the reformatory.

The Report on the Coal Measures of the Plateau Region of Alabama, made to the State Geologist by Mr. Henry McCalley, treats of all the coal measures of the plateau region, except those that were included in the Report of the Warrior Coal-field, pub- lished in 1886 ; and also speaks of the coal measures of St. Clair and Shelby Counties, whose measures are principally of plateau strata, and have not been considered as a whole in any previous report. A general description of the plateau region is given in the introduction ; and notes and a short re- port by General A. M. Gibson are added on the Coal Measures of Blount and Berry Mountains. Some parts of this plateau re- gion are likely to prove important coal areas. A map of the coal-fields and two geological sections are inserted in the volume.

The Report of S. P. Lane/leg, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for the year ending with June, 1891, includes the work placed under its charge by Congress in the National Museum, the Bureau of Ethnology, the International Exchanges, the National Zoological Park, and the Astro-Physical Ob- servatory. By saving in other quarters, the Institution has been able to revert in some measure to an early practice of offering aid in original research. It has made grants for work on a universal standard of meas- ure, founded on the wave-length of light ; for determinations of the densities of oxy- gen and hydrogen ; for photographs of the moon ; and for investigations upon chemical compounds. In the Bureau of Ethnology efforts are made to secure records of Indian languages before they pass away.

A Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains, preliminary to a complete and thorough catalogue to be made as soon as the work can be accomplished, has been prepared by Dr. Cyrus Thomas, and is published by the Bureau of Eth- nology. It contains lists of all the works . within the territory described, of which

��mention has been found in any books or reports, as accurately located and described as the accounts given in the original or other best authorities will permit. The no- tices are perhaps often indefinite and fre- quently incorrect, on account of defects in these original authorities ; but it is hoped that their appearance in the present shape will lead to more careful examination and to the preparation of the complete catalogue which it is hoped to make. The list is ac- companied by a map of the distribution of mounds in the United States, and by State maps showing the location of prehistoric works.

The Report of the Botanical Department of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, by Byron D. Halsted, botanist, is one of the most valuable publications that have yet issued from the experiment sta- tions. A considerable part of the report is devoted to the record of the study of fungus forms injurious to crops, made during a season in which fungoid growths were very prevalent including cranberry scald, sweet- potato rots, etc. The causes of the failure of the peach crop in 1890 are investigated. Considerable space is devoted to the account of the work done on the weeds of the State, including a listing of them with botanical and local names, estimates by different ob- servers of their relative degrees of noxious- ness, and twenty-four page plates of the worst weeds.

In a Doctor's Thesis on The Right of the State to Be, an attempt is made by Prof. F. M. Taylor to determine the ultimate human prerogative on which government rests. The author assumes that most previous efforts to answer the question presented in the title have referred to incidentals and have not been sufficiently directed to the main question. He seeks the solution of this. First, he maintains the reality of the prob- lem and defines its nature ; next he reviews previous theories, and points out their de- fects ; and, finally, he explains and defends his own theory. This theory bases the right on the prerogative which is assumed to be- long to every person as such to rule, or to interfere coercively with the liberty of other persons in order to maintain his version of the jural ideal. Government then becomes the collective exercise by the community of

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��their individual prerogatives combined into a single authority.

The third edition of Prof. Simon Henry Gage's manual of The Microscope and His- tology has been entirely rewritten, enlarged, and more fully illustrated; and, while ele- mentary matters have received fuller treat- ment than in previous editions, special effort has been made in this to give more adequate accounts of certain apparatus which are coming to be used more and more in the higher fields of investigation in pure science and in practical medicine. In order to en- courage students to do their own work, exer- cises illustrating the principles of the micro- scope and the methods of employing it have been made an integral part of the treatise. To this branch of the subject the volume now before us, constituting Part I of the work The Microscope and Microscopical Methods is largely devoted. (Printed and for sale by Andrus & Church, Ithaca, N. Y. Price $1.)

In the report of Mr. Tlieodore B. Corn- stock, On the Geology and Mineral Resources of the Central Mineral Region of Texas for 1890, about a thousand miles are added to the area given in the previous report as that of the pre-carboniferous rocks comprising the regions described, Silurian and Cambrian strata having been discovered in fields that were supposed to be covered by the Creta- ceous. In order to give special prominence to economical results, the outline of the stratigraphy introduced is prepared with the primary object of affording a kind of key to those whose practical needs preclude the task of selecting from the mass of technical de- scription the particular details which apply to individual cases. For the benefit of the same class of persons a most useful series of directions are given for finding in the re- port at once the information concerning the reader's particular locality, by the aid of which he may judge what method of develop- ment may be most economical and profitable.

Part II of the fourth volume of The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Japan, contains seven papers, five of which are by Japanese authors, while one is a joint production. They are On some Fossil Plants from the Coal-bearing Series of Nagato, and On some Cretaceous Fossils from Shikoku, by Matajiro Yokoyama ; Com-

��parison of Earthquake Measurements made in a Pit and on the Surface Ground, by Prof. S. Sekiya ; Laboratory Notes, by Prof. C. G. Knott ; Diffraction Phenomena pro- duced by an Aperture on a Curved Surface, and Effect of Magnetization on the Perma- nent Twist of Nickel Wire, by H. Nagaoka ; and On Certain Thermo-electric Effects of Stress in Iron, by Prof. Knott and S. Kimura.

Edward Fliigel's study of Thomas Car- lyWs Moral and Religious Development is published in a translation by Jessica Gilbert Tyler, by M. L. Holbrook & Co. The main object of the book is defined by the author to be to consider Carlyle as a moral force. Before turning attention, however, to his moral and religious views, a brief considera- tion is given to the history of his inner life, especially with reference to its moral and religious side. In this sense chapters are given among the others to Carlyle's Belief, his Relation to Christianity, his Position with Reference to Science, and especially to Phi- losophy, to Poetry, and Art, his Attitude to- ward History, and his Ethics.

A series of articles upon the trees of Salem, Mass., and its neighborhood, pre- pared by Mr. John Robinson, in 1890 and 1891, for one of the newspapers of that city, have been published by the Essex Institution in book form under the title of Our Trees. They give a popular account of the trees in the streets and gardens of the city and of the native trees of Essex County, with the loca- tion of the trees and historical and botanical notes. They were written wholly with an eye to popular entertainment and instruction, but prepared with considerable care and a regard to scientific accuracy. In them we have accounts of the character of the mag- nolias, tulip tree, lindens, tamarix, sumachs, horse - chestnuts, maples, locusts, apples, pears, cherries, dogwoods, tupelo, witch- hazel, ashes, catalpa, sassafras, elms, box- tree, mulberries, buttonwood, walnuts, hick- ories, birches, hornbeams, chestnut, beech, oaks, willows, poplars, pines, spruces, fir, hemlock, larches, cedar, gingko, and yew. One hundred and fifteen species grow in the region, of which fifty-six are natives of Essex County.

A collection of papers on the Quaternary Geology of the Hudson River Valley is in- tended as a preliminary contribution by Mr.

�� � Frederick J. H. Merrill to that subject. The papers relate to the historic and economic geology of the field. The first paper, on the Post-Glacial History of the Valley, is the result of several seasons' study by the author. The papers on Brick Clays and the Manufacture of Brick were prepared under the author's direction by Mr. Heinrich Ries, after a detailed investigation of the region between Croton and Albany.

A study of the Evolution of the Myth of Satan is presented by Mr. William Henry Hudson in a paper which was originally delivered as a Sunday evening lecture, on The Satan of Theology and how we came by him. The author finds that the Satan of the Book of Job bears no resemblance to the spirit of evil in our modern theology, while the tempter, or serpent in the garden of Eden, was not identified with Satan till Persian influence had begun to operate. The real origin of the theological devil is then sought in the dualistic conception of the Zoroastrian religion, which was transplanted into Judaism and has been built upon till it has grown into the^ present accepted figure.

Of two Addresses on Anatomy, reprinted by the author, Dr. Harrison Allen, of the University of Pennsylvania, for more convenience in reading, the first, On Comparative Anatomy as a Part of the Medical Curriculum, was delivered before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at its Boston meeting, in 1880; and the second, On the Teaching of Anatomy to Advanced Students, before the Association of American Anatomists, at Washington, in 1891. The second address outlines a plan for a thorough fundamental course of instruction in the science, representing the idea which the author has long cherished for having medical biologists as systematically trained as those who elect the more general field of natural history.