Sand River Convention
|Sand River Convention
|The Sand River Convention was a convention whereby Great Britain formally recognised the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal River. In return, the Boers promised that slavery would be outlawed in the Transvaal and that they would not interfere in the Orange River Sovereignty's affairs. The convention was signed on 17 January 1852 by Andries Pretorius (for the Boers) and William Hogge and Mostyn Owen (for Great Britain) in a marquee on the banks of the Sand River.|
SAND RIVER CONVENTION, 1852. 
Minutes of a meeting held in the place of Mr. P. A. Venter, Sand River, on Friday, the sixteenth day of January, 1852, between Major W. Hogge and C. M. Owen, Esq., Her Majesty’s Assistant Commissioners, for the settling and adjusting of the affairs of the eastern and north-eastern boundaries of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope on the one part, and the following deputation from the emigrant farmers residing north of the Vaal River:
- A. W. J. Pretorius, Commandant-General.
- H. S. Lombard, Landdrost.
- W. F. Joubert, Commandant-General.
- G. J. KRUGER, Commandant.
- J. N. Grobbelaar, Raadslid.
- P. E. Scholtz.
- F. G. Wolmarans, Ouderling.
- J. A. van Aswegen, Veld-cornet.
- F. J. Botes, do.
- N. J. S. Basson, do.
- J. P. Furstenburg, do.
- J. P. Pretorius.
- J. H. Grobbelaar.
- J. M. LEHMAN.
- P. Schutte.
- J. C. KLOPPERS: on the other part.
The Assistant Commissioners guarantee in the fullest manner, on the part of the British Government, to the emigrant farmers beyond the Vaal River the right to maintain their own affairs, and to govern themselves according to their own laws without any interference on the part of the British Government, and that no encroachment shall be made by the said Government on the territory beyond to the north of the Vaal River, with the further assurance that the warmest Wish of the British Government is to promote peace, free trade, and friendly intercourse with the emigrant farmers now inhabiting or who hereafter may inhabit that country, it being understood that this system of non-interference is binding upon both parties.
Should any misunderstanding hereafter arise as to the true meaning of the words “the Vaal River,” this question in so far as regards the line from the source of that river over the Draakenberg shall be settled and adjusted by Commissioners chosen by both parties.
Her Majesty’s Assistant Commissioners hereby disclaim all alliances whatever and with whomsoever of the coloured nations to the north of the Vaal River.
It is agreed that no slavery is or shall be permitted or practised in the country to the north of the Vaal River by the emigrant farmers.
Mutual facilities and liberties shall be afforded to traders and travellers on both sides of the Vaal River, it being understood that every waggon containing ammunition and firearms coming from the south side of the Vaal River shall produce a certificate signed by a British magistrate or other functionary duly authorised to grant such, and which shall state the quantities of such articles contained in said waggon to the nearest magistrate north of the Vaal River, who shall act in the ease as the regulations of the emigrant farmers direct. It is agreed that no objection shall be made by any British authority against the emigrant Boers purchasing their supplies of ammunition in any of the British Colonies and possessions of South Africa, it being mutually understood that all trade in ammunition with the native tribes is prohibited both by the British Government and the emigrant farmers on both sides of the Vaal River.
It is agreed that so far as possible all criminals and other guilty parties who may fly from justice either way across the Vaal River shall be mutually delivered up if such should be required, and that the British courts as well as those of the emigrant farmers shall be mutually open to each other for all legitimate processes, and that summonses for witnesses sent either way across the Vaal River shall be backed by the magistrates, on each side of the same respectively, to compel the attendance of such witnesses when required.
It is agreed that certificates of marriage issued by the proper authorities of the emigrant farmers shall he held valid and sufficient to entitle children of such marriages to receive portions accruing to them in any British Colony or possession in South Africa.
It is agreed that any and every person now in possession of land, and residing in British territory, shall have free right and power to sell his property and remove unmolested across the Vaal River, and vice versa, it being distinctly understood that this arrangement does not comprehend criminals or debtors, without providing for the payment of their just and lawful debts.
This done and signed at Sand River aforesaid, this 17th day of January, 1852.
- [Signed] A. W. J. PRETORIUS, Comdt.-General.
- [Signed] H. S. Lombard, Landdrost.
- [Signed] W. F. Joubert, Commandant-General.
- [Signed] G. J. KRUGER, Commandant.
- [Signed] W. I. Hogge, Assistant Commissioner.
- [Signed] C. MOSTYN OWEN, Assistant Commissioner.
- [Signed] J. N. Grobbelaar, R.L.
- [Signed] P. E. SCHOLTZ.
- [Signed] F. G. Wolmarans, Ouderling.
- [Signed] J. A. Van ASWEGAN, Veld Cornet.
- [Signed] F. J. BOTES.
- [Signed] N. J. S. BASSON, Veld Cornet.
- [Signed] J. P. FURSTENBERG, Veld Cornet.
- [Signed] J. P. PRETORIUS.
- [Signed] J. H. Grobbelaar.
- [Signed] J. M. LEHMAN.
- [Signed] P. SCHUTTE.
- [Signed] J. C. KLOPPERS.
In presence of—
- [Signed] JOHN BURNET, Clerk to the Civil Commissioner of Winburg.
- [Signed] J. H. Visagie, Secretary.