The Amazing Emperor Heliogabalus

From Wikisource
 
Jump to: navigation, search
The Amazing Emperor Heliogabalus  (1911) 
by John Stuart Hay
With introduction by J.B. Bury

THE AMAZING EMPEROR

HELIOGABALUS

page

Macmillan header ornament.png


MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE


THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO


THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO

page

THE


AMAZING EMPEROR HELIOGABALUS


BY

J. STUART HAY

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD


WITH INTRODUCTION BY

Professor J. B. BURY, Litt.D.

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE




MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

1911

page

Chapters (not individually listed)

page

CONTENTS

PAGE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxiii


PART I


CHAPTER I


General sketch of conditions, 1. The Augustan Histories and their writers, 2. Lampridius, author of the Life of Elagabalus, 4. First attempts at criticism, 4. Modern criticism, 4. Latin sources : Marius Maximus, 5. Greek sources : Dion Cassius, Xiphilinus, 7. Herodian, 8. General attack on the authenticity of the "Lives," 9. Momrasen's opinion, 10. Peter, Richter, Dessau, Seeck, Klebs, Kornemann, 11-15. Italian opinion, 15. General opinion of the biographies, 16. Reasons for the tainted sources, 18. Church historians, 19; Jurisprudence, 21. Numismatists, 21. Object of this work, 23.


CHAPTER II


Emesa, 24. High-Priest Kings, 25. Septimius Severus, 27. Julius Bassianus, 27. Julia Domna's marriage, 28. Caracalla's birth, 29. Septimius Severus, Emperor, 30. Julia's court, 31. Maesa comes to Rome with her family, 31. Marriage of Soaemias, 34. Birth of Elagabalus, 35. Paternity of Elagabalus, 35. Birthplace of Elagabalus, 36. Julia Mamaea, her marriage, and her connection with Caracalla, 38. Macrinus Praetorian Praefect, 41. His plot against Caracalla, 42. Election of Macrinus, 43. Julia's position, 43. Her work to recover the empire, 43. Banishment and death, 44.


CHAPTER III


Maesa's return to Emesa, 46. Macrinus' weakness and tyranny, 47. The legion at Emesa, 48. Bassianus High-Priest, 49. Worship of Elagabal, 50. Bassianus' religious outlook, 51. Eutychianus and Gannys corrupt the soldiers, 53. Date of the proclamation of Elagabalus, 55. Macrinus astonished, 56. The Empire in favour of Bassianus, Julian's expedition, 59. Deserters to Bassianus, 61. Macrinus at Apamea, and Diadumenianus' elevation, 63. Macrinus retires to Antioch, 66. Bassianus wins allegiance of soldiers at Apamea, 67. Dion on the dates of proclamation and battle, 67. Arval Brothers' meeting, 68. Wirth, 69. Battle of Immae, 69. Antonine at Antioch, 71. Macrinus' escape, 72. Capture and death, 74. Character of Macrinus, 75.


CHAPTER IV


Antonine's refusal to allow the sack of Antioch, 77. Chief minister, 78. Antonine's temperament, 79. Acts of the new Government, 81. Amnesty, 83. Position of the Senate, 84. Delight of Rome, 86. Dismissal of troops, 87. Treasonable attempts and pretenders, 88. Elagabal to accompany the Emperor, 91. Journey to Nicomedia, 92. Winter in Asia Minor, 93. Illness of the Emperor, 94. Xiphilinus on Antonine's religion, 95. Monotheistic or Mithraic not polytheistic, 96. Death of Gannys, 101. Antonine's character, 102. His popularity and his taxation, 104.


CHAPTER V


Date of arrival in Rome discussed, 107. The entry into the city according to Herodian, 110. First marriage. 111. The temples, 112. The scheme for the unifying of religions, 114. The worship, 115. The Eastern cults, 115. Date of scheme discussed, 118. Reasons for its failure, 118. Women in the Senate, 119. Senaculum, 121. Lampridius on the Emperor's popularity, 124. Charges against the Administration, 125. Divorce of Julia Paula, 126. Pastimes, 127. Summary, 128. Elagabal's alliance with Vesta, Antonine's with Aquilia Severa, 129. Pomponius Bassus' plot, 131. Antonine divorces Elagabal from Minerva, himself from Aquilia Severa, 132. Sends for Tanit from Carthage, 133. Marries Annia Faustina, 134. Alliance of Maesa and Mamaea, 135.


CHAPTER VI


Lampridius on Alexander, 137. Seius Carus' plot, 139. Military expenditure, 140. Maesa's plan for the adoption of Alexander, 141. The Emperor's reasons for concurrence, 142. Name Alexander accounted for, 144. Date of adoption discussed, 145. Position after adoption, 146. Alexander's titles, 147. Antonine's endeavours, 148. Antonine's resolve to divorce Annia Faustina and disown Alexander, 150. Accusations against the Government, 151. Antonine's attempt to assassinate Alexander discussed, 152. Antonine goes to Praetorian camp, 154. Camp conference, 155. Hatred of Maesa and Mamaea testified against Antonine, 157. Mamaea's precautions, 158. Antonine's preparations for suicide, 160. Alexander designated Consul, 160. The Emperor's refusal and reasons for his compliance, 161. Lampridius on Julius Sabinus, 163. Ulpian and Silvinus, 164. Reasons for the murder and the various accounts, 165. Criticism on the above, 170. The treatment of Elagabalus' body, 171.


CHAPTER VII


The Emperor set free to further his cult, 173. The procession, 174. Mismanagement and appointments, 178. Freedmen, 180. Return of Aquilia Severa, 183. Desire for military glory, 184. The names of the Emperor, 185. Activity in building, 186. Military disaffection, its causes and result, 188. Date of Elagabalus' murder and length of reign discussed, 191. Date for renewal of tribunician power discussed, 194. Elagabalus' interest in public affairs, 198. The treatment of inscriptions, 198. Outlook of the Roman world, 200.


CHAPTER VIII


Roman views on matrimony, 203. Elagabalus' marriage with Julia Paula, 205. Position of Julius Paulus, 206. Serviez, etc., on Julia Paula, 207. Dates of this marriage and divorce, 20S. Elagabalus' marriage with Aquilia Severa, 211. Vestals discussed, 211. Roman religion, 212. Elagabalus' lack of prejudice, 214. His explanation to the Senate, 215. Family of Aquilia Severa, 215. Probable dates of marriage and divorce, 216-18. Maesa's desire for an alliance with the nobility, 218. Annia Faustina chosen, her family discussed, 222. Her age and her divorce, 223. Further marriages discussed, 224. Elagabalus' return to Aquilia, 225.


PART II


CHAPTER IX

Lampridius' Life of Elagabalus impossible, 227. Elagabalus a psychosexual hermaphrodite, not wicked, 229. The condition quite usual then as now, 229. Virtue a virile quality, not a neurotic negation, 229. The Phallus natural and omnipresent typifies joy and fruitfulness, 230. Elagabalus has strong homosexual nymphomania and every inducement to gratify his feminine instinct, 231. His nature incredibly open and affectionate, 232. Maesa an aggravating factor, 234. Modern authorities on similarly inverted cases to-day, 234. Biblical parallels, Greek instances, modern religious tendencies, 234. Normal intolerance largely hypocritical, 235. The usual instincts of such natures, 235. Elagabalus' love of flowers, feasts, and teasing, 236. His marriages psychologically considered, 238. His castration and desire for an operation which might produce the female organs discussed, 238. Elagabalus' marriage with Hierocles, 239. Hierocles and Zoticus discussed, 239. Comparison with Messalina, 240. Spintries, 240. Elagabalus' love of colour, 241. His frankness, 241. Greek love opposed to effeminacy, 242. Gulick on the psychology, on Christianity, 242. Effeminacy, not homosexuality, disgusts Roman world and gives reason for Elagabalus' downfall, 244.


CHAPTER X


Description of Nero's golden house, 245. Elagabalus compared with Nero, 246. Pastimes, prodigalities, and dress, 246. Extravagances of ritual, 250. Congiaries and games, 251. Table appointments and food, 252. Maecenas' feast, 254. Perfumes, 256. Fish, 258. The spectacles described, 260. Gladiators discussed, 262. Elagabalus' skill as a sportsman, 263. The lotteries, 264. Elagabalus' devices for suicide, 265. The psychology of extravagance, 266.


CHAPTER XI


Elagabalus' piety, 267. Constantine the opponent of other monotheisms, 268. Theories of religion, 269. Civilised religion becomes philosophical, 269. Rome both atheist and credulous, 270. Civic religion leaves the forces of sex and superstition out of count, 270. Gods always necessary to the superstitious, the more mystical the more attractive, 271. Semetic rituals attract the mob, 273. Elagabal exclusive and absorbs other cults, 273. Elagabalus' scheme Erastian, compared with Tudor conception, 273. Elagabalus will not persecute, 276. Religion and castration, 276. Elagabalus no idolator, 277. His mistake in trying to amalgamate the hated Judaism with Roman deities, 277. Marriages of Elagabal, 278. Human sacrifices discussed, 280. The column for the meteorite, 281. Contest between religion and dogma, 282. The numbers of the mob prevail against the rationalists, 284. Rome bored with all Gods, hence Elagabalus' failure, 285.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
289
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
299

page

LIST OF COINS

Facing page

Coin of Antoninus Pius, struck at Emesa (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
Coin of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla) (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
Medal of Julia Domna Pia, Empress (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Coin of Julia Maesa Augusta (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Coin of Julia Soaemias Augusta (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Coin of Julia Mamaea Augusta (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
Coin of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla) (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Coin of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Elagabalus) (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Coin of Macrinus recording Victoria Parthica, a.d. 218, (From a woodcut)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Coin of Diadumenianus as Emperor, A.D. 218 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Coin of A.D. 219 commemorating the arrival of Elagabalus in Rome (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
Liberalitas II. Coin struck in A.D. 219 for the Emperor's marriage with Julia Cornelia Paula. (From the collection of Sir James S. Hay, K.C.M.G.)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
Coin struck in A.D. 219 concerning the grain supply (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
Coin struck in A.D. 219 to commemorate the Emperor's recovery (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
Thyatira Coin of Elagabalus (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142
Coin struck to commemorate Alexianus' adoption, A.D. 221 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142
Coin struck to commemorate Alexander as Pont. Max., A.D. (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142
Jovi Ultiori. The Eliogabalium as reconsecrated to Jupiter, A.D. 224. (From a woodcut)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
174

Facing page

Coin struck to commemorate the Procession of Elagabal, a.d. 221
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
174
Coin of a.d. 221 representing the Eliogabalium. (From a photogravure)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
174
Coin of a.d. 220, misread by Cohen as T.P. III Cos. IIII (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196
Coin of a.d. 221, misread by Cohen as T.P. IIII Cos. IIII (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196
Coin of a.d. 222 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196
Coin of Julia Cornelia Paula Augusta (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
Coin of Julia Cornelia Paula Augusta, a.d. 220-21 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
Coin of Julia Aquilia Severa Augusta, a.d. 220-21 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
Coin of Ania Faustina Augusta, a.d. 221-22 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
Coin of Julia Aquilia Severa Augusta, a.d. 221-22 (British Museum)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).