The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Emigration

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The American Cyclopædia
Emigration
Edition of 1879. Written by Eaton S. DroneSee also Emigration on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

EMIGRATION (Lat. e, from, and migrare, to depart), the act of leaving the country or place where one has resided, in order to reside in another. The terms emigration and emigrant are strictly applicable only with reference to the country from which the migration is made, and the converse terms immigration and immigrant are used when express reference to the country into which it is made is intended; but in the unlimited sense of change of residence, the former are generally employed in connection with either the old or the new domicile. — Of the earliest migrations by which the fundamental features of European history have been defined, no records remain, but numerous traces of them are found by the archæologist, ethnologist, and linguist. Emigration proper commenced when herdsmen congregated into nomadic tribes. Of such corporate emigration patriarchal history records some examples, as those of Abraham and Jacob. With the progress of agriculture and the growth of more definite political relations, trade, and commerce, began the emigration of single bodies of adventurers to distant countries. In this way, according to Hellenic traditions, Phœnicians, led by Cadmus, and Egyptians, led by Danaus and Cecrops, emigrated to Greece, the Heraclidæ from Greece to Asia Minor, and the Tyrrhenians to Italy. The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan was a corporate emigration of a people, on account of religious and political oppression, for which modern history furnishes parallels in the Mormon emigration to Utah and the emigration of the Boers in southern Africa. During the historical times of ancient Greece emigration generally assumed the character of colonization. Many flourishing and powerful Greek colonies were thus sent forth along the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas by Greece. The colonies of ancient Rome for the most part were rather outposts of an army and combinations of fortune hunters than settlements of men intending to found permanent residences. The great migration of the Germanic nations having destroyed the Roman empire, European society was for centuries subject to constant changes. Charlemagne changed the direction of German emigration from the south to the east and north. While from that time the movements of German nations toward Italy assumed the character of mere military conquests, their emigration conquered nearly the whole country between the Elbe and Vistula rivers from the Slavic race. A counter-current from Asia, which set in at various periods of the middle ages, consisting of Magyars and Tartars, was successfully resisted, and the tide was even turned upon Asia by the crusades; but at a later period another Asiatic race, the Osmanli Turks, succeeded in displacing the most decayed of Christian nations in southeastern Europe, while almost simultaneously still another Asiatic race (the Arabs) was expelled from the southwestern peninsula, Spain, to which they had emigrated eight centuries before. — In Europe, Russia was among the earliest to perceive the advantages of immigration. Peter the Great invited emigrants from all nations to settle in Russia. His successors followed the same policy by granting premiums and valuable privileges, such as exemption from taxation for a certain number of years, exemption from military duty, and free homesteads to colonists. Induced by these advantages, a large number of emigrants from the Palatinate settled in southern Russia about 1784. Immediately after the Napoleonic wars an extensive Germanic emigration to Russia (including Poland) took place. The total number of Germans who emigrated thither between the years 1816 and 1826 is estimated at 250,000. The agricultural colonies of Vielovish in the government of Tchernigov, and Riebendorf in that of Voronezh, a manufacturing colony near Poltava, a Moravian settlement at Sarepta, and a number of German colonies in the Crimea, originated in this way. During the reign of Nicholas emigration to Russia ceased almost entirely, but it revived to a certain degree after the accession of Alexander II. — Individual emigration, as distinguished from the movements of nations, commenced on a large scale after the discovery of America. During the 16th century the nations in which the Roman element predominated, Spain, Portugal, and France, sent forth a great number of emigrants, most of them mere adventurers who did not intend to stay longer than might be necessary to become rich. The first attempts by the English to organize emigration to America likewise originated in adventurous designs. In such attempts 300 men and £40,000 were lost from 1585 to 1590. In 1606 mote than 2,000 emigrants were sent from England to North America to seek for gold, but they perished miserably, and in 1609 but 60 remained. The Hakluyt company for the colonization of Virginia lost 9,000 men and £100,000. At last religious contests laid a firm foundation for the permanent settlement of the North American continent. The emigration of the Puritans and their successful establishment in New England served as an example to all those who in Europe were oppressed for the sake of their religion. Besides, the ground having been broken for the settlement of what are now the southern states of the Union, the fertility of their soil, their genial climate, and withal the still lingering hope of sudden enrichment by discoveries of precious metals, attracted large numbers of colonists. A strong tide of emigration from Germany set in toward Pennsylvania near the end of the 17th and during the 18th century; the Dutch colonized New York; the Swedes Delaware; Canada and Louisiana were settled by the French. Still the current of emigration to America during the 170 years of the colonial history was slow and tedious when compared with that which commenced after the war of independence, and especially when the success of American institutions had been tested by the experience of one generation. Since the formation of the government, the United States has been the principal point of emigration from Europe, and of late also from Asia, owing chiefly to the advantages presented to the laboring classes, who constitute the great bulk of emigrants. Immigration from whatever source has been regarded with favor by the government, and laws have been passed at different times for the regulation of emigrant ships and the protection and comfort of emigrants. During the latter part of the 18th and the early part of the 19th century the practice prevailed in New York and Philadelphia of selling by public auction into temporary servitude emigrants who were indebted for their passage money and other advances. During the last century the prepayment of the passage by the emigrant was the exception, and its subsequent discharge by compulsory labor the rule. Ship owners and ship merchants derived enormous profits from this traffic, as they charged very high rates for the passage and added a heavy percentage for their risks. Adults were sold for a term of from 3 to 6 years, and children from 10 to 15 years. Servants signed indentures and were known as “indented servants.” The last sales of this kind took place in Philadelphia in 1818 and 1819. — During the early part of the present century there was little protection for emigrants during the sea voyage. Ship owners generally chartered the lower decks of their vessels to agents, who made temporary arrangements for the accommodation of the passengers, and either underlet the steerage to associations of emigrants or parcelled it out to sub-agents or to single passengers. These agents crowded emigrants into vessels without regard to their comfort or health, and there was no authority to which the latter could appeal for protection. As late as 1819 the lower deck of an emigrant vessel was no better than that of a slave or coolie ship. The ordinary height of the steerage deck was from 4 to 5 ft.; the lower, or orlop deck, which was also used for the transportation of passengers, was still worse. The natural consequence was a mortality frequently amounting to 10 and sometimes to 20 per cent. The first law which prescribed the space to be allotted to each steerage passenger was that passed by congress in March, 1819, which made it unlawful for a ship to carry more than two passengers for every five tons, custom-house measure. This law, however, did little toward reducing the hardships of the voyage, which was attended with much sickness and many deaths, the prevailing diseases being typhus or ship fever, cholera, and smallpox. In 1855 an act was passed by congress intended to secure the rights of emigrants on shipboard, by giving to each of them two tons of space, and providing for the proper ventilation of the ship, as well as for a sufficient amount of proper food; and this law has resulted in great amelioration. Another circumstance which has largely reduced the suffering and mortality during the voyage is the use of steamers instead of sailing vessels. In 1856 only about 3 per cent. of the emigrants came in steamers, while in 1873 more than 96 per cent. arrived in steamers and less than 4 per cent. in sailing vessels. The deaths in steamers were about 1 in 1,128 passengers, while the death rate in sailing vessels reached the significant ratio of 1 in 65. The port of New York is the great gate through which the emigration to the United States chiefly passes. Of the total number (437,004) of emigrants in 1873, 266,818 entered at New York. Here exists the only thoroughly organized system in the country for their reception and protection. The extortions and frauds which had been practised upon emigrants arriving at New York, as well as the rapidly increasing tide of immigration, led to the passage by the legislature of the act of May 5, 1847, creating the board of commissioners of emigration of the state of New York, which has since been in successful operation. It consists of nine members, six of whom are appointed by the governor of the state with the consent of the senate, and three are members ex officio, viz.: the mayor of New York, the president of the German society, and the president of the Irish emigrant society. All the commissioners serve without compensation. Their duties are to protect alien passengers arriving at New York from fraud and imposition, to care and provide for the helpless among them, to give them trustworthy advice and information, and generally to guard their interests. To provide a fund for this purpose, the owner or consignee of any vessel carrying emigrants to New York is required to give a bond, with a penalty of $300 for each alien passenger, to indemnify the commissioners and the state from any cost that may be incurred for the relief, support, or medical care of the person named in the bond during five years. In lieu of this bond he may pay a commutation, originally fixed at $2 50, but in 1871 reduced to $1 50, for each alien passenger brought into the port. For the more effectual protection of emigrants arriving at New York, an act was passed by the legislature in 1868, by which the commissioners of emigration are invested with authority to examine under oath any witness as to the condition of any ship, and the treatment of the emigrants while on board. The commissioners may also take testimony in reference to any death that may have occurred during the voyage; and such testimony, if made in the presence of the persons complained of, may be used as evidence in any subsequent action. The good intentions of the legislature, however, have not been realized, as the emigrants cannot afford the necessary time and money to enter into a long litigation against rich and powerful companies. The commissioners of emigration have therefore repeatedly and strongly urged congress to negotiate with foreign governments for the appointment of a joint high commission or court for the speedy adjudication of all cases relating to the treatment of emigrants while on board of a ship. Upon the arrival of an emigrant vessel at quarantine, six miles below the city, it is inspected by the health officer of the port, and the sick emigrants, if any, are transferred by steamer to hospitals, where they are cared for by the commissioners of emigration. If removed by authority of the health officers, they are taken to the quarantine hospital, where they are under charge of the quarantine commission. The vessel is then taken in charge by an officer of the department who ascertains the number of passengers, the deaths, if any, during the voyage, and the amount and character of the sickness; he also examines the condition of the vessel in respect to cleanliness, and hears complaints by passengers; of all which he makes reports to the superintendent at Castle Garden. He remains on board the ship during the passage up the bay, to see that the passengers are not interfered with by any unauthorized person from the shore. After examination of their luggage by the customs officers the emigrants are transferred to the landing depot at Castle Garden, which was formerly a fortress defending the port, and was subsequently used as a place of amusement. It was opened as the emigrant landing depot in August, 1855, and is well adapted for the purpose. The emigrants are brought by barge or tng from the vessel in which they arrived, and after examination by a medical officer are ushered into the rotunda, a circular space comprising 50,000 sq. ft., and with a dome in the centre about 75 ft. high. It is well warmed, lighted, and ventilated, and will properly accommodate about 4,000 persons. Here the name, nationality, former place of residence, and intended destination of each individual, with other particulars, are registered. The newly arrived emigrant here finds facilities for supplying every immediate want without leaving the depot. The names of such as have money, letters, or friends awaiting them are called out, and they are put into immediate possession of their property or committed to their friends, whose credentials have first been properly scrutinized. There are clerks at hand to write letters for them in any European language, and a telegraph operator to forward despatches. Here, also, the main trunk lines of railway have offices, at which the emigrant can buy tickets, and have his luggage weighed and checked; brokers are admitted, under restrictions which make fraud impossible, to exchange the foreign coin or paper of emigrants; a restaurant supplies them with plain food at moderate prices; a physician is in attendance for the sick, and a temporary hospital ready to receive them until they can be sent to Ward's island; employment is provided by the labor bureau, connected with the establishment, to those in search of it; such as desire to start at once for their destination are sent to the railway or steamboat; while any who choose to remain in the city are referred to boarding-house keepers admitted to the landing depot, whose charges are regulated under special license, and whose houses are kept under supervision by the commission. Ample facilities for the care of sick and destitute emigrants are afforded by the institutions on Ward's Island, which are under the supervision of the commissioners of emigration. This island comprises about 200 acres in the East river, and extends opposite the city from 100th to 116th street; 121 acres, including the entire water front next to New York, are used for emigrant purposes, and the remaining portion is chiefly used by, the commissioners of public charities and correction. The institutions embrace the hospitals, the refuge, the lunatic asylum, the nursery, dispensary, chapels, schools, workshops, &c. These institutions contain on an average about 2,000 inmates, the most of whom are more or less helpless. The chief building is the Verplanck hospital, which consists of a corridor 450 ft. long and two stories high, from which project five wings each 130 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and two stories high except the centre wing, which has three stories; the corners of each wing are flanked with towers. It is constructed upon the most approved plans for perfect ventilation, and all necessary comforts for the sick. It has accommodations for about 500 patients, and is used exclusively for non-contagious diseases and surgical cases. A new lunatic asylum has recently been erected, with accommodations for more than 300 patients. The extent of the work done by the commission since its organization is indicated by the fact that of the 5,033,392 emigrants arriving at New York from May 5, 1847, to Jan. 1, 1873, for whom commutation money was paid, and all of whom received protection, advice, and information from the commissioners, 1,465,579 were provided and cared for out of the emigrant fund for a greater or less period during the five years subsequent to arrival, viz.: 398,643 received treatment and care in the institutions of the commissioners; 449,275 were supplied temporarily with board and lodging and money relief in the city of New York; 349,936 were provided with employment through the labor bureau at Castle Garden; 53,083 were forwarded from Castle Garden to their destination in the United States, or returned to Europe at their own request; and 214,642 were relieved and provided for in various parts of the state of New York at the expense of the commissioners of emigration. During 1873, 731 emigrant vessels from 23 different ports arrived at Castle Garden. In the labor bureau employment was procured for 25,325, including 7,504 females. Through the agency of the information bureau, about 12 per cent. of the total arrivals were delivered to their friends. The number cared for in the institutions on Ward's island was 12,586, including 2,134 receiving treatment at the beginning of the year; of this number 10,430 were discharged during the year, and 439 died, leaving 1,717 under treatment Jan. 1, 1874. The expenditures for the year amounted to $466,108, including $215,086 for support of the institutions on Ward's island, $133,451 for expenses at Castle Garden, and $61,188 for buildings and permanent improvements. The current expenses of the commission were $510,306 in 1869, $540,467 in 1870, $518,387 in 1871, and $461,028 in 1872. In addition to these sums, $651,980 were expended during these four years in the erection of buildings and permanent improvements. These expenditures are met by the funds realized from the commutation fund paid by owners or consignees of emigrant ships, which amounted to $657,072 in 1869, $534,056 in 1870, $372,528 in 1871, $442,429 in 1872, and $402,199 in 1873. The emigrants are not considered or treated as paupers, but as persons requiring temporary aid and protection, for which neither the state nor any community is required to contribute. In 1872-'3 bills were introduced into congress to supersede the New York commission of emigration by a national bureau, thus vesting in the general government all control and regulation of this important subject; but the measures met with great opposition from the New York commissioners of emigration and others, and failed. — Prior to 1819 no official record was kept of the number and character of the persons coming to the United States from abroad. The extent of the immigration prior to that date has been differently estimated by various authorities. Mr. Lorin Blodget thought the arrivals did not exceed 4,000 a year from 1789 to 1794. Dr. Adam Seybert estimated the number at 6,000 a year from 1790 to 1810. According to Prof. Tucker, whose estimate is confirmed by high authorities, 50,000 arrived from 1790 to 1800, 70,000 from 1800 to 1810 and 114,000 from 1810 to 1820; making 234,000 from 1790 to 1820. According to Mr. Young, chief of the United States bureau of statistics, the total number of arrivals prior to 1820 was 250,000, of whom 25,000 came between 1776 and 1790. In the following table are indicated the total number of alien passengers arriving in the United States in each year since 1820, and the chief countries from which they emigrated:

 YEARS.   England.   Ireland.   Scotland.   Total
British
Isles. 
 British
America. 
 Germany.   Prussia.   Holland.  Sweden
and
 Norway. 
 France.   Switzerland.   Italy.   Total. 














1820[1] 1,782  3,614  268  6,024  209  948  20  49  371  31  25  8,385 
1821[1] 3,073  1,518  293  4,728  184  365  18  56  12  370  93  62  9,127 
1822[1] 856  2,267  198  3,488  204  139  51  10  351  110  32  6,911 
1823[1] 851  1,908  180  3,008  167  179  19  460  47  32  6,354 
1824[1] 713  2,345  257  3,609  155  224  40  377  253  41  7,912 
1825[1] 1,002  4,888  113  6,983  314  448  37  515  166  58  10,199 
1826[1] 1,459  5,408  230  7,727  223  495  16  176  16  545  245  50  10,837 
1827[1] 2,521  9,766  460  13,952  165  425  245  13  1,280  297  35  18,875 
1828[1] 2,735  12,488  1,041  17,840  267  1,806  45  263  10  2,843  1,592  30  27,382 
1829[1] 2,149  7,415  111  10,594  409  582  15  169  13  582  314  16  22,520 
1830[1] 733  2,721  29  3,874  189  1,972  22  1,174  109  23,322 
1831[1] 251  5,772  226  8,247  176  2,395  18  175  13  2,038  63  28  22,633 
1832[2] 944  12,436  158  17,767  608  10,168  26  205  313  5,361  129  60,482 
1833[3] 2,966  8,648  1,921  13,564  1,194  6,823  165  39  16  4,682  634  1,693  58,640 
1834[3] 1,129  24,474  110  34,964  1,020  17,654  32  87  42  2,989  1,389  103  65,365 
1835[3] 468  20,927  63  29,897  1,193  8,245  66  124  31  2,696  548  56  45,374 
1836[3] 420  30,578  106  43,684  2,814  20,139  568  301  57  4,443  445  107  76,242 
1837[3] 896  28,508  14  40,726  1,270  23,036  704  312  290  5,074  383  36  79,340 
1838[3] 157  12,645  48  18,065  1,476  11,369  314  27  60  3,675  123  82  38,914 
1839[3] 62  23,963  ......  34,234  1,926  19,794  1,234  85  324  7,198  607  76  68,069 
1840[3] 318  29,430  21  42,043  1,938  28,581  1,123  57  55  7,419  500  28  84,066 
1841[3] 147  37,772  35  53,960  1,816  13,727  1,564  214  195  5,006  751  166  80,289 
1842[3] 1,743  51,342  24  73,347  2,078  18,287  2,083  330  553  4,504  483  93  104,565 
1843[4] 3,517  19,670  41  28,100  1,502  11,432  3,009  330  1,748  3,346  553  108  52,496 
1844[1] 1,357  33,490  23  47,843  2,711  19,226  1,505  184  1,311  3,155  839  79  78,615 
1845[1] 1,710  44,821  368  64,031  3,195  33,138  1,217  791  928  7,663  471  63  114,371 
1846[1] 2,854  51,752  305  73,932  3,855  57,010  551  979  1,916  10,583  698  88  154,416 
1847[1] 3,476  105,536  337  128,838  3,827  73,444  837  2,631  1,307  20,040  192  160  234,968 
1848[1] 4,455  112,934  659  148,093  6,473  58,014  451  918  903  7,743  319  219  226,527 
1849[1] 6,036  159,398  1,060  214,530  6,890  60,062  173  1,190  3,473  5,841  13  208  297,024 
1850[4] 5,276  133,806  627  175,485  7,796  63,168  14  576  1,363  8,009  146  360  310,004 
1850[5] 1,521  30,198  233  39,604  1,580  14,969  745  108  206  1,372  179  46  59,976 
1851[3] 5,306  221,213  966  272,740  7,438  71,322  1,160  352  2,424  20,126  427  423  379,466 
1852[3] 30,007  159,548  8,148  200,247  352  143,575  2,343  1,719  4,103  6,763  2,788  297  371,603 
1853[3] 28,867  162,649  6,006  200,225  5,424  140,653  1,293  600  3,364  10,770  2,748  267  368,645 
1854[3] 48,901  105,931  4,605  160,253  6,891  206,054  8,955  1,534  3,531  13,317  7,953  984  427,833 
1855[3] 38,871  56,382  5,275  97,199  7,761  66,219  5,699  2,588  821  6,044  4,433  1,024  200,877 
1856[3] 25,904  59,008  3,297  29,007  6,493  63,807  7,221  1,395  1,157  7,246  1,780  962  200,436 
1857[3] 27,804  70,211  4,182  112,840  5,670  83,798  7,983  1,775  1,712  2,397  2,080  632  251,306 
1858[3] 14,638  34,410  1,946  55,829  4,603  42,291  3,019  185  2,430  3,155  1,056  889  123,126 
1859[3] 13,826  43,709  2,293  61,379  4,163  39,315  2,469  290  1,091  2,579  833  764  121,282 
1860[3] 13,001  60,692  1,613  78,374  4,514  50,746  3,745  351  298  3,971  913  770  153,640 
1861[3] 8,970  33,274  767  43,472  2,069  30,189  1,472  283  616  2,326  1,007  764  91,920 
1862[3] 10,947  35,859  657  47,990  3,275  24,945  2,544  432  892  3,142  643  541  91,987 
1863[3] 24,065  96,088  1,940  122,799  3,464  31,989  1,173  416  1,627  1,838  690  537  176,282 
1864[3] 26,096  89,442  3,476  116,951  3,636  54,379  2,897  708  2,249  3,128  1,396  597  193,416 
1865[3] 15,038  77,370  3,037  112,237  21,586  80,797  2,627  779  6,109  3,583  2,889  923  249,061 
1866[3] 2,770  83,894  672  131,620  32,150  110,440  5,452  1,716  12,633  6,855  3,823  1,298  318,494 
1867[3] ......  108,857  ......  125,520  6,014  121,240  12,186  2,223  7,055  5,237  4,168  1,612  298,358 
1868[3] 11,107  59,957  1,949  107,582  10,894  111,503  11,567  652  20,420  3,936  3,261  1,402  297,215 
1869[3] 55,046  79,030  12,415  147,716  30,921  124,776  22  1,360  41,833  4,118  3,488  2,182  395,922 
1870[3] 59,488  75,544  11,820  151,089  53,340  91,168  611  970  24,365  3,586  2,474  2,940  378,796 
1871[3] 61,174  61,463  12,135  143,934  39,929  107,201  ......  1,122  22,966  5,780  2,824  2,927  367,789 
1872[3] 72,810  69,761  14,565  157,905  40,288  155,595  ......  2,006  24,992  13,782  4,031  7,239  449,483 
1873[3] 69,600  75,848  13,008  159,355  29,508  133,141  ......  4,640  29,458  10,813  3,223  7,473  437,004 













 Total   719,776   2,907,565   124,331   4,319,048   394,216   2,663,437   100,983   38,886   231,344   276,187   71,650   41,636   8,808,141 
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 Years ended Sept. 30.
  2. 1832 and last quarter of 1831.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 Years ended Dec. 31.
  4. 4.0 4.1 First three quarters.
  5. Last quarter.

To obtain the net immigration from the preceding table, about 1⅔ per cent. of the total aliens should be deducted for those not intending to remain in the United States. Those who died during the voyage are included prior to 1867. Prior to 1871 the statements for Germany do not include the emigrants from Prussia and Austria. Since 1819 a law of congress has required that all who come to the sea and lake ports shall be registered at the custom houses. The number, age, sex, nativity, occupation, and destination of all passengers coming to the United States, distinguishing aliens from citizens returning from abroad, and those intending to remain from those who come merely for temporary purposes, are ascertained and reported to the general government. This information is compiled and published annually by the United States bureau of statistics. No official registration is made, however, of those foreigners who enter the country through other channels than the sea and lake ports, many of whom come across the border from Canada and New Brunswick. The following statement shows the principal countries represented in the emigration to the United States from 1820 to 1874, with the total number from each during that period and in 1873:

FROM 1873.  1820 to 1874. 



Great Britain and Ireland 159,355  4,319,048 
Germany (including Prussia) 133,141  2,764,420 
Austro-Hungary 7,835  28,742 
Sweden and Norway. 29,458  231,344 
Denmark 5,095  34,624 
Netherlands 4,640  38,886 
Belgium 1,306  19,716 
Switzerland 3,223  71,650 
France 10,813  276,187 
Spain 486  24,876 
Portugal 34  5,158 
Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Malta 7,511  44,684 
Greece 37  44,684 
Turkey 78  440 
Russia, Poland, and Finland 6,466  20,398 
Other parts of Europe 33 


 Total Europe 369,487  7,880,469 




Azores 1,397  10,187 
Other islands of the Atlantic 81  1,060 
West India islands 1,974  54,692 
British North America 29,508  394,216 
Mexico 473  21,722 
Central America 34  1,253 
South America 168  8,045 
China 18,154  144,328 
Japan 25  324 
Other countries of Asia 40  366 
Africa 13  736 
Australasia, Pacific, and East India islands.  1,052  4,794 
Countries not specified[1] 14,460  285,721 
Born at sea 138  362 


Total other countries than Europe and countries not stated. 67,517  927,672 




 Aggregate alien passengers 437,004  8,808,141 
 Estimated arrivals prior to 1820. ......  250,000 

 Grand aggregate ......  9,058,141 
  1. Includes aliens not intending to remain in the United States.

The distribution of sex and age among those arriving for a series of years has been:

SEX AND AGE. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873.





Number of passengers arrived:
 Male 255,540  247,756  299,746  297,162
 Female 164,458  167,399  199,077  186,207
 Total 419,998  415,155  498,823  483,459
Citizens of the U. S. returning:
 Male 26,271  30,138  32,737  30,297
 Female 14,931  17,228  16,603  16,158
 Total 41,202  47,366  49,340  46,455
Foreigners visiting the U. S.:
 Male 14,384  12,890  8,440  10,465
 Female 8,109  7,961  3,293  3,994
 Total 22,493  20,851  11,733  14,459
Net immigration under 15 years:
 Male 42,686  38,665  49,787  47,915
 Female 38,621  35,378  49,033  44,444
 Total 81,307  74,043  98,820  92,359
Net immigration, 15 to 40 years:
 Male 146,662  140,081  173,028  169,473
 Female 84,966  88,252  104,911  98,347
 Total 231,628  228,333  277,939  267,820
Net immigration over 40 years:
 Male 25,537  25,982  35,754  39,012
 Female 17,831  18,580  25,237  23,354
 Total 43,368  44,562  60,991  62,366
Total net immigration:
 Male 214,885  204,728  258,569  256,400
 Female 141,418  142,210  179,181  166,145
 Total  356,303   346,938   437,750   422,545

The number of foreigners in the United States in 1870, with the places of their birth, is reported as follows in the census of 1870:

Aggregate population 38,558,371
Born in the United States 32,991,142
Born in foreign countries 5,567,229
 White 5,493,712
 Colored 9,645
 Chinese 62,736
 Indian 1,136
 Not stated 954
Africa 2,657
Asia 864
Atlantic islands 4,431
Australasia 3,118
Austria (proper) 30,508
Belgium 12,553
Bohemia 40,289
British America (total) 493,464
 Canada 414,912
 New Brunswick 26,737
 Newfoundland 3,423
 Nova Scotia 33,562
 Prince Edward Island 1,361
 Not specified 13,469
Central America 301
China 63,042
Cuba 5,319
Denmark 30,107
Europe (not specified) 1,546
France 116,402
Germany (total) 1,690,533
 Baden 153,366
 Bavaria 204,119
 Hamburg 7,829
 Hanover 104,365
 Hesse 131,524
 Lübeck 279
 Mecklenburg 39,670
 Nassau 8,962
 Oldenburg 10,286
 Prussia 596,782
 Saxony 45,256
 Weimar 1,628
 Würtemberg 127,959
 Not specified 253,632
Gibraltar 77
Great Britain and Ireland (total)  2,626,242
 England 550,924
 Ireland 1,855,827
 Scotland 140,835
 Wales 74,533
 Not specified 4,123
Greece 390
Greenland 3
Holland 46,802
Hungary 3,737
India 586
Italy 17,157
Japan 73
Luxemburg 5,802
Malta 55
Mexico 42,435
Norway 114,246
Pacific islands 326
Poland 14,436
Portugal 4,542
Russia 4,644
Sandwich islands 584
South America 3,565
Spain 3,764
Sweden 97,332
Switzerland 75,153
Turkey 802
West Indies 6,250
Born at sea 2,638

According to Mr. Young, 46 per cent. of the whole immigration, after deducting the women and children, had been trained to various pursuits, nearly half being skilled laborers and workmen. Nearly 10 per cent. consist of merchants and traders. The occupations of the emigrants arriving in the United States from 1820 to Jan. 1, 1874, are shown in the following table, compiled by the United States bureau of statistics:

OCCUPATIONS.  1820-'30.   1831-'40.   1841-'50.   1851-'60.   1861-'73.   Aggregate. 







Laborers 10,280  53,169  281,229  527,639  785,464  1,657,781 
Farmers 15,005  88,240  256,880  404,712  318,484  1,083,271 
Mechanics, not specified 6,805  56,582  164,411  179,726  176,113  583,687 
Merchants 19,484  41,881  46,388  124,149  113,870  345,722 
Servants 1,327  2,571  24,538  21,058  130,340  179,834 
Miners 341  368  1,735  37,523  70,960  110,927 
Mariners 4,995  8,004  6,398  10,087  23,624  53,108 
Clerks 882  1,143  1,065  792  22,197  25,979 
Weavers and spinners 2,937  6,600  1,303  717  6,945  18,502 
Physicians 805  1,959  2,116  2,229  3,766  10,875 
Seamstresses, dressmakers, and milliners 413  1,672  2,096  1,065  5,787  11,033 
Clergymen 415  932  1,559  1,420  4,118  8,444 
Bakers 583  569  28  92  10,247  11,519 
Artists 139  513  1,223  615  3,981  6,441 
Butchers 329  432  76  108  8,805  9,750 
Tailors 983  2,252  65  334  10,871  14,505 
Shoemakers 1,109  1,966  63  336  10,660  14,134 
Manufacturers 175  107  1,833  1,005  1,917  6,037 
Lawyers 244  461  831  1,140  1,861  4,537 
Masons 793  1,435  24  58  15,235  17,545 
Engineers 226  311  654  825  4,001  6,017 
Teachers 275  267  832  154  3,096  4,624 
Millers 199  189  33  210  2,286  2,917 
Painters 232  369  38  4,056  4,703 
Printers 179  472  14  40  1,395  2,100 
Musicians 140  165  236  188  2,079  2,808 
Actors 183  87  233  85  403  991 
Hatters 137  114  385  641 
Other occupations 5,466  4,004  2,892  13,884  67,842  94,048 
Occupations not stated, and without occupation  101,442  363,252  969,411  1,544,494  2,395,612  5,624,211 






 Total 176,473  640,086  1,768,175  2,874,687  4,206,350  9,665,771 
Deduct citizens of the United States 24,649  40,961  54,924  276,473  460,623  857,630 






 Aliens  151,824   599,125   1,713,251   2,598,214   3,745,727   8,808,141 

In respect of nationality, more than half of those having arrived are British, coming from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the British possessions in North America, and speaking the English language. The German element is next in magnitude, and embraces nearly two thirds of the remainder. A large proportion settle in rural districts and develop the agricultural resources of the west and south, while the remainder, consisting largely of artisans and skilled workmen, find employment in the cities and manufacturing towns. About 25 per cent. of the emigrants are under 15 years of age, and less than 15 per cent. over 40, leaving more than 60 per cent. in the prime of life. The number of males is largely in excess of that of females, the ratio varying with the nationality. Among the Chinese only about 7 per cent. are females, while their ratio among the Irish is over 45 per cent., and in the total number of emigrants about 40 per cent. — For several centuries there has been a great emigration from China to the surrounding countries, both by sea and land. Vast multitudes of Chinese have settled in Tartary, Thibet, Anam, Siam, Burmah, Malacca, and in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Philippine islands, and in short everywhere in the East Indian archipelago. But of these emigrants there are no accurate statistics. Of late years they have made their way in considerable numbers to Australia; and in 1853, attracted by the gold of California, they began to come to the United States, and their immigration has attained a magnitude worthy of attention. The whole number who had arrived up to Jan. 1, 1874, was 144,328, nearly all of whom entered at San Francisco. Most of them have settled in California, where they are occupied chiefly in mining pursuits; but many have found their way to Nevada and some of the territories, and a few to the Atlantic and some of the other states. Nearly one half of all who have arrived have returned to their native country. According to the census of 1870, there were 63,199 Chinese in the United States, of whom only 4,566 were females; there were 49,277 in California, 4,274 in Idaho, 3,330 in Oregon, 3,152 in Nevada, and 1,949 in Montana. The number of arrivals, according to the United States bureau of statistics, is given below; those prior to 1855 are differently reported by another authority in the article China:

 YEARS.  No. of
 Immigrants. 


1853 42
1854 13,100
1855 3,526
1856 4,733
1857 5,944
1858 5,128
1859 3,457
1860 5,467
1861 7,518
1862 3,633
1863 7,214
1864 2,795
1865 2,942
1866 2,385
1867 3,863
1868 10,684
1869 14,902
1870 11,943
1871 6,039
1872 10,642
1873 18,154

 Total  144,328

The Chinese emigration to the United States has been characterized by an organized system which is not found in the emigration from any European nation. The latter, as has been seen, is entirely without system or organization, and the emigrant is wholly unrestrained as soon as he reaches his destination. The emigration from China, however, is controlled by men of large capital, who engage in it as a traffic. A contract is made with the emigrants in their native country by which they mortgage their future earnings to secure the cost of passage and other expenses, and which binds them to a specified term of service after arrival in this country. In many instances the Chinaman gives a mortgage on his wife and children, with a stipulation that at the end of his term of service he is to be brought back to China by his contractor. This contract is sold or transferred to an agent in the United States at an advance, and is thus a source of great profit to the dealer. The agent contracts for the labor of the Chinese in any part of the United States. Perhaps the most prominent contractor of this kind has been Mr. Koopmanschap, who sought to introduce Chinese labor under this system into the southern states and other parts of the United States. The contract made in China has no validity in the United States, but it has always been strictly observed by both parties. The following table, from the census of 1870, exhibits the distribution by states and territories of the leading nationalities in the United States:

STATES AND
TERRITORIES.
Aggregate
 population. 
Total
 foreign. 
 British
America. 
 England.   Ireland.   Scotland.   Wales.   France.   Germany.   Holland.   Switzerland.   Norway and 
Sweden.













Total of the United States   38,555,983   5,566,546   493,464   550,924   1,855,779   140,835   74,533   116,402   1,690,533   46,802   75,153   211,578
























Total of the states 38,113,253  5,472,346  487,605  528,990  1,838,678  136,846  71,907  115,040  1,679,146  46,501  73,972  206,563












Alabama 996,992  9,962  183  1,041  3,893  458  39  594  2,482  14  168  126
Arkansas 484,471  5,026  342  526  1,428  156  24  237  1,563  71  104  154
California 560,247  209,831  10,660  17,699  54,421  4,949  1,517  8,068  29,701  452  2,927  2,944
Connecticut 537,544  113,639  10,861  13,001  70,630  3,238  288  821  12,443  99  492  395
Delaware 125,015  9,136  112  1,421  5,907  229  43  127  1,142  16  33  9
Florida 187,748  4,967  174  399  737  144  126  597  14  46
Georgia 1,184,109  11,127  247  1,088  5,093  420  61  312  2,761  42  103  49
Illinois 2,539,891  515,198  32,550  53,871  120,162  15,737  3,146  10,911  203,758  4,180  8,980  41,859
Indiana 1,680,637  141,474  4,765  9,945  28,698  2,507  556  6,363  78,060  873  4,287  3,303
Iowa 1,191,792  204,057  17,905  16,660  40,124  5,248  1,967  3,130  66,162  4,513  3,937  28,352
Kansas 364,399  48,392  5,324  6,161  10,940  1,531  1,021  1,274  12,775  300  1,328  5,542
Kentucky 1,321,011  63,398  1,082  2,811  21,642  1,019  347  2,057  30,318  270  1,147  128
Louisiana 726,915  61,827  712  2,797  17,068  814  114  12,341  18,933  232  873  434
Maine 626,915  48,881  26,788  3,650  15,745  998  279  137  508  26  149
Maryland 780,894  83,412  644  4,868  23,630  2,432  994  649  47,045  236  297  118
Massachusetts 1,457,351  353,319  70,055  34,085  216,120  9,003  576  1,629  13,072  480  491  21,808
Michigan 1,184,059  268,010  89,590  35,047  42,013  8,552  558  3,121  64,143  12,559  2,116  3,922
Minnesota 439,706  160,697  16,698  5,672  21,746  2,194  944  1,743  41,364  1,855  2,162  56,927
Mississippi 827,922  11,191  375  1,081  3,359  434  25  630  2,960  35  266  1,048
Missouri 1,721,295  222,267  8,448  14,314  54,983  3,283  1,524  6,293  113,618  1,167  6,597  2,599
Nebraska 122,993  30,748  2,635  3,602  4,999  792  220  340  10,954  180  593  2,858
Nevada 42,491  18,801  2,365  2,547  5,035  630  301  414  2,181  44  247  297
New Hampshire 318,300  29,611  12,955  2,687  12,190  892  27  60  436  11  97
New Jersey 906,096  188,943  2,474  26,674  86,784  5,710  804  3,130  54,001  2,944  2,061  644
New York 4,382,759  1,138,353  79,042  110,003  528,806  27,282  7,857  22,302  316,902  6,426  7,916  6,497
North Carolina 1,071,361  3,029  171  500  677  420  10  54  904  13  80  43
Ohio 2,665,260  372,493  12,988  36,553  82,674  7,819  12,939  12,781  182,897  2,018  12,727  316
Oregon 90,923  11,600  1,187  1,344  1,967  394  63  308  1,875  39  160  281
Pennsylvania 3,521,791  545,261  10,022  69,668  235,750  16,846  27,633  8,695  160,146  819  5,765  2,381
Rhode Island 217,353  55,396  10,242  9,285  31,534  1,948  56  167  1,201  45  74  128
South Carolina 705,606  8,074  77  616  3,262  310  15  148  2,754  32  45  61
Tennessee 1,258,520  19,316  587  2,085  8,048  555  314  562  4,539  100  802  386
Texas 818,579  62,411  597  2,087  4,031  621  55  2,232  23,976  54  599  767
Vermont 330,551  47,155  28,544  1,946  14,080  1,240  565  93  370  20  19  117
Virginia 1,225,163  13,754  327  1,909  5,191  705  148  369  4,050  231  148  47
West Virginia 442,014  17,091  207  1,811  6,832  746  321  223  6,232  174  325  6
Wisconsin 1,054,670  364,499  25,664  28,192  48,479  6,590  6,550  2,704  162,314  5,990  6,069  42,845
























Total of the territories 442,730  94,200  5,859  21,934  17,101  3,989  2,626  1,262  11,387  241  1,181  5,015












Arizona 9,658  5,809  142  134  495  54  69  379  11  23  14
Colorado 39,864  6,599  753  1,358  1,685  188  165  209  1,456  17  140  220
Dakota 14,181  4,815  906  248  888  77  57  565  33  1,559
District of Columbia 131,700  16,254  290  1,422  8,218  352  29  233  4,018  23  175  27
Idaho 14,999  7,855  334  540  986  114  335  144  599  52  152
Montana 20,595  7,979  1,172  692  1,635  208  197  193  1,233  18  97  229
New Mexico 91,874  5,620  125  120  543  36  124  582  42  11
Utah 86,786  30,702  687  16,073  502  2,391  1,783  63  358  122  509  2,403
Washington 23,955  5,024  1,121  791  1,047  309  44  113  645  25  50  262
Wyoming 9,118  3,513  329  556  1,102  260  58  57  652  60  137

—The variance in the magnitude of the emigration to the United States in different periods presents results of great interest and importance, and points to the causes that increase or diminish the movement from foreign countries. Chief among these causes are war, political troubles, famine, commercial panics, and other influences which produce distress at home or an unfavorable condition of affairs in the country to which emigration is directed. The most remarkable illustrations of this kind were presented by the great exodus from Ireland and that from Germany during the period 1845 to 1854, when the highest figures till then known in the history of emigration were reached. After the great famine of 1846, the emigration from Ireland to the United States, which had increased from 44,821 in 1845 to 51,752 in 1846, rapidly rose to 105,536 in 1847, 112,934 in 1848, 159,398 in 1849, and 164,004 in 1850. It reached its maximum in 1851, when 221,213 Irish emigrants arrived in the United States; and in the following year it decreased to 159,548. During the period from 1845 to 1854 inclusive, 1,512,100 Irish left their country for the United States, of whom 607,241 came during the first and 904,859 during the last half of the decade. Since 1854 the movement has fallen off to less than one half of the average of the preceding ten years. During this same period the emigration from Germany also culminated. This increase was very marked as early as 1845, when the number of German emigrants was 33,138; in 1847 it reached 73,444; in 1848, 58,014; in 1849, 60,062; and in 1850, 63,168. This disturbance in the ordinary tide of emigration has been attributed to the political revolutions attempted in 1848 and 1849. The increase continued till 1854, when the German emigrants reached the number of 206,054. In discussing the causes of this remarkable exodus Frederick Kapp, for many years a commissioner of emigration, says in his work on “Immigration”: “The coup d'état of Louis Napoleon closed for all Europe the revolutionary era opened in 1848. In the three years preceding that event, the issue of the struggle of the people against political oppression had remained doubtful. But the second of December, 1851, having decided the success of the oppressors for a long time to come, the majority of those who felt dissatisfied with the reactionary régime left their homes. The fact that the largest number of Germans ever landed in one year in the United States came in 1854, showed the complete darkening of the political horizon at that time. The apprehension of a new continental war, which actually broke out a year later in the Crimea, also hastened the steps of those who sought refuge in this country. People of the well-to-do classes, who had months and years to wait before they could sell their property, helped to swell the tide to its extraordinary proportions.” From the beginning of 1845 to the close of 1854 the number of Germans arriving in the United States was 1,226,392, of whom 452,943 came in the first and 773,449 in the last five years. In 1866 and 1867 the tide of German emigration again began to swell, “in consequence,” according to Mr. Kapp, “of the emigration of men liable to military service from the new provinces annexed to Prussia in 1866, and of families dissatisfied with the new order of things.” In 1872 it reached the unprecedented magnitude, except in 1854, of 155,595. The extent of the emigration to the United States, however, is not governed by political events, failure of crops, commercial and industrial crises, &c., acting in Europe alone, but also by the same causes operating in this country. The effects of the great financial crisis of 1837 are indicated in the falling off of the total immigration from 79,340 in that year to 38,914 in the following. And so the commercial crisis of 1857 was followed in the two ensuing years by a smaller immigration than that of any year since 1845; while during the first two years of the civil war (1861 and 1862), the number of aliens arriving was less than that of any year since 1844. Since the close of the war there has been a marked increase. The arrivals amounted to 449,483 in 1872, being more than in any preceding year, and 437,004 in 1873. The northern and western states, chiefly the latter, have been the chosen destination of the great majority of emigrants to the United States. Prior to the civil war there was very little emigration to those states in which slavery existed, except Missouri. Since the war great efforts have been made by the southern and southwestern states to encourage emigrants to settle there, but with only partial success as yet. In many of these states bureaus of emigration have been established or commissioners appointed, for the purpose of preparing reports showing the inducements offered to emigrants. This information is published in various languages and gratuitously distributed in the United States and in Europe. The United States bureau of statistics also publishes information for emigrants relative to the demand and compensation for labor in the several states, the cost of living, the price and rent of land, staple products, market facilities, the cost of farm stock, and such other practical information as the emigrant most needs. — The contribution made by emigration to the population and wealth of the United States has been in the highest degree valuable and important. Its extent, however, is determined only by computation, and different authorities have reached different results. According to Mr. Kapp, who followed the estimate of Mr. Schade that the natural rate of increase in the native population of the United States, exclusive of slaves, had been 1.38 per cent., that population, including white and free colored, would have been 8,435,882 in 1860, and 9,675,041 in 1870; whereas the total white and free colored population, including the foreign element, was 27,489,662 in 1860, while the white population alone in 1870 was 33,589,377. According to this calculation, more than 24,000,000 of the population in 1870 was of foreign extraction. Dr. Jarvis, however, has shown that this proportion is entirely too great, owing in part to the fact that the census reports of the number of births and deaths on which the calculation is based are erroneous. According to the federal census, the number of foreign-born living in the United States was 2,244,602 in 1850, 4,138,697 in 1860, and 5,567,229 in 1870. In the last named year statistics concerning the nativity of parents were collected for the first time, and show that there were 10,892,015 persons having one or both parents foreign, 10,521,233 a foreign father, 10,105,627 a foreign mother, and 9,734,845 both parents foreign. There were therefore 1,157,170 persons of mixed (half American and half foreign) parentage. In measuring the increase of the foreign element, Dr. Jarvis assumes that only one half (578,585) of this number should be added. Deducting this from the census statement, 10,313,430 remain as the surviving number of foreigners and their children of the first generation, as reported by the census of 1870. This, however, does not include the children of the second and third generations, the number of whom Dr. Jarvis determines at 400,000, making the total foreign element in 1870, 10,813,430; American, 22,775,947 ; aggregate white population, 33,589,377. The census reports the total number of surviving foreigners in 1870 and the total of their children born in the United States of entire and half foreign parentage, but gives no indication of the nationality or race of these children. The distribution of the entire foreign element into the chief nationalities has been computed by Dr. Jarvis as follows:

 NATIONALITY.   Born in foreign 
countries.
 Their children 
born in U. S.
 Total. 




Irish 1,855,827  1,775,012  3,630,839 
German 1,690,410  1,616,795  3,307,205 
British 765,027  731,712  1,496,739 
Scandinavian 238,791  228,392  467,183 
All others 1,017,074  972,875  1,990,049 



 Aggregate   5,567,229   5,324,786   10,892,015 

According to the report of the United States bureau of statistics, 9,058,141 aliens had arrived in the United States from the foundation of the government to Jan. 1, 1874, of whom 250,000 were estimated to have come prior to 1819. Deducting 1⅔ per cent. for those not intending to remain, the total number of aliens permanently added to the population to the close of 1873 was 8,907,172. Dr. Jarvis has determined the number of foreigners arriving and of those surviving in the United States at decennial periods since 1790. These results are exhibited in the following statement, and it will be seen that the variance is slight from the census returns of foreigners in 1850, 1860, and 1870:

EMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN DECENNIAL PERIODS AND SURVIVING AT THEIR CLOSE.

ARRIVED. SURVIVING IN


Period. Number. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1850. 1860. 1870.










1790-1800 50,000  44,282  34,732  27,241  21,364  16,755  13,135  10,272  8,179 
1800-1810 70,000  .....  61,993  48,623  38,137  29,912  23,796  18,237  14,600 
1810-1820 114,000  .....  .....  100,961  79,187  62,109  49,409  37,868  30,315 
1820-1830 200,000  .....  .....  .....  177,141  138,940  110,578  84,704  67,810 
1830-1840 682,112  .....  .....  .....  .....  611,486  486,450  372,829  298,499 
1840-1850 1,711,161  .....  .....  .....  .....  .....  1,552,709  1,190,036  952,685 
1850-1860 2,766,495  .....  .....  .....  .....  .....  ......  2,421,944  1,938,742 
1860-1870 2,424,390  .....  .....  .....  .....  .....  ......  ......  2,253,548 









1790-1870   8,018,158   44,282   96,725   176,825   315,830   859,202   2,236,217   4,135,890   5,564,378 
 Census .......  .....  .....  .....  .....  .....  2,244,602  4,138,697  5,567,229 



 Variance  .......  .....  .....  .....  .....  .....  8,385  2,807  2,851 

In reaching the above results, the numbers of the survivors of those who arrived in each decade are calculated at the annual rate of 2.4 per cent. mortality and .976 per cent. surviving for the periods 1790 to 1850, 2.625 per cent. mortality for the period 1850 to 1860, and 2.2 per cent. mortality for the decade 1860 to 1870. This is a very high rate of mortality, especially when it is considered that among the emigrants are included only a small portion of those in the perilous periods of life, the very young and the aged, but that they are chiefly in the healthy ages, when the death rate is low. This, however, may be explained by the fact that they are mostly of the poor, whose death rate is everywhere greater than that of the comfortable classes; and that a large proportion of them are Irish, whose vitality is very low. It would be important to know the capital value of immigration to the United States, and the addition thus made to the national wealth; but this result can only be reached by a computation which will be but approximately accurate. In 1856 the commissioners of emigration in New York examined every emigrant as to the amount of his means, and it was ascertained that the average cash of each of the 142,342 arriving that year was $68 08. This amount, however, was thought to be much below the actual average, since it subsequently appeared that many emigrants, not understanding the object of this inquiry, were careful not to report the full amount of their means. Mr. Kapp estimated the average amount of money brought by each emigrant at $100, and other personal property at $50; total, $150. This estimate, however, is believed by many to be far beyond the facts. Dr. Young estimates the average amount brought by each at $80. Assuming that the 422,545 aliens who arrived in the United States in 1873 with the intention of remaining brought an average of $80 each, it will be seen that the immigration of that year added $33,803,600 to the wealth of the country. Applying the same calculation to the total number of aliens arriving with the intention of remaining from the formation of the government to the beginning of 1874, and the result is about $712,000,000 as the total amount contributed by immigration to the wealth of the country since its origin. In the above computation only the money value of the emigrant is considered, but the economic value of each, arising from the addition to the industrial and intellectual resources of the country, is still greater. Mr. Kapp, taking the estimate of the distinguished German statistician, Dr. Engel of Berlin, that it costs 750 thalers to produce a manual laborer in Germany, and assuming that about double this amount is the cost of an unskilled laborer in America, calculates that the capital value of each male emigrant is $1,500, and of each female $750, making the average for every person of either sex $1,125. Dr. Young, however, considers this estimate to be too high, and makes the average capital value of each immigrant $800. At this rate the emigration to the United States in 1873 added about $338,000,000 to the national wealth, while the increase from this source since the formation of the government is about $7,125,700,000. The uncertainty pf such computations, however, is made still greater by the fact that no allowance is made for unfortunates, paupers, and criminals, who are a charge to the community. These classes of foreigners in 1870 numbered nearly 50,000, as appears by the following statement from the census, showing the total of each class national and foreign in the United States:

CLASSES.  Aggregate.   Born in 
United
States.
Born in
Foreign
 Countries. 




Blind 20,320  17,043  3,277 
Deaf and dumb 16,205  14,869  1,336 
Insane 37,382  26,161  11,221 
Idiotic 24,527  22,882  1,645 
Paupers receiving support June 1, 1870 76,737  53,939  22,798 
Number of persons in prison June 1, 1870  32,901  24,173  8,728 



 Total  208,072   159,067   49,005 

—The most extensive European emigration has been from Great Britain and Ireland. According to the report of the land and emigration commissioners, 7,561,285 persons emigrated from the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1873, the principal points of destination being the North American colonies, the United States, and the Australian colonies. The largest proportion of these have been from Ireland. Thus the official reports of the United States show that of the 4,319,048 immigrants from the British isles between 1820 and the beginning of 1874, 2,907,565 were from Ireland, 719,776 from England, and 124,331 from Scotland. Prior to 1815 the emigration from the United Kingdom was unimportant. Up to 1835 the main stream was toward the North American colonies; but since that year the great body of British emigration has been to the United States. Including the foreign emigration passing through the country, which has been considerable since 1864, and constituted 26 per cent. in 1872, it has been:

 YEARS.  To the
North
 American 
Colonies.
To the
United
States.
To the
Australian
Colonies and
 New Zealand. 
 To other 
places.
Total.






1815 680  1,209  ......  192  2,081
1816 3,370  9,022  ......  118  12,510
1817 9,797  10,280  ......  557  20,634
1818 15,136  12,429  ......  222  27,787
1819 23,534  10,674  ......  579  34,787
1820 17,921  6,745  ......  1,063  25,729
1821 12,955  4,958  ......  384  18,297
1822 16,013  4,137  ......  279  20,429
1823 11,355  5,032  ......  163  16,550
1824 8,874  5,152  ......  99  14,025
1825 8,741  5,551  485  114  14,891
1826 12,818  7,063  903  116  20,900
1827 12,648  14,526  715  114  28,003
1828 12,084  12,817  1,056  135  26,092
1829 13,307  15,678  2,016  197  31,198
1830 30,574  24,887  1,242  204  56,907
1831 58,067  23,418  1,561  114  83,160
1832 66,339  32,872  3,732  196  103,140
1833 28,808  29,109  4,093  517  62,527
1834 40,060  33,074  2,800  288  76,222
1835 15,573  26,720  1,860  325  44,478
1836 34,226  37,774  3,124  293  75,417
1837 29,884  36,770  5,054  326  72,034
1838 4,577  14,322  14,021  292  33,222
1839 12,658  83,536  15,786  227  62,207
1840 32,293  40,642  15,850  1,958  90,743
1841 38,164  45,017  32,625  2,786  118,592
1842 54,123  63,852  8,534  1,835  128,344
1843 28,518  28,335  3,478  1,881  57,212
1844 22,924  43,660  2,229  1,873  70,686
1845 31,803  58,538  830  2,330  93,501
1846 43,439  82,239  2,347  1,826  129,851
1847 109,680  142,154  4,949  1,487  258,270
1848 31,065  188,233  23,904  4,887  248,089
1849 41,367  219,450  32,191  6,490  299,498
1850 32,961  223,078  16,037  8,773  280,849
1851 42,605  267,357  21,532  4,472  335,966
1852 32,873  244,261  87,881  3,749  368,764
1853 34,522  230,855  61,401  3,129  329,937
1854 43,761  193,065  83,237  3,366  323,429
1855 17,966  103,414  52,369  3,118  176,807
1856 16,378  111,837  44,584  3,755  176,554
1857 21,001  126,905  61,248  3,721  212,875
1858 9,704  59,716  39,295  5,257  113,972
1859 6,689  70,303  31,013  12,427  120,432
1860 9,786  85,700  24,302  6,881  128,469
1861 12,707  49,764  23,738  5,561  91,770
1862 15,522  58,706  41,843  5,143  121,214
1863 18,083  146,813  53,054  5,808  223,758
1864 12,721  147,042  40,942  8,195  208,900
1865 17,211  147,258  37,283  8,049  209,801
1866 13,255  161,000  24,097  6,530  204,882
1867 15,503  159,275  14,466  6,709  195,953
1868 21,062  155,532  12,809  6,922  196,325
1869 33,891  203,001  14,901  6,234  258,027
1870 35,295  196,075  17,065  8,505  256,940
1871 32,671  198,843  12,227  8,694  252,435
1872 32,205  233,747  15,876  13,385  295,213





 Agg'te.   1,456,647   4,905,262   1,016,526   182,850   7,561,285

Notwithstanding this great exodus, the population of the United Kingdom increased from 18,627,476 in 1811 to 31,817,108 in 1871. The increase has been steady and constant in England, Wales, and Scotland; but in Ireland there has been a remarkable decrease. In 1841 the population of Ireland was 8,175,124; and in 1851, owing chiefly to the great exodus following the famine of 1846, it had decreased to 6,551,970. In 1861 it was 5,792,055, and in 1871 5,402,759, or more than half a million (535,097) less than it was in 1811. In Great Britain protection is extended by the government to emigrants, especially those destined to the British possessions. Emigration is regulated to a considerable extent by the government, acting through the land and emigration commissioners. Acts have been passed at various times for regulating the number of passengers in each ship and providing for their proper accommodation on board, and for protecting them from the numerous frauds to which they are exposed. To enforce the provisions of these acts, and generally to protect the interests of emigrants, government agents are stationed at the principal ports of embarkation, and at the chief colonial ports to which emigration is directed. — The German emigration is chiefly to the United States, and its principal points of departure are the ports of Hamburg and Bremen. As early as 1819 efforts were made in Brazil to attract emigration from Germany and Switzerland, but the treatment of the emigrants by the large property holders prevented the success of the enterprise. In 1850 an act was passed offering great inducements to colonists, and the immigration of settlers from Europe, particularly Germans and Swiss, has been otherwise encouraged by the government. These efforts have been attended with but partial success, as only about 50,000 persons have settled in the empire, chiefly in the southern provinces. There has been an immigration of some importance during recent years into the Argentine Republic. This amounted for 14 years ending Jan. 1, 1871, to 204,451 persons, who were mostly from Italy, Spain, and France. In order to encourage immigration, the government of Buenos Ayres in 1873 offered a premium of $50 each to the first 100,000 immigrants between the ages of 12 and 45, to be paid at the expiration of 18 months after arrival. — Formerly the doctrine was held by Great Britain and other European powers that a subject could not throw off his allegiance by emigrating therefrom; and whether he became a naturalized citizen of another country or not, his own still retained its claim upon him. Treaties, however, have been recently concluded between the United States and Great Britain, Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the late North German Confederation, Austria, Hungary, Baden, Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, Würtemberg, and Mexico, which provide that subjects of these powers who have become naturalized citizens of the United States, and have resided uninterruptedly therein for five years, shall be held to be citizens thereof. The treaties with Belgium and Great Britain do not require a residence of five years within the United States, but recognize citizenship if sooner acquired. It seems to be the opinion of French jurists that a French subject can at any time by his own act transfer his allegiance to any country which consents to naturalize him. He thus, according to the Code Napoleon, “loses the quality of a Frenchman.” Italy, Spain, Norway, and Greece follow substantially the Code Napoleon, and treat nationality as lost by naturalization id a foreign country, or by entering without royal license into its civil or military service. A Russian subject cannot emigrate or become naturalized in a foreign country without the permission of the emperor; if he does so, he commits an offence for which he may be for ever excluded from the Russian dominions. Nor can a subject of the Ottoman empire divest himself of that character without the authority of the imperial government.