The Flags of the World

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The Flags of the World  (1896) 
by Frederick Edward Hulme

THE

Flags of The World:

THEIR HISTORY,
BLAZONRY, AND ASSOCIATIONS.

FROM THE
BANNER OF THE CRUSADER TO THE BURGEE OF THE YACHTSMAN;
FLAGS NATIONAL, COLONIAL, PERSONAL;
THE ENSIGNS OF MIGHTY EMPIRES;
THE SYMBOLS OF LOST CAUSES.

BY
F. EDWARD HULME, F.L.S., F.S.A.,
Author of
"Familiar Wild Flowers," "History, Principles and Practice of Heraldry,"
"Birth and Development of Ornament," &c., &c.

LONDON:
FREDERICK WARNE & CO.,
AND NEW YORK
[All rights reserved.]

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

The necessity of some special Sign to distinguish Individuals, Tribes, and Nations—the Standards of Antiquity—Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman—the Vexillum—the Labarum of Constantine—Invocation of Religion—the Flags of the Enemy—Early Flags of Religious Character—Flags of Saints at Funeral Obsequies—Company and Guild Flags of the Mediæval Period—Political Colours—Various kinds of Flags—the Banner—Rolls of Arms—Roll of Karlaverok—The Flag called the Royal Standard is really the Royal Banner—Main-sail Banners—Trumpet Banners—Ladies embroidering Banners for the Cause—Knights' Banneret—Form of Investiture—the Standard—the Percy Badges and Motto—Arctic Sledge-flags—the Rank governing the size of the Standard—Standards at State Funerals—the Pennon—Knights' Pennonciers—the Pennoncelle—Mr. Rolt as Chief Mourner—Lord Mayor's Show—the Pennant—the Streamer—Tudor Badges—Livery Colours—the Guidon—Bunting—Flag Devising a Branch of Heraldry—Colours chiefly used in Flags—Flags bearing Inscriptions—Significance of the Red Flag—of the Yellow—of the White—of the Black—Dipping the Flag—the Sovereignty of the Sea—Right of Salute insisted on—Political changes rendering Flags obsolete

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CHAPTER II.

The Royal Standard—the Three Lions of England—the Lion Rampant of Scotland—Scottish sensitiveness as to precedence—the Scottish Tressure—the Harp of Ireland—Early Irish Flags—Brian Boru—the Royal Standards from Richard I. to Victoria—Claim to the Fleurs-de-lys of France—Quartering Hanover—the Union Flag—St. George for England—War Cry—Observance of St. George's Day—the Cross of St. George—Early Naval Flags—the London Trained Bands—the Cross of St. Andrew—the "Blue Blanket"—Flags of the Covenanters—Relics of St. Andrew—Union of England and Scotland—the First Union Flag—Importance of accuracy in representations of it—the Union Jack—Flags of the Commonwealth and Protectorate—Union of Great Britain and Ireland—the Cross of St. Patrick—Labours of St. Patrick in Ireland—Proclamation of George III. as to Flags, etc.—the Second Union Flag—Heraldic Difficulties in its Construction—Suggestions by Critics—Regulations as to Fortress Flags—the White Ensign of the Royal Navy—Saluting the Flag—the Navy the Safeguard of Britain—the Blue Ensign—the Royal Naval Reserve—the Red Ensign of the Mercantile Marine—Value of Flag-lore

29
CHAPTER III.

Army Flags—the Queen's Colour—the Regimental Colour—the Honours and Devices—the Flag of the 24th Regiment—Facings—Flag of the King's Own Borderers—What the Flag Symbolises—Colours of the Guards—the Assaye Flag—Cavalry Flags—Presentation of Colours—Chelsea College Chapel—Flags of the Buffs in Canterbury Cathedral—Flags of the Scottish Regiments in St. Giles's Cathedral—Burning of Rebel Flags by the Hangman—Special Flags for various Official Personages—Special Flags for different Government Departments—the Lord High Admiral—the Mail Flag—White Ensign of the Royal Yacht Squadron—Yacht Ensigns and Burgees—House or Company Flags—How to express Colours with Lines—the Allan Tricolor—Port Flags—the British Empire—the Colonial Blue Ensign and Pendant—the Colonial Defence Act—Colonial Mercantile Flag—Admiralty Warrant—Flag of the Governor of a Colony—the Green Garland—the Arms of the Dominion of Canada—Badges of the various Colonies—Daniel Webster on the Might of England—Bacon on the Command of the Ocean

61
CHAPTER IV.

The Flag of Columbus—Early Settlements in North America—the Birth of the United States—Early Revolutionary and State Flags—the Pine-tree Flag—the Rattle-snake Flag—the Stars and Stripes—Early Variations of it—the Arms of Washington—Entry of New States into the Union—the Eagle—the Flag of the President—Secession of the Southern States—State Flags again—the Stars and Bars—the Southern Cross—the Birth of the German Empire—the Influence of War Songs—Flags of the Empire—Flags of the smaller German States—the Austro-Hungary Monarchy—the Flags of Russia—the Crosses of St. Andrew and St. George again—the Flags of France—St. Martin—the Oriflamme—the Fleurs-de-lys—Their Origin—the White Cross—the White Flag of the Bourbons—the Tricolor—the Red Flag—the Flags of Spain—of Portugal—the Consummation of Italian Unity—the Arms of Savoy—the Flags of Italy—of the Temporal Power of the Papacy—the Flag of Denmark—its Celestial Origin—the Flags of Norway and Sweden—of Switzerland—Cantonal Colours—the Geneva Convention—the Flags of Holland—of Belgium—of Greece—the Crescent of Turkey—the Tughra—the Flags of Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria—Flags of Mexico, and of the States of Southern and Central America—of Japan—the Rising Sun—the Chrysanthemum—the Flags of China, Siam and Corea—of Sarawak—of the Orange Free State, Liberia, Congo State, and the Transvaal Republic

86
CHAPTER V.

Flags as a Means of Signalling—Army Signalling—the Morse Alphabet—Navy Signalling—First Attempts at Sea Signals—Old Signal Books in Library of Royal United Service Institution—"England expects that every man will do his duty"—Sinking Signal Codes on defeat—Present System of Signalling in Royal Navy—Pilot Signals—Weather Signalling by Flags—the International Signal Code—First Published in 1857—Seventy-eight Thousand Different Signals possible—Why no Vowels used—Lloyd's Signal Stations

127
Alphabetical Index to Text 141

Coloured Plates

Plate 1 — Personal Flags—Mediæval Period
Plate 2 — Mediæval Banners
Plate 3 — Tudor Standards
Plate 4 — Pennons
Plate 5 — Royal Standards
Plate 6 — Street decorations gone wrong
Plate 7 — European, Company & Turkish Flags
Plate 8 — Military Flags
Plate 9 — British & Irish Flags
Plate 10 — British Flags
Plate 11 — Naval Flags
Plate 12 — Shipping Flags
Plate 13 — Empire Flags
Plate 14 — United States Flags
Plate 15 — Flags of the Americas
Plate 16 — Flags of South America
Plate 17 — French Flags
Plate 18 — Spanish, Portuguese, Italian Flags
Plate 19 — German, etc. Flags
Plate 20 — Russian & Scandinavian Flags
Plate 21 — European & Turkish Flags
Plate 22 — Various National Flags
Plate 23 — Naval Signal Flags
Plate 24 — Maritime Signals
Plate 25 — Signal Flags of Commercial Shipping
Plate 26 — Signal Flags of Ships

This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.