The Grammar of English Grammars/Part III

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The Grammar of English Grammars by Goold Brown
Part III

PART III.


SYNTAX.

Syntax treats of the relation, agreement, government, and arrangement, of words in sentences. The relation of words is their reference to other words, or their dependence according to the sense.

The agreement of words is their similarity in person, number, gender, case, mood, tense, or form.

The government of words is that power which one word has over an other, to cause it to assume some particular modification.

The arrangement of words is their collocation, or relative position, in a sentence.



CHAPTER I.--SENTENCES.

A Sentence is an assemblage of words, making complete sense, and always containing a nominative and a verb; as, "Reward sweetens labour."

The principal parts of a sentence are usually three; namely, the SUBJECT, or nominative,--the attribute, or finite VERB,--and the case put after, or the OBJECT[322] governed by the verb: as, "Crimes deserve punishment."

The other or subordinate parts depend upon these, either as primary or as secondary adjuncts; as, "High crimes justly deserve very severe punishments."

Sentences are usually said to be of two kinds, simple and compound.[323]

A simple sentence is a sentence which consists of one single assertion, supposition, command, question, or exclamation; as, "David and Jonathan loved each other."--"If thine enemy hunger."--"Do violence to no man."--"Am I not an apostle?"--1 Cor., ix, 1. "What immortal glory shall I have acquired!"--HOOKE: Mur. Seq., p. 71.

A compound sentence is a sentence which consists of two or more simple ones either expressly or tacitly connected; as, "Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is Peter; who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved."--Acts, xi, 13. "The more the works of Cowper are read, the more his readers will find reason to admire the variety and the extent, the graces and the energy, of his literary talents."--HAYLEY: Mur. Seq., p. 250.

A clause, or member, is a subdivision of a compound sentence; and is itself a sentence, either simple or compound: as, "If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; if he be thirsty, give him water to drink."--Prov., xxv, 21.[324]

A phrase is two or more words which express some relation of different ideas, but no entire proposition; as, "By the means appointed."--"To be plain with you."--"Having loved his own."

Words that are omitted by ellipsis, and that are necessarily understood in order to complete the construction, (and only such,) must be supplied in parsing.

The leading principles to be observed in the construction of sentences, are embraced in the following twenty-four rules, which are arranged, as nearly as possible, in the order of the parts of speech.


THE RULES OF SYNTAX.


RULE I.--ARTICLES.

Articles relate to the nouns which they limit.


RULE II.--NOMINATIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.


RULE III.--APPOSITION. A Noun or a personal Pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case.


RULE IV.--POSSESSIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed.


RULE V.--OBJECTIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case.


RULE VI.--SAME CASES.

A Noun or a Pronoun put after a verb or participle not transitive, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing.


RULE VII.--OBJECTIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case.


RULE VIII.--NOM. ABSOLUTE.

A Noun or a Pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word.


RULE IX.--ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns.


RULE X.--PRONOUNS.

A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender.


RULE XI--PRONOUNS.

When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Pronoun must agree with it in the plural number.


RULE XII.--PRONOUNS.

When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together.


RULE XIII.--PRONOUNS.

When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together.


RULE XIV.--FINITE VERBS.

Every finite Verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number.


RULE XV.--FINITE VERBS.

When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Verb must agree with it in the plural number.


RULE XVI.--FINITE VERBS.

When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together.


RULE XVII.--FINITE VERBS.

When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together.


RULE XVIII.--INFINITIVES.

The Infinitive Mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which commonly connects it to a finite verb.


RULE XIX.--INFINITIVES.

The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the Infinitive after them without the preposition TO.


RULE XX.--PARTICIPLES.

Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions.


RULE XXI.--ADVERBS.

Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs.


RULE XXII.--CONJUNCTIONS.

Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences.


RULE XXIII.--PREPOSITIONS.

Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them.


RULE XXIV.--INTERJECTIONS.

Interjections have no dependent construction; they are put absolute, either alone, or with other words.


GENERAL OR CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SYNTAX.

OBS. 1.--An explanation of the relation, agreement, government, and arrangement, of words in sentences, constitutes that part of grammar which we call Syntax. But many grammarians, representing this branch of their subject as consisting of two parts only, "concord and government" say little or nothing of the relation and arrangement of words, except as these are involved in the others. The four things are essentially different in their nature, as may be seen by the definitions given above, yet not so distinct in practice that they can well be made the basis of any perfect division of the rules of syntax. I have therefore, on this occasion, preferred the order of the parts of speech; each of which will form a chapter in the Syntax of this work, as each forms a chapter in the Etymology.

OBS. 2.--Agreement and concord are one and the same thing. Relation and agreement, though different, may yet coincide, and be taken together. The latter is moreover naturally allied to the former. Seven of the ten parts of speech are, with a few exceptions, incapable of any agreement; of these the relation and use must be explained in parsing; and all requisite agreement between any of the rest, is confined to words that relate to each other. For one word may relate to an other and not agree with it; but there is never any necessary agreement between words that have not a relation one to the other, or a connexion according to the sense. Any similarity happening between unconnected words, is no syntactical concord, though it may rank the terms in the same class etymologically.

OBS. 3.--From these observations it may be seen, that the most important and most comprehensive principle of English syntax, is the simple Relation of words, according to the sense. To this head alone, ought to be referred all the rules of construction by which our articles, our nominatives, our adjectives, our participles, our adverbs, our conjunctions, our prepositions, and our interjections, are to be parsed. To the ordinary syntactical use of any of these, no rules of concord, government, or position, can at all apply. Yet so defective and erroneous are the schemes of syntax which are commonly found in our English grammars, that no rules of simple relation, none by which any of the above-named parts of speech can be consistently parsed, are in general to be found in them. If there are any exceptions to this censure, they are very few, and in treatises still marked with glaring defects in regard to the syntax of some of these parts of speech.

OBS. 4.--Grammarians, of course, do not utter falsehoods intentionally; but it is lamentable to see how often they pervert doctrine by untruths uttered ignorantly. It is the design of this pandect, to make every one who reads it, an intelligent judge of the perversions, as well as of the true doctrines, of English grammar. The following citations will show him the scope and parts which have commonly been assigned to our syntax: "The construction of sentences depends principally upon the concord or agreement, and the regimen or government, of words."--Lowth's Gram., p. 68; Churchill's, 120. "Words in sentences have a twofold relation to one another; namely, that of Concord or Agreement; and that of Government or Influence."--Dr. Adam's Latin and English Grammar, p. 151. "The third part of Grammar is SYNTAX, which treats of the agreement and construction of words in a sentence."--E. G. Greene's Grammatical Text-Book, p. 15. "Syntax principally consists of two parts, Concord and Government."--Murray's Gram., p. 142; Ingersoll's, 170; Alger's, 51; R. C. Smith's, 119; and many others. "Syntax consists of two parts, Concord and Government."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 175; Wright's, 124. "The Rules of Syntax may all be included under three heads, Concord, Government, and Position."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 87. "Position means the place which a word occupies in a sentence."--Ib. "These rules may be mostly ranked under the two heads of agreement and government; the remainder may be termed miscellaneous."--Nutting's Gram., p. 92. "Syntax treats of the agreement, government and proper arrangement of words in a sentence."--Frost's El. of Gram., p. 43. This last-named author, in touching the text of my books, has often corrupted it, as he does here; but my definitions of the tenses he copied without marring them much. The borrowing occurred as early as 1828, and I add this notice now, lest any should suppose me the plagiarist.

OBS. 5.--Most of our English grammars have more rules of syntax than are needed, and yet are very deficient in such as are needed. To say, as some do, that articles, adjectives, and participles, agree with nouns, is to teach Greek or Latin syntax, and not English. To throw, as Nutting does, the whole syntax of adverbs into a remark on such a rule of agreement, is to choose disorder for its own sake. To say, with Frost, Hall, Smith, Perley, Kirkham, Sanborn, Rand, and others, "The nominative case governs the verb in number and person," and again, "A verb must agree with its nominative case in number and person," is to confound the meaning of government and agreement, to say the same thing in different words, and to leave the subject of a verb still without a rule: for rules of government are applicable only to the words governed, and nothing ever agrees with that which governs it.[325] To say, with Murray and others, "Participles have the same government as the verbs from which they are derived," is to say nothing by which either verbs or participles may be parsed, or any of their errors corrected: those many grammarians, therefore, who make this their only rule for participles, leave them all without any syntax. To say, with Murray, Alger, and others, "Adverbs, though they have no government of case, tense, &c., require an appropriate situation in the sentence," is to squander words at random, and leave the important question unanswered, "To what do adverbs relate?" To say again, with the same gentlemen, "Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and pronouns," is to put an ungrammatical, obscure, and useless assertion, in the place of an important rule. To say merely, "Prepositions govern the objective case," is to rest all the syntax of prepositions on a rule that never applies to them, but which is meant only for one of the constructions of the objective case. To say, as many do, "Interjections require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person after them, and the nominative case of the second," is to tell what is utterly false as the words stand, and by no means true in the sense which the authors intend. Finally, to suppose, with Murray, that, "the Interjection does not require a distinct, appropriate rule," is in admirable keeping with all the foregoing quotations, and especially with his notion of what it does require; namely, "the objective case of the first person:" but who dares deny that the following exclamation is good English?

  "O wretched we! why were we hurried down
   This lubric and adulterate age!"--Dryden.

OBS. 6.--The truth of any doctrine in science, can be nothing else than its conformity to facts, or to the nature of things; and chiefly by what he knows of the things themselves, must any one judge of what others say concerning them. Erroneous or inadequate views, confused or inconsistent statements, are the peculiar property of those who advance them; they have, in reality, no relationship to science itself, because they originate in ignorance; but all science is knowledge--it is knowledge methodized. What general rules are requisite for the syntactical parsing of the several parts of speech in English, may be seen at once by any one who will consider for a moment the usual construction of each. The correction of false syntax, in its various forms, will require more--yes, five times as many; but such of these as answer only the latter purpose, are, I think, better reserved for notes under the principal rules. The doctrines which I conceive most worthy to form the leading canons of our syntax, are those which are expressed in the twenty-four rules above. If other authors prefer more, or fewer, or different principles for their chief rules, I must suppose, it is because they have studied the subject less. Biased, as we may be, both by our knowledge and by our ignorance, it is easy for men to differ respecting matters of expediency; but that clearness, order, and consistency, are both expedient, and requisite, in didactic compositions, is what none can doubt.

OBS. 7.--Those English grammarians who tell us, as above, that syntax is divided into parts, or included under a certain number of heads, have almost universally contradicted themselves by treating the subject without any regard to such a division; and, at the same time, not a few have somehow been led into the gross error of supposing broad principles of concord or government where no such things exist. For example, they have invented general RULES like these: "The adjective agrees with its noun in number, case, and gender."--Bingham's English Gram., p. 40. "Interjections govern the nominative case, and sometimes the objective: as, O thou! alas me!"--Ib., p. 43. "Adjectives agree with their nouns in number."--Wilbur and Livingston's Gram., p. 22. "Participles agree with their nouns in number."--Ib., p. 23. "Every adjective agrees in number with some substantive expressed or understood."-- Hiley's Gram., Rule 8th, p. 77. "The article THE agrees with nouns in either number: as, The wood, the woods."--Bucke's Classical Grammar of the English Language, p. 84. "O! oh! ah! require the accusative case of a pronoun in the first person after them: as Ah me! But when the second person is used, it requires a nominative case: as, O thou!"--Ib., p. 87. "Two or more Nominatives in the singular number, connected by the Conjunction or, nor, EITHER, NEITHER, govern a singular Verb. But Pronouns singular, of different persons, joined by or, EITHER, nor, NEITHER, govern a plural Verb."--Ib., p. 94. "One Nominative frequently governs many Verbs."--Ib., p. 95. "Participles are sometimes governed by the article."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 192. "An adverb, an adjective, or a participle, may involve in itself the force of a preposition, and govern the objective case."--Nutting's Gram., p. 99. "The nominative case governs the verb." [326]--Greenleaf's Gram., p. 32; Kirkham's, 176; and others. "The nominative case comes before the verb."--Bingham's Gram., p. 38; Wilbur and Livingston's, 23. "The Verb TO BE, always governs a Nominative, unless it be of the Infinitive Mood."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 94. "A verb in the infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, noun, adjective, participle, or pronoun."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 187. Or, (as a substitute for the foregoing rule,) say, according to this author: "A verb in the infinitive mood, refers to some noun or pronoun, as its subject or actor."--Ib., p. 188. Now what does he know of English grammar, who supposes any of these rules to be worthy of the place which they hold, or have held, in the halls of instruction?

OBS. 8.--It is a very common fault with the compilers of English grammars, to join together in the same rule the syntax of different parts of speech, uniting laws that must ever be applied separately in parsing. For example: "RULE XI. Articles and adjectives relate to nouns expressed or understood; and the adjectives this, that, one, two, must agree in number with the nouns to which they relate."--Comly's Gram., p. 87. Now, in parsing an article, why should the learner have to tell all this story about adjectives? Such a mode of expressing the rule, is certainly in bad taste; and, after all, the syntax of adjectives is not here comprised, for they often relate to pronouns. "RULE III. Every adjective and participle belongs to some noun or pronoun expressed or understood."--Frost's El. of Gram., p. 44. Here a compiler who in his etymology supposes participles to be verbs, allows them no other construction than that of adjectives. His rule implicitly denies that they can either be parts of their verbs in the formation of tenses, or be governed by prepositions in the character of gerunds. To suppose that a noun may govern the objective case, is both absurd in itself, and contrary to all authority; yet, among his forty-nine rules, this author has the following: "RULE XXV. A participial noun is sometimes governed by a preposition, and may govern an objective case; as, 'George is too fond of wasting time in trifles.'"--Frost's El. of Gram., p. 47. Here again is the fault of which I am speaking, two rules in one; and this fault is combined with an other still worse. Wasting is a participle, governed by of; and time is a noun, governed by wasting. The latter is a declinable word, and found in the objective case; the former is indeclinable, and found in no case. It is an error to suppose that cases are the only things which are susceptible of being governed; nor is the brief rule, "Prepositions govern the objective case," so very clear a maxim as never to be misapprehended. If the learner infer from it, that all prepositions must necessarily govern the objective case, or that the objective case is always governed by a preposition, he will be led into a great mistake.

OBS. 9.--This error of crowding things together, is still more conspicuous in the following examples: "RULE IV. Every article, adjective, and participle, must qualify some noun, or pronoun, either expressed or understood."--Nutting's Gram., p. 94. "RULE IX. The objective case is governed by a transitive verb or a preposition, usually coming before it."--Ib., p. 98. Here an author who separates participles from verbs, has attempted first to compress the entire syntax of three different parts of speech into one short rule; and, secondly, to embrace all the forms of dependence, incident to objective nouns and pronouns, in an other as short. This brevity is a poor exchange for the order and distribution which it prevents--especially as none of its objects are here reached. Articles do not relate to pronouns, unless the obsolete phrase the which is to be revived;[327] participles have other constructions than those which adjectives admit; there are exceptions to the rules which tie articles to nouns, and adjectives to nouns or pronouns; and the objective case may not only be governed by a participle, but may be put in apposition with an other objective. The objective case in English usually stands for the Latin genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative; hence any rule that shall embrace the whole construction of this one case, will be the sole counterpart to four fifths of all the rules in any code of Latin syntax. For I imagine the construction of these four oblique cases, will be found to occupy at least that proportion of the syntactical rules and notes in any Latin grammar that can be found. Such rules, however, are often placed under false or equivocal titles;[328] as if they contained the construction of the governing words, rather than that of the governed. And this latter error, again, has been transferred to most of our English grammars, to the exclusion of any rule for the proper construction of participles, of adverbs, of conjunctions, of prepositions, or of interjections. See the syntax of Murray and his copyists, whose treatment of these parts of speech is noticed in the fifth observation above.

OBS. 10.--It is doubtless most convenient, that, in all rules for the construction of cases, nouns and pronouns be taken together; because the very same doctrines apply equally well to both, and a case is as distinct a thing in the mind, as a part of speech. This method, therefore, I have myself pursued; and it has indeed the authority of all grammarians--not excepting those who violate its principles by adopting two special rules for the relative pronoun, which are not needed. These special rules, which I shall notice again hereafter, may be seen in Murray's Rule 6th, which is double, and contains them both. The most complex rule that I have admitted, is that which embraces the government of objectives by verbs and participles. The regimen by verbs, and the regimen by participles, may not improperly be reckoned distinct principles; but the near alliance of participles to their verbs, seems to be a sufficient reason for preferring one rule to two, in this instance.

OBS. 11.--An other common fault in the treatment of this part of grammar, is the practice of making many of the rules double, or even triple, in their form. Of L. Murray's twenty-two rules, for instance, there are six which severally consist of two distinct paragraphs; and one is composed of three such parts, with examples under each. Five others, though simple in their form, are complex in their doctrine, and liable to the objections which have been urged above against this characteristic. These twelve, therefore, I either reject entirely from my catalogue, or divide and simplify to fit them for their purpose. In short, by comparing the twenty-two rules which were adopted by this popular grammarian, with the twenty-four which are given in this work, the reader may see, that twelve of the former have pleased me too little to have any place at all among the latter, and that none of the remaining ten have been thought worthy to be copied without considerable alteration. Nor are the rules which I adopt, more nearly coincident with those of any other writer. I do not proffer to the schools the second-hand instructions of a mere compiler. In his twenty-two rules, independently of their examples, Hurray has used six hundred and seventeen words, thus giving an average of twenty-eight to each rule; whereas in the twenty-four rules which are presented above, the words are but four hundred and thirty-six, making the average less than nineteen. And yet I have not only divided some of his propositions and extended others, but, by rejecting what was useless or erroneous, and filling up the deficiencies which mark his code, I have delivered twice the amount of doctrine in two thirds of the space, and furnished eleven important rules which are not contained in his grammar. Thus much, in this place, to those who so frequently ask, "Wherein does your book differ from Murray's?"

OBS. 12.--Of all the systems of syntax, or of grammar, which it has been my fortune to examine, a book which was first published by Robinson and Franklin of New York in 1839, a fair-looking duodecimo volume of 384 pages, under the brief but rather ostentatious title, "THE GRAMMAR of the English Language" is, I think, the most faulty,--the most remarkable for the magnitude, multitude, and variety, of its strange errors, inconsistencies, and defects. This singular performance is the work of Oliver B. Peirce, an itinerant lecturer on grammar, who dates his preface at "Rome, N. Y., December 29th, 1838." Its leading characteristic is boastful innovation; it being fall of acknowledged "contempt for the works of other writers."--P. 379. It lays "claim to singularity" as a merit, and boasts of a new thing under the sun--"in a theory RADICALLY NEW, a Grammar of the English Language; something which I believe," says the author, "has NEVER BEFORE BEEN FOUND."--P. 9. The old scholastic notion, that because Custom is the arbitress of speech, novelty is excluded from grammar, this hopeful reformer thoroughly condemns; "repudiating this sentiment to the full extent of it," (ib.) and "writing his theory as though he had never seen a book, entitled an English Grammar."--Ib. And, for all the ends of good learning, it would have been as well or better, if he never had. His passion for novelty has led him not only to abandon or misapply, in an unprecedented degree, the usual terms of the art, but to disregard in many instances its most unquestionable principles, universal as well as particular. His parts of speech are the following ten: "Names, Substitutes, Asserters, Adnames, Modifiers, Relatives, Connectives, Interrogatives, Repliers, and Exclamations."--The Gram., p. 20. His names are nouns; his substitutes are pronouns, and any adjectives whose nouns are not expressed; his asserters are verbs and participles, though the latter assert nothing; his adnames are articles, adjectives whose nouns or pronouns are expressed, and adverbs that relate to adjectives; his modifiers are such adverbs as "modify the sense or sound of a whole sentence;" his relatives are prepositions, some of which govern no object; his connectives are conjunctions, with certain adverbs and phrases; his interrogatives and repliers are new parts of speech, very lamely explained; his exclamations are interjections, and "phrases used independently; as, O hapless choice!"--The Gram., p. 22. In parsing, he finds a world of "accommodatives;" as, "John is more than five years older than William."--Ib. p. 202. Here he calls the whole phrase "more than five years" "a secondary adname" i. e., adjective. But, in the phrase, "more than five years afterwards," he would call the same words "a secondary modifier;" i. e., adverb.--Ib., p. 203. And, in the phrase, "more than five years before the war," he would call them "a secondary relative;" i. e., preposition.--Ib., p. 204. And so of other phrases innumerable. His cases are five, two of which are new, "the Independent" and "the Twofold case." His "independent case" is sometimes the nominative in form, as "thou" and "she;" (p. 62;) sometimes the objective, as, "me" and "him;" (p. 62 and p. 199;) sometimes erroneously supposed to be the subject of a finite verb; while his nominative is sometimes as erroneously said to have no verb. His code of syntax has two sorts of rules, Analytical and Synthetical. The former are professedly seventeen in number; but, many of them consisting of two, three, or four distinct parts, their real number is more properly thirty-four. The latter are reckoned forty-five; but if we count their separate parts, they are fifty-six: and these with the others make ninety. I shall not particularize their faults. All of them are whimsically conceived and badly written. In short, had the author artfully designed to turn English grammar into a subject of contempt and ridicule, by as ugly a caricature of it as he could possibly invent, he could never have hit the mark more exactly than he has done in this "new theory"--this rash production, on which he so sincerely prides himself. Alone as he is, in well-nigh all his opinions, behold how prettily he talks of "COMMON SENSE, the only sure foundation of any theory!" and says, "On this imperishable foundation--this rock of eternal endurance--I rear my superstructure, the edifice of scientific truth, the temple of Grammatical consistency!"--Peirce's Preface, p. 7.

OBS. 13.--For the teaching of different languages, it has been thought very desirable to have "a Series of grammars, Greek, Latin, English, &c., all, so far as general principles are concerned, upon the same plan, and as nearly in the same words as the genius of the languages would permit."--See Bullions's Principles of E. Gram., 2d Ed., pp. iv and vi. This scheme necessarily demands a minute comparison not only of the several languages themselves, but also of the various grammars in which their principles, whether general or particular, are developed. For by no other means can it be ascertained to what extent uniformity of this kind will be either profitable to the learner, or consistent with truth. Some books have been published, which, it is pretended, are thus accommodated to one an other, and to the languages of which they treat. But, in view of the fact, that the Latin or the Greek grammars now extant, (to say nothing of the French, Spanish, and others,) are almost as various and as faulty as the English, I am apprehensive that this is a desideratum not soon to be realized,--a design more plausible in the prospectus, than feasible in the attempt. At any rate, the grammars of different languages must needs differ as much as do the languages themselves, otherwise some of their principles will of course be false; and we have already seen that the nonobservance of this has been a fruitful source of error in respect to English syntax. The achievement, however, is not altogether impossible, if a man of competent learning will devote to it a sufficient degree of labour. But the mere revising or altering of some one grammar in each language, can scarcely amount to any thing more than a pretence of improvement. Waiving the pettiness of compiling upon the basis of an other man's compilation, the foundation of a good grammar for any language, must be both deeper and broader than all the works which Professor Bullions has selected to build upon: for the Greek, than Dr. Moor's "Elementa Linguæ, Græcæ;" for the Latin, than Dr. Adam's "Rudiments of Latin and English Grammar;" for the English, than Murray's "English Grammar," or Lennie's "Principles of English Grammar;" which last work, in fact, the learned gentleman preferred, though he pretends to have mended the code of Murray. But, certainly, Lennie never supposed himself a copyist of Murray; nor was he to much extent an imitator of him, either in method or in style.

OBS. 14.--We have, then, in this new American form of "The Principles of English Grammar," Lennie's very compact little book, altered, enlarged, and bearing on its title-page (which is otherwise in the very words of Lennie) an other author's name, and, in its early editions, the false and self-accusing inscription, "(ON THE PLAN OF MURRAY'S GRAMMAR.)" And this work, claiming to have been approved "by the most competent judges," now challenges the praise not only of being "better adapted to the use of academies and schools than any yet published" but of so presenting "the rules and principles of general grammar, as that they may apply to, and be in perfect harmony with, the grammars of the dead languages"-- Recommendations, p. iv. These are admirable professions for a critical author to publish; especially, as every rule or principle of General Grammar, condemning as it must whoever violates it, cannot but "be in perfect harmony with" every thing that is true. In this model for all grammars, Latin, Greek, &c., the doctrines of punctuation, of abbreviations, and of capital letters, and also sections on the rhetorical divisions of a discourse, the different kinds of composition, the different kinds of prose composition, and the different kinds of poetry, are made parts of the Syntax; while his hints for correct and elegant writing, and his section on the composition of letters and themes, which other writers suppose to belong rather to syntax, are here subjoined as parts of Prosody. In the exercises for parsing appended to his Etymology, the Doctor furnishes twenty-five Rules of Syntax, which, he says, "are not intended to be committed to memory, but to be used as directions to the beginner in parsing the exercises under them."--E. Gram., p. 75. Then, for his syntax proper, he copies from Lennie, with some alterations, thirty-four other rules, nine of which are double, and all are jumbled together by both authors, without any regard to the distinction of concord and government, so common in the grammars of the dead languages, and even, so far as I can discover, without any principle of arrangement whatever. They profess indeed to have placed those rules first, which are eaisest [sic--KTH] to learn, and oftenest to be applied; but the syntax of articles, which even on this principle should have formed the first of the series, is placed by Lennie as the thirty-fourth rule, and by his amender as the thirty-second. To all this complexity the latter adds twenty-two Special Rules, with an abundance of "Notes" "Observations" and "Remarks" distinguished by these titles, on some principle which no one but the author can understand. Lastly, his method of syntactical parsing is not only mixed up with etymological questions and answers, but his directions for it, with their exemplification, are perplexingly at variance with his own specimen of the performance. See his book, pages 131 and 133. So much for this grand scheme.

OBS. 15.--Strictures like the foregoing, did they not involve the defence of grammar itself, so as to bear upon interests more important than the success or failure of an elementary book, might well be withheld through motives of charity, economy, and peace. There is many a grammar now extant, concerning which a truly critical reader may know more at first sight, than ever did he that made it. What such a reader will be inclined to rate beneath criticism, an other perhaps will confidently pronounce above it. If my remarks are just, let the one approve them for the other's sake. For what becomes of the teaching of grammar, when that which is received as the most excellent method, must be exempted from censure by reason of its utter worthlessness? And what becomes of Universal Syntax, when the imperfect systems of the Latin and Greek grammars, in stead of being amended, are modelled to the grossest faults of what is worthless in our own?[329]

OBS. 16.--What arrangement of Latin or Greek syntax may be best in itself, I am not now concerned to show. Lily did not divide his, as others have divided the subject since; but first stated briefly his three concords, and then proceeded to what he called the construction of the several parts of speech, taking them in their order. The three concords of Lily are the following: (1.) Of the Nominative and Verb; to which the accusative before an infinitive, and the collective noun with a plural verb, are reckoned exceptions; while the agreement of a verb or pronoun with two or more nouns, is referred to the figure syllepsis. (2.) Of the Substantive and Adjective; under which the agreement of participles, and of some pronouns, is placed in the form of a note. (3.) Of the Relative and Antecedent; after which the two special rules for the cases of relatives are given as underparts. Dr. Adam divided his syntax into two parts; of Simple Sentences, and of Compound Sentences. His three concords are the following: (1.) Of one Substantive with an Other; which construction is placed by Lily and many others among the figures of syntax, and is called apposition. (2.) Of an Adjective with a Substantive; under which principle, we are told to take adjective pronouns and participles. (3.) Of a Verb with a Nominative; under which, the collective noun with a verb of either number, is noticed in an observation. The construction of relatives, of conjunctions, of comparatives, and of words put absolute, this author reserves for the second part of his syntax; and the agreement of plural verbs or pronouns with joint nominatives or antecedents, which Ruddiman places in an observation on his four concords, is here absurdly reckoned a part of the construction of conjunctions. Various divisions and subdivisions of the Latin syntax, with special dispositions of some particular principles of it, may be seen in the elaborate grammars of Despauter, Prat, Ruddiman, Grant, and other writers. And here it may be proper to observe, that, the mixing of syntax with etymology, after the manner of Ingersoll, Kirkham, R. W. Green, R. C. Smith, Sanborn, Felton, Hazen, Parkhurst, Parker and Fox, Weld, and others, is a modern innovation, pernicious to both; either topic being sufficiently comprehensive, and sufficiently difficult, when they are treated separately; and each having, in some instances, employed the pens of able writers almost to the exclusion of the other.

OBS. 17.--The syntax of any language must needs conform to the peculiarities of its etymology, and also be consistent with itself; for all will expect better things of a scholar, than to lay down positions in one part of his grammar, that are irreconcilable with what he has stated in an other. The English language, having few inflections, has also few concords or agreements, and still fewer governments. Articles, adjectives, and participles, which in many other languages agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case, have usually, in English, no modifications in which they can agree with their nouns. Yet Lowth says, "The adjective in English, having no variation of gender and number, cannot but agree with the substantive in these respects."--Short Introd. to Gram., p. 86. What then is the agreement of words? Can it be anything else than their similarity in some common property or modification? And is it not obvious, that no two things in nature can at all agree, or be alike, except in some quality or accident which belongs to each of them? Yet how often have Murray and others, as well as Lowth, forgotten this! To give one instance out of many: "Gender has respect only to the third person singular of the pronouns, he, she, it."--Murray, J. Peirce, Flint, Lyon, Bacon, Russell, Fisk, Maltby, Alger, Miller, Merchant, Kirkham, and other careless copyists. Yet, according to these same gentlemen, "Gender is the distinction of nouns, with regard to sex;" and, "Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents, and the nouns for which they stand, in gender." Now, not one of these three careless assertions can possibly be reconciled with either of the others!

OBS. 18.--Government has respect only to nouns, pronouns, verbs, participles, and prepositions; the other five parts of speech neither govern nor are governed. The governing words may be either nouns, or verbs, or participles, or prepositions; the words governed are either nouns, or pronouns, or verbs, or participles. In parsing, the learner must remember that the rules of government are not to be applied to the governing words, but to those which are governed; and which, for the sake of brevity, are often technically named after the particular form or modification assumed; as, possessives, objectives, infinitives, gerundives. These are the only things in English, that can properly be said to be subject to government; and these are always so, in their own names; unless we except such infinitives as stand in the place of nominatives. Gerundives are participles governed by prepositions; but, there being little or no occasion to distinguish these from other participles, we seldom use this name. The Latin Gerund differs from a participle, and the English Gerundive differs from a participial noun. The participial noun may be the subject or the object of a verb, or may govern the possessive case before it, like any other noun; but the true English gerundive, being essentially a participle, and governing an object after it, like any other participle, is itself governed only by a preposition. At least, this is its usual and allowed construction, and no other is acknowledged to be indisputably right.

OBS. 19.--The simple Relations of words in English, (or those several uses of the parts of speech which we may refer to this head,) are the following nine: (1.) Of Articles to nouns, by Rule 1st; (2.) Of Nominatives to verbs, by Rule 2d; (3.) Of Nominatives absolute or independent, by Rule 8th; (4.) Of Adjectives to nouns or pronouns, by Rule 9th; (5.) Of Participles to nouns or pronouns, by Rule 20th; (6.) Of Adverbs to verbs, participles, &c., by Rule 21st; (7.) Of Conjunctions as connecting words, phrases, or sentences, by Rule 22nd; (8.) Of Prepositions as showing the relations of things, by Rule 23d; (9.) Of Interjections as being used independently, by Rule 24th.

OBS. 20.--The syntactical Agreements in English, though actually much fewer than those which occur in Latin, Greek, or French, may easily be so reckoned as to amount to double, or even triple, the number usually spoken of by the old grammarians. The twenty-four rules above, embrace the following ten heads, which may not improperly be taken for so many distinct concords: (1.) Of a Noun or Pronoun in direct apposition with another, by Rule 3d; (2.) Of a Noun or Pronoun after a verb or participle not transitive, by Rule 6th; (3.) Of a Pronoun with its antecedent, by Rule 10th; (4.) Of a Pronoun with a collective noun, by Rule 11th; (5.) Of a Pronoun with joint antecedents, by Rule 12th; (6.) Of a Pronoun with disjunct antecedents, by Rule 13th; (7.) Of a Verb with its nominative, by Rule 14th; (8.) Of a Verb with a collective noun, by Rule 15th; (9.) Of a Verb with joint nominatives, by Rule 16th; (10.) Of a Verb with disjunct nominatives, by Rule 17th. To these may be added two other special concords, less common and less important, which will be explained in notes under the rules: (11.) Of one Verb with an other, in mood, tense, and form, when two are connected so as to agree with the same nominative; (12.) Of Adjectives that imply unity or plurality, with their nouns, in number.

OBS. 21.--Again, by a different mode of reckoning them, the concords or the general principles of agreement, in our language, may be made to be only three or four; and some of these much less general, than they are in other languages: (1.) Words in apposition agree in case, according to Rule 3d; of which principle, Rule 6th may be considered a modification. (2.) Pronouns agree, with their nouns, in person, number, and gender, according to Rule 10th; of which principle, Rules 11th, 12th, and 13th, may be reckoned modifications. (3.) Verbs agree with their nominatives, in person and number, according to Rule 14th; of which principle Rules 15th, 16th, and 17th, and the occasional agreement of one verb with an other, may be esteemed mere modifications. (4.) Some adjectives agree with their nouns in number. These make up the twelve concords above enumerated.

OBS. 22.--The rules of Government in the best Latin grammars are about sixty; and these are usually distributed (though not very properly) under three heads; "1. Of Nouns. 2. Of Verbs. 3. Of Words indeclinable."-- Grant's Lat. Gram., p. 170. "Regimen est triplex: 1. Nominum. 2. Verborum. 3. Vocum indeclinabilium."--Ruddiman's Gram., p. 138. This division of the subject brings all the titles of the rules wrong. For example, if the rule be, "Active verbs govern the accusative case," this is not properly "the government of verbs" but rather the government of the accusative by verbs. At least, such titles are equivocal, and likely to mislead the learner. The governments in English are only seven, and these are expressed, perhaps with sufficient distinctness, in six of the foregoing rules: (1.) Of Possessives by nouns, in Rule 4th; (2.) Of Objectives by verbs, in Rule 5th; (3.) Of Objectives by participles, in Rule 5th; (4.) Of Objectives by prepositions, in Rule 7th; (5.) Of Infinitives by the preposition to, in Rule 18th; (6.) Of Infinitives by the verbs bid, dare, &c., in Rule 19th; (7.) Of Participles by prepositions, in Rule 20th.

OBS. 23.--The Arrangement of words, (which will be sufficiently treated of in the observations hereafter to be made on the several rules of construction,) is an important part of syntax, in which not only the beauty but the propriety of language is intimately concerned, and to which particular attention should therefore be paid in composition. But it is to be remembered, that the mere collocation of words in a sentence never affects the method of parsing them: on the contrary, the same words, however placed, are always to be parsed in precisely the same way, so long as they express precisely the same meaning. In order to show that we have parsed any part of an inverted or difficult sentence rightly, we are at liberty to declare the meaning by any arrangement which will make the construction more obvious, provided we retain both the sense and all the words unaltered; but to drop or alter any word, is to pervert the text under pretence of resolving it, and to make a mockery of parsing. Grammar rightly learned, enables one to understand both the sense and the construction of whatsoever is rightly written; and he who reads what he does not understand, reads to little purpose. With great indignity to the muses, several pretenders to grammar have foolishly taught, that, "In parsing poetry, in order to come at the meaning of the author, the learner will find it necessary to transpose his language."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 166. See also the books of Merchant, Wilcox, O. B. Peirce, Hull, Smith, Felton, and others, to the same effect. To what purpose can he transpose the words of a sentence, who does not first see what they mean, and how to explain or parse them as they stand?

OBS. 24.--Errors innumerable have been introduced into the common modes of parsing, through a false notion of what constitutes a simple sentence. Lowth, Adam, Murray, Gould, Smith, Ingersoll, Comly, Lennie, Hiley, Bullions, Wells, and many others, say, "A simple sentence has in it but one subject, and one finite verb: as, 'Life is short.'"--L. Murray's Gram., p. 141. In accordance with this assertion, some assume, that, "Every nominative has its own verb expressed or understood;" and that, "Every verb (except in the infinitive mood and participle) has its own nominative expressed or understood."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 87. The adopters of these dogmas, of course think it right to supply a nominative whenever they do not find a separate one expressed for every finite verb, and a verb whenever they do not find a separate one expressed for every nominative. This mode of interpretation not only precludes the agreement of a verb with two or more nominatives, so as to render nugatory two of the most important rules of these very gentlemen's syntax; but, what is worse, it perverts many a plain, simple, and perfect sentence, to a form which its author did not choose, and a meaning which he never intended. Suppose, for example, the text to be, "A good constitution and good laws make good subjects."--Webster's Essays, p. 152. Does not the verb make agree with constitution and laws, taken conjointly? and is it not a perversion of the sentence to interpret it otherwise? Away then with all this needless subaudition! But while we thus deny that there can be a true ellipsis of what is not necessary to the construction, it is not to be denied that there are true ellipses, and in some men's style very many. The assumption of O. B. Peirce, that no correct sentence is elliptical, and his impracticable project of a grammar founded on this principle, are among the grossest of possible absurdities.

OBS. 25.--Dr. Wilson says, "There may be several subjects to the same verb, several verbs to the same subject, or several objects to the same verb, and the sentence be simple. But when the sentence remains simple, the same verb must be differently affected by its several adjuncts, or the sense liable to be altered by a separation. If the verb or the subject be affected in the same manner, or the sentence is resolvable into more, it is compounded. Thus, 'Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, mixed in due proportion, produce white,' is a simple sentence, for the subject is indivisible. But, 'Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, are refrangible rays of light,' is a compound sentence, and may be separated into seven."--Essay on Gram., p. 186. The propriety of the distinction here made, is at least questionable; and I incline to consider the second example a simple sentence, as well as the first; because what the writer calls a separation into seven, involves a change of are to is, and of rays to ray, as well as a sevenfold repetition of this altered predicate, "is a refrangible ray of light." But the parser, in interpreting the words of others, and expounding the construction of what is written, has no right to alter anything in this manner. Nor do I admit that he has a right to insert or repeat anything needlessly; for the nature of a sentence, or the syntax of some of its words, may often be altered without change of the sense, or of any word for an other: as, "'A wall seven feet high;' that is, 'A wall which is seven feet high.'"--Hiley's Gram., p. 109. "'He spoke and acted prudently;' that is, 'He spoke prudently, and he acted prudently.'"--Ibid. '"He spoke and acted wisely;' that is, 'He spoke wisely, and he acted wisely.'"--Murray's Gram., p. 219; Alger's, 70: R. C. Smith's, 183; Weld's, 192; and others. By this notion of ellipsis, the connexion or joint relation of words is destroyed.

OBS. 26.--Dr. Adam, who thought the division of sentences into simple and compound, of sufficient importance to be made the basis of a general division of syntax into two parts, has defined a simple sentence to be, "that which has but one nominative, and one finite verb;" and a compound sentence, "that which has more than one nominative, or one finite verb." And of the latter he gives the following erroneous and self-contradictory account: "A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences or phrases, and is commonly called a Period. The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Members or Clauses. In every compound sentence there are either several subjects and one attribute, or several attributes and one subject, or both several subjects and several attributes; that is, there are either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative, or both. Every verb marks a judgment or attribute, and every attribute must have a subject. There must, therefore, be in every sentence or period, as many propositions as there are verbs of a finite mode. Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions; as, Happy is the man who loveth religion, and practiseth virtue."--Adam's Gram., p. 202; Gould's, 199; and others.

OBS. 27.--Now if every compound sentence consists of such parts, members, or clauses, as are in themselves sentences, either simple or compound, either elliptical or complete; it is plain, in the first place, that the term "phrases" is misapplied above, because a phrase is properly only a part of some simple sentence. And if "a simple sentence is that which has but one nominative and one finite verb," and "a compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences," it follows, since "all sentences are either simple or compound," that, in no sentence, can there be "either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative." What, therefore, this author regarded as the characteristic of all compound sentences, is, according to his own previous positions, utterly impossible to any sentence. Nor is it less repugnant to his subsequent doctrine, that, "Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions;" for, according to his notion, "A conjunction is an indeclinable word, which serves to join sentences together."--Adam's Gram., p. 149. It is assumed, that, "In every sentence there must be a verb and a nominative expressed or understood."--Ib., p. 151. Now if there happen to be two nominatives to one verb, as when it was said, "Even the winds and the sea obey him;" this cannot be anything more than a simple sentence; because one single verb is a thing indivisible, and how can we suppose it to form the most essential part of two different sentences at once?

OBS. 28.--The distinction, or real difference, between those simple sentences in which two or more nominatives or verbs are taken conjointly, and those compound sentences in which there is an ellipsis of some of the nominatives or verbs, is not always easy to be known or fixed; because in many instances, a supposed ellipsis, without at all affecting the sense, may obviously change the construction, and consequently the nature of the sentence. For example: "And they all forsook him, and [they all] fled."--Mark, xiv, 50. Some will say, that the words in brackets are here understood. I may deny it, because they are needless; and nothing needless can form a true ellipsis. To the supplying of useless words, if we admit the principle, there may be no end; and the notion that conjunctions join sentences only, opens a wide door for it. For example: "And that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil."--Job, i, 1. No additional words will make this clause any plainer, and none are really necessary to the construction; yet some grammarians will parse it with the following impletions, or more: "And that man was a perfect man, and he was an upright man, and he was one man that feared God, and that eschewed evil things." It is easy to see how this liberty of interpretation, or of interpolation, will change simple sentences to compound sentences, as well as alter the nature and relation of many particular words; and at the same time, it takes away totally those peculiarities of construction by which Dr. Adam and others would recognize a sentence as being compound. What then? are there not two kinds of sentences? Yes, truly; but these authors are wrong in their notions and definitions of both. Joint nominatives or joint verbs may occur in either; but they belong primarily to some simple sentences, and only for that reason are found in any that are compound. A sentence, too, may possibly be made compound, when a simple one would express the whole meaning as well or better; as, "And [David] smote the Philistines from Geba until thou come to Gazer."--2 Sam., v, 25. Here, if we omit the words in Italics, the sentence will become simple, not elliptical.


THE ANALYZING OF SENTENCES.

To analyze a sentence, is, to resolve it into some species of constituent parts, but most properly into words, its first significant elements, and to point out their several relations and powers in the given connexion.

The component parts of a sentence are members, clauses, phrases, or words. Some sentences, which are short and simple, can only be divided into their words; others, which are long and complex, may be resolved into parts again and again divisible.

Of analysis applicable to sentences, there are several different methods; and, so far as their difference may compatibly aid the application of different principles of the science of grammar, there may be an advantage in the occasional use of each.


FIRST METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

Sentences not simple may be reduced to their constituent members, clauses, or simple sentences; and the means by which these are united, may be shown. Thus:--

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

"Even the Atheist, who tells us that the universe is self-existent and indestructible--even he, who, instead of seeing the traces of a manifold wisdom in its manifold varieties, sees nothing in them all but the exquisite structures and the lofty dimensions of materialism--even he, who would despoil creation of its God, cannot look upon its golden suns, and their accompanying systems, without the solemn impression of a magnificence that fixes and overpowers him."--DR. CHALMERS, Discourses on Revelation and Astronomy, p. 231.

ANALYSIS.--This is a compound sentence, consisting of three complex members, which are separated by the two dashes. The three members are united in one sentence, by a suspension of the sense at each dash, and by two virtual repetitions of the subject, "Atheist" through the pronoun "he," put in the same case, and representing this noun. The sense mainly intended is not brought out till the period ends. Each of the three members is complex, because each has not only a relative clause, commencing with "who," but also an antecedent word which makes sense with "cannot look," &c. The first of these relative clauses involves also a subordinate, supplementary clause,--"the universe is self-existent and indestructible"--introduced after the verb "tells" by the conjunction "that." The last phrase, "without the solemn impression," &c., which is subjoined by "without" to "cannot look," embraces likewise a subordinate, relative clause,--"that fixes and overpowers him,"--which has two verbs; the whole, antecedent and all, being but an adjunct of an adjunct, yet an essential element of the sentence.


SECOND METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

Simple sentences, or the simple members of compound sentences, may be resolved into their PRINCIPAL and their SUBORDINATE PARTS; the subject, the verb, and the case put after or governed by the verb, being first pointed out as THE PRINCIPAL PARTS; and the other words being then detailed as ADJUNCTS to these, according to THE SENSE, or as adjuncts to adjuncts. Thus:--

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

"Fear naturally quickens the flight of guilt. Rasselas could not catch the fugitive, with his utmost efforts; but, resolving to weary, by perseverance, him whom he could not surpass in speed, he pressed on till the foot of the mountain stopped his course."--DR. JOHNSON, Rasselas, p. 23.

ANALYSIS.--The first period here is a simple sentence. Its principal parts are--Fear, quickens, flight; Fear being the subject, quickens the verb, and flight the object. Fear has no adjunct; naturally is an adjunct of quickens; the and of guilt are adjuncts of flight. The second period is composed of several clauses, or simple members, united. The first of these is also a simple sentence, having, three principal parts--Rasselas, could catch, and fugitive; the subject, the verb, and its object, in their order. Not is added to could catch, reversing the meaning; the is an adjunct to fugitive; with joins its phrase to could not catch; but his and utmost are adjuncts of efforts. The word but connects the two chief members as parts of one sentence. "Resolving to weary" is an adjunct to the pronoun he, which stands before pressed. "By perseverance," is an adjunct to weary. Him is governed by weary, and is the antecedent to whom. "Whom he could not surpass in speed," is a relative clause, or subordinate simple member, having three principal parts--he, could surpass, and whom. Not and in speed are adjuncts to the verb could surpass. "He pressed on" is an other simple member, or sentence, and the chief clause here used, the others being subjoined to this. Its principal parts are two, he and pressed; the latter taking the particle on as an adjunct, and being intransitive. The words dependent on the nominative he, (to wit, resolving, &c.,) have already been mentioned. Till is a conjunctive adverb of time, connecting the concluding clause to pressed on. "The foot of the mountain stopped his course," is a subordinate clause and simple member, whose principal parts are--the subject foot, the verb stopped, and the object course. The adjuncts of foot are the and of the mountain; the verb in this sentence has no adjunct but course, which is better reckoned a principal word; lastly, his is an adjunct to course, and governed by it.


THIRD METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

Sentences may be partially analyzed by a resolution into their SUBJECTS and their PREDICATES, a method which some late grammarians have borrowed from the logicians; the grammatical subject with its adjuncts, being taken for the logical subject; and the finite verb, which some call the grammatical predicate[330] being, with its subsequent case and the adjuncts of both, denominated the predicate, or the logical predicate. Thus:--

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

"Such is the emptiness of human enjoyment, that we are always impatient of the present. Attainment is followed by neglect, and possession, by disgust. Few moments are more pleasing than those in which the mind is concerting measures for a new undertaking. From the first hint that wakens the fancy, to the hour of actual execution, all is improvement and progress, triumph and felicity."--DR. JOHNSON, Rambler.

ANALYSIS.--Here the first period is a compound sentence, containing two clauses,--which are connected by that. In the first clause, emptiness is the grammatical subject, and "the emptiness of human enjoyment" is the logical. Is some would call the grammatical predicate, and "Such is," or is such, the logical; but the latter consists, as the majority teach, of "the copula" is, and "the attribute," or "predicate," such. In the second clause, (which explains the import of "Such,") the subject is we; which is unmodified, and in which therefore the logical form and the grammatical coincide and are the same. Are may here be called the grammatical predicate; and "are always impatient of the present," the logical. The second period, too, is a compound sentence, having two clauses, which are connected by and. Attainment is the subject of the former; and, "is followed by neglect" is the predicate. In the latter, possession alone is the subject; and, "[is followed] by disgust," is the predicate; the verb is followed being understood at the comma. The third period, likewise, is a compound, having three parts, with the two connectives than and which. Here we have moments for the first grammatical subject, and Few moments for the logical; then, are for the grammatical predicate, and are more pleasing for the logical: or, if we choose to say so, for "the copula and the attribute." "Than those," is an elliptical member, meaning, "than are those moments," or, "than those moments are pleasing;" both subject and predicate are wholly suppressed, except that those is reckoned a part of the logical subject. In which is an adjunct of is concerting, and serves well to connect the members, because which represents those, i.e. those moments. Mind, or the mind, is the next subject of affirmation; and is concerting, or, "is concerting measures for a new undertaking," is the predicate or matter affirmed. Lastly, the fourth period, like the rest, is compound. The phrases commencing with From and to, describe a period of time, and are adjuncts of the verb is. The former contains a subordinate relative clause, of which that (representing hint) is the subject, and wakens, or wakens the fancy, the predicate. Of the principal clause, the word all, taken as a noun, is the subject, whether grammatical or logical; and "the copula," or "grammatical predicate," is, becomes, with its adjuncts and the nominatives following, the logical predicate.


FOURTH METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

All syntax is founded on the RELATION of words one to an other, and the CONNEXION of clauses and phrases, according to THE SENSE. Hence sentences may be, in some sort, analyzed, and perhaps profitably, by the tracing of such relation or connexion, from link to link, through a series of words, beginning and ending with such as are somewhat remote from each other, yet within the period. Thus:--

EXAMPLES ANALYZED.

1. "Swift would say, 'The thing has not life enough in it to keep it sweet;' Johnson, 'The creature possesses not vitality sufficient to preserve it from putrefaction.'"--MATT. HARRISON, on the English Language, p. 102. ANALYSIS.--What is the general sense of this passage? and what, the chain of connexion between the words Swift and putrefaction? The period is designed to show, that Swift preferred words of Saxon origin; and Johnson, of Latin. It has in contrast two coördinate members, tacitly connected: the verb would say being understood after Johnson, and perhaps also the particle but, after the semicolon. Swift is the subject of would say; and would say introduces the clause after it, as what would be said. The relates to thing; thing is the subject of has; has, which is qualified by not, governs life; life is qualified by the adjective enough, and by the phrase, in it; enough is the prior term of to; to governs keep; keep governs it, which stands for the thing; and it, in lieu of the thing, is qualified by sweet. The chief members are connected either by standing in contrast as members, or by but, understood before Johnson. Johnson is the subject of would say, understood: and this would say, again introduces a clause, as what would be said. The relates to creature; creature is the subject of possesses; possesses, which is qualified by not, governs vitality; vitality is qualified by sufficient; sufficient is the prior term of to; to governs preserve; preserve governs it, and is the prior term of from; and from governs putrefaction.

2. "There is one Being to whom we can look with a perfect conviction of finding that security, which nothing about us can give, and which nothing about us can take away."--GREENWOOD; Wells's School Gram., p. 192.[331]

ANALYSIS.--What is the general structure of this passage? and what, the chain of connexion "between the words away and is?" The period is a complex sentence, having four clauses, all connected together by relatives; the second, by whom, to the first and chief clause, "There is one Being;" the third and the fourth, to the second, by which and which; but the last two, having the same antecedent, security, and being coördinate, are also connected one to the other by and. As to "the chain of connexion," Away relates to can take; can take agrees with its nominative nothing, and governs which; which represents security; security is governed by finding; finding is governed by of; of refers back to conviction; conviction is governed by with; with refers back to can look; can look agrees with we, and is, in sense, the antecedent of to; to governs whom; whom represents Being; and Being is the subject of is.


FIFTH METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

The best and most thorough method of analysis is that of COMPLETE SYNTACTICAL PARSING; a method which, for the sake of order and brevity, should ever be kept free from all mixture of etymological definitions or reasons, but which may be preceded or followed by any of the foregoing schemes of resolution, if the teacher choose to require any such preliminary or subsidiary exposition. This method is fully illustrated in the Twelfth Praxis below.


OBSERVATIONS ON METHODS OF ANALYSIS.

OBS. 1.--The almost infinite variety in the forms of sentences, will sometimes throw difficulty in the way of the analyzer, be his scheme or his skill what it may. The last four or five observations of the preceding series have shown, that the distinction of sentences as simple or compound, which constitutes the chief point of the First Method of Analysis above, is not always plain, even to the learned. The definitions and examples which I have given, will make it generally so; and, where it is otherwise, the question or puzzle, it is presumed, cannot often be of much practical importance. If the difference be not obvious, it can hardly be a momentous error, to mistake a phrase for an elliptical clause, or to call such a clause a phrase.

OBS. 2.--The Second Method above is, I think, easier of application than any of the rest; and, if other analysis than the regular method of parsing seem desirable, this will probably be found as useful as any. There is, in many of our popular grammars, some recognition of the principles of this analysis--some mention of "the principal parts of a sentence," in accordance with what are so called above,--and also, in a few, some succinct account of the parts called "adjuncts;" but there seems to have been no prevalent practice of applying these principles, in any stated or well-digested manner. Lowth, Murray, Alger, W. Allen, Hart, Hiley, Ingersoll, Wells, and others, tell of these "PRINCIPAL PARTS;"--Lowth calling them, "the agent, the attribute, and the object;" (Gram., p. 72;)--Murray, and his copyists, Alger, Ingersoll, and others, calling them, "the subject, the attribute, and the object;"--Hiley and Hart calling them, "the subject or nominative, the attribute or verb, and the object;"--Allen calling them, "the nominative, the verb, and (if the verb is active,) the accusative governed by the verb;" and also saying, "The nominative is sometimes called the subject; the verb, the attribute; and the accusative, the object;"--Wells calling them, "the subject or nominative, the verb, and the object;" and also recognizing the "adjuncts," as a species which "embraces all the words of a simple sentence [,] except the principal parts;"--yet not more than two of them all appearing to have taken any thought, and they but little, about the formal application of their common doctrine. In Allen's English Grammar, which is one of the best, and likewise in Wells's, which is equally prized, this reduction of all connected words, or parts of speech, into "the principal parts" and "the adjuncts," is fully recognized; the adjuncts, too, are discriminated by Allen, as "either primary or secondary," nor are their more particular species or relations overlooked; but I find no method prescribed for the analysis intended, except what Wells adopted in his early editions but has since changed to an other or abandoned, and no other allusion to it by, Allen, than this Note, which, with some appearance of intrusion, is appended to his "Method of Parsing the Infinitive Mood:"--"The pupil may now begin to analyse [analyze] the sentences, by distinguishing the principal words and their adjuncts."--W. Allen's E. Gram., p. 258.

OBS. 3.--These authors in general, and many more, tell us, with some variation of words, that the agent, subject, or nominative, is that of which something is said, affirmed, or denied; that the attribute, verb, or predicate, is that which is said, affirmed, or denied, of the subject; and that the object, accusative, or case sequent, is that which is introduced by the finite verb, or affected by the action affirmed. Lowth says, "In English the nominative case, denoting the agent, usually goes before the verb, or attribution; and the objective case, denoting the object, follows the verb active."--Short Introd., p. 72. Murray copies, but not literally, thus: "The nominative denotes the subject, and usually goes before the verb [,] or attribute; and the word or phrase, denoting the object, follows the verb: as, 'A wise man governs his passions.' Here, a wise man is the subject; governs, the attribute, or thing affirmed; and his passions, the object."--Murray's Octavo, p. 142; Duodecimo, 116. To include thus the adjuncts with their principals, as the logicians do, is here manifestly improper; because it unites what the grammatical analyzer is chiefly concerned to separate, and tends to defeat the main purpose for which "THE PRINCIPAL PARTS" are so named and distinguished.

OBS. 4.--The Third Method of Analysis, described above, is an attempt very briefly to epitomize the chief elements of a great scheme,--to give, in a nutshell, the substance of what our grammarians have borrowed from the logicians, then mixed with something of their own, next amplified with small details, and, in some instances, branched out and extended to enormous bulk and length. Of course, they have not failed to set forth the comparative merits of this scheme in a sufficiently favourable light. The two ingenious gentlemen who seem to have been chiefly instrumental in making it popular, say in their preface, "The rules of syntax contained in this work result directly from the analysis of propositions, and of compound sentences; and for this reason the student should make himself perfectly familiar with the sections relating to subject and predicate, and should be able readily to analyze sentences, whether simple or compound, and to explain their structure and connection. * * * This exercise should always precede the more minute and subsidiary labor of parsing. If the latter be conducted, as it often is, independently of previous analysis, the principal advantage to be derived from the study of language, as an intellectual exercise, will inevitably be lost."--Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard, p. vi. N. Butler, who bestows upon this subject about a dozen duodecimo pages, says in his preface, "The rules for the analysis of sentences, which is a very useful and interesting exercise, have been taken from Andrews' and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, some changes and additions being made."--Butler's Practical Gram., p. iv.[332]

OBS. 5.--Wells, in the early copies of his School Grammar, as has been hinted, adopted a method of analysis similar to the Second one prescribed above; yet referred, even from the first, to "Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar," and to "De Sacy's General Grammar," as if these were authorities for what he then inculcated. Subsequently, he changed his scheme, from that of Parts Principal and Adjuncts, to one of Subjects and Predicates, "either grammatical or logical," also "either simple or compound;"--to one resembling Andrews and Stoddard's, yet differing from it, often, as to what constitutes a "grammatical predicate;"--to one resenbling [sic--KTH] the Third Method above, yet differing from it, (as does Andrews and Stoddard's,) in taking the logical subject and predicate before the grammatical. "The chapter on Analysis," said he then, "has been Revised and enlarged with great care, and will be found to embody all the most important principles on this subject [.] which are contained in the works of De Sacy, Andrews and Stoddard, Kühner, Crosby, and Crane. It is gratifying to observe that the attention of teachers is now so generally directed to this important mode of investigating the structure of our language, in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing."--Wells's School Gram., New Ed., 1850, p. iv.

OBS. 6.--In view of the fact, that Wells's chief mode of sentential analysis had just undergone an almost total metamorphosis, a change plausible perhaps, but of doubtful utility,--that, up to the date of the words just cited, and afterwards, so far and so long as any copies of his early "Thousands" remain in use, the author himself has earnestly directed attention to a method which he now means henceforth to abandon,--in this view, the praise and gratulation expressed above seem singular. If it has been found practicable, to slide "the attention of teachers," and their approbation too, adroitly over from one "important mode of investigating the structure of our language," to an other;--if "it is gratifying to observe," that the direction thus given to public opinion sustains itself so well, and "is so generally" acquiesced in;--if it is proved, that the stereotyped praise of one system of analysis may, without alteration, be so transferred to an other, as to answer the double purpose of commending and superseding;--it is not improbable that the author's next new plates will bear the stamp of yet other "most important principles" of analysis. This process is here recommended to be used "in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing,"--exercises, which, in Wells's Grammar, are generally, and very improperly, commingled; and if, to these, may be profitably conjoined either his present or his former scheme of analysis, it were well, had he somewhere put them together and shown how.

OBS. 7.--But there are other passages of the School Grammar, so little suited to this notion of "connection" that one can hardly believe the word ought to be taken in what seems its only sense. "Advanced classes should attend less to the common Order of Parsing, and more to the Analysis of language."--Wells's Grammar, "3d Thousand," p. 125; "113th Thousand," p. 132. This implies, what is probably true of the etymological exercise, that parsing is more rudimental than the other forms of analysis. It also intimates, what is not so clear, that pupils rightly instructed must advance from the former to the latter, as to something more worthy of their intellectual powers. The passage is used with reference to either form of analysis adopted by the author. So the following comparison, in which Parsing is plainly disparaged, stands permanently at the head of "the chapter on Analysis," to commend first one mode, and then an other: "It is particularly desirable that pupils should pass as early as practicable from the formalities of common PARSING, to the more important exercise of ANALYZING critically the structure of language. The mechanical routine of technical parsing is peculiarly liable to become monotonous and dull, while the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence, is adapted to call the mind of the learner into constant and vigorous action, and can hardly fail of exciting the deepest interest,"--Wells's Gram., 3d Th., p. 181; 113th Th., p. 184.

OBS. 8.--An ill scheme of parsing, or an ill use of a good one, is almost as unlucky in grammar, as an ill method of ciphering, or an ill use of a good one, would be in arithmetic. From the strong contrast cited above, one might suspect that, in selecting, devising, or using, a technical process for the exercising of learners in the principles of etymology and syntax, this author had been less fortunate than the generality of his fellows. Not only is it implied, that parsing is no critical analysis, but even what is set in opposition to the "mechanical routine," may very well serve for a definition of Syntactical Parsing--"the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence!" If this "practice," well ordered, can be at once interesting and profitable to the learner, so may parsing. Nor, after all, is even this author's mode of parsing, defective though it is in several respects, less "important" to the users of his book, or less valued by teachers, than the analysis which he sets above it.

OBS. 9.--S. S. Greene, a public teacher in Boston, who, in answer to a supposed "demand for a more philosophical plan of teaching the English language," has entered in earnest upon the "Analysis of Sentences," having devoted to one method of it more than the space of two hundred duodecimo pages, speaks of analysis and of parsing, thus: "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called analysis."--Greene's Analysis, p. 14. "Parsing consists in naming a part of speech, giving its modifications, relation, agreement or dependence, and the rule for its construction. Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence. Analysis should precede parsing."--Ib., p. 26. "A large proportion of the elements of sentences are not single words, but combinations or groups of words. These groups perform the office of the substantive, the adjective, or the adverb, and, in some one of these relations, enter in as the component parts of a sentence. The pupil who learns to determine the elements of a sentence, must, therefore, learn the force of these combinations before he separates them into the single words which compose them. This advantage is wholly lost in the ordinary methods of parsing."--Ib., p. 3.

OBS. 10.--On these passages, it may be remarked in the first place, that the distinction attempted between analysis and parsing is by no means clear, or well drawn. Nor indeed could it be; because parsing is a species of analysis. The first assertion would be just as true as it is now, were the former word substituted for the latter: thus, "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called parsing." Next, the "Parsing" spoken of in the second sentence, is Syntactical Parsing only; and, without a limitation of the species, neither this assertion nor the one concerning precedence is sufficiently true. Again, the suggestion, that, "Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence," has nothing distinctive in it; and, without some idea of the author's peculiar system of "elements," previously impressed upon the mind, is scarcely, if at all, intelligible. Lastly, that a pupil must understand a sentence,--or, what is the same thing, "learn the force of the words combined,"--before he can be sure of parsing each word rightly, is a very plain and certain truth; but what "advantage" over parsing this truth gives to the lesser analysis, which deals with "groups," it is not easy to discover. If the author had any clear idea of "this advantage," he has conveyed no such conception to his readers.

OBS. 11.--Greene's Analysis is the most expanded form of the Third Method above.[333] Its nucleus, or germinating kernel, was the old partition of subject and predicate, derived from the art of logic. Its chief principles may be briefly stated thus: Sentences, which are simple, or complex, or compound, are made up of words, phrases, and clauses--three grand classes of elements, called the first, the second, and the third class. From these, each sentence must have two elements; the Subject, or Substantive element, and the Predicate, or Predicative element, which are principal; and a sentence may have five, the subordinates being the Adjective element, the Objective element, and the Adverbial element. The five elements have sundry modifications and subdivisions. Each of the five may, like a sentence, be simple, or complex, or compound; and each may be of any of the three grand classes. The development of this scheme forms a volume, not small. The system is plausible, ingenious, methodical, mostly true, and somewhat elaborate; but it is neither very useful nor very accurate. It seems too much like a great tree, beautiful, symmetrical, and full of leaves, but raised or desired only for fruit, yet bearing little, and some of that little not of good quality, but knurly or bitter. The chief end of a grammar, designed for our tongue, is, to show what is, and what is not, good English. To this end, the system in question does not appear to be well adapted.

OBS. 12.--Dr. Bullions, the projector of the "Series of Grammars, English, Latin, and Greek, all on the same plan," inserted in his Latin Grammar, of 1841, a short sketch of the new analysis by "subjects and predicates," "grammatical and logical," the scheme used by Andrews and Stoddard; but his English Grammar, which appeared in 1834, was too early for this "new and improved method of investigating" language. In his later English Grammar, of 1849, however, paying little regard to sameness of "plan" or conformity of definitions, he carefully devoted to this matter the space of fifteen pages, placing the topic, not injudiciously, in the first part of his syntax, and referring to it thus in his Preface: "The subject of ANALYSIS, wholly omitted in the former work, is here introduced in its proper place; and to an extent in accordance with its importance."-- Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram., p. 3.

OBS. 13.--In applying any of the different methods of analysis, as a school exercise, it will in general perhaps be best to use each separately; the teacher directing which one is to be applied, and to what examples. The selections prepared for the stated praxes of this work, will be found as suitable as any. Analysis of sentences is a central and essential matter in the teaching or the study of grammar; but the truest and the most important of the sentential analyses is parsing; which, because it is a method distinguished by a technical name of its own, is not commonly denominated analysis. The relation which other methods should bear to parsing, is, as we have seen, variously stated by different authors. Etymological parsing and Syntactical are, or ought to be, distinct exercises. The former, being the most simple, the most elementary, and also requisite to be used before the pupil is prepared for the latter, should, without doubt, take precedence of all the rest, and be made familiar in the first place. Those who say, "Analysis should precede parsing," will scarcely find the application of other analysis practicable, till this is somewhat known. But Syntactical Parsing being, when complete in form, the most thorough process of grammatical resolution, it seems proper to have introduced the other methods before it, as above. It can hardly be said that any of these are necessary to this exercise, or to one an other; yet in a full course of grammatical instruction, each may at times be usefully employed.

OBS. 14.--Dr. Bullions suggests, that, "Analysis should precede Syntactical parsing, because, till we know the parts and elements of a sentence, we can not understand their relations, nor intelligently combine them into one consistent whole."--Analytical and Pract. Gram., p. 114. This reason is entirely fictitious and truthless; for the words of a sentence are intuitively known to be its "parts and elements;" and, to "understand their relations," is as necessary to one form of analysis as to another; but, "intelligently to combine them," is no part of the parser's duty: this belongs to the writer; and where he has not done it, he must be criticised and censured, as one that knows not well what he says. In W. Allen's Grammar, as in Wells's, Syntactical parsing and Etymological are not divided. Wells intersperses his "Exercises in Parsing," at seven points of his Syntax, and places "the chapter on Analysis," at the end of it. Allen treats first of the several parts of grammar, didactically; then presents a series of exercises adapted to the various heads of the whole. At the beginning of these, are fourteen "Methods of Parsing," which show, successively, the properties and construction of his nine parts of speech; and, at the ninth method, which resolves infinitives, it is proposed that the pupil begin to apply a method of analysis similar to the Second one above.


EXAMPLES FOR PARSING. PRAXIS XII.--SYNTACTICAL.

The grand clew to all syntactical parsing is THE SENSE; and as any composition is faulty which does not rightly deliver the authors meaning, so every solution of a word or sentence is necessarily erroneous, in which that meaning is not carefully noticed and literally preserved.

In all complete syntactical parsing, it is required of the pupil--to distinguish the different parts of speech and their classes; to mention their modifications in order; to point out their relation, agreement, or government; and to apply the Rules of Syntax. Thus:--

EXAMPLE PARSED.

"A young man studious to know his duty, and honestly bent on doing it, will find himself led away from the sin or folly in which the multitude thoughtlessly indulge themselves; but, ah! poor fallen human nature! what conflicts are thy portion, when inclination and habit--a rebel and a traitor--exert their sway against our only saving principle!"--G. Brown.

A is the indefinite article: and relates to man, or young man; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit." Because the meaning is--a man--a young man.

Young is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared regularly, young, younger, youngest: and relates to man; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--young man.

Man is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of will find; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Because the meaning is--man will find.

Studious is a common adjective, compared by means of the adverbs; studious, more studious, most studious; or, studious, less studious, least studious: and relates to man; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--man studious.

To is a preposition: and shows the relation between studious and know; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them." Because the meaning is--studious to know.

Know is an irregular active-transitive verb, from know, knew, knowing, known; found in the infinitive mood, present tense--no person, or number: and is governed by to; according to Rule 18th, which says, "The infinitive mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which commonly connects it to a finite verb." Because the meaning is--to know.

His is a personal pronoun, representing man, in the third person, singular number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by duty; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed." Because the meaning is--his duty;--i. e., the young man's duty.

Duty is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by know; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--to know his duty.

And is a copulative conjunction: and connects the phrase which follows it, to that which precedes; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences." Because the meaning is--studious to know his duty, and honestly bent, &c.

Honestly is an adverb of manner: and relates to bent; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs." Because the meaning is--honestly bent.

Bent is a perfect participle, from the redundant active-transitive verb, bend, bent or bended, bending, bent or bended: and relates to man; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions." Because the meaning is--man bent. On is a preposition: and shows the relation between bent and doing; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them." Because the meaning is--bent on doing.

Doing is an imperfect participle, from the irregular active-transitive verb, do, did, doing, done: and is governed by on; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions." Because the meaning is--on doing.

It is a personal pronoun, representing duty, in the third person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the objective case, being governed by doing; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--doing it;--i. e., doing his duty.

Will find is an irregular active-transitive verb, from find, found, finding, found; found in the indicative mood, first-future tense, third person, and singular number: and agrees with its nominative man; according to Rule 14th, which says, "Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number." Because the meaning is--man will find.

Himself is a compound personal pronoun, representing man, in the third person, singular number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender;" and is in the objective case, being governed by will find; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--will find himself;--i. e., his own mind or person.

Led is a perfect participle, from the irregular active-transitive verb, lead, led, leading, led: and relates to himself; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions." Because the meaning is--himself led.

Away is an adverb of place: and relates to led; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs." Because the meaning is--led away.

From is a preposition: and shows the relation between led and sin or folly; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them." Because the meaning is--led from sin or folly.

The is the definite article: and relates to sin and folly; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit." Because the meaning is--the sin or folly.

Sin is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by from; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--from sin.

Or is a disjunctive conjunction: and connects sin and folly; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences." Because the meaning is--sin or folly.

Folly is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is connected by or to sin, and governed by the same preposition from; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--from sin or folly.

In is a preposition: and shows the relation between indulge and which; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them." Because the meaning is--indulge in which--or, which they indulge in.

Which is a relative pronoun, representing sin or folly, in the third person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 13th, which says, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together:" and is in the objective case, being governed by in; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--in which;--i. e., in which sin or folly.

The is the definite article: and relates to multitude; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit." Because the meaning is--the multitude.

Multitude is a common noun, collective, of the third person, conveying the idea of plurality, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of indulge; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Because the meaning is--multitude indulge.

Thoughtlessly is an adverb of manner: and relates to indulge; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs." Because the meaning is--thoughtlessly indulge.

Indulge is a regular active-transitive verb, from indulge, indulged, indulging, indulged; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its nominative multitude; according to Rule 15th, which says, "When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the verb must agree with it in the plural number." Because the meaning is--multitude indulge.

Themselves is a compound personal pronoun, representing multitude, in the third person, plural number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 11th, which says, "When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the pronoun must agree with it in the plural number:" and is in the objective case, being governed by indulge; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--indulge themselves;--i. e., the individuals of the multitude indulge themselves.

But is a disjunctive conjunction: and connects what precedes and what follows; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences." Because the meaning is--A young man, &c., but, ah! &c.

Ah is an interjection, indicating sorrow: and is used independently; according to Rule 24th, which says, "Interjections have no dependent construction; they are put absolute, either alone, or with other words." Because the meaning is--ah!--unconnected with the rest of the sentence.

Poor is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared regularly, poor, poorer, poorest: and relates to nature; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--poor human nature.

Fallen is a participial adjective, compared (perhaps) by adverbs: and relates to nature; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--fallen nature.

Human is a common adjective, not compared: and relates to nature; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--human nature.

Nature is a common noun, of the second person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is put absolute by direct address; according to Rule 8th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word." Because the meaning is--poor fallen human nature!--the noun being unconnected with any verb.

What is a pronominal adjective, not compared: and relates to conflicts; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--what conflicts.

Conflicts is a common noun, of the third person, plural number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of are; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Because the meaning is--conflicts are.

Are is an irregular neuter verb, from be, was, being, been; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its nominative conflicts; according to Rule 14th, which says, "Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number." Because the meaning is--conflicts are.

Thy is a personal pronoun, representing nature, in the second person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by portion; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed." Because the meaning is--thy portion.

Portion is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is put after are, in agreement with conflicts; according to Rule 6th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun put after a verb or participle not transitive, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing." Because the meaning is--conflicts are thy portion.

When is a conjunctive adverb of time: and relates to the two verbs, are and exert; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs." Because the meaning is--what conflicts are thy portion, when inclination and habit exert, &c.

Inclination is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is one of the subjects of exert; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Because the meaning is--inclination and habit exert.

And is a copulative conjunction: and connects inclination and habit; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences." Because the meaning is--inclination and habit.

Habit is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is one of the subjects of exert; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Because the meaning is--inclination and habit exert.

A is the indefinite article: and relates to rebel; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit." Because the meaning is--a rebel.

Rebel is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is put in apposition with inclination; according to Rule 3d, which says, "A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case." Because the meaning is--inclination, a rebel.

And is a copulative conjunction: and connects rebel and traitor; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences." Because the meaning is--a rebel and a traitor.

A is the indefinite article: and relates to traitor; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit." Because the meaning is--a traitor.

Traitor is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is put in apposition with habit; according to Rule 3d, which says, "A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case." Because the meaning is--habit, a traitor.

Exert is a regular active-transitive verb, from exert, exerted, exerting, exerted; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its two nominatives inclination and habit; according to Rule 16th, which says, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together." Because the meaning is--inclination and habit exert.

Their is a personal pronoun, representing inclination and habit, in the third person, plural number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 12th, which says, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by sway; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed." Because the meaning is--their sway;--i. e., the sway of inclination and habit.

Sway is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is governed by exert; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--exert sway.

Against is a preposition: and shows the relation between exert and principle; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them." Because the meaning is--exert against principle.

Our is a personal pronoun, representing the speakers, in the first person, plural number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by principle; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed." Because the meaning is--our principle;--i. e., the speakers' principle.

Only is a pronominal adjective, not compared: and relates to principle; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--only principle.

Saving is a participial adjective, compared by adverbs when it means frugal, but not compared in the sense here intended: and relates to principle; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns." Because the meaning is--saving principle.

Principle is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by against; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case." Because the meaning is--against principle.


LESSON I.--ARTICLES.

"In English heroic verse, the capital pause of every line, is determined by the sense to be after the fourth, the fifth, the sixth or the seventh syllable."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 105.

"When, in considering the structure of a tree or a plant, we observe how all the parts, the roots, the stem, the bark, and the leaves, are suited to the growth and nutriment of the whole; when we survey all the parts and members of a living animal; or when we examine any of the curious works of art--such as a clock, a ship, or any nice machine; the pleasure which we have in the survey, is wholly founded on this sense of beauty."--Blair's Rhet., p. 49.

"It never can proceed from a good taste, to make a teaspoon resemble the leaf of a tree; for such a form is inconsistent with the destination of a teaspoon."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 351.

"In an epic poem, a history, an oration, or any work of genius, we always require a fitness, or an adjustment of means to the end which the author is supposed to have in view."--Blair's Rhet., p. 50.

"Rhetoric, Logic, and Grammar, are three arts that should always walk hand in hand. The first is the art of speaking eloquently; the second, that of thinking well; and the third, that of speaking with propriety."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 114.

  "Spring hangs her infant blossoms on the trees,
   Rock'd in the cradle of the western breeze."--Cowper.


LESSON II.--NOUNS.

"There goes a rumour that I am to be banished. And let the sentence come, if God so will. The other side of the sea is my Father's ground, as well as this side."--Rutherford.

"Gentlemen, there is something on earth greater than arbitrary or despotic power. The lightning has its power, and the whirlwind has its power, and the earthquake has its power. But there is something among men more capable of shaking despotic power than lightning, whirlwind, or earthquake; that is--the threatened indignation of the whole civilized world."--Daniel Webster.

"And Isaac sent away Jacob; and he went to Padan Aram, unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, and brother of Rebecca, Jacob's and Esau's mother."--See Gen., xxviii, 5.

"The purpose you undertake is dangerous." "Why that is certain: it is dangerous to take a cold, to sleep, to drink; but I tell you, my Lord fool, out of this nettle danger, we pluck this flower safety."--Shakespeare.

"And towards the Jews alone, one of the noblest charters of liberty on earth--Magna Charta, the Briton's boast--legalized an act of injustice."--Keith's Evidences, p. 74.

"Were Demosthenes's Philippics spoken in a British assembly, in a similar conjuncture of affairs, they would convince and persuade at this day. The rapid style, the vehement reasoning, the disdain, anger, boldness, freedom, which perpetually animate them, would render their success infallible over any modern assembly. I question whether the same can be said of Cicero's orations; whose eloquence, however beautiful, and however well suited to the Roman taste, yet borders oftener on declamation, and is more remote from the manner in which we now expect to hear real business and causes of importance treated."--Blair's Rhet., p. 248.

"In fact, every attempt to present on paper the splendid effects of impassioned eloquence, is like gathering up dewdrops, which appear jewels and pearls on the grass, but run to water in the hand; the essence and the elements remain, but the grace, the sparkle, and the form, are gone."--Montgomery's Life of Spencer.

"As in life true dignity must be founded on character, not on dress and appearance; so in language the dignity of composition must arise from sentiment and thought, not from ornament."--Blair's Rhet., p. 144.

  "And man, whose heaven-erected face the smiles of love adorn,
   Man's inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn."
       --Burns.
   "Ah wretched man! unmindful of thy end!
   A moment's glory! and what fates attend."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xvii, l. 231.


LESSON III.--ADJECTIVES.

"Embarrassed, obscure, and feeble sentences, are generally, if not always, the result of embarrassed, obscure, and feeble thought."--Blair's Rhet., p. 120.

"Upon this ground, we prefer a simple and natural, to an artificial and affected style; a regular and well-connected story, to loose and scattered narratives; a catastrophe which is tender and pathetic, to one which leaves us unmoved."--Ib., p. 23.

"A thorough good taste may well be considered as a power compounded of natural sensibility to beauty, and of improved understanding."--Ib., p. 18.

"Of all writings, ancient or modern, the sacred Scriptures afford us the highest instances of the sublime. The descriptions of the Deity, in them, are wonderfully noble; both from the grandeur of the object, and the manner of representing it."--Ib., p. 36.

"It is not the authority of any one person, or of a few, be they ever so eminent, that can establish one form of speech in preference to another. Nothing but the general practice of good writers and good speakers can do it."--Priestley's Gram., p. 107.

"What other means are there to attract love and esteem so effectual as a virtuous course of life? If a man be just and beneficent, if he be temperate, modest, and prudent, he will infallibly gain the esteem and love of all who know him."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 167.

"But there are likewise, it must be owned, people in the world, whom it is easy to make worse by rough usage, and not easy to make better by any other."--Abp. Seeker.

"The great comprehensive truth written in letters of living light on every page of our history--the language addressed by every past age of New England to all future ages, is this: Human happiness has no perfect security but freedom;--freedom, none but virtue;--virtue, none but knowledge: and neither freedom, nor virtue, nor knowledge, has any vigour or immortal hope, except in the principles of the Christian faith, and in the sanctions of the Christian religion."--President Quincy.

  "For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss;
   Tedious, unshared with thee, and odious soon."
       --P. Lost, B. ix, l. 880.


LESSON IV.--PRONOUNS.

"There is but one governor whose sight we cannot escape, whose power we cannot resist: a sense of His presence and of duty to Him, will accomplish more than all the laws and penalties which can be devised without it."--Woodbridge, Lit. C., p. 154.

"Every voluntary society must judge who shall be members of their body, and enjoy fellowship with them in their peculiar privileges."--Watts.

"Poetry and impassioned eloquence are the only sources from which the living growth of a language springs; and even if in their vehemence they bring down some mountain rubbish along with them, this sinks to the bottom, and the pure stream flows along over it."--Philological Museum, i, 645. "This use is bounded by the province, county, or district, which gives name to the dialect, and beyond which its peculiarities are sometimes unintelligible, and always ridiculous."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 163.

"Every thing that happens, is both a cause and an effect; being the effect of what goes before, and the cause of what follows."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 297.

"Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it."--Prov., iii, 27.

"Yet there is no difficulty at all in ascertaining the idea. * * * By reflecting upon that which is myself now, and that which was myself twenty years ago, I discern they are not two, but one and the same self."--Butler's Analogy, p. 271.

"If you will replace what has been long expunged from the language, and extirpate what is firmly rooted, undoubtedly you yourself become an innovator."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 167; Murray's Gram., 364.

"To speak as others speak, is one of those tacit obligations, annexed to the condition of living in society, which we are bound in conscience to fulfill, though we have never ratified them by any express promise; because, if they were disregarded, society would be impossible, and human happiness at an end."--See Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 139.

"In England thou was in current use until, perhaps, near the commencement of the seventeenth century, though it was getting to be regarded as somewhat disrespectful. At Walter Raleigh's trial, Coke, when argument and evidence failed him, insulted the defendant by applying to him the term thou. 'All that Lord Cobham did,' he cried, 'was at thy instigation, thou viper! for I thou thee, thou traitor!'"--Fowler's E. Gram., §220.

  "Th' Egyptian crown I to your hands remit;
   And with it take his heart who offers it."--Shakspeare.


LESSON V.--VERBS.

"Sensuality contaminates the body, depresses the understanding, deadens the moral feelings of the heart, and degrades man from his rank in the creation."--Murray's Key, ii, p. 231.

"When a writer reasons, we look only for perspicuity; when he describes, we expect embellishment; when he divides, or relates, we desire plainness and simplicity."--Blair's Rhet., p. 144.

"Livy and Herodotus are diffuse; Thucydides and Sallust are succinct; yet all of them are agreeable."--Ib., p. 178.

"Whenever petulant ignorance, pride, malice, malignity, or envy, interposes to cloud or sully his fame, I will take upon me to pronounce that the eclipse will not last long."--Dr. Delany.

"She said she had nothing to say, for she was resigned, and I knew all she knew that concerned us in this world; but she desired to be alone, that in the presence of God only, she might without interruption do her last duty to me."--Spect., No. 520.

"Wisdom and truth, the offspring of the sky, are immortal; while cunning and deception, the meteors of the earth, after glittering for a moment, must pass away."--Robert Hall. "See, I have this day set thee over the nations, and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant."--Jeremiah, i, 10.

"God might command the stones to be made bread, or the clouds to rain it; but he chooses rather to leave mankind to till, to sow, to reap, to gather into barns, to grind, to knead, to bake, and then to eat."--London Quarterly Review.

"Eloquence is no invention of the schools. Nature teaches every man to be eloquent, when he is much in earnest. Place him in some critical situation, let him have some great interest at stake, and you will see him lay hold of the most effectual means of persuasion."--Blair's Rhet., p. 235.

"It is difficult to possess great fame and great ease at the same time. Fame, like fire, is with difficulty kindled, is easily increased, but dies away if not continually fed. To preserve fame alive, every enterprise ought to be a pledge of others, so as to keep mankind in constant expectation."--Art of Thinking, p. 50. "Pope, finding little advantage from external help, resolved thenceforward to direct himself, and at twelve formed a plan of study which he completed with little other incitement than the desire of excellence."--Johnson's Lives of Poets, p. 498.

  "Loose, then, from earth the grasp of fond desire,
   Weigh anchor, and some happier clime explore."--Young.


LESSON VI.--PARTICIPLES.

"The child, affrighted with the view of his father's helmet and crest, and clinging to the nurse; Hector, putting off his helmet, taking the child into his arms, and offering up a prayer for him; Andromache, receiving back the child with a smile of pleasure, and at the same instant bursting into tears; form the most natural and affecting picture that can possibly be imagined."--Blair's Rhet., p. 435.

"The truth of being, and the truth of knowing are one; differing no more than the direct beam and the beam reflected."--Ld. Bacon. "Verbs denote states of being, considered as beginning, continuing, ending, being renewed, destroyed, and again repeated, so as to suit any occasion."--William Ward's Gram., p. 41.

"We take it for granted, that we have a competent knowledge and skill, and that we are able to acquit ourselves properly, in our own native tongue; a faculty, solely acquired by use, conducted by habit, and tried by the ear, carries us on without reflection."--Lowth's Gram., p. vi.

"I mean the teacher himself; who, stunned with the hum, and suffocated with the closeness of his school-room, has spent the whole day in controlling petulance, exciting indifference to action, striving to enlighten stupidity, and labouring to soften obstinacy."--Sir W. Scott.

"The inquisitive mind, beginning with criticism, the most agreeable of all amusements, and finding no obstruction in its progress, advances far into the sensitive part of our nature; and gains imperceptibly a thorough knowledge of the human heart, of its desires, and of every motive to action."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 42.

  "They please, are pleased; they give to get esteem;
   Till, seeming blest, they grow to what they seem."--Goldsmith.


LESSON VII.--ADVERBS.

"How cheerfully, how freely, how regularly, how constantly, how unweariedly, how powerfully, how extensively, he communicateth his convincing, his enlightening, his heart-penetrating, warming, and melting; his soul-quickening, healing, refreshing, directing, and fructifying influence!"--Brown's Metaphors, p. 96.

"The passage, I grant, requires to be well and naturally read, in order to be promptly comprehended; but surely there are very few passages worth comprehending, either of verse or prose, that can be promptly understood, when they are read unnaturally and ill."--Thelwall's Lect. "They waste life in what are called good resolutions--partial efforts at reformation, feebly commenced, heartlessly conducted, and hopelessly concluded."--Maturin's Sermons, p. 262.

"A man may, in respect of grammatical purity, speak unexceptionably, and yet speak obscurely and ambiguously; and though we cannot say, that a man may speak properly, and at the same time speak unintelligibly, yet this last case falls more naturally to be considered as an offence against perspicuity, than as a violation of propriety."--Jamieson's Rhet., p. 104.

"Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily and justly and unblamably we behaved ourselves among you that believe."--1 Thes., ii, 10.

"The question is not, whether they know what is said of Christ in the Scriptures; but whether they know it savingly, truly, livingly, powerfully."--Penington's Works, iii, 28.

  "How gladly would the man recall to life
   The boy's neglected sire! a mother too,
   That softer friend, perhaps more gladly still,
   Might he demand them at the gates of death!"--Cowper.


LESSON VIII.--CONJUNCTIONS.

"Every person's safety requires that he should submit to be governed; for if one man may do harm without suffering punishment, every man has the same right, and no person can be safe."--Webster's Essays, p. 38.

"When it becomes a practice to collect debts by law, it is a proof of corruption and degeneracy among the people. Laws and courts are necessary, to settle controverted points between man and man; but a man should pay an acknowledged debt, not because there is a law to oblige him, but because it is just and honest, and because he has promised to pay it."--Ib., p. 42.

"The liar, and only the liar, is invariably and universally despised, abandoned, and disowned. It is therefore natural to expect, that a crime thus generally detested, should be generally avoided."--Hawkesworth.

"When a man swears to the truth of his tale, he tacitly acknowledges that his bare word does not deserve credit. A swearer will lie, and a liar is not to be believed even upon his oath; nor is he believed, when he happens to speak the truth."--Red Book, p. 108.

"John Adams replied, 'I know Great Britain has determined on her system, and that very determination determines me on mine. You know I have been constant and uniform in opposition to her measures. The die is now cast. I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish with my country, is my unalterable determination.'"--SEWARD'S Life of John Quincy Adams, p. 26.

"I returned, and saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happen to them all."--Ecclesiastes, ix, 11.

  "Little, alas! is all the good I can;
   A man oppress'd, dependent, yet a man."--Pope, Odys., B. xiv, p. 70.


LESSON IX.--PREPOSITIONS.

"He who legislates only for a party, is engraving his name on the adamantine pillar of his country's history, to be gazed on forever as an object of universal detestation."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 401.

"The Greek language, in the hands of the orator, the poet, and the historian, must be allowed to bear away the palm from every other known in the world; but to that only, in my opinion, need our own yield the precedence."--Barrow's Essays, p. 91.

"For my part, I am convinced that the method of teaching which approaches most nearly to the method of investigation, is incomparably the best; since, not content with serving up a few barren and lifeless truths, it leads to the stock on which they grew."--Burke, on Taste, p. 37. Better--"on which truths grow."

"All that I have done in this difficult part of grammar, concerning the proper use of prepositions, has been to make a few general remarks upon the subject; and then to give a collection of instances, that have occurred to me, of the improper use of some of them."--Priestley's Gram., p. 155.

"This is not an age of encouragement for works of elaborate research and real utility. The genius of the trade of literature is necessarily unfriendly to such productions."--Thelwall's Lect., p. 102.

"At length, at the end of a range of trees, I saw three figures seated on a bank of moss, with a silent brook creeping at their feet."--Steele.

  "Thou rather, with thy sharp and sulph'rous bolt,
   Splitst the unwedgeable and gnarled oak."--Shakspeare.


LESSON X.--INTERJECTIONS.

"Hear the word of the Lord, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David; thou, and thy servants, and thy people, that enter in by these gates: thus saith the Lord, Execute ye judgement and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor."--Jeremiah, xxii, 2, 3.

"Therefore, thus saith the Lord concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, They shall not lament for him, saying, Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! they shall not lament for him, saying, Ah lord! or, Ah his glory! He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem."--Jer., xxii, 18, 19.

"O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundations with sapphires."--Isaiah, liv, 11.

  "O prince! O friend! lo! here thy Medon stands;
   Ah! stop the hero's unresisted hands."
       --Pope, Odys., B. xxii, l. 417.
   "When, lo! descending to our hero's aid,
   Jove's daughter Pallas, war's triumphant maid!"
       --Ib., B. xxii, l. 222.
   "O friends! oh ever exercised in care!
   Hear Heaven's commands, and reverence what ye hear!"
       --Ib., B. xii, l. 324.
   "Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run?
   Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and you!"
       --Pope's Iliad, B. vi, l. 510.



CHAPTER II.--ARTICLES.

In this chapter, and those which follow it, the Rules of Syntax are again exhibited, in the order of the parts of speech, with Examples, Exceptions, Observations, Notes, and False Syntax. The Notes are all of them, in form and character, subordinate rules of syntax, designed for the detection of errors. The correction of the False Syntax placed under the rules and notes, will form an oral exercise, similar to that of parsing, and perhaps more useful.[334]


RULE I.--ARTICLES.

Articles relate to the nouns which they limit:[335] as, "At a little distance from the ruins of the abbey, stands an aged elm."

  "See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing,
   The sot a hero, lunatic a king."--Pope's Essay, Ep. ii, l. 268.

EXCEPTION FIRST.

The definite article used intensively, may relate to an adjective or adverb of the comparative or the superlative degree; as, "A land which was the mightiest."--Byron. "The farther they proceeded, the greater appeared their alacrity."--Dr. Johnson. "He chooses it the rather"--Cowper. See Obs. 10th, below.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

The indefinite article is sometimes used to give a collective meaning to what seems a plural adjective of number; as, "Thou hast a few names even in Sardis."--Rev., iii, 4. "There are a thousand things which crowd into my memory."--Spectator, No. 468. "The centurion commanded a hundred men."--Webster. See Etymology, Articles, Obs. 26.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE I.

OBS. 1.--The article is a kind of index, usually pointing to some noun; and it is a general, if not a universal, principle, that no one noun admits of more than one article. Hence, two or more articles in a sentence are signs of two or more nouns; and hence too, by a very convenient ellipsis, an article before an adjective is often made to relate to a noun understood; as, "The grave [people] rebuke the gay [people], and the gay [people] mock the grave" [people].--Maturin's Sermons, p. 103. "The wise [persons] shall inherit glory."--Prov., iii, 35. "The vile [person] will talk villainy."--Coleridge's Lay Sermons, p. 105: see Isaiah, xxxii, 6. "The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple" [ones].--Psal., xix, 7. "The Old [Testament] and the New Testament are alike authentic."--"The animal [world] and the vegetable world are adapted to each other."--"An epic [poem] and a dramatic poem are the same in substance."--Ld. Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 274. "The neuter verb is conjugated like the active" [verb].--Murray's Gram., p. 99. "Each section is supposed to contain a heavy [portion] and a light portion; the heavy [portion] being the accented syllable, and the light [portion] the unaccented" [syllable].--Rush, on the Voice, p. 364.

OBS. 2.--Our language does not, like the French, require a repetition of the article before every noun in a series; because the same article may serve to limit the signification of several nouns, provided they all stand in the same construction. Hence the following sentence is bad English: "The understanding and language have a strict connexion."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 356. The sense of the former noun only was meant to be limited. The expression therefore should have been, "Language and the understanding have a strict connexion," or, "The understanding has a strict connexion with language." In some instances, one article seems to limit the sense of several nouns that are not all in the same construction, thus: "As it proves a greater or smaller obstruction to the speaker's or writer's aim."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 200. That is--"to the aim of the speaker or the writer." It is, in fact, the possessive, that limits the other nouns; for, "a man's foes" means, "the foes of a man;" and, "man's wisdom," means, "the wisdom of man." The governing noun cannot have an article immediately before it. Yet the omission of articles, when it occurs, is not properly by ellipsis, as some grammarians declare it to be; for there never can be a proper ellipsis of an article, when there is not also an ellipsis of its noun. Ellipsis supposes the omitted words to be necessary to the construction, when they are not so to the sense; and this, it would seem, cannot be the case with a mere article. If such a sign be in any wise necessary, it ought to be used; and if not needed in any respect, it cannot be said to be understood. The definite article being generally required before adjectives that are used by ellipsis as nouns, we in this case repeat it before every term in a series; as, "They are singled out from among their fellows, as the kind, the amiable, the sweet-tempered, the upright."--Dr. Chalmers.

  "The great, the gay, shall they partake
   The heav'n that thou alone canst make?"--Cowper.

OBS. 3.--The article precedes its noun, and is never, by itself, placed after it; as, "Passion is the drunkenness of the mind."--Southey. When an adjective likewise precedes the noun, the article is usually placed before the adjective, that its power of limitation may extend over that also; as, "A concise writer compresses his thoughts into the fewest possible words."--Blair's Rhet., p. 176.

  "The private path, the secret acts of men,
   If noble, far the noblest of their lives."--Young.

OBS. 4.--The relative position of the article and the adjective is seldom a matter of indifference. Thus, it is good English to say, "both the men," or, "the two men;" but we can by no means say, "the both men" or, "two the men." Again, the two phrases, "half a dollar," and "a half dollar," though both good, are by no means equivalent. Of the pronominal adjectives, some exclude the article; some precede it; and some follow it, like other adjectives. The word same is seldom, if ever used without the definite article or some stronger definitive before it; as, "On the same day,"--"in that same hour,"--"These same gentlemen." After the adjective both, the definite article may be used, but it is generally unnecessary, and this is a sufficient reason for omitting it: as, "The following sentences will fully exemplify, to the young grammarian, both the parts of this rule."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 192. Say, "both parts." The adjective few may be used either with or without an article, but not with the same import: as, "The few who were present, were in the secret;" i. e., All then present knew the thing. "Few that were present, were in the secret;" i.e., Not many then present knew the thing. "When I say, 'There were few men with him,' I speak diminutively, and mean to represent them as inconsiderable; whereas, when I say, 'There were a few men with him,' I evidently intend to make the most of them."--Murray's Gram., p. 171. See Etymology, Articles, Obs. 28.

OBS. 5.--The pronominal adjectives which exclude the article, are any, each, either, every, much, neither, no, or none, some, this, that, these, those. The pronominal adjectives which precede the article, are all, both, many, such, and what; as, "All the world,"--"Both the judges,"--"Many a[336] mile,"--"Such a chasm,"--"What a freak." In like manner, any adjective of quality, when its meaning is limited by the adverb too, so, as, or how, is put before the article; as, "Too great a study of strength, is found to betray writers into a harsh manner."--Blair's Rhet., p. 179. "Like many an other poor wretch, I now suffer all the ill consequences of so foolish an indulgence." "Such a gift is too small a reward for so great a labour."--Brightland's Gram., p. 95. "Here flows as clear a stream as any in Greece. How beautiful a prospect is here!"--Bicknell's Gram., Part ii, p. 52. The pronominal adjectives which follow the article, are few, former, first, latter, last, little, one, other, and same; as, "An author might lean either to the one [style] or to the other, and yet be beautiful."--Blair's Rhet., p. 179. Many, like few, sometimes follows the article; as, "The many favours which we have received."--"In conversation, for many a man, they say, a many men."--Johnson's Dict. In this order of the words, a seems awkward and needless; as,

  "Told of a many thousand warlike French."--Shak.

OBS. 6.--When the adjective is preceded by any other adverb than too, so, as, or how, the article is almost always placed before the adverb: as, "One of the most complete models;"--"An equally important question;"--"An exceedingly rough passage;"--"A very important difference." The adverb quite, however, may be placed either before or after the article, though perhaps with a difference of construction: as, "This is quite a different thing;"--or, "This is a quite different thing." "Finding it quite an other thing;"--or, "Finding it a quite other thing."--Locke, on Ed., p. 153. Sometimes two adverbs intervene between the article and the adjective; as, "We had a rather more explicit account of the Novii."--Philol. Museum, i, 458. But when an other adverb follows too, so, as, or how, the three words should be placed either before the article or after the noun; as, "Who stands there in so purely poetical a light."--Ib., i, 449. Better, perhaps: "In a light so purely poetical."

OBS. 7.--The definitives this, that, and some others, though they supersede the article an or a, may be followed by the adjective one; for we say, "this one thing," but not, "this a thing." Yet, in the following sentence, this and a being separated by other words, appear to relate to the same noun: "For who is able to judge this thy so great a people?"--1 Kings, iii, 9. But we may suppose the noun people to be understood after this. Again, the following example, if it is not wrong, has an ellipsis of the word use after the first a:

  "For highest cordials all their virtue lose,
   By a too frequent and too bold a use."--Pomfret.

OBS. 8.--When the adjective is placed after the noun, the article generally retains its place before the noun, and is not repeated before the adjective: as, "A man ignorant of astronomy;"--"The primrose pale." In Greek, when an adjective is placed after its noun, if the article is applied to the noun, it is repeated before the adjective; as, "[Greek: Hæ polis hæ megalæ,]"--"The city the great;" i.e., "The great city." [337]

OBS. 9.--Articles, according to their own definition and nature, come before their nouns; but the definite article and an adjective seem sometimes to be placed after the noun to which they both relate: as, "Section the Fourth;"--"Henry the Eighth." Such examples, however, may possibly be supposed elliptical; as, "Section, the fourth division of the chapter;"--"Henry, the eighth king of that name:" and, if they are so, the article, in English, can never be placed after its noun, nor can two articles ever properly relate to one noun, in any particular construction of it. Priestley observes, "Some writers affect to transpose these words, and place the numeral adjective first; [as,] 'The first Henry.' Hume's History, Vol. i, p. 497. This construction is common with this writer, but there seems to be a want of dignity in it."--Rudiments of E. Gram., p. 150. Dr. Webster cites the word Great, in "Alexander the Great" as a name, or part of a name; that is, he gives it as an instance of "cognomination." See his American Dict., 8vo. And if this is right, the article may be said to relate to the epithet only, as it appears to do. For, if the word is taken substantively, there is certainly no ellipsis; neither is there any transposition in putting it last, but rather, as Priestley suggests, in putting it first.

OBS. 10.--The definite article is often prefixed to comparatives and superlatives; and its effect is, as Murray observes, (in the words of Lowth,) "to mark the degree the more strongly, and to define it the more precisely: as, The more I examine it, the better I like it.' 'I like this the least of any.'"--Murray's Gram., p. 33; Lowth's, 14. "For neither if we eat, are we the better; neither if we eat not, are we the worse."--1 Cor., viii, 8. "One is not the more agreeable to me for loving beef, as I do; nor the less agreeable for preferring mutton."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. ii, p. 365. "They are not the men in the nation, the most difficult to be replaced."--Priestley's Gram., p. 148. In these instances, the article seems to be used adverbially, and to relate only to the adjective or adverb following it. (See observation fourth, on the Etymology of Adverbs.) Yet none of our grammarians have actually reckoned the an adverb. After the adjective, the noun might perhaps be supplied; but when the word the is added to an adverb, we must either call it an adverb, or make an exception to Rule 1st above: and if an exception is to be made, the brief form which I have given, cannot well be improved. For even if a noun be understood, it may not appear that the article relates to it, rather than to the degree of the quality. Thus: "The deeper the well, the clearer the water." This Dr. Ash supposes to mean, "The deeper well the well is, the clearer water the water is."--Ash's Gram., p. 107. But does the text specify a particular "deeper well" or "clearer water?" I think not. To what then does the refer, but to the proportionate degree of deeper and clearer?

OBS. 11.--The article the is sometimes elegantly used, after an idiom common in the French language, in lieu of a possessive pronoun; as, "He looked him full in the face; i. e. in his face."--Priestley's Gram., p. 150. "Men who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal."--Rom., xi, 4. That is, their knees.

OBS. 12.--The article an or a, because it implies unity, is applicable to nouns of the singular number only; yet a collective noun, being singular in form, is sometimes preceded by this article even when it conveys the idea of plurality and takes a plural verb: as, "There are a very great number [of adverbs] ending in ly."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 63. "A plurality of them are sometimes felt at the same instant."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 114. In support of this construction, it would be easy to adduce a great multitude of examples from the most reputable writers; but still, as it seems not very consistent, to take any word plurally after restricting it to the singular, we ought rather to avoid this if we can, and prefer words that literally agree in number: as, "Of adverbs there are very many ending in ly"--"More than one of them are sometimes felt at the same instant." The word plurality, like other collective nouns, is literally singular: as, "To produce the latter, a plurality of objects is necessary."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 224.

OBS. 13.--Respecting the form of the indefinite article, present practice differs a little from that of our ancient writers. An was formerly used before all words beginning with h, and before several other words which are now pronounced in such a manner as to require a: thus, we read in the Bible, "An help,"--"an house,"--"an hundred,"--"an one,"--"an ewer,"--"an usurer;" whereas we now say, "A help,"--"a house,"--"a hundred,"--"a one,"--"a ewer,"--"a usurer."

OBS. 14.--Before the word humble, with its compounds and derivatives, some use an, and others, a; according to their practice, in this instance, of sounding or suppressing the aspiration. Webster and Jameson sound the h, and consequently prefer a; as, "But a humbling image is not always necessary to produce that effect."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 205. "O what a blessing is a humble mind!"--Christian Experience, p. 342. But Sheridan, Walker, Perry, Jones, and perhaps a majority of fashionable speakers, leave the h silent, and would consequently say, "An humbling image,"--"an humble mind,"--&c.

OBS. 15.--An observance of the principles on which the article is to be repeated or not repeated in a sentence, is of very great moment in respect to accuracy of composition. These principles are briefly stated in the notes below, but it is proper that the learner should know the reasons of the distinctions which are there made. By a repetition of the article before several adjectives in the same construction, a repetition of the noun is implied; but without a repetition of the article, the adjectives, in all fairness of interpretation, are confined to one and the same noun: as, "No figures will render a cold or an empty composition interesting."--Blair's Rhet., p. 134. Here the author speaks of a cold composition and an empty composition as different things. "The metaphorical and the literal meaning are improperly mixed."--Murray's Gram., p. 339. Here the verb are has two nominatives, one of which is expressed, and the other understood. "But the third and the last of these [forms] are seldom used."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 186. Here the verb "are used" has two nominatives, both of which are understood; namely, "the third form," and "the last form." Again: "The original and present signification is always retained."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., Vol. ii, p. 149. Here one signification is characterized as being both original and present. "A loose and verbose manner never fails to create disgust."--Blair's Rhet., p. 261. That is, one manner, loose and verbose. "To give a short and yet clear and plain answer to this proposition."--Barclay's Works, Vol. i, p. 533. That is, one answer, short, clear, and plain; for the conjunctions in the text connect nothing but the adjectives.

OBS. 16.--To avoid repetition, even of the little word the, we sometimes, with one article, join inconsistent qualities to a plural noun;--that is, when the adjectives so differ as to individualize the things, we sometimes make the noun plural, in stead of repeating the article: as, "The north and south poles;" in stead of, "The north and the south pole."--"The indicative and potential moods;" in stead of "The indicative and the potential mood."--"The Old and New Testaments;" in stead of, "The Old and the New Testament." But, in any such case, to repeat the article when the noun is made plural, is a huge blunder; because it implies a repetition of the plural noun. And again, not to repeat the article when the noun is singular, is also wrong; because it forces the adjectives to coalesce in describing one and the same thing. Thus, to say, "The north and south pole" is certainly wrong, unless we mean by it, one pole, or slender stick of wood, pointing north and south; and again, to say, "The north and the south poles," is also wrong, unless we mean by it, several poles at the north and others at the south. So the phrase, "The Old and New Testament" is wrong, because we have not one Testament that is both Old and New; and again, "The Old and the New Testaments," is wrong, because we have not several Old Testaments and several New ones: at least we have them not in the Bible.

OBS. 17.--Sometimes a noun that admits no article, is preceded by adjectives that do not describe the same thing; as, "Never to jumble metaphorical and plain language together."--Blair's Rhet., p. 146. This means, "metaphorical language and plain language;" and, for the sake of perfect clearness, it would perhaps be better to express it so. "For as intrinsic and relative beauty must often be blended in the same building, it becomes a difficult task to attain both in any perfection."--Karnes, El. of Crit., Vol. ii, p. 330. That is, "intrinsic beauty and relative beauty" must often be blended; and this phraseology would be better. "In correspondence to that distinction of male and female sex."--Blair's Rhet., p. 74. This may be expressed as well or better, in half a dozen other ways; for the article may be added, or the noun may be made plural, with or without the article, and before or after the adjectives. "They make no distinction between causes of civil and criminal jurisdiction."-- Adams's Rhet., Vol. i, p. 302. This means--"between causes of civil and causes of criminal jurisdiction;" and, for the sake of perspicuity, it ought to have been so written,--or, still better, thus: "They make no distinction between civil causes and criminal."


NOTES TO RULE I.

NOTE I.--When the indefinite article is required, a should always be used before the sound of a consonant, and an, before that of a vowel; as, "With the talents of an angel, a man may be a fool."--Young.

NOTE II.--The article an or a must never be so used as to relate, or even seem to relate, to a plural noun. The following sentence is therefore faulty: "I invited her to spend a day in viewing a seat and gardens."--Rambler, No. 34. Say, "a seat and its gardens."

NOTE III.--When nouns are joined in construction, with different adjuncts, different dependence, or positive contrast, the article, if it belong at all to the latter, must be repeated. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate: "She never considered the quality, but merit of her visitors."--Wm. Penn. Say, "the merit." So the article in brackets is absolutely necessary to the sense and propriety of the following phrase, though not inserted by the learned author: "The Latin introduced between the Conquest and [the] reign of Henry the Eighth."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, p. 42.

NOTE IV.--When adjectives are connected, and the qualities belong to things individually different, though of the same name, the article should be repeated: as, "A black and a white horse;"--i. e., two horses, one black and the other white. "The north and the south line;"--i. e., two lines, running east and west.

NOTE V.--When adjectives are connected, and the qualities all belong to the same thing or things, the article should not be repeated: as, "A black and white horse;"--i. e., one horse, piebald. "The north and south line;"--i. e., one line, running north and south, like a meridian. NOTE VI.--When two or more individual things of the same name are distinguished by adjectives that cannot unite to describe the same thing, the article must be added to each if the noun be singular, and to the first only if the noun follow them in the plural: as, "The nominative and the objective case;" or, "The nominative and objective cases."--"The third, the fifth, the seventh, and the eighth chapter;" or, "The third, fifth, seventh, and eighth chapters." [338]

NOTE VII.--When two phrases of the same sentence have any special correspondence with each other, the article, if used in the former, is in general required also in the latter: as, "For ye know neither the day nor the hour."--Matt., xxv, 13. "Neither the cold nor the fervid are formed for friendship."--Murray's Key, p. 209. "The vail of the temple was rent in twain, from the top to the bottom."--Matt., xxvii, 51.

NOTE VIII.--When a special correspondence is formed between individual epithets, the noun which follows must not be made plural; because the article, in such a case, cannot be repeated as the construction of correspondents requires. Thus, it is improper to say, "Both the first and second editions" or, "Both the first and the second editions" for the accurate phrase, "Both the first and the second edition;" and still worse to say, "Neither the Old nor New Testaments" or, "Neither the Old nor the New Testaments" for the just expression, "Neither the Old nor the New Testament." Yet we may say, "Neither the old nor the new statutes" or, "Both the early and the late editions;" for here the epithets severally apply to more than one thing.

NOTE IX.--In a series of three or more terms, if the article is used with any, it should in general be added either to every one, or else to the first only. The following phrase is therefore inaccurate: "Through their attention to the helm, the sails, or rigging."--Brown's Estimate, Vol. i, p. 11. Say, "the rigging."

NOTE X.--As the article an or a denotes "one thing of a kind," it should not be used as we use the, to denote emphatically a whole kind; and again, when the species is said to be of the genus, no article should be used to limit the latter. Thus some will say, "A jay is a sort of a bird;" whereas they ought to say, "The jay is a sort of bird." Because it is absurd to suggest, that one jay is a sort of one bird. Yet we may say, "The jay is a bird," or, "A jay is a bird;" because, as every species is one under the genus, so every individual is one under both.

NOTE XI.--The article should not be used before the names of virtues, vices, passions, arts, or sciences, in their general sense; before terms that are strictly limited by other definitives; or before any noun whose signification is sufficiently definite without it: as, "Falsehood is odious."--"Iron is useful."--"Beauty is vain."--"Admiration is useless, when it is not supported by domestic worth"--Webster's Essays, p. 30.

NOTE XII.--When titles are mentioned merely as titles; or names of things, merely as names or words; the article should not be used before them: as, "He is styled Marquis;" not, "the Marquis," or, "a Marquis,"--"Ought a teacher to call his pupil Master?"--"Thames is derived from the Latin name Tam~esis."

NOTE XIII.--When a comparison or an alternative is made with two nouns, if both of them refer to the same subject, the article should not be inserted before the latter; if to different subjects, it should not be omitted: thus, if we say, "He is a better teacher than poet," we compare different qualifications of the same man; but if we say, "He is a better teacher than a poet," we speak of different men, in regard to the same qualification.

NOTE XIV.--The definite article, or some other definitive, (as this, that, these, those,) is generally required before the antecedent to the pronoun who or which in a restrictive clause; as, "All the men who were present, agreed to it."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 145. "The thoughts which passion suggests are always plain and obvious ones."--Blair's Rhet., p. 468. "The things which are impossible with men, are possible with God."--Luke, xviii, 27. See Etymology, Chap. V, Obs. 26th, &c., on Classes of Pronouns.

NOTE XV.--The article is generally required in that construction which converts a participle into a verbal or participial noun; as, "The completing of this, by the working-out of sin inherent, must be by the power and spirit of Christ in the heart."--Wm. Penn. "They shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."--Isaiah, lxvi, 24. "For the dedicating of the altar."--Numb., vii, 11.

NOTE XVI.--The article should not be added to any participle that is not taken in all other respects as a noun; as, "For the dedicating the altar."--"He made a mistake in the giving out the text." Expunge the, and let dedicating and giving here stand as participles only; for in the construction of nouns, they must have not only a definitive before them, but the preposition of after them.

NOTE XVII.--The false syntax of articles properly includes every passage in which there is any faulty insertion, omission, choice, or position, of this part of speech. For example: "When the verb is a passive, the agent and object change places."--Lowth's Gram., p. 73. Better: "When the verb is passive, the agent and the object change places." "Comparisons used by the sacred poets, are generally short."--Russell's Gram., p. 87. Better: "The comparisons," &c. "Pronoun means for noun, and is used to avoid the too frequent repetition of the noun."--Infant School Gram., p. 89. Say rather: "The pronoun is put for a noun, and is used to prevent too frequent a repetition of the noun." Or: "The word PRONOUN means for noun; and a pronoun is used to prevent too frequent a repetition of some noun."


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE I.

[Fist][The examples of False Syntax placed under the rules and notes, are to be corrected orally by the pupil, according to the formules given, or according to others framed in like manner, and adapted to the several notes.]


EXAMPLES UNDER NOTE I.--AN OR A.

"I have seen an horrible thing in the house of Israel."--Hosea, vi, 10.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the article an is used before horrible, which begins with the sound of the consonant h. But, according to Note 1st, under Rule 1st, "When the indefinite article is required, a should always be used before the sound of a consonant, and an, before that of a vowel." Therefore, an should be a; thus, "I have seen a horrible thing in the house of Israel."]

"There is an harshness in the following sentences."--Priestley's Gram., p. 188. "Indeed, such an one is not to be looked for."--Blair's Rhet., p. 27. "If each of you will be disposed to approve himself an useful citizen."--Ib., p. 263. "Land with them had acquired almost an European value."--Webster's Essays, p. 325. "He endeavoured to find out an wholesome remedy."--Neef's Method of Ed., p. 3. "At no time have we attended an Yearly Meeting more to our own satisfaction."--The Friend, v, 224. "Addison was not an humourist in character."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 303. "Ah me! what an one was he?"--Lily's Gram., p. 49. "He was such an one as I never saw."--Ib. "No man can be a good preacher, who is not an useful one."--Blair's Rhet., p. 283. "An usage which is too frequent with Mr. Addison."--Ib., p. 200. "Nobody joins the voice of a sheep with the shape of an horse."--Locke's Essay, p. 298. "An universality seems to be aimed at by the omission of the article."--Priestley's Gram., p. 154. "Architecture is an useful as well as a fine art."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 335. "Because the same individual conjunctions do not preserve an uniform signification."--Nutting's Gram., p. 78. "Such a work required the patience and assiduity of an hermit."--Johnson's Life of Morin. "Resentment is an union of sorrow with malignity."--Rambler, No. 185. "His bravery, we know, was an high courage of blasphemy."--Pope. "Hyssop; a herb of bitter taste."--Pike's Heb. Lex., p. 3.

  "On each enervate string they taught the note
   To pant, or tremble through an Eunuch's throat."--Pope.


UNDER NOTE II.--AN OR A WITH PLURALS.

"At a sessions of the court in March, it was moved," &c.--Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass., i, 61. "I shall relate my conversations, of which I kept a memoranda."--Duchess D'Abrantes, p. 26. "I took another dictionary, and with a scissors cut out, for instance, the word ABACUS."--A. B. Johnson's Plan of a Dict., p. 12. "A person very meet seemed he for the purpose, of a forty-five years old."--Gardiner's Music of Nature, p. 338. "And it came to pass about an eight days after these sayings."--Luke, ix, 28." There were slain of them upon a three thousand men."--1 Mac., iv, 15." Until I had gained the top of these white mountains, which seemed another Alps of snow."--Addison, Tat., No. 161. "To make them a satisfactory amends for all the losses they had sustained."--Goldsmith's Greece, p. 187. "As a first fruits of many more that shall be gathered."--Barclay's Works, i, 506. "It makes indeed a little amends, by inciting us to oblige people."--Sheffield's Works, ii, 229. "A large and lightsome backstairs leads up to an entry above."--Ib., p. 260. "Peace of mind is an honourable amends for the sacrifices of interest."--Murray's Gram., p. 162; Smith's, 138. "With such a spirit and sentiments were hostilities carried on."--Robertson's America, i, 166. "In the midst of a thick woods, he had long lived a voluntary recluse."--G. B. "The flats look almost like a young woods."--Morning Chronicle. "As we went on, the country for a little ways improved, but scantily."--Essex County Freeman, Vol. ii, No. 11. "Whereby the Jews were permitted to return into their own country, after a seventy years captivity at Babylon."--Rollin's An. Hist., Vol. ii, p. 20. "He did riot go a great ways into the country."--Gilbert's Gram., p. 85.

  "A large amends by fortune's hand is made,
   And the lost Punic blood is well repay'd."--Rowe's Lucan, iv, 1241.


UNDER NOTE III.--NOUNS CONNECTED.

"As where a landscape is conjoined with the music of birds and odour of flowers."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 117. "The last order resembles the second in the mildness of its accent, and softness of its pause."--Ib., ii, 113. "Before the use of the loadstone or knowledge of the compass."--Dryden. "The perfect participle and imperfect tense ought not to be confounded."--Murray's Gram., ii, 292. "In proportion as the taste of a poet, or orator, becomes more refined."--Blair's Rhet., p. 27. "A situation can never be intricate, as long as there is an angel, devil, or musician, to lend a helping hand."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 285. "Avoid rude sports: an eye is soon lost, or bone broken."--"Not a word was uttered, nor sign given."--Brown's Inst., p. 125. "I despise not the doer, but deed."--Ibid. "For the sake of an easier pronunciation and more agreeable sound."--Lowth. "The levity as well as loquacity of the Greeks made them incapable of keeping up the true standard of history."-- Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 115.


UNDER NOTE IV.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"It is proper that the vowels be a long and short one."--Murray's Gram., p. 327. "Whether the person mentioned was seen by the speaker a long or short time before."--Ib., p. 70; Fisk's, 72. "There are three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 8. "The numbers are two; Singular and Plural."--Ib., p. 80; Gould's, 77. "The persons are three; First, Second, [and] Third."--Adam, et al. "Nouns and pronouns have three cases; the nominative, possessive, and objective."--Comly's Gram., p. 19; Ingersoll's, 21. "Verbs have five moods; namely, the Indicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive."-- Bullions's E. Gram., p. 35; Lennie's, 20. "How many numbers have pronouns? Two, the singular and plural."--Bradley's Gram., p. 82. "To distinguish between an interrogative and exclamatory sentence."--Murray's Gram., p. 280; Comly's, 163; Ingersoll's, 292. "The first and last of which are compounded members."--Lowth's Gram., p. 123. "In the last lecture, I treated of the concise and diffuse, the nervous and feeble manner."--Blair's Rhet., p. 183. "The passive and neuter verbs, I shall reserve for some future conversation."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 69. "There are two voices; the Active and Passive."--Adam's Gram., p. 59; Gould's, 87. "Whose is rather the poetical than regular genitive of which."--Dr. Johnson's Gram., p. 7. "To feel the force of a compound, or derivative word."--Town's Analysis, p. 4. "To preserve the distinctive uses of the copulative and disjunctive conjunctions."--Murray's Gram., p. 150; Ingersoll's, 233. "E has a long and short sound in most languages."-- Bicknell's Gram., Part ii, p. 13. "When the figurative and literal sense are mixed and jumbled together."--Blair's Rhet., p. 151. "The Hebrew, with which the Canaanitish and Phoenician stand in connection."--CONANT: Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, p. 28. "The languages of Scandinavia proper, the Norwegian and Swedish."--Fowler, ib., p. 31.


UNDER NOTE V.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"The path of truth is a plain and a safe path"--Murray's Key, p. 236. "Directions for acquiring a just and a happy elocution."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 144. "Its leading object is to adopt a correct and an easy method."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 9. "How can it choose but wither in a long and a sharp winter."--Cowley's Pref., p. vi. "Into a dark and a distant unknown."--Chalmers, on Astronomy, p. 230. "When the bold and the strong enslaved his fellow man."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 21. "We now proceed to consider the things most essential to an accurate and a perfect sentence." --Murray's Gram., p. 306. "And hence arises a second and a very considerable source of the improvement of taste."--Blair's Rhet., p. 18. "Novelty produces in the mind a vivid and an agreeable emotion."--Ib., p. 50. "The deepest and the bitterest feeling still is, the separation."-- Dr. M'Rie. "A great and a good man looks beyond time."--Brown's Institutes, p. 125. "They made but a weak and an ineffectual resistance." --Ib. "The light and the worthless kernels will float."--Ib. "I rejoice that there is an other and a better world."--Ib. "For he is determined to revise his work, and present to the publick another and a better edition."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 7. "He hoped that this title would secure him an ample and an independent authority."--Murray's Gram., p. 172: see Priestley's, 147. "There is however another and a more limited sense."--Adams's Rhet., Vol. ii, p. 232.


UNDER NOTE VI.--ARTICLES OR PLURALS.

"This distinction forms, what are called the diffuse and the concise styles."--Blair's Rhet., p. 176. "Two different modes of speaking, distinguished at first by the denominations of the Attic and the Asiatic manners."--Adams's Rhet., Vol. i, p. 83. "But the great design of uniting the Spanish and the French monarchies under the former was laid."-- Bolingbroke, on History, p. 180. "In the solemn and the poetic styles, it [do or did] is often rejected."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 68. "They cannot be at the same time in the objective and the nominative cases."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 151; Ingersoll's, 239; R. G. Smith's, 127. "They are named the POSITIVE, the COMPARATIVE, and the SUPERLATIVE degrees."--Smart's Accidence, p. 27. "Certain Adverbs are capable of taking an Inflection, namely, that of the comparative and the superlative degrees."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, §321. "In the subjunctive mood, the present and the imperfect tenses often carry with them a future sense."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 187; Fisk's, 131. "The imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first future tenses of this mood, are conjugated like the same tenses of the indicative."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 145. "What rules apply in parsing personal pronouns of the second and third person?"--Ib., p. 116. "Nouns are sometimes in the nominative or objective case after the neuter verb to be, or after an active-intransitive or passive verb."--Ib., p. 55. "The verb varies its endings in the singular in order to agree in form with the first, second, and third person of its nominative."--Ib., p. 47. "They are identical in effect, with the radical and the vanishing stresses."--Rush, on the Voice, p. 339. "In a sonnet the first, fourth, fifth, and eighth line rhyme to each other: so do the second, third, sixth, and seventh line; the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth line; and the tenth, twelfth, and fourteenth line."--Churchill's Gram., p. 311. "The iron and the golden ages are run; youth and manhood are departed."--Wright's Athens, p. 74. "If, as you say, the iron and the golden ages are past, the youth and the manhood of the world."--Ib. "An Exposition of the Old and New Testament."--Matthew Henry's Title-page. "The names and order of the books of the Old and New Testament."--Friends' Bible, p. 2; Bruce's, p. 2; et al. "In the second and third person of that tense."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 81. "And who still unites in himself the human and the divine natures."--Gurney's Evidences, p. 59. "Among whom arose the Italian, the Spanish, the French, and the English languages."--L. Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 111. "Whence arise these two, the singular and the plural Numbers."--Burn's Gram., p. 32.


UNDER NOTE VII.--CORRESPONDENT TERMS.

"Neither the definitions, nor examples, are entirely the same with his."--Ward's Pref. to Lily's Gram., p. vi. "Because it makes a discordance between the thought and expression."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 24. "Between the adjective and following substantive."--Ib. ii, 104. "Thus, Athens became both the repository and nursery of learning."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 28. "But the French pilfered from both the Greek and Latin."--Ib., p. 102. "He shows that Christ is both the power and wisdom of God."--The Friend, x, 414. "That he might be Lord both of the dead and living."--Rom., xiv, 9. "This is neither the obvious nor grammatical meaning of his words."--Blair's Rhet., p. 209. "Sometimes both the accusative and infinitive are understood."--Adam's Gram., p. 155; Gould's, 158. "In some cases we can use either the nominative or accusative promiscuously."--Adam, p. 156; Gould, 159. "Both the former and latter substantive are sometimes to be understood."--Adam, p. 157; Gould, 160. "Many whereof have escaped both the commentator and poet himself."--Pope. "The verbs must and ought have both a present and past signification."--Murray's Gram., p. 108. "How shall we distinguish between the friends and enemies of the government?"--Webster's Essays, p. 352. "Both the ecclesiastical and secular powers concurred in those measures."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 260. "As the period has a beginning and end within itself it implies an inflexion."--Adams's Rhet., ii, 245. "Such as ought to subsist between a principal and accessory."--Kames, on Crit., ii, 39.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--CORRESPONDENCE PECULIAR.

"When both the upward and the downward slides occur in pronouncing a syllable, they are called a Circumflex or Wave."--Kirkham's Elocution, pp. 75 and 104. "The word that is used both in the nominative and objective cases."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 69. "But all the other moods and tenses of the verbs, both in the active and passive voices, are conjugated at large."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 81. "Some writers on Grammar object to the propriety of admitting the second future, in both the indicative and subjunctive moods."--Ib., p. 82. "The same conjunction governing both the indicative and the subjunctive moods, in the same sentence, and in the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety."--Ib., p. 207. "The true distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative moods in this tense."--Ib., p. 208. "I doubt of his capacity to teach either the French or English languages."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 7. "It is as necessary to make a distinction between the active transitive and the active intransitive forms of the verb, as between the active and passive forms."--Nixon's Parser, p. 13.


UNDER NOTE IX.--A SERIES OF TERMS.

"As comprehending the terms uttered by the artist, the mechanic, and husbandman."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 24. "They may be divided into four classes--the Humanists, Philanthropists, Pestalozzian and the Productive Schools."--Smith's New Gram., p. iii. "Verbs have six tenses, the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the First and Second Future tenses."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 138; L. Murray's, 68; R. C. Smith's, 27; Alger's, 28. "Is is an irregular verb neuter, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular."--Murray's Gram., Vol. ii, p. 2. "Should give is an irregular verb active, in the potential mood, the imperfect tense, and the first person plural."--Ibid. "Us is a personal pronoun, first person plural, and in the objective case."--Ibid. "Them is a personal pronoun, of the third person, the plural number, and in the objective case."--Ibid. "It is surprising that the Jewish critics, with all their skill in dots, points, and accents, never had the ingenuity to invent a point of interrogation, of admiration, or a parenthesis."--Wilson's Hebrew Gram., p. 47. "The fifth, sixth, seventh, and the eighth verse."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 263. "Substitutes have three persons; the First, Second, and the Third."--Ib., p. 34. "John's is a proper noun, of the masculine gender, the third person, singular number, possessive case, and governed by wife, by Rule I."--Smith's New Gram., p. 48. "Nouns in the English language have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and objective."--Barrett's Gram., p. 13; Alexander's, 11. "The Potential [mood] has four [tenses], viz. the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, and Pluperfect."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 96.

  "Where Science, Law, and Liberty depend,
   And own the patron, patriot, and the friend."--Savage, to Walpole.


UNDER NOTE X.--SPECIES AND GENUS.

"A pronoun is a part of speech put for a noun."--Paul's Accidence, p. 11. "A verb is a part of speech declined with mood and tense."--Ib., p. 15. "A participle is a part of speech derived of a verb."--Ib., p. 38. "An adverb is a part of speech joined to verbs to declare their signification."--Ib., p. 40. "A conjunction is a part of speech that joineth sentences together."--Ib., p. 41. "A preposition is a part of speech most commonly set before other parts."--Ib., p. 42. "An interjection is a part of speech which betokeneth a sudden motion or passion of the mind."--Ib., p. 44. "An enigma or riddle is also a species of allegory."--Blair's Rhet., p. 151; Murray's Gram., 343. "We may take from the Scriptures a very fine example of an allegory."--Ib.: Blair, 151; Mur., 341. "And thus have you exhibited a sort of a sketch of art."--HARRIS: in Priestley's Gram., p. 176. "We may 'imagine a subtle kind of a reasoning,' as Mr. Harris acutely observes."--Churchill's Gram., p. 71. "But, before entering on these, I shall give one instance of a very beautiful metaphor, that I may show the figure to full advantage."--Blair's Rhet., p. 143. "Aristotle, in his Poetics, uses metaphor in this extended sense, for any figurative meaning imposed upon a word; as a whole put for the part, or a part for a whole; the species for the genus, or a genus for the species."--Ib., p. 142. "It shows what kind of an apple it is of which we are speaking."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 69. "Cleon was another sort of a man."--Goldsmith's Greece, Vol. i, p. 124. "To keep off his right wing, as a kind of a reserved body."--Ib., ii, 12. "This part of speech is called a verb."--Mack's Gram., p. 70. "What sort of a thing is it?"--Hiley's Gram., p. 20. "What sort of a charm do they possess?"--Bullions's Principles of E. Gram., p. 73.

  "Dear Welsted, mark, in dirty hole,
   That painful animal, a Mole."--Note to Dunciad, B. ii, l. 207.


UNDER NOTE XI.--ARTICLES NOT REQUISITE.

"Either thou or the boys were in the fault."--Comly's Key, in Gram., p. 174. "It may, at the first view, appear to be too general."--Murray's Gram., p. 222; Ingersoll's, 275. "When the verb has a reference to future time."--Ib.: M., p. 207; Ing., 264. "No; they are the language of imagination rather than of a passion."--Blair's Rhet., p. 165. "The dislike of the English Grammar, which has so generally prevailed, can only be attributed to the intricacy of syntax."--Russell's Gram., p. iv. "Is that ornament in a good taste?"--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 326. "There are not many fountains in a good taste."--Ib., ii, 329. "And I persecuted this way unto the death."--Acts, xxii, 4. "The sense of the feeling can, indeed, give us the idea of extension."--Blair's Rhet., p. 196. "The distributive adjective pronouns, each, every, either, agree with the nouns, pronouns, and verbs, of the singular number only."--Murray's Gram., p. 165; Lowth's, 89. "Expressing by one word, what might, by a circumlocution, be resolved into two or more words belonging to the other parts of speech."--Blair's Rhet., p. 84. "By the certain muscles which operate all at the same time."--Murray's Gram., p. 19. "It is sufficient here to have observed thus much in the general concerning them."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 112. "Nothing disgusts us sooner than the empty pomp of language."--Murray's Gram., p. 319.


UNDER NOTE XII.--TITLES AND NAMES.

"He is entitled to the appellation of a gentleman."--Brown's Inst., p. 126. "Cromwell assumed the title of a Protector."--Ib. "Her father is honoured with the title of an Earl."--Ib. "The chief magistrate is styled a President."--Ib. "The highest title in the state is that of the Governor."--Ib. "That boy is known by the name of the Idler."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 205. "The one styled the Mufti, is the head of the ministers of law and religion."--Balbi's Geog., p. 360. "Banging all that possessed them under one class, he called that whole class a tree."--Blair's Rhet., p. 73. "For the oak, the pine, and the ash, were names of whole classes of objects."--Ib., p. 73. "It is of little importance whether we give to some particular mode of expression the name of a trope, or of a figure."--Ib., p. 133. "The collision of a vowel with itself is the most ungracious of all combinations, and has been doomed to peculiar reprobation under the name of an hiatus."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., Vol. ii, p. 217. "We hesitate to determine, whether the Tyrant alone, is the nominative, or whether the nominative includes the spy."--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 246. "Hence originated the customary abbreviation of twelve months into a twelve-month; seven nights into se'night; fourteen nights into a fortnight."--Webster's Improved Gram., p. 105.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--COMPARISONS AND ALTERNATIVES.

"He is a better writer than a reader."--W. Allen's False Syntax, Gram., p. 332. "He was an abler mathematician than a linguist."--Ib. "I should rather have an orange than apple."--Brown's Inst., p. 126. "He was no less able a negotiator, than a courageous warrior."--Smollett's Voltaire, Vol. i, p. 181. "In an epic poem we pardon many negligences that would not be permitted in a sonnet or epigram."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 186. "That figure is a sphere, or a globe, or a ball."--Harris's Hermes, p. 258.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--ANTECEDENTS TO WHO OR WHICH.

"Carriages which were formerly in use, were very clumsy."--Inst., p. 126. "The place is not mentioned by geographers who wrote at that time."--Ib. "Questions which a person asks himself in contemplation, ought to be terminated by points of interrogation."--Murray's Gram., p. 279; Comly's, 162; Ingersoll's, 291. "The work is designed for the use of persons, who may think it merits a place in their Libraries."--Murray's Gram., 8vo., p. iii. "That persons who think confusedly, should express themselves obscurely, is not to be wondered at."--Ib., p. 298. "Grammarians who limit the number to two, or at most to three, do not reflect."--Ib., p. 75. "Substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession."--Ib., p. 132. "To these may be added verbs, which chiefly among the poets govern the dative."--Adam's Gram., p. 170; Gould's, 171. "Consonants are letters, which cannot be sounded without the aid of a vowel."--Bucke's Gram., p. 9. "To employ the curiosity of persons who are skilled in grammar."--Murray's Gram., Pref., p. iii. "This rule refers only to nouns and pronouns, which have the same bearing or relation."--Ib., i, p. 204. "So that things which are seen, were not made of things which do appear."--Heb., xi, 3. "Man is an imitative creature; he may utter sounds, which he has heard."--Wilson's Essay on Gram., p. 21. "But men, whose business is wholly domestic, have little or no use for any language but their own."--Webster's Essays, p. 5.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PARTICIPIAL NOUNS.

"Great benefit may be reaped from reading of histories."--Sewel's Hist., p. iii. "And some attempts were made towards writing of history."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 110. "It is Invading of the Priest's Office for any other to Offer it."--Right of Tythes, p. 200. "And thus far of forming of verbs."--Walker's Art of Teaching, p. 35. "And without shedding of blood is no remission."--Heb., ix, 22. "For making of measures we have the best method here in England."--Printer's Gram. "This is really both admitting and denying, at once."--Butler's Analogy, p. 72. "And hence the origin of making of parliaments."--Brown's Estimate, Vol. i, p. 71. "Next thou objectest, that having of saving light and grace presupposes conversion. But that I deny: for, on the contrary, conversion presupposeth having light and grace."--Barclay's Works, Vol. i, p. 143. "They cried down wearing of rings and other superfluities as we do."--Ib., i, 236. "Whose adorning, let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel."--1 Peter, iii, 3. "In spelling of derivative Words, the Primitive must be kept whole."--British Gram., p. 50; Buchanan's Syntax, 9. "And the princes offered for dedicating of the altar."--Numbers, vii, 10. "Boasting is not only telling of lies, but also many unseemly truths."--Sheffield's Works, ii, 244. "We freely confess that forbearing of prayer in the wicked is sinful."--Barclay, i, 316. "For revealing of a secret, there is no remedy."--Inst. E. Gram., p. 126. "He turned all his thoughts to composing of laws for the good of the state."--Rollin's Ancient Hist., Vol. ii, p. 38.

UNDER NOTE XVI.--PARTICIPLES, NOT NOUNS. "It is salvation to be kept from falling into a pit, as truly as to be taken out of it after the falling in."--Barclay, i, 210. "For in the receiving and embracing the testimony of truth, they felt eased."--Ib., i, 469. "True regularity does not consist in the having but a single rule, and forcing every thing to conform to it."--Philol. Museum, i, 664. "To the man of the world, this sound of glad tidings appears only an idle tale, and not worth the attending to."--Life of Tho. Say, p. 144. "To be the deliverer of the captive Jews, by the ordering their temple to be re-built," &c.--Rollin, ii, 124. "And for the preserving them from being defiled."--N. E. Discipline, p. 133. "A wise man will avoid the showing any excellence in trifles."--Art of Thinking, p. 80. "Hirsutus had no other reason for the valuing a book."--Rambler, No. 177; Wright's Gram., p. 190. "To the being heard with satisfaction, it is necessary that the speaker should deliver himself with ease."--Sheridan's Elocution, p. 114. "And to the being well heard, and clearly understood, a good and distinct articulation contributes more, than power of voice."--Ib., p. 117.

  "Potential means the having power or will;
   As, If you would improve, you should be still."
       --Tobitt's Gram., p. 31.


UNDER NOTE XVII.--VARIOUS ERRORS.

"For the same reason, a neuter verb cannot become a passive."--Lowth's Gram., p. 74. "The period is the whole sentence complete in itself."--Ib., p. 115. "The colon or member is a chief constructive part, or greater division of a sentence."--Ib. "The semicolon or half member, is a less constructive part or subdivision, of a sentence or member."--Ib. "A sentence or member is again subdivided into commas or segments."--Ib., p. 116. "The first error that I would mention, is, a too general attention to the dead languages, with a neglect of our own."--Webster's Essays, p. 3. "One third of the importations would supply the demands of people."--Ib., p. 119. "And especially in grave stile."--Priestley's Gram., p. 72. "By too eager pursuit, he ran a great risk of being disappointed."--Murray's Key, Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 201. "Letters are divided into vowels and consonants."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 7; and others. "Consonants are divided into mutes and semi-vowels."--Ib., i, 8; and others. "The first of these forms is most agreeable to the English idiom."--Ib., i, 176. "If they gain, it is a too dear rate."--Barclay's Works, i, 504. "A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to prevent a too frequent repetition of it."--Maunder's Gram., p. 1. "This vulgar error might perhaps arise from a too partial fondness for the Latin."--Dr. Ash's Gram., Pref., p. iv. "The groans which a too heavy load extorts from her."--Hitchcock, on Dyspepsy, p. 50. "The numbers [of a verb] are, of course, singular and plural."--Bucke's Gram. p. 58. "To brook no meanness, and to stoop to no dissimulation, are the indications of a great mind."--Murray's Key, ii, 236. "This mode of expression rather suits familiar than grave style."--Murray's Gram., i, 198. "This use of the word rather suits familiar and low style."--Priestley's Gram., p. 134. "According to the nature of the composition the one or other may be predominant."--Blair's Rhet., p. 102. "Yet the commonness of such sentences prevents in a great measure a too early expectation of the end."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 411. "An eulogy or a philippie may be pronounced by an individual of one nation upon the subject of another."--Adams's Rhet., i, 298. "A French sermon, is for most part, a warm animated exhortation."--Blair's Rhet., p. 288. "I do not envy those who think slavery no very pitiable a lot."--Channing, on Emancipation, p. 52. "The auxiliary and principal united, constitute a tense."--Murray's Gram., i, 75. "There are some verbs which are defective with respect to persons."--Ib., i, 109. "In youth, the habits of industry are most easily acquired."--Murray's Key, ii, 235. "Apostrophe (') is used in place of a letter left out."--Bullions's Eng. Gram., p. 156.



CHAPTER III.--CASES, OR NOUNS.

The rules for the construction of Nouns, or Cases, are seven; hence this chapter, according to the order adopted above, reviews the series of rules from the second rule to the eighth, inclusively. Though Nouns are here the topic, all these seven rules apply alike to Nouns and to Pronouns; that is, to all the words of our language which are susceptible of Cases.


RULE II.--NOMINATIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case: as, "The Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things; and they derided him."--Luke, xvi, 14. "But where the meekness of self-knowledge veileth the front of self-respect, there look thou for the man whom none can know but they will honour."--Book of Thoughts, p. 66.

  "Dost thou mourn Philander's fate?
   I know thou sayst it: says thy life the same?"
       --Young, N. ii, l. 22.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE II.

OBS. 1.--To this rule, there are no exceptions; and nearly all nominatives, or far the greater part, are to be parsed by it. There are however four different ways of disposing of the nominative case. First, it is generally the subject of a verb, according to Rule 2d. Secondly, it may be put in apposition with an other nominative, according to Rule 3d. Thirdly, it may be put after a verb or a participle not transitive, according to Rule 6th. Fourthly, it may be put absolute, or may help to form a phrase that is independent of the rest of the sentence, according to Rule 8th.

OBS. 2.--The subject, or nominative, is generally placed before the verb; as, "Peace dawned upon his mind."--Johnson. "What is written in the law?"--Bible. But, in the following nine cases, the subject of the verb is usually placed after it, or after the first auxiliary: 1. When a question is asked without an interrogative pronoun in the nominative case; as, "Shall mortals be implacable?"--Hooke. "What art thou doing?"--Id. "How many loaves have ye?"--Bible. "Are they Israelites? so am I."--Ib.

2. When the verb is in the imperative mood; as, "Go thou"--"Come ye" But, with this mood, the pronoun is very often omitted and understood; as, "Philip saith unto him, Come and see"--John, i, 46. "And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted."--Mark, xvi, 5.

3. When an earnest wish, or other strong feeling, is expressed; as, "May she be happy!"--"How were we struck!"--Young. "Not as the world giveth, give I unto you."--Bible.

4. When a supposition is made without the conjunction if; as, "Had they known it;" for, "If they had known it."--"Were it true;" for, "If it were true."--"Could we draw by the covering of the grave;" for, "If we could draw," &c.

5. When neither or nor, signifying and not, precedes the verb; as, "This was his fear; nor was his apprehension groundless."--"Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it."--Gen., iii, 3.

6. When, for the sake of emphasis, some word or words are placed before the verb, which more naturally come after it; as, "Here am I."--"Narrow is the way."--"Silver and gold have I none; but such as I have, give I thee."--Bible.

7. When the verb has no regimen, and is itself emphatical; as, "Echo the mountains round."--Thomson. "After the Light Infantry marched the Grenadiers, then followed the Horse."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 71.

8. When the verbs, say, answer, reply, and the like, introduce the parts of a dialogue; as, "'Son of affliction,' said Omar, 'who art thou?' 'My name,' replied the stranger, 'is Hassan.'"--Dr. Johnson.

9. When the adverb there precedes the verb; as, "There lived a man."--Montgomery. "In all worldly joys, there is a secret wound."--Owen. This use of there, the general introductory adverb of place, is idiomatic, and somewhat different from the use of the same word in reference to a particular locality; as, "Because there was not much water there."--John, iii, 23.

OBS. 3.--In exclamations, and some other forms of expression, a few verbs are liable to be suppressed, the ellipsis being obvious; as, "How different [is] this from the philosophy of Greece and Rome!"--DR. BEATTIE: Murray's Sequel, p. 127. "What a lively picture [is here] of the most disinterested and active benevolence!"--HERVEY: ib., p. 94. "When Adam [spake] thus to Eve."--MILTON: Paradise Lost, B. iv, l. 610.

OBS. 4.--Though we often use nouns in the nominative case to show whom we address, yet the imperative verb takes no other nominative of the second person, than the simple personal pronoun, thou, ye, or you, expressed or understood. It would seem that some, who ought to know better, are liable to mistake for the subject of such a verb, the noun which we put absolute in the nominative by direct address. Of this gross error, the following is an example: "Study boys. In this sentence," (says its author,) "study is a verb of the second person, plural number, and agrees with its nominative case, boys--according to the rule: A verb must agree with its nominative case in number and person. Boys is a noun of the second person, plural number, masculine gender, in the nominative case to the verb study."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 17.[339] Now the fact is, that this laconic address, of three syllables, is written wrong; being made bad English for want of a comma between the two words. Without this mark, boys must be an objective, governed by study; and with it, a nominative, put absolute by direct address. But, in either case, study agrees with ye or you understood, and has not the noun for its subject, or nominative.

OBS. 5.--Some authors say, and if the first person be no exception, say truly: "The nominative case to a verb, unless it be a pronoun, is always of the third person."--Churchill's Gram., p. 141. But W. B. Fowle will have all pronouns to be adjectives. Consequently all his verbs, of every sort, agree with nouns "expressed or understood." This, and every other absurd theory of language, can easily be made out, by means of a few perversions, which may be called corrections, and a sufficient number of interpolations, made under pretence of filling up ellipses. Thus, according to this author, "They fear," means, "They things spoken of fear."--True Eng. Gram., p, 33. And, "John, open the door," or, "Boys, stop your noise," admits no comma. And, "Be grateful, ye children," and, "Be ye grateful children," are, in his view, every way equivalent: the comma in the former being, in his opinion, needless. See ib., p. 39.

OBS. 6.--Though the nominative and objective cases of nouns do not differ in form, it is nevertheless, in the opinion of many of our grammarians, improper to place any noun in both relations at once, because this produces a confusion in the syntax of the word. Examples: "He then goes on to declare that there are, and distinguish of, four manners of saying Per se."--Walker's Treatise of Particles, p. xii. Better: "He then proceeds to show, that per se is susceptible of four different senses." "In just allegory and similitude there is always a propriety, or, if you choose to call it, congruity, in the literal sense, as well as a distinct meaning or sentiment suggested, which is called the figurative sense."--Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric, p. 291. Better: "In just allegory or similitude, there is always a propriety--or, if you choose to call it so, a congruity--in the literal sense," &c. "It must then be meant of his sins who makes, not of his who becomes, the convert."--Atterbury's Sermons, i, 2. Better: "It must then be meant of his sins who makes the convert, not of his who becomes converted." "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him."--1 Cor., ii, 9. A more regular construction would be: "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." The following example, from Pope, may perhaps be conceded to the poet, as an allowable ellipsis of the words "a friend," after is:

  "In who obtain defence, or who defend;
   In him who is, or him who finds, a friend."
       --Essay on Man, Ep. iv, l. 60.

Dr. Lowth cites the last three examples, without suggesting any forms of correction; and says of them, "There seems to be an impropriety in these sentences, in which the same noun stands in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective case."--Lowth's Gram., p. 73. He should have said--"of both the nominative and the objective case." Dr. Webster, citing the line, "In him who is, and him who finds, a friend," adds, "Lowth condemns this use of the noun in the nominative and objective at the same time; but without reason, as the cases are not distinguished in English."--Improved Gram., p. 175.

OBS. 7.--In Latin and Greek, the accusative before the infinitive, is often reckoned the subject of the latter verb; and is accordingly parsed by a sort of exception to the foregoing rule--or rather, to that general rule of concord which the grammarians apply to the verb and its nominative. This construction is translated into English, and other modern tongues, sometimes literally, or nearly so, but much oftener, by a nominative and a finite verb. Example: "[Greek: Eipen auton phonæthænai]."--Mark, x, 49. "Ait illum vocari."--Leusden. "Jussit eum vocari."--Beza. "Præcepit illum vocari."--Vulgate. "He commanded him to be called."--English Bible. "He commanded that he should be called."--Milnes's Gr. Gram., p. 143. "Il dit qu'on l'appelât."--French Bible. "He bid that somebody should call him." "Il commanda qu'on le fît venir."--Nouveau Test., Paris, 1812. "He commanded that they should make him come;" that is, "lead him, or bring him." "Il commanda qu'on l'appelât."--De Sacy's N. Test.

OBS. 8.--In English, the objective case before the infinitive mood, although it may truly denote the agent of the infinitive action, or the subject of the infinitive passion, is nevertheless taken as the object of the preceding verb, participle, or preposition. Accordingly our language does not admit a literal translation of the above-mentioned construction, except the preceding verb be such as can be interpreted transitively. "Gaudeo te val=ere," "I am glad that thou art well," cannot be translated more literally; because, "I am glad thee to be well," would not be good English. "Aiunt regem advent=are," "They say the king is coming," may be otherwise rendered "They declare the king to be coming;" but neither version is entirely literal; the objective being retained only by a change of aiunt, say, into such a verb as will govern the noun.

OBS. 9.--The following sentence is a literal imitation of the Latin accusative before the infinitive, and for that reason it is not good English: "But experience teacheth us, both these opinions to be alike ridiculous."--Barclay's Works, Vol. i, p. 262. It should be, "But experience teaches us, that both these opinions are alike ridiculous." The verbs believe, think, imagine, and others expressing mental action, I suppose to be capable of governing nouns or pronouns in the objective case, and consequently of being interpreted transitively. Hence I deny the correctness of the following explanation: "RULE XXIV. The objective case precedes the infinitive mode; [as,] 'I believe your brother to be a good man.' Here believe does not govern brother, in the objective case, because it is not the object after it. Brother, in the objective case, third person singular, precedes the neuter verb to be, in the infinitive mode, present time, third person singular."--S. Barrett's Gram., p. 135. This author teaches that, "The infinitive mode agrees with the objective case in number and person."--Ibid. Which doctrine is denied; because the infinitive has no number or person, in any language. Nor do I see why the noun brother, in the foregoing example, may not be both the object of the active verb believe, and the subject of the neuter infinitive to be, at the same time; for the subject of the infinitive, if the infinitive can be said to have a subject, is not necessarily in the nominative case, or necessarily independent of what precedes.

OBS. 10.--There are many teachers of English grammar, who still adhere to the principle of the Latin and Greek grammarians, which refers the accusative or objective to the latter verb, and supposes the former to be intransitive, or to govern only the infinitive. Thus Nixon: "The objective case is frequently put before the infinitive mood, as its subject; as, 'Suffer me to depart.'" [340]--English Parser, p. 34. "When an objective case stands before an infinitive mood, as 'I understood it to be him,' 'Suffer me to depart,' such objective should be parsed, not as governed by the preceding verb, but as the objective case before the infinitive; that is, the subject of it. The reason of this is--the former verb can govern one object only, and that is (in such sentences) the infinitive mood; the intervening objective being the subject of the infinitive following, and not governed by the former verb; as, in that instance, it would be governing two objects."--Ib., Note.[341]

OBS. 11.--The notion that one verb governs an other in the infinitive, just as a transitive verb governs a noun, and so that it cannot also govern an objective case, is not only contradictory to my scheme of parsing the infinitive mood, but is also false in itself, and repugnant to the principles of General Grammar. In Greek and Latin, it is certainly no uncommon thing for a verb to govern two cases at once; and even the accusative before the infinitive is sometimes governed by the preceding verb, as the objective before the infinitive naturally is in English. But, in regard to construction, every language differs more or less from every other; hence each must have its own syntax, and abide by its own rules. In regard to the point here in question, the reader may compare the following examples: "[Greek: Echo anagkæn exelthein]."--Luke, xiv, 18. "Habeo necesse exire."--Leusden. English: "I have occasion to go away." Again: "[Greek: O echon hota akouein, akoueto]."--Luke, xiv, 35. "Habens aures audiendi, audiat."--Leusden. "Qui habet aures ad audiendum, audiat."--Beza. English: "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." But our most frequent use of the infinitive after the objective, is in sentences that must not be similarly constructed in Latin or Greek;[342] as, "And he commanded the porter to watch."--Mark, xiii, 34. "And he delivered Jesus to be crucified."--Mark, xv, 15. "And they led him out to crucify him."--Mark, xv, 20. "We heard him say."--Mark, xiv, 58. "That I might make thee know."--Prov., xxii, 21.

OBS. 12.--If our language does really admit any thing like the accusative before the infinitive, in the sense of a positive subject at the head of a clause, it is only in some prospective descriptions like the following: "Let certain studies be prescribed to be pursued during the freshman year; some of these to be attended to by the whole class; with regard to others, a choice to be allowed; which, when made by the student, (the parent or guardian sanctioning it,) to be binding during the freshman year: the same plan to be adopted with regard to the studies of the succeeding years."--GALLAUDET: Journal of the N. Y. Literary Convention, p. 118. Here the four words, some, choice, which, and plan, may appear to a Latinist to be so many objectives, or accusatives, placed before infinitives, and used to describe that state of things which the author would promote. If objectives they are, we may still suppose them to be governed by let, would have, or something of the kind, understood: as, "Let some of these be attended to;" or, "Some of these I would have to be attended to," &c. The relative which might with more propriety be made nominative, by changing "to be binding" to "shall be binding;" and as to the rest, it is very doubtful whether they are not now nominatives, rather than objectives. The infinitive, as used above, is a mere substitute for the Latin future participle; and any English noun or pronoun put absolute with a participle, is in the nominative case. English relatives are rarely, if ever, put absolute in this manner: and this may be the reason why the construction of which, in the sentence above, seems awkward. Besides, it is certain that the other pronouns are sometimes put absolute with the infinitive; and that, in the nominative case, not the objective: as,

  "And I to be a corporal in his field,
   And wear his colours like a tumbler's hoop!
   What? I! I love! I sue! I seek a wife!"--Shak., Love's Labour Lost.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE II.

THE SUBJECT OF A FINITE VERB.

"The whole need not a physician, but them that are sick."--Bunyan's Law and Gr., p. iv.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the objective pronoun them is here made the subject of the verb need, understood. But, according to Rule 2d, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Therefore, them should be they; thus, "The whole need not a physician, but they that are sick."]

"He will in no wise cast out whomsoever cometh unto him."--Robert Hall "He feared the enemy might fall upon his men, whom he saw were off their guard."--Hutchinson's Massachusetts, ii, 133. "Whomsoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain."--Dymond's Essays, p. 48. "The idea's of the author have been conversant with the faults of other writers."--Swift's T. T., p. 55. "You are a much greater loser than me by his death."--Swift to Pope, l. 63. "Such peccadillo's pass with him for pious frauds."--Barclay's Works, Vol. iii, p. 279. "In whom I am nearly concerned, and whom I know would be very apt to justify my whole procedure."--Ib., i, 560. "Do not think such a man as me contemptible for my garb."--Addison. "His wealth and him bid adieu to each other."--Priestley's Gram., p. 107. "So that, 'He is greater than me,' will be more grammatical than, 'He is greater than I.'"--Ib., p. 106. "The Jesuits had more interests at court than him."--SMOLLETT: in Pr. Gram., p. 106.[343] "Tell the Cardinal that I understand poetry better than him."--Id., ib. "An inhabitant of Crim Tartary was far more happy than him."--Id., ib. "My father and him have been very intimate since."--Fair American, ii, 53. "Who was the agent, and whom the object struck or kissed?"--Infant School Gram., p. 32. "To find the person whom he imagined was concealed there."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 225. "He offered a great recompense to whomsoever would help him."--HUME: in Pr. Gram., p. 104. "They would be under the dominion, absolute and unlimited, of whomsoever might exercise the right of judgement."--Gov. Haynes's Speech, in 1832. "They had promised to accept whomsoever should be born in Wales."--Stories by Croker. "We sorrow not as them that have no hope."--Maturin's Sermons, p. 27. "If he suffers, he suffers as them that have no hope."--Ib., p. 32. "We acknowledge that he, and him only, hath been our peacemaker."--Gratton. "And what can be better than him that made it?"--Jenks's Prayers, p. 329. "None of his school-fellows is more beloved than him."--Cooper's Gram., p. 42. "Solomon, who was wiser than them all."--Watson's Apology, p. 76. "Those whom the Jews thought were the last to be saved, first entered the kingdom of God."--Eleventh Hour, Tract, No. 4. "A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both."--Prov., xxvii, 3. "A man of business, in good company, is hardly more insupportable than her they call a notable woman."--Steele, Sped. "The king of the Sarmatians, whom we may imagine was no small prince, restored him a hundred thousand Roman prisoners."--Life of Antoninus, p. 83. "Such notions would be avowed at this time by none but rosicrucians, and fanatics as mad as them."--Bolingbroke's Ph. Tr., p. 24. "Unless, as I said, Messieurs, you are the masters, and not me."--BASIL HALL: Harrison's E. Lang., p. 173. "We had drawn up against peaceable travellers, who must have been as glad as us to escape."--BURNES'S TRAVELS: ibid. "Stimulated, in turn, by their approbation, and that of better judges than them, she turned to their literature with redoubled energy."--QUARTERLY REVIEW: Life of H. More: ibid. "I know not whom else are expected."--SCOTT'S PIRATE: ibid. "He is great, but truth is greater than us all."--Horace Mann, in Congress, 1850. "Him I accuse has entered."--Fowler's E. Gram., §482: see Shakspeare's Coriolanus, Act V, sc. 5.

  "Scotland and thee did each in other live."
       --Dryden's Po., Vol. ii, p. 220.
   "We are alone; here's none but thee and I."
       --Shak., 2 Hen. VI.
   "Me rather had, my heart might feel your love,
   Than my unpleas'd eye see your courtesy."
       --Idem: Joh. Dict.
   "Tell me, in sadness, whom is she you love?"
       --Id., Romeo and Juliet, A. I, sc. 1.
   "Better leave undone, than by our deeds acquire
   Too high a fame, when him we serve's away."
       --Shak., Ant. and Cleop.


RULE III.--APPOSITION.

A Noun or a personal Pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case: as, "But it is really I, your old friend and neighbour., Piso, late a dweller upon the Coelian hill, who am now basking in the warm skies of Palmyra."--Zenobia.

  "But he, our gracious Master, kind as just,
   Knowing our frame, remembers we are dust."--Barbauld.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE III.

OBS. 1--Apposition is that peculiar relation which one noun or pronoun bears to an other, when two or more are placed together in the same case, and used to designate the same person or thing: as, "Cicero the orator;"--"The prophet Joel;"--"He of Gath, Goliah;"--"Which ye yourselves do know;"--"To make him king;"--"To give his life a ransom for many;"--"I made the ground my bed;"--"I, thy schoolmaster;"--"We the People of the United States." This placing-together of nouns and pronouns in the same case, was reckoned by the old grammarians a figure of syntax; and from them it received, in their elaborate detail of the grammatical and rhetorical figures, its present name of apposition. They reckoned it a species of ellipsis, and supplied between the words, the participle being, the infinitive to be, or some other part of their "substantive verb:" as, "Cicero being the orator;"--"To make him to be king;"--"I who am thy schoolmaster." But the later Latin grammarians have usually placed it among their regular concords; some calling it the first concord, while others make it the last, in the series; and some, with no great regard to consistency, treating it both as a figure and as a regular concord, at the same time.

OBS. 2.--Some English grammarians teach, "that the words in the cases preceding and following the verb to be, may be said to be in apposition to each other."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 181; R. C. Smith's, 155; Fisk's, 126; Ingersoll's, 146; Merchant's, 91. But this is entirely repugnant to the doctrine, that apposition is a figure; nor is it at all consistent with the original meaning of the word apposition; because it assumes that the literal reading, when the supposed ellipsis is supplied, is apposition still. The old distinction, however, between apposition and same cases, is generally preserved in our grammars, and is worthy ever to be so. The rule for same cases applies to all nouns or pronouns that are put after verbs or participles not transitive, and that are made to agree in case with other nouns or pronouns going before, and meaning the same thing. But some teachers who observe this distinction with reference to the neuter verb be, and to certain passive verbs of naming, appointing, and the like, absurdly break it down in relation to other verbs, neuter or active-intransitive. Thus Nixon: "Nouns in apposition are in the same case; as, Hortensius died a martyr;' Sydney lived the shepherd's friend.'"--English Parser, p. 55. It is remarkable that all this author's examples of "nominatives in apposition," (and he gives eighteen in the exercise,) are precisely of this sort, in which there is really no apposition at all.

OBS. 3.--In the exercise of parsing, rule third should be applied only to the explanatory term; because the case of the principal term depends on its relation to the rest of the sentence, and comes under some other rule. In certain instances, too, it is better to waive the analysis which might be made under rule third, and to take both or all the terms together, under the rule for the main relation. Thus, the several proper names which distinguish an individual, are always in apposition, and should be taken together in parsing; as, William Pitt--Marcus Tullius Cicero. It may, I think, be proper to include with the personal names, some titles also; as, Lord Bacon--Sir Isaac Newton. William E. Russell and Jonathan Ware, (two American authors of no great note,) in parsing the name of "George Washington," absurdly take the former word as an adjective belonging to the latter. See Russell's Gram., p. 100; and Ware's, 17. R. C. Smith does the same, both with honorary titles, and with baptismal or Christian names. See his New Gram., p. 97. And one English writer, in explaining the phrases, "John Wickliffe's influence," "Robert Bruce's exertions," and the like, will have the first nouns to be governed by the last, and the intermediate ones to be distinct possessives in apposition with the former. See Nixon's English Parser, p. 59. Wm. B. Fowle, in his "True English Grammar," takes all titles, all given names, all possessives, and all pronouns, to be adjectives. According to him, this class embraces more than half the words in the language. A later writer than any of these says, "The proper noun is philosophically an adjective. Nouns common or proper, of similar or dissimilar import, may be parsed as adjectives, when they become qualifying or distinguishing words; as, President Madison,--Doctor Johnson,--Mr. Webster,--Esq. Carleton,--Miss Gould,--Professor Ware,--lake Erie,--the Pacific ocean,--Franklin House,--Union street."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 134. I dissent from all these views, at least so far as not to divide a man's name in parsing it. A person will sometimes have such a multitude of names, that it would be a flagrant waste of time, to parse them all separately: for example, that wonderful doctor, Paracelsus, who called himself, "Aureolus Philippus Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus de Hoenheim."--Univ. Biog. Dict.

OBS. 4.--A very common rule for apposition in Latin, is this: "Substantives signifying the same thing, agree in case."--Adam's Latin Gram., p. 156. The same has also been applied to our language: "Substantives denoting the same person or thing, agree in case."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 102. This rule is, for two reasons, very faulty: first, because the apposition of pronouns seems not to be included it; secondly, because two nouns that are not in the same case, do sometimes "signify" or "denote" the same thing. Thus, "the city of London," means only the city London; "the land of Egypt," is only Egypt; and "the person of Richard" is Richard himself. Dr. Webster defines apposition to be, "The placing of two nouns in the same case, without a connecting word between them."--Octavo Dict. This, too, excludes the pronouns, and has exceptions, both various and numerous. In the first place, the apposition may be of more than two nouns, without any connective; as, "Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law."--Ezra, vii, 21. Secondly, two nouns connected by a conjunction, may both be put in apposition with a preceding noun or pronoun; as, "God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ."--Acts, ii, 36. "Who made me a judge or a divider over you."--Luke, xii, 14. Thirdly, the apposition may be of two nouns immediately connected by and, provided the two words denote but one person or thing; as, "This great philosopher and statesman was bred a printer." Fourthly, it may be of two words connected by as, expressing the idea of a partial or assumed identity; as, "Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother."--2 Thess., iii, 15. "So that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God."--Ib., ii, 4. Fifthly, it may perhaps be of two words connected by than; as, "He left them no more than dead men."--Law and Grace, p. 28. Lastly, there is a near resemblance to apposition, when two equivalent nouns are connected by or; as, "The back of the hedgehog is covered with prickles, or spines."--Webster's Dict.

OBS. 5.--To the rule for apposition, as I have expressed it, there are properly no exceptions. But there are many puzzling examples of construction under it, some of which are but little short of exceptions; and upon such of these as are most likely to embarrass the learner, some further observations shall be made. The rule supposes the first word to be the principal term, with which the other word, or subsequent noun or pronoun, is in apposition; and it generally is so: but the explanatory word is sometimes placed first, especially among the poets; as,

  "From bright'ning fields of ether fair disclos'd,
   Child of the sun, refulgent Summer comes."--Thomson.

OBS. 6.--The pronouns of the first and second persons are often placed before nouns merely to distinguish their person; as, "I John saw these things."--Bible. "But what is this to you receivers?"--Clarkson's Essay on Slavery, p. 108. "His praise, ye brooks, attune."--Thomson. In this case of apposition, the words are in general closely united, and either of them may be taken as the explanatory term. The learner will find it easier to parse the noun by rule third; or both nouns, if there be two: as, "I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee."--Exod., xviii, 6. There are many other examples, in which it is of no moment, which of the terms we take for the principal; and to all such the rule may be applied literally: as, "Thy son Benhadad king of Syria hath sent me to thee."--2 Kings, viii, 9.

OBS. 7.--When two or more nouns of the possessive case are put in apposition, the possessive termination added to one, denotes the case of both or all; as, "For Herodias sake, his brother Philip's wife"--Matt., xiv, 3; Mark, vi, 17. Here wife is in apposition with Herodias', and brother with Philip's; consequently all these words are reckoned to be in the possessive case. The Greek text, which is better, stands essentially thus: "For the sake of Herodias, the wife of Philip his brother." "For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect."--Isaiah, xlv, 4. Here, as Jacob and Israel are only different names for the same person or nation, the four nouns in Italics are, according to the rule, all made possessives by the one sign used; but the construction is not to be commended: it would be better to say, "For the sake of Jacob my servant, and Israel mine elect." "With Hyrcanus the high priest's consent."--Wood's Dict., w. Herod. "I called at Smith's, the bookseller; or, at Smith the bookseller's."-- Bullions's E. Gram., p. 105. Two words, each having the possessive sign, can never be in apposition one with the other; because that sign has immediate reference to the governing noun expressed or understood after it; and if it be repeated, separate governing nouns will be implied, and the apposition will be destroyed.[344]

OBS. 8.--If the foregoing remark is just, the apposition of two nouns in the possessive case, requires the possessive sign to be added to that noun which immediately precedes the governing word, whether expressed or understood, and positively excludes it from the other. The sign of the case is added, sometimes to the former, and sometimes to the latter noun, but never to both: or, if added to both, the two words are no longer in apposition. Example: "And for that reason they ascribe to him a great part of his father Nimrod's, or Belus's actions."--Rollin's An. Hist., Vol. ii, p. 6. Here father and Nimrod's are in strict apposition; but if actions governs Belus's, the same word is implied to govern Nimrod's, and the two names are not in apposition, though they are in the same case and mean the same person.

OBS. 9.--Dr. Priestley says, "Some would say, 'I left the parcel at Mr. Smith's, the bookseller;' others, 'at Mr. Smith the bookseller's;' and perhaps others, at 'Mr. Smith's the bookseller's.' The last of these forms is most agreeable to the Latin idiom, but the first seems to be more natural in ours; and if the addition consist [consists, says Murray,] of two or more words, the case seems to be very clear; as, 'I left the parcel at Mr. Smith's the bookseller and stationer;' i. e. at Mr. Smith's, who is a bookseller and stationer."--Priestley's Gram., p. 70. Here the examples, if rightly pointed, would all be right; but the ellipsis supposed, not only destroys the apposition, but converts the explanatory noun into a nominative. And in the phrase, "at Mr. Smiths, the bookseller's," there is no apposition, except that of Mr. with Smith's; for the governing noun house or store is understood as clearly after the one possessive sign as after the other. Churchill imagines that in Murray's example, "I reside at Lord Stormont's, my old patron and benefactor," the last two nouns are in the nominative after "who was" understood; and also erroneously suggests, that their joint apposition with Stormont's might be secured, by saying, less elegantly, "I reside at Lord Stormont's, my old patron and benefactor's."-- Churchill's New Gram., p. 285. Lindley Murray, who tacitly takes from Priestley all that is quoted above, except the term "Mr.," and the notion of an ellipsis of "who is," assumes each of the three forms as an instance of apposition, but pronounces the first only to be "correct and proper." If, then, the first is elliptical, as Priestley suggests, and the others are ungrammatical, as Murray pretends to prove, we cannot have in reality any such construction as the apposition of two possessives; for the sign of the case cannot possibly be added in more than these three ways. But Murray does not adhere at all to his own decision, as may be seen by his subsequent remarks and examples, on the same page; as, "The emperor Leopold's;"--"Dionysius the tyrant's;"--"For David my servant's sake;"--"Give me here John the Baptist's head;"--"Paul the apostle's advice." See Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 176; Smith's New Gram., p. 150; and others.

OBS. 10.--An explanatory noun without the possessive sign, seems sometimes to be put in apposition with a pronoun of the possessive case; and, if introduced by the conjunction as, it may either precede or follow the pronoun: thus, "I rejoice in your success as an instructer."-- Sanborn's Gram., p. 244. "As an author, his 'Adventurer' is his capital work."--Murray's Sequel, p. 329.

  "Thus shall mankind his guardian care engage,
   The promised father of a future age."--Pope.

But possibly such examples may be otherwise explained on the principle of ellipsis; as, [He being] "the promised father," &c. "As [he was] an author," &c. "As [you are] an instructer."

OBS. 11.--When a noun or pronoun is repeated for the sake of emphasis, or for the adding of an epithet, the word which is repeated may properly be said to be in apposition with that which is first introduced; or, if not, the repetition itself implies sameness of case: as, "They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water."--Jer., ii, 13.

  "I find the total of their hopes and fears
   Dreams, empty dreams."--Cowper's Task, p. 71.

OBS. 12.--A noun is sometimes put, as it were, in apposition to a sentence; being used (perhaps elliptically) to sum up the whole idea in one emphatic word, or short phrase. But, in such instances, the noun can seldom be said to have any positive relation that may determine its case; and, if alone, it will of course be in the nominative, by reason of its independence. Examples: "He permitted me to consult his library--a kindness which I shall not forget."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 148. "I have offended reputation--a most unnoble swerving."--Shakspeare. "I want a hero,--an uncommon want."--Byron. "Lopez took up the sonnet, and after reading it several times, frankly acknowledged that he did not understand it himself; a discovery which the poet probably never made before."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 280.

  "In Christian hearts O for a pagan zeal!
   A needful, but opprobrious prayer!"--Young, N. ix, l. 995.
   "Great standing miracle, that Heav'n assign'd
   Its only thinking thing this turn of mind."--Pope.

OBS. 13.--A distributive term in the singular number, is frequently construed in apposition with a comprehensive plural; as, "They reap vanity, every one with his neighbour."--Bible. "Go ye every man unto his city."--Ibid. So likewise with two or more singular nouns which are taken conjointly; as, "The Son and Spirit have each his proper office."--Butler's Analogy, p. 163. And sometimes a plural word is emphatically put after a series of particulars comprehended under it; as, "Ambition, interest, glory, all concurred."--Letters on Chivalry, p. 11. "Royalists, republicans, churchmen, sectaries, courtiers, patriots, all parties concurred in the illusion."--Hume's History, Vol. viii, p. 73. The foregoing examples are plain, but similar expressions sometimes require care, lest the distributive or collective term be so placed that its construction and meaning may be misapprehended. Examples: "We have turned every one to his own way."--Isaiah, liii, 6. Better: "We have every one turned to his own way." "For in many things we offend all."--James, iii, 2. Better: "For in many things we all offend." The latter readings doubtless convey the true sense of these texts. To the relation of apposition, it may be proper also to refer the construction of a singular noun taken in a distributive sense and repeated after by to denote order; as, "They went out one by one."--Bible. "Our whole company, man by man, ventured in."--Goldsmith. "To examine a book, page by page; to search a place, house by house."--Ward's Gram., p. 106. So too, perhaps, when the parts of a thing explain the whole; as,

  "But those that sleep, and think not on their sins,
   Pinch them, arms, legs, backs, shoulders, sides, and shins."
       --Shak.

OBS. 14.--To express a reciprocal action or relation, the pronominal adjectives each other and one an other are employed: as, "They love each other;"--"They love one an other." The words, separately considered, are singular; but, taken together, they imply plurality; and they can be properly construed only after plurals, or singulars taken conjointly. Each other is usually applied to two persons or things; and one an other, to more than two. The impropriety of applying them otherwise, is noticed elsewhere; (see, in Part II, Obs. 15th, on the Classes of Adjectives;) so that we have here to examine only their relations of case. The terms, though reciprocal and closely united, are seldom or never in the same construction. If such expressions be analyzed, each and one will generally appear to be in the nominative case, and other in the objective; as, "They love each other;" i. e. each loves the other. "They love one an other;" i. e. any or every one loves any or every other. Each and one (--if the words be taken as cases, and not adjectively--) are properly in agreement or apposition with they, and other is governed by the verb. The terms, however, admit of other constructions; as, "Be ye helpers one of an other."--Bible. Here one is in apposition with ye, and other is governed by of. "Ye are one an other's joy."--Ib. Here one is in apposition with ye, and other's is in the possessive case, being governed by joy. "Love will make you one an other's joy." Here one is in the objective case, being in apposition with you, and other's is governed as before. "Men's confidence in one an other;"--"Their dependence one upon an other." Here the word one appears to be in apposition with the possessive going before; for it has already been shown, that words standing in that relation never take the possessive sign. But if its location after the preposition must make it objective, the whole object is the complex term, "one an other." "Grudge not one against an other."--James, v, 9. "Ne vous plaignez point les uns des autres."--French Bible. "Ne suspirate alius adversus alium."--Beza. "Ne ingemiscite adversus alii alios."--Leusden. "[Greek: Mæ stenazete kat hallælon]."--Greek New Testament.

OBS. 15.--The construction of the Latin terms alius alium, alii alios, &c., with that of the French l'un l'autre, l'un de l'autre, &c., appears, at first view, sufficiently to confirm the doctrine of the preceding observation; but, besides the frequent use, in Latin and Greek, of a reciprocal adverb to express the meaning of one an other or each other, there are, from each of these languages, some analogical arguments for taking the English terms together as compounds. The most common term in Greek for one an other, ([Greek: Hallælon], dat. [Greek: hallælois, ais, ois], acc. [Greek: hallælous]: ab [Greek: hallos], alius,) is a single derivative word, the case of which is known by its termination; and each other is sometimes expressed in Latin by a compound: as, "Et osculantes se alterutrum, fleverunt pariter."--Vulgate. That is: "And kissing each other, they wept together." As this text speaks of but two persons, our translators have not expressed it well in the common version: "And they kissed one an other, and wept one with an other"--1 Sam., xx, 41. Alter-utrum is composed of a nominative and an accusative, like each-other; and, in the nature of things, there is no reason why the former should be compounded, and the latter not. Ordinarily, there seems to be no need of compounding either of them. But some examples occur, in which it is not easy to parse each other and one an other otherwise than as compounds: as, "He only recommended this, and not the washing of one another's feet."--Barclay's Works, Vol. iii, p. 143.

  "The Temple late two brother sergeants saw,
   Who deem'd each other oracles of law."--Pope, B. ii, Ep. 2.[345]

OBS. 16.--The common and the proper name of an object are very often associated, and put in apposition; as, "The river Thames,"--"The ship Albion,"--"The poet Cowper"--"Lake Erie,"--"Cape May"--"Mount Atlas." But, in English, the proper name of a place, when accompanied by the common name, is generally put in the objective case, and preceded by of; as, "The city of New York,"--"The land of Canaan,"--"The island of Cuba,"--"The peninsula of Yucatan." Yet in some instances, even of this kind, the immediate apposition is preferred; as, "That the city Sepphoris should be subordinate to the city Tiberias."--Life of Josephus, p. 142. In the following sentence, the preposition of is at least needless: "The law delighteth herself in the number of twelve; and the number of twelve is much respected in holy writ."--Coke, on Juries. Two or three late grammarians, supposing of always to indicate a possessive relation between one thing and an other, contend that it is no less improper, to say, "The city of London, the city of New Haven, the month of March, the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola, the towns of Exeter and Dover," than to say, "King of Solomon, Titus of the Roman Emperor, Paul of the apostle, or, Cicero of the orator."--See Barrett's Gram., p. 101; Emmons's, 16. I cannot but think there is some mistake in their mode of finding out what is proper or improper in grammar. Emmons scarcely achieved two pages more, before he forgot his criticism, and adopted the phrase, "in the city of New Haven."--Gram., p. 19.

OBS. 17.--When an object acquires a new name or character from the action of a verb, the new appellation is put in apposition with the object of the active verb, and in the nominative after the passive: as, "They named the child John;"--"The child was named John."--"They elected him president;"--"He was elected president." After the active verb, the acquired name must be parsed by Rule 3d; after the passive, by Rule 6th. In the following example, the pronominal adjective some, or the noun men understood after it, is the direct object of the verb gave, and the nouns expressed are in apposition with it: "And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers"--Ephesians, iv, 11. That is, "He bestowed some [men] as apostles; and some as prophets; and some as evangelists; and some as pastors and teachers." The common reader might easily mistake the meaning and construction of this text in two different ways; for he might take some to be either a dative case, meaning to some persons, or an adjective to the nouns which are here expressed. The punctuation, however, is calculated to show that the nouns are in apposition with some, or some men, in what the Latins call the accusative, case. But the version ought to be amended by the insertion of as, which would here be an express sign of the apposition intended.

OBS. 18.--Some authors teach that words in apposition must agree in person, number, and gender, as well as in case; but such agreement the following examples show not to be always necessary: "The Franks, a people of Germany."--W. Allen's Gram. "The Kenite tribe, the descendants of Hobab."--Milman's Hist. of the Jews. "But how can you a soul, still either hunger or thirst?"--Lucian's Dialogues, p. 14. "Who seized the wife of me his host, and fled."--Ib., p. 16.

  "Thy gloomy grandeurs (Nature's most august.
   Inspiring aspect!) claim a grateful verse."--Young, N. ix, l. 566.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE III.

ERRORS OF WORDS IN APPOSITION.

"Now, therefore, come thou, let us make a covenant, I and thou."--Gen., xxxi, 44.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronouns I and thou, of the nominative case, are here put in apposition with the preceding pronoun us, which is objective. But, according to Rule 3d, "A noun or a personal pronoun, used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case." Therefore, I and thou should be thee and me; (the first person, in our idiom, being usually put last;) thus, "Now, therefore, come thou, let us make a covenant, thee and me."]

"Now, therefore, come thou, we will make a covenant, thee and me."--Variation of Gen. "The word came not to Esau, the hunter, that stayed not at home; but to Jacob, the plain man, he that dwelt in tents."--Wm. Penn. "Not to every man, but to the man of God, (i. e.) he that is led by the spirit of God."--Barclays Works, i, 266. "For, admitting God to be a creditor, or he to whom the debt should be paid, and Christ he that satisfies or pays it on behalf of man the debtor, this question will arise, whether he paid that debt as God, or man, or both?"--Wm. Penn. "This Lord Jesus Christ, the heavenly Man, the Emmanuel, God with us, we own and believe in: he whom the high priests raged against," &c.--George Fox. "Christ, and Him crucified, was the Alpha and Omega of all his addresses, the fountain and foundation of his hope and trust."--Experience of Paul, p. 399. "'Christ and Him crucified' is the head, and only head, of the church."--Denison's Sermon. "But if 'Christ and Him crucified' are the burden of the ministry, such disastrous results are all avoided."--Ib. "He never let fall the least intimation, that himself, or any other person, whomsoever, was the object of worship."--Hannah Adams's View, p. 250. "Let the elders that rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine."--1 Tim., v, 17. "Our Shepherd, him who is styled King of saints, will assuredly give his saints the victory."--Sermon. "It may seem odd to talk of we subscribers"--Fowlers True Eng. Gram., p. 20. "And they shall have none to bury them, them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters; for I will pour their wickedness upon them."--Jeremiah, xiv, 16. "Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but your messenger, and he that ministered to my wants."--Philippians, ii, 25.

  "Amidst the tumult of the routed train,
   The sons of false Antimachus were slain;
   He, who for bribes his faithless counsels sold,
   And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xi. l. 161.
   "See the vile King his iron sceptre bear--
   His only praise attends the pious Heir;
   He, in whose soul the virtues all conspire,
   The best good son, from the worst wicked sire."
       --DR. LOWTH: Union Poems, p. 19.
   "Then from thy lips poured forth a joyful song
   To thy Redeemer!--yea, it poured along
   In most melodious energy of praise,
   To God, the Saviour, he of ancient days."
       --Arm Chair, p. 15.


RULE IV.--POSSESSIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed: as, "God's mercy prolongs man's life."--Allen.

  "Theirs is the vanity, the learning thine;
   Touched by thy hand, again Rome's glories shine."--Pope.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE IV.

OBS. 1.--Though the ordinary syntax of the possessive case is sufficiently plain and easy, there is perhaps, among all the puzzling and disputable points of grammar, nothing more difficult of decision, than are some questions that occur respecting the right management of this case. That its usual construction is both clearly and properly stated in the foregoing rule, is what none will doubt or deny. But how many and what exceptions to this rule ought to be allowed, or whether any are justly demanded or not, are matters about which there may be much diversity of opinion. Having heretofore published the rule without any express exceptions, I am not now convinced that it is best to add any; yet are there three different modes of expression which might be plausibly exhibited in that character. Two of these would concern only the parser; and, for that reason, they seem not to be very important. The other involves the approval or reprehension of a great multitude of very common expressions, concerning which our ablest grammarians differ in opinion, and our most popular digest plainly contradicts itself. These points are; first, the apposition of possessives, and the supposed ellipses which may affect that construction; secondly, the government of the possessive case after is, was, &c., when the ownership of a thing is simply affirmed or denied; thirdly, the government of the possessive by a participle, as such--that is, while it retains the government and adjuncts of a participle.

OBS. 2.--The apposition of one possessive with an other, (as, "For David my servant's sake,") might doubtless be consistently made a formal exception to the direct government of the possessive by its controlling noun. But this apposition is only a sameness of construction, so that what governs the one, virtually governs the other. And if the case of any noun or pronoun is known and determined by the rule or relation of apposition, there can be no need of an exception to the foregoing rule for the purpose of parsing it, since that purpose is already answered by rule third. If the reader, by supposing an ellipsis which I should not, will resolve any given instance of this kind into something else than apposition, I have already shown him that some great grammarians have differed in the same way before. Useless ellipses, however, should never be supposed; and such perhaps is the following: "At Mr. Smith's [who is] the bookseller."--See Dr. Priestley's Gram., p. 71.

OBS. 3.--In all our Latin grammars, the verb sum, fui, esse, to be, is said (though not with strict propriety) sometimes to signify possession, property, or duty, and in that sense to govern the genitive case: as, "Est regis;"--"It is the king's."--"Hominis est errare;"--"It is man's to err."--"Pecus est Melibœi;"--"The flock is Meliboeus's." And sometimes, with like import, this verb, expressed or understood, may govern the dative; as, "Ego [sum] dilecto meo, et dilectus meus [est] mihi."--Vulgate. "I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine."--Solomon's Song, vi, 3. Here, as both the genitive and the dative are expressed in English by the possessive, if the former are governed by the verb, there seems to be precisely the same reason from the nature of the expression, and an additional one from analogy, for considering the latter to be so too. But all the annotators upon the Latin syntax suggest, that the genitive thus put after sum or est, is really governed, not by the verb, but by some noun understood; and with this idea, of an ellipsis in the construction, all our English grammarians appear to unite. They might not, however, find it very easy to tell by what noun the word beloved's or mine is governed, in the last example above; and so of many others, which are used in the same way: as, "There shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel."--Exod., ix, 4. The Latin here is, "Ut nihil omnino pereat ex his quæ pertinent ad filios Israel."--Vulgate. That is,--"of all those which belong to the children of Israel."

  "For thou art Freedom's now--and Fame's,
   One of the few, the immortal names,
   That were not born to die."--HALLECK: Marco Bozzaris.

OBS. 4.--Although the possessive case is always intrinsically an adjunct and therefore incapable of being used or comprehended in any sense that is positively abstract; yet we see that there are instances in which it is used with a certain degree of abstraction,--that is, with an actual separation from the name of the thing possessed; and that accordingly there are, in the simple personal pronouns, (where such a distinction is most needed,) two different forms of the case; the one adapted to the concrete, and the other to the abstract construction. That form of the pronoun, however, which is equivalent in sense to the concrete and the noun, is still the possessive case, and nothing more; as, "All mine are thine, and thine are mine."--John, xvii, 10. For if we suppose this equivalence to prove such a pronoun to be something more than the possessive case, as do some grammarians, we must suppose the same thing respecting the possessive case of a noun, whenever the relation of ownership or possession is simply affirmed or denied with such a noun put last: as, "For all things are yours; and ye are Christ's; and Christ is God's."--1 Cor., iii, 21. By the second example placed under the rule, I meant to suggest, that the possessive case, when placed before or after this verb, (be,) might be parsed as being governed by the nominative; as we may suppose "theirs" to be governed by "vanity," and "thine" by "learning," these nouns being the names of the things possessed. But then we encounter a difficulty, whenever a pronoun happens to be the nominative; as, "Therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's"--1 Cor., vi, 20. Here the common resort would be to some ellipsis; and yet it must be confessed, that this mode of interpretation cannot but make some difference in the sense: as, "If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed."--Gal., iii, 29. Here some may think the meaning to be, "If ye be Christ's seed, or children." But a truer version of the text would be, "If ye are of Christ, then are ye Abraham's seed."--"Que si vous êtes à Christ, vous êtes done la posterité d'Abraham."--French Bible.

OBS. 5.--Possession is the having of something, and if the possessive case is always an adjunct, referring either directly or indirectly to that which constitutes it a possessive, it would seem but reasonable, to limit the government of this case to that part of speech which is understood substantively--that is, to "the name of the thing possessed." Yet, in violation of this restriction, many grammarians admit, that a participle, with the regimen and adjuncts of a participle, may govern the possessive case; and some of them, at the same time, with astonishing inconsistency, aver, that the possessive case before a participle converts the latter into a noun, and necessarily deprives it of its regimen. Whether participles are worthy to form an exception to my rule or not, this palpable contradiction is one of the gravest faults of L. Murray's code of syntax. After copying from Lowth the doctrine that a participle with an article before it becomes a noun, and must drop the government and adjuncts of a participle, this author informs us, that the same principles are applicable to the pronoun and participle: as, "Much depends on their observing of the rule, and error will be the consequence of their neglecting of it;" in stead of, "their observing the rule," and "their neglecting it." And this doctrine he applies, with yet more positiveness, to the noun and participle; as if the error were still more glaring, to make an active participle govern a possessive noun; saying, "We shall perceive this more clearly, if we substitute a noun for the pronoun: as, 'Much depends upon Tyro's observing of the rule,' &c.; which is the same as, 'Much depends on Tyro's observance of the rule.' But, as this construction sounds rather harshly, it would, in general, be better to express the sentiment in the following, or some other form: 'Much depends on the rule's being observed; and error will be the consequence of its being neglected? or--'on observing the rule; and--of neglecting it.'"--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 193; Ingersoll's, 199; and others.

OBS. 6.--Here it is assumed, that "their observing the rule," or "Tyro's observing the rule," is an ungrammatical phrase; and, several different methods being suggested for its correction, a preference is at length given to what is perhaps not less objectionable than the original phrase itself. The last form offered, "on observing the rule," &c., is indeed correct enough in itself; but, as a substitute for the other, it is both inaccurate and insufficient. It merely omits the possessive case, and leaves the action of the participle undetermined in respect to the agent. For the possessive case before a real participle, denotes not the possessor of something, as in other instances, but the agent of the action, or the subject of the being or passion; and the simple question here is, whether this extraordinary use of the possessive case is, or is not, such an idiom of our language as ought to be justified. Participles may become nouns, if we choose to use them substantively; but can they govern the possessive case before them, while they govern also the objective after them, or while they have a participial meaning which is qualified by adverbs? If they can, Lowth, Murray, and others, are wrong in supposing the foregoing phrases to be ungrammatical, and in teaching that the possessive case before a participle converts it into a noun; and if they cannot, Priestley, Murray, Hiley, Wells, Weld, and others, are wrong in supposing that a participle, or a phrase beginning with a participle, may properly govern the possessive case. Compare Murray's seventh note under his Rule 10th, with the second under his Rule 14th. The same contradiction is taught by many other compilers. See Smith's New Grammar, pp. 152 and 162; Comly's Gram., 91 and 108; Ingersoll's, 180 and 199.

OBS. 7.--Concerning one of the forms of expression which Murray approves and prefers, among his corrections above, the learned doctors Lowth and Campbell appear to have formed very different opinions. The latter, in the chapter which, in his Philosophy of Rhetoric, he devotes to disputed points in syntax, says: "There is only one other observation of Dr. Lowth, on which, before I conclude this article, I must beg leave to offer some remarks. 'Phrases like the following, though very common, are improper: Much depends upon the rule's being observed; and error will be the consequence of its being neglected. For here is a noun and a pronoun representing it, each in the possessive case, that is, under the government of another noun, but without other noun to govern it: for being observed, and being neglected, are not nouns: nor can you supply the place of the possessive case by the preposition of before the noun or pronoun.'[346] For my part," continues Campbell, "notwithstanding what is here very speciously urged, I am not satisfied that there is any fault in the phrases censured. They appear to me to be perfectly in the idiom of our tongue, and such as on some occasions could not easily be avoided, unless by recurring to circumlocution, an expedient which invariably tends to enervate the expression."--Philosophy of Rhetoric, B. ii, Ch. iv, p. 234.

OBS. 8.--Dr. Campbell, if I understand his argument, defends the foregoing expressions against the objections of Dr. Lowth, not on the ground that participles as such may govern the possessive case, but on the supposition that as the simple active participle may become a noun, and in that character govern the possessive case, so may the passive participle, and with equal propriety, notwithstanding it consists of two or more words, which must in this construction be considered as forming "one compound noun." I am not sure that he means to confine himself strictly to this latter ground, but if he does, his position cannot be said in any respect to contravene my rule for the possessive case. I do not, however, agree with him, either in the opinion which he offers, or in the negative which he attempts to prove. In view of the two examples, "Much depends upon the rule's being observed," and, "Much depends upon their observing of the rule," he says: "Now, although I allow both the modes of expression to be good, I think the first simpler and better than the second." Then, denying all faults, he proceeds: "Let us consider whether the former be liable to any objections, which do not equally affect the latter." But in his argument, he considers only the objections offered by Lowth, which indeed he sufficiently refutes. Now to me there appear to be other objections, which are better founded. In the first place, the two sentences are not equivalent in meaning; hence the preference suggested by this critic and others, is absurd. Secondly, a compound noun formed of two or three words without any hyphen, is at best such an anomaly, as we ought rather to avoid than to prefer. If these considerations do not positively condemn the former construction, they ought at least to prevent it from displacing the latter; and seldom is either to be preferred to the regular noun, which we can limit by the article or the possessive at pleasure: as, "Much depends on an observance of the rule."--"Much depends on their observance of the rule." Now these two sentences are equivalent to the two former, but not to each other; and, vice versa: that is, the two former are equivalent to these, but not to each other.[347]

OBS. 9.--From Dr. Campbell's commendation of Lowth, as having "given some excellent directions for preserving a proper distinction between the noun and the gerund,"--that is, between the participial noun and the participle,--it is fair to infer that he meant to preserve it himself; and yet, in the argument above mentioned, he appears to have carelessly framed one ambiguous or very erroneous sentence, from which, as I imagine, his views of this matter have been misconceived, and by which Murray and all his modifiers have been furnished with an example wherewith to confound this distinction, and also to contradict themselves. The sentence is this: "Much will depend on your pupil's composing, but more on his reading frequently."--Philos. of Rhet., p. 235. Volumes innumerable have gone abroad, into our schools and elsewhere, which pronounce this sentence to be "correct and proper." But after all, what does it mean? Does the adverb "frequently" qualify the verb "will depend" expressed in the sentence? or "will depend" understood after more? or both? or neither? Or does this adverb qualify the action of "reading?" or the action of "composing?" or both? or neither? But composing and reading, if they are mere nouns, cannot properly be qualified by any adverb; and, if they are called participles, the question recurs respecting the possessives. Besides, composing, as a participle, is commonly transitive; nor is it very fit for a noun, without some adjunct. And, when participles become nouns, their government (it is said) falls upon of, and their adverbs are usually converted into adjectives; as, "Much will depend on your pupil's composing of themes; but more, on his frequent reading." This may not be the author's meaning, for the example was originally composed as a mere mock sentence, or by way of "experiment;" and one may doubt whether its meaning was ever at all thought of by the philosopher. But, to make it a respectable example, some correction there must be; for, surely, no man can have any clear idea to communicate, which he cannot better express, than by imitating this loose phraseology. It is scarcely more correct, than to say, "Much will depend on an author's using, but more on his learning frequently." Yet is it commended as a model, either entire or in part, by Murray, Ingersoll, Fisk, R. C. Smith, Cooper, Lennie, Hiley, Bullions, C. Adams, A. H. Weld, and I know not how many other school critics.

OBS. 10.--That singular notion, so common in our grammars, that a participle and its adjuncts may form "one name" or "substantive phrase," and so govern the possessive case, where it is presumed the participle itself could not, is an invention worthy to have been always ascribed to its true author. For this doctrine, as I suppose, our grammarians are indebted to Dr. Priestley. In his grammar it stands thus: "When an entire clause of a sentence, beginning with a participle of the present tense, is used as one name, or to express one idea, or circumstance, the noun on which it depends may be put in the genitive case. Thus, instead of saying, What is the meaning of this lady holding up her train, i. e. what is the meaning of the lady in holding up her train, we may say, What is the meaning of this lady's holding up her train; just as we say, What is the meaning of this lady's dress, &c. So we may either say, I remember it being reckoned a great exploit; or, perhaps more elegantly, I remember its being reckoned, &c."--Priestley's Gram., p. 69. Now, to say nothing of errors in punctuation, capitals, &c., there is scarcely any thing in all this passage, that is either conceived or worded properly. Yet, coining from a Doctor of Laws, and Fellow of the Royal Society, it is readily adopted by Murray, and for his sake by others; and so, with all its blunders, the vain gloss passes uncensured into the schools, as a rule and model for elegant composition. Dr. Priestley pretends to appreciate the difference between participles and participial nouns, but he rather contrives a fanciful distinction in the sense, than a real one in the construction. His only note on this point,--a note about the "horse running to-day," and the "horse's running to-day,"--I shall leave till we come to the syntax of participles.

OBS. 11.--Having prepared the reader to understand the origin of what is to follow, I now cite from L. Murray's code a paragraph which appears to be contradictory to his own doctrine, as suggested in the fifth observation above; and not only so, it is irreconcilable with any proper distinction between the participle and the participial noun. "When an entire clause of a sentence, beginning with a participle of the present tense, is used as one name, or to express one idea or circumstance, the noun on which it depends may be put in the genitive case; thus, instead of saying, 'What is the reason of this person dismissing his servant so hastily?' that is, 'What is the reason of this person, in dismissing his servant so hastily?' we may say, and perhaps ought to say, 'What is the reason of this person's dismissing of his servant so hastily?' Just as we say, 'What is the reason of this person's hasty dismission of his servant?' So also, we say, 'I remember it being reckoned a great exploit;' or more properly, 'I remember its being reckoned,' &c. The following sentence is correct and proper: 'Much will depend on the pupil's composing, but more on his reading frequently.' It would not be accurate to say, 'Much will depend on the pupil composing.' &c. We also properly say; 'This will be the effect of the pupil's composing frequently;' instead of, Of the pupil composing frequently.' The participle, in such constructions, does the office of a substantive; and it should therefore have a CORRESPONDENT REGIMEN."--Murray's Gram., Rule 10th, Note 7; Ingersoll's, p. 180; Fisk's, 108; R. C. Smith's, 152; Alger's, 61; Merchant's, 84. See also Weld's Gram., 2d Ed., p. 150; "Abridged Ed.," 117.[348]

OBS. 12.--Now, if it were as easy to prove that a participle, as such, or (what amounts to the same thing) a phrase beginning with a participle, ought never to govern the possessive case, as it is to show that every part and parcel of the foregoing citations from Priestley, Murray, and others, is both weakly conceived and badly written, I should neither have detained the reader so long on this topic, nor ever have placed it among the most puzzling points of grammar. Let it be observed, that what these writers absurdly call "an entire CLAUSE of a sentence," is found on examination to be some short PHRASE, the participle with its adjuncts, or even the participle alone, or with a single adverb only; as, "holding up her train,"--"dismissing his servant so hastily,"--"composing,"--"reading frequently,"--"composing frequently." And each of these, with an opposite error as great, they will have to be "one name," and to convey but "one idea;" supposing that by virtue of this imaginary oneness, it may govern the possessive case, and signify something which a "lady," or a "person," or a "pupil," may consistently possess. And then, to be wrong in every thing, they suggest that any noun on which such a participle, with its adjuncts, "depends, may be put in the genitive case;" whereas, such a change is seldom, if ever, admissible, and in our language, no participle ever can depend on any other than the nominative or the objective case. Every participle so depending is an adjunct to the noun; and every possessive, in its turn, is an adjunct to the word which governs it. In respect to construction, no terms differ more than a participle which governs the possessive case, and a participle which does not. These different constructions the contrivers of the foregoing rule, here take to be equivalent in meaning; whereas they elsewhere pretend to find in them quite different significations. The meaning is sometimes very different, and sometimes very similar; but seldom, if ever, are the terms convertible. And even if they were so, and the difference were nothing, would it not be better to adhere, where we can, to the analogy of General Grammar? In Greek and Latin, a participle may agree with a noun in the genitive case; but, if we regard analogy, that genitive must be Englished, not by the possessive case, but by of and the objective; as, "[Greek: 'Epeì dokim`æn zæteîte toû 'en 'emoì laloûntos Christoû.]"--"Quandoquidem experimentum quæritis in me loquentis Christi."--Beza. "Since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me."--2 Cor., xiii, 3. We might here, perhaps, say, "of Christ's speaking in me," but is not the other form better? The French version is, "Puisque vous cherchez une preuve que Christ parle par moi;" and this, too, might be imitated in English: "Since ye seek a proof that Christ speaks by me."

OBS. 13.--As prepositions very naturally govern any of our participles except the simple perfect, it undoubtedly seems agreeable to our idiom not to disturb this government, when we would express the subject or agent of the being, action, or passion, between the preposition and the participle. Hence we find that the doer or the sufferer of the action is usually made its possessor, whenever the sense does not positively demand a different reading. Against this construction there is seldom any objection, if the participle be taken entirely as a noun, so that it may be called a participial noun; as, "Much depends on their observing of the rule."--Lowth, Campbell, and L. Murray. On the other hand, the participle after the objective is unobjectionable, if the noun or pronoun be the leading word in sense; as, "It would be idle to profess an apprehension of serious evil resulting in any respect from the utmost publicity being given to its contents."--London Eclectic Review, 1816. "The following is a beautiful instance of the sound of words corresponding to motion."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 333. "We shall discover many things partaking of both those characters."--West's Letters, p. 182. "To a person following the vulgar mode of omitting the comma."--Churchill's Gram., p. 365. But, in comparing the different constructions above noticed, writers are frequently puzzled to determine, and frequently too do they err in determining, which word shall be made the adjunct, and which the leading term. Now, wherever there is much doubt which of the two forms ought to be preferred, I think we may well conclude that both are wrong; especially, if there can easily be found for the idea an other expression that is undoubtedly clear and correct. Examples: "These appear to be instances of the present participle being used passively."--Murray's Gram., p. 64. "These are examples of the past participle being applied in an active sense."--Ib., 64. "We have some examples of adverbs being used for substantives."--Priestley's Gram., p. 134; Murray's, 198; Ingersoll's, 206; Fisk's, 140; Smith's, 165. "By a noun, pronoun, or adjective, being prefixed to the substantive."--Murray's Gram., p. 39; also Ingersoll's, Fisk's, Alger's, Maltby's, Merchant's, Bacon's, and others. Here, if their own rule is good for any thing, these authors ought rather to have preferred the possessive case; but strike out the word being, which is not necessary to the sense, and all question about the construction vanishes. Or if any body will justify these examples as they stand, let him observe that there are others, without number, to be justified on the same principle; as, "Much depends on the rule being observed."--"Much will depend on the pupil composing frequently." Again: "Cyrus did not wait for the Babylonians coming to attack him."--Rollin, ii, 86. "Cyrus did not wait for the Babylonians' coming to attack him." That is--"for their coming," and not, "for them coming;" but much better than either: "Cyrus did not wait for the Babylonians to come and attack him." Again: "To prevent his army's being enclosed and hemmed in."--Rollin, ii, 89. "To prevent his army being enclosed and hemmed in." Both are wrong. Say, "To prevent his army from being enclosed and hemmed in." Again: "As a sign of God's fulfilling the promise."--Rollin, ii, 23. "As a sign of God fulfilling the promise." Both are objectionable. Say, "As a sign that God would fulfill the promise." Again: "There is affirmative evidence for Moses's being the author of these books."--Bp. Watson's Apology, p. 28. "The first argument you produce against Moses being the author of these books."--Ib., p. 29. Both are bad. Say,--"for Moses as being the author,"--"against Moses as being the author," &c.

OBS. 14.--Now, although thousands of sentences might easily be quoted, in which the possessive case is actually governed by a participle, and that participle not taken in every respect as a noun; yet I imagine, there are, of this kind, few examples, if any, the meaning of which might not be better expressed in some other way. There are surely none among all the examples which are presented by Priestley, Murray, and others, under their rule above. Nor would a thousand such as are there given, amount to any proof of the rule. They are all of them unreal or feigned sentences, made up for the occasion, and, like most others that are produced in the same way, made up badly--made up after some ungrammatical model. If a gentleman could possibly demand a lady's meaning in such an act as the holding-up of her train, he certainly would use none of Priestley's three questions, which, with such ridiculous and uninstructive pedantry, are repeated and expounded by Latham, in his Hand-Book, §481; but would probably say, "Madam, what do you mean by holding up your train?" It was folly for the doctor to ask an other person, as if an other could guess her meaning better than he. The text with the possessive is therefore not to be corrected by inserting a hyphen and an of, after Murray's doctrine before cited; as, "What is the meaning of this lady's holding-up of her train?" Murray did well to reject this example, but as a specimen of English, his own is no better. The question which he asks, ought to have been, "Why did this person dismiss his servant so hastily?" Fisk has it in the following form: "What is the reason of this person's dismissing his servant so hastily?"--English Grammar Simplified, p. 108. This amender of grammars omits the of which Murray and others scrupulously insert to govern the noun servant, and boldly avows at once, what their rule implies, that, "Participles are sometimes used both as verbs and as nouns at the same time; as, 'By the mind's changing the object,' &c."--Ib., p. 134; so Emmons's Gram., p. 64. But he errs as much as they, and contradicts both himself and them. For one ought rather to say, "By the mind's changing of the object;" else changing, which "does the office of a noun," has not truly "a correspondent regimen." Yet of is useless after dismissing, unless we take away the adverb by which the participle is prevented from becoming a noun. "Dismissing of his servant so hastily," is in itself an ungrammatical phrase; and nothing but to omit either the preposition, or the two adverbs, can possibly make it right. Without the latter, it may follow the possessive; but without the former, our most approved grammars say it cannot. Some critics, however, object to the of, because the dismissing is not the servant's act; but this, as I shall hereafter show, is no valid objection: they stickle for a false rule.

OBS. 15.--Thus these authors, differing from one an other as they do, and each contradicting himself and some of the rest, are, as it would seem, all wrong in respect to the whole matter at issue. For whether the phrase in question be like Priestley's, or like Murray's, or like Fisk's, it is still, according to the best authorities, unfit to govern the possessive case; because, in stead of being a substantive, it is something more than a participle, and yet they take it substantively. They form this phrase in many different fashions, and yet each man of them pretends that what he approves, is just like the construction of a regular noun: "Just as we say, 'What is the reason of this person's hasty dismission of his servant.'"--Murray, Fisk, and others. "Just as we say, 'What is the meaning of this lady's dress,' &c."--Priestley. The meaning of a lady's dress, forsooth! The illustration is worthy of the doctrine taught. "An entire clause of a sentence" substantively possessed, is sufficiently like "the meaning of a lady's dress, &c." Cobbett despised andsoforths, for their lack of meaning; and I find none in this one, unless it be, "of tinsel and of fustian." This gloss therefore I wholly disapprove, judging the position more tenable, to deny, if we consequently must, that either a phrase or a participle, as such, can consistently govern the possessive case. For whatever word or term gives rise to the direct relation of property, and is rightly made to govern the possessive case, ought in reason to be a noun--ought to be the name of some substance, quality, state, action, passion, being, or thing. When therefore other parts of speech assume this relation, they naturally become nouns; as, "Against the day of my burying."--John, xii, 7. "Till the day of his showing unto Israel."--Luke, i, 80. "By my own showing."--Cowper, Life, p. 22. "By a fortune of my own getting."--Ib. "Let your yea be yea, and your nay nay."--James, v, 12. "Prate of my whereabout."--Shah.

OBS. 16.--The government of possessives by "entire clauses" or "substantive phrases," as they are sometimes called, I am persuaded, may best be disposed of, in almost every instance, by charging the construction with impropriety or awkwardness, and substituting for it some better phraseology. For example, our grammars abound with sentences like the following, and call them good English: (1.) "So we may either say, 'I remember it being reckoned a great exploit;' or perhaps more elegantly, 'I remember its being reckoned a great exploit.'"--Priestley, Murray, and others. Here both modes are wrong; the latter, especially; because it violates a general rule of syntax, in regard to the case of the noun exploit. Say, "I remember it was reckoned a great exploit." Again: (2.) "We also properly say, 'This will be the effect of the pupil's composing frequently.'"--Murray's Gram., p. 179; and others. Better, "This will be the effect, if the pupil compose frequently." But this sentence is fictitious, and one may doubt whether good authors can be found who use compose or composing as being intransitive. (3.) "What can be the reason of the committee's having delayed this business?"--Murray's Key, p. 223. Say, "Why have the committee delayed this business?" (4.) "What can be the cause of the parliament's neglecting so important a business?"--Ib., p. 195. Say, "Why does the parliament neglect so important a business?" (5.) "The time of William's making the experiment, at length arrived."--Ib., p. 195. Say, "The time for William to make the experiment, at length arrived." (6.) "I hope this is the last time of my acting so imprudently."--Ib., p. 263. Say, "I hope I shall never again act so imprudently." (7.) "If I were to give a reason for their looking so well, it would be, that they rise early."--Ib., p. 263. Say, "I should attribute their healthful appearance to their early rising." (8.) "The tutor said, that diligence and application to study were necessary to our becoming good scholars."--Cooper's Gram., p. 145. Here is an anomaly in the construction of the noun scholars. Say, "The tutor said, that diligent application to study was necessary to our success in learning." (9.) "The reason of his having acted in the manner he did, was not fully explained."--Murray's Key, p. 263. This author has a very singular mode of giving "STRENGTH" to weak sentences. The faulty text here was. "The reason why he acted in the manner he did, was not fully explained."--Murray's Exercises, p. 131. This is much better than the other, but I should choose to say. "The reason of his conduct was not fully explained." For, surely, the "one idea or circumstance" of his "having acted in the manner in which he did act," may be quite as forcibly named by the one word conduct, as by all this verbiage, this "substantive phrase," or "entire clause," of such cumbrous length.

OBS. 17.--The foregoing observations tend to show, that the government of possessives by participles, is in general a construction little to be commended, if at all allowed. I thus narrow down the application of the principle, but do not hereby determine it to be altogether wrong. There are other arguments, both for and against the doctrine, which must be taken into the account, before we can fully decide the question. The double construction which may be given to infinitive verbs; the Greek idiom which allows to such verbs an article before them and an objective after them; the mixed character of the Latin gerund, part noun, part verb; the use or substitution of the participle in English for the gerund in Latin;--all these afford so many reasons by analogy, for allowing that our participle--except it be the perfect--since it participates the properties of a verb and a noun, as well as those of a verb and an adjective, may unite in itself a double construction, and be taken substantively in one relation, and participially in an other. Accordingly some grammarians so define it; and many writers so use it; both parties disregarding the distinction between the participle and the participial noun, and justifying the construction of the former, not only as a proper participle after its noun, and as a gerundive after its preposition; not only as a participial adjective before its noun, and as a participial noun, in the regular syntax of a noun; but also as a mixed term, in the double character of noun and participle at once. Nor are these its only uses; for, after an auxiliary, it is the main verb; and in a few instances, it passes into a preposition, an adverb, or something else. Thus have we from the verb a single derivative, which fairly ranks with about half the different parts of speech, and takes distinct constructions even more numerous; and yet these authors scruple not to make of it a hybridous thing, neither participle nor noun, but constructively both. "But this," says Lowth, "is inconsistent; let it be either the one or the other, and abide by its proper construction."--Gram., p. 82. And so say I--as asserting the general principle, and leaving the reader to judge of its exceptions. Because, without this mongrel character, the participle in our language has a multiplicity of uses unparalleled in any other; and because it seldom happens that the idea intended by this double construction may not be otherwise expressed more elegantly. But if it sometimes seem proper that the gerundive participle should be allowed to govern the possessive case, no exception to my rule is needed for the parsing of such possessive; because whatever is invested with such government, whether rightly or wrongly, is assumed as "the name of something possessed."

OBS. 18.--The reader may have observed, that in the use of participial nouns, the distinction of voice in the participle is sometimes disregarded. Thus, "Against the day of my burying," means, "Against the day of my being buried." But in this instance the usual noun burial or funeral would have been better than either: "Against the day of my burial." I. e., "In diem funerationis meæ."--Beza. "In diem sepulturæ meæ."--Leusden. "[Greek: 'Eis t`æn hæméran toû entaphiasmoû mou.]"--John, xii, 7. In an other text, this noun is very properly used for the Greek infinitive, and the Latin gerund; as, "For my burial."--Matt., xxvi, 12. "Ad funerandum me."--Beza. "Ad sepeliendum me."--Leusden. Literally: "For burying me." "[Greek: Pròs tò entaphiásai me.]" Nearly: "For to have me buried." Not all that is allowable, is commendable; and if either of the uncompounded terms be found a fit substitute for the compound participial noun, it is better to dispense with the latter, on account of its dissimilarity to other nouns: as, "Which only proceed upon the question's being begged."--Barclay's Works, Vol. iii, p. 361. Better, "Which only proceed upon a begging of the question." "The king's having conquered in the battle, established his throne."--Nixon's Parser, p. 128. Better, "The king's conquering in the battle;" for, in the participial noun, the distinction of tense, or of previous completion, is as needless as that of voice. "The fleet's having sailed prevented mutiny."--Ib., p. 78. Better, "The sailing of the fleet,"--or, "The fleet's sailing" &c. "The prince's being murdered excited their pity."--Ibid. Better, "The prince's murder excited their indignation."

OBS. 19.--In some instances, as it appears, not a little difficulty is experienced by our grammarians, respecting the addition or the omission of the possessive sign, the terminational apostrophic s, which in nouns is the ordinary index of the possessive case. Let it be remembered that every possessive is governed, or ought to be governed, by some noun expressed or understood, except such as (without the possessive sign) are put in apposition with others so governed; and for every possessive termination there must be a separate governing word, which, if it is not expressed, is shown by the possessive sign to be understood. The possessive sign itself may and must be omitted in certain cases; but, because it can never be inserted or discarded without suggesting or discarding a governing noun, it is never omitted by ellipsis, as Buchanan, Murray, Nixon, and many others, erroneously teach. The four lines of Note 2d below, are sufficient to show, in every instance, when it must be used, and when omitted; but Murray, after as many octavo pages on the point, still leaves it perplexed and undetermined. If a person knows what he means to say, let him express it according to the Note, and he will not fail to use just as many apostrophes and Esses as he ought. How absurd then is that common doctrine of ignorance, which Nixon has gathered from Allen and Murray, his chief oracles! "If several nouns in the genitive case, are immediately connected by a conjunction, the apostrophic s is annexed to the last, but understood to the rest; as, Neither John (i. e. John's) nor Eliza's books."--English Parser, p. 115. The author gives fifteen other examples like this, all of them bad English, or at any rate, not adapted to the sense which he intends!

OBS. 20.--The possessive case generally comes immediately before the governing noun, expressed or understood; as, "All nature's difference keeps all nature's peace."--Pope. "Lady! be thine (i. e., thy walk) the Christian's walk."--Chr. Observer. "Some of Æschylus's [plays] and Euripides's plays are opened in this manner."--Blair's Rhet., p. 459. And in this order one possessive sometimes governs an other: as, "Peter's wife's mother;"--"Paul's sister's son."--Bible. But, to this general principle of arrangement, there are some exceptions: as,

1. When the governing noun has an adjective, this may intervene; as, "Flora's earliest smells."--Milton. "Of man's first disobedience."--Id. In the following phrase from the Spectator, "Of Will's last night's lecture," it is not very clear, whether Will's is governed by night's or by lecture; yet it violates a general principle of our grammar, to suppose the latter; because, on this supposition, two possessives, each having the sign, will be governed by one noun.

2. When the possessive is affirmed or denied; as, "The book is mine, and not John's." But here the governing noun may be supplied in its proper place; and, in some such instances, it must be, else a pronoun or the verb will be the only governing word: as, "Ye are Christ's [disciples, or people]; and Christ is God's" [son].--St. Paul. Whether this phraseology is thus elliptical or not, is questionable. See Obs. 4th, in this series.

3. When the case occurs without the sign, either by apposition or by connexion; as, "In her brother Absalom's house."--Bible. "David and Jonathan's friendship."--Allen. "Adam and Eve's morning hymn."--Dr. Ash. "Behold the heaven, and the heaven of heavens, is the Lord's thy God."--Deut.,, x, 14. "For peace and quiet's sake."--Cowper. "To the beginning of King James the First's reign."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 32.

OBS. 21--The possessive case is in general (though not always) equivalent to the preposition of and the objective; as, "Of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son."--John, xiii, 2. "To Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon."--Ib., xiii, 26. On account of this one-sided equivalence, many grammarians erroneously reckon the latter to be a "genitive case" as well as the former. But they ought to remember, that the preposition is used more frequently than the possessive, and in a variety of senses that cannot be interpreted by this case; as, "Of some of the books of each of these classes of literature, a catalogue will be given at the end of the work."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 178. Murray calls this a "laborious mode of expression," and doubtless it might be a little improved by substituting in for the third of; but my argument is, that the meaning conveyed cannot be expressed by possessives. The notion that of forms a genitive case, led Priestley to suggest, that our language admits a "double genitive;" as, "This book of my friend's."--Priestley's Gram., p. 71. "It is a discovery of Sir Isaac Newton's."--Ib., p. 72. "This exactness of his."--STERNE: ib. The doctrine has since passed into nearly all our grammars; yet is there no double case here, as I shall presently show.

OBS. 22.--Where the governing noun cannot be easily mistaken, it is often omitted by ellipsis: as, "At the alderman's" [house];--"St. Paul's" [church];--"A book of my brother's" [books];--"A subject of the emperor's" [subjects];--"A friend of mine;" i. e., one of my friends. "Shall we say that Sacrificing was a pure invention of Adam's, or of Cain or Abel's?"--Leslie, on Tythes, p. 93. That is--of Adam's inventions, or of Cain or Abel's inventions. The Rev. David Blair, unable to resolve this phraseology to his own satisfaction, absurdly sets it down among what he calls "ERRONEOUS OR VULGAR PHRASES." His examples are these: "A poem of Pope's;"--"A soldier of the king's;"--"That is a horse of my father's."--Blair's Practical Gram., p. 110, 111. He ought to have supplied the plural nouns, poems, soldiers, horses. This is the true explanation of all the "double genitives" which our grammarians discover; for when the first noun is partitive, it naturally suggests more or other things of the same kind, belonging to this possessor; and when such is not the meaning, this construction is improper. In the following example, the noun eyes is understood after his:

  "Ev'n his, the warrior's eyes, were forced to yield,
   That saw, without a tear, Pharsalia's field."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. viii, l. 144.

OBS. 23.--When two or more nouns of the possessive form are in any way connected, they usually refer to things individually different but of the same name; and when such is the meaning, the governing noun, which we always suppress somewhere to avoid tautology, is understood wherever the sign is added without it; as, "A father's or mother's sister is an aunt."--Dr. Webster. That is, "A father's sister or a mother's sister is an aunt." "In the same commemorative acts of the senate, were thy name, thy father's, thy brother's, and the emperor's."--Zenobia, Vol. i, p. 231.

  "From Stiles's pocket into Nokes's" [pocket].
       --Hudibras, B. iii, C. iii, l. 715.
   "Add Nature's, Custom's, Reason's, Passion's strife."
       --Pope, Brit. Poets, Vol. vi, p. 383.

It will be observed that in all these examples the governing noun is singular; and, certainly, it must be so, if, with more than one possessive sign, we mean to represent each possessor as having or possessing but one object. If the noun be made plural where it is expressed, it will also be plural where it is implied. It is good English to say, "A father's or mother's sisters are aunts;" but the meaning is, "A father's sisters or a mother's sisters are aunts." But a recent school critic teaches differently, thus: "When different things of the same name belong to different possessors, the sign should be annexed to each; as, Adams's, Davies's, and Perkins' Arithmetics; i. e., three different books."--Spencer's Gram., p. 47. Here the example is fictitious, and has almost as many errors as words. It would be much better English to say, "Adams's, Davies's, and Perkins's Arithmetic;" though the objective form with of would, perhaps, be still more agreeable for these peculiar names. Spencer, whose Grammar abounds with useless repetitions, repeats his note elsewhere, with the following illustrations: "E. g. Olmstead's and Comstock's Philosophies. Gould's Adam's Latin Grammar."--Ib., p. 106. The latter example is no better suited to his text, than "Peter's wife's mother;" and the former is fit only to mean, "Olmstead's Philosophies and Comstock's Philosophies." To speak of the two books only, say," Olmstead's Philosophy and Comstock's."

OBS. 24.--The possessive sign is sometimes annexed to that part of a compound name, which is, of itself, in the objective case; as, "At his father-in-law's residence." Here, "At the residence of his father-in-law," would be quite as agreeable; and, as for the plural, one would hardly think of saying, "Men's wedding parties are usually held at their fathers-in-law's houses." When the compound is formed with of, to prevent a repetition of this particle, the possessive sign is sometimes added as above; and yet the hyphen is not commonly inserted in the phrase, as I think it ought to be. Examples: "The duke of Bridgewater's canal;"--"The bishop of Landaff's excellent book;"--"The Lord mayor of London's authority;"--"The captain of the guard's house."--Murray's Gram., p. 176. "The Bishop of Cambray's writings on eloquence."--Blair's Rhet., p. 345. "The bard of Lomond's lay is done."--Queen's Wake, p. 99. "For the kingdom of God's sake."--Luke, xviii, 29. "Of the children of Israel's half."--Numbers, xxxi, 30. From these examples it would seem, that the possessive sign has a less intimate alliance with the possessive case, than with the governing noun; or, at any rate, a dependence less close than that of the objective noun which here assumes it. And since the two nouns here so intimately joined by of, cannot be explained separately as forming two cases, but must be parsed together as one name governed in the usual way, I should either adopt some other phraseology, or write the compound terms with hyphens, thus: "The Duke-of-Bridgewater's canal;"--"The Bishop-of-Landaff's excellent book;"--"The Bard-of- Lomond's lay is done." But there is commonly some better mode of correcting such phrases. With deference to Murray and others, "The King of Great Britain's prerogative," [349] is but an untoward way of saying, "The prerogative of the British King;" and, "The Lord mayor of London's authority," may quite as well be written, "The authority of London's Lord Mayor." Blair, who for brevity robs the Archbishop of half his title, might as well have said, "Fenelon's writings on eloquence." "Propter regnum Dei," might have been rendered, "For the kingdom of God;"--"For the sake of the kingdom of God;"--or, "For the sake of God's kingdom." And in lieu of the other text, we might say, "Of the Israelites' half."

OBS. 25.--"Little explanatory circumstances," says Priestley, "are particularly awkward between the genitive case, and the word which usually follows it; as, 'She began to extol the farmer's, as she called him, excellent understanding.' Harriet Watson, Vol. i, p. 27."--Priestley's Gram., p 174. Murray assumes this remark, and adds respecting the example, "It ought to be, 'the excellent understanding of the farmer, as she called him.' "--Murray's Gram., p. 175. Intersertions of this kind are as uncommon as they are uncouth. Murray, it seems, found none for his Exercises, but made up a couple to suit his purpose. The following might have answered as well for an other: "Monsieur D'acier observes, that Zeno's (the Founder of the Sect,) opinion was Fair and Defensible in these Points."--Colliers Antoninus, p. ii.

OBS. 26.--It is so usual a practice in our language, to put the possessive sign always and only where the two terms of the possessive relation meet, that this ending is liable to be added to any adjunct which can be taken as a part of the former noun or name; as, (1.) "The court-martial's violent proceedings." Here the plural would be courts-martial; but the possessive sign must be at the end. (2.) "In Henry the Eighth's time."--Walker's Key, Introd., p. 11. This phrase can be justified only by supposing the adjective a part of the name. Better, "In the time of Henry the Eighth." (3.) "And strengthened with a year or two's age."--Locke, on Education, p. 6. Here two's is put for two years; and, I think, improperly; because the sign is such as suits the former noun, and not the plural. Better, "And strengthened with a year's age or more." The word two however is declinable as a noun, and possibly it may be so taken in Locke's phrase. (4.) "This rule is often infringed, by the case absolute's not being properly distinguished from certain forms of expression apparently similar to it."--Murray's Gram., p. 155; Fisk's, 113; Ingersoll's, 210. Here the possessive sign, being appended to a distinct adjective, and followed by nothing that can be called a noun, is employed as absurdly as it well can be. Say, "This rule is often infringed by an improper use of the nominative absolute;" for this is precisely what these authors mean. (5.) "The participle is distinguished from the adjective by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's denoting only a quality"--Murray's Gram., p. 65; Fisk's, 82; Ingersoll's, 45; Emmons's, 64; Alger's, 28. This is liable to nearly the same objections. Say, "The participle differs from an adjective by expressing the idea of time, whereas the adjective denotes only a quality." (6.) "The relatives that and as differ from who and which in the former's not being immediately joined to the governing word."--Nixon's Parser, p. 140. This is still worse, because former's, which is like a singular noun, has here a plural meaning; namely, "in the former terms' not being," &c. Say--"in that the former never follow the governing word."

OBS. 27.--The possessive termination is so far from being liable to suppression by ellipsis, agreeably to the nonsense of those interpreters who will have it to be "understood" wherever the case occurs without it, that on the contrary it is sometimes retained where there is an actual suppression of the noun to which it belongs. This appears to be the case whenever the pronominal adjectives former and latter are inflected, as above. The inflection of these, however, seems to be needless, and may well be reckoned improper. But, in the following line, the adjective elegantly takes the sign; because there is an ellipsis of both nouns; poor's being put for poor man's, and the governing noun joys being understood after it: "The rich man's joys increase, the poor's decay."--Goldsmith. So, in the following example, guilty's is put for guilty person's:

  "Yet, wise and righteous ever, scorns to hear
   The fool's fond wishes, or the guilty's prayer."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. v, l. 155.

This is a poetical license; and others of a like nature are sometimes met with. Our poets use the possessive case much more frequently than prose writers, and occasionally inflect words that are altogether invariable in prose; as,

  "Eager that last great chance of war he waits,
   Where either's fall determines both their fates."
       --Ibid., B. vi, l. 13.

OBS. 28.--To avoid a concurrence of hissing sounds, the s of the possessive singular is sometimes omitted, and the apostrophe alone retained to mark the case: as, "For conscience sake."--Bible. "Moses minister."--Ib. "Felix room."--Ib. "Achilles wrath."--Pope. "Shiraz' walls."--Collins. "Epicurus sty."--Beattie. "Douglas daughter."--Scott. "For Douglas sake."--Ib. "To his mistress eyebrow."--Shak. This is a sort of poetic license, as is suggested in the 16th Observation upon the Cases of Nouns, in the Etymology. But in prose the elision should be very sparingly indulged; it is in general less agreeable, as well as less proper, than the regular form. Where is the propriety of saying, Hicks' Sermons, Barnes' Notes, Kames' Elements, Adams' Lectures, Josephus' Works, while we so uniformly say, in Charles's reign, St. James's Palace, and the like? The following examples are right: "At Westminster and Hicks's Hall."--Hudibras. "Lord Kames's Elements of Criticism."--Murray's Sequel, p. 331. "Of Rubens's allegorical pictures."--Hazlitt. "With respect to Burns's early education."--Dugald Stewart. "Isocrates's pomp;"--"Demosthenes's life."--Blair's Rhet., p. 242. "The repose of Epicurus's gods."--Wilson's Heb. Gram., p. 93.

  "To Douglas's obscure abode."--Scott, L. L., C. iii, st. 28.
  "Such was the Douglas's command."--Id., ib., C. ii, st. 36.

OBS. 29.--Some of our grammarians, drawing broad conclusions from a few particular examples, falsely teach as follows: "When a singular noun ends in ss, the apostrophe only is added; as, 'For goodness' sake:' except the word witness; as, 'The witness's testimony.' When a noun in the possessive case ends in ence, the s is omitted, but the apostrophe is retained; as, 'For conscience' sake.'"--Kirkham's Gram., p. 49; Hamlin's, 16; Smith's New Gram., 47.[350] Of principles or inferences very much like these, is the whole system of "Inductive Grammar" essentially made up. But is it not plain that heiress's, abbess's, peeress's, countess's, and many other words of the same form, are as good English as witness's? Did not Jane West write justly, "She made an attempt to look in at the dear dutchess's?"--Letters to a Lady, p. 95. Does not the Bible speak correctly of "an ass's head," sold at a great price?--2 Kings, vi, 25. Is Burns also wrong, about "miss's fine lunardi," and "miss's bonnet?"--Poems, p. 44. Or did Scott write inaccurately, whose guide "Led slowly through the pass's jaws?"--Lady of the Lake, p. 121. So much for the ss; nor is the rule for the termination ence, or (as Smith has it) nce, more true. Prince's and dunce's are as good possessives as any; and so are the following:

  "That vice should triumph, virtue vice obey;
   This sprung some doubt of Providence's sway."--Parnell.
   "And sweet Benevolence's mild command."--Lord Lyttleton.
   "I heard the lance's shivering crash,
   As when the whirlwind rends the ash."--Sir Walter Scott.

OBS. 30.--The most common rule now in use for the construction of the possessive case, is a shred from the old code of Latin grammar: "One substantive governs another, signifying a different thing, in the possessive or genitive case."--L. Murray's Rule X. This canon not only leaves occasion for an additional one respecting pronouns of the possessive case, but it is also obscure in its phraseology, and too negligent of the various modes in which nouns may come together in English. All nouns used adjectively, and many that are compounded together, seem to form exceptions to it. But who can limit or enumerate these exceptions? Different combinations of nouns have so often little or no difference of meaning, or of relation to each other, and so frequently is the very same vocal expression written variously by our best scholars, and ablest lexicographers, that in many ordinary instances it seems scarcely possible to determine who or what is right. Thus, on the authority of Johnson, one might write, a stone's cast, or stone's throw; but Webster has it, stones-cast, or stones-throw; Maunder, stonecast, stonethrow; Chalmers, stonescast; Worcester, stone's-cast. So Johnson and Chalmers write stonesmickle, a bird; Webster has it, stone's-mickle; yet, all three refer to Ainsworth as their authority, and his word is stone-smickle: Littleton has it stone-smich. Johnson and Chalmers write, popeseye and sheep's eye; Walker, Maunder, and Worcester, popeseye and sheep's-eye; Scott has pope's-eye and sheepseye; Webster, pope's-eye and sheep's-eye, bird-eye, and birds-eye. Ainsworth has goats beard, for the name of a plant; Johnson, goatbeard; Webster, goat-beard and goats-beard. Ainsworth has prince's feather, for the amaranth; Johnson, Chalmers, Walker, and Maunder, write it princes-feather; Webster and Worcester, princes'-feather; Bolles has it princesfeather: and here they are all wrong, for the word should be prince's-feather. There are hundreds more of such terms; all as uncertain in their orthography as these.

OBS. 31.--While discrepances like the foregoing abound in our best dictionaries, none of our grammars supply any hints tending to show which of these various forms we ought to prefer. Perhaps the following suggestions, together with the six Rules for the Figure of Words, in Part First, may enable the reader to decide these questions with sufficient accuracy. (1.) Two short radical nouns are apt to unite in a permanent compound, when the former, taking the sole accent, expresses the main purpose or chief characteristic of the thing named by the latter; as, teacup, sunbeam, daystar, horseman, sheepfold, houndfish, hourglass. (2.) Temporary compounds of a like nature may be formed with the hyphen, when there remain two accented syllables; as, castle-wall, bosom-friend, fellow-servant, horse-chestnut, goat-marjoram, marsh-marigold. (3.) The former of two nouns, if it be not plural, may be taken adjectively, in any relation that differs from apposition and from possession; as, "The silver cup,"--"The parent birds,"--"My pilgrim feet,"--"Thy hermit cell,"--"Two brother sergeants." (4.) The possessive case and its governing noun, combining to form a literal name, may be joined together without either hyphen or apostrophe: as, tradesman, ratsbane, doomsday, kinswoman, craftsmaster. (5.) The possessive case and its governing noun, combining to form a metaphorical name, should be written with both apostrophe and hyphen; as, Job's-tears, Jew's-ear, bear's-foot, colts-tooth, sheep's-head, crane's-bill, crab's-eyes, hound's-tongue, king's-spear, lady's-slipper, lady's-bedstraw, &c. (6.) The possessive case and its governing noun, combining to form an adjective, whether literal or metaphorical, should generally be written with both apostrophe and hyphen; as, "Neats-foot oil,"--"Calfs-foot jelly,"--"A carp's-tongue drill,"--"A bird's-eye view,"--"The states'-rights' party,"--"A camel's-hair shawl." But a triple compound noun may be formed with one hyphen only: as, "In doomsday-book;" (--Joh. Dict.;) "An armsend-lift." Cardell, who will have all possessives to be adjectives, writes an example thus: "John's camel's hair girdle."--Elements of Eng. Gram., p. 39. That is as if John's camel had a hair girdle! (7.) When the possessive case and its governing noun merely help to form a regular phrase, the compounding of them in any fashion may be reckoned improper; thus the phrases, a day's work, at death's door, on New Year's Day, a new year's gift, All Souls' Day, All Saints' Day, All Fools' Day, the saints' bell, the heart's blood, for dog's meat, though often written otherwise, may best stand as they do here.

OBS. 32.--The existence of a permanent compound of any two words, does not necessarily preclude the use of the possessive relation between the same words. Thus, we may speak of a horse's shoe or a goat's skin, notwithstanding there are such words as horseshoe and goatskin. E.g., "That preach ye upon the housetops."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Matt., x, 27. "Unpeg the basket on the house's top."--Beauties of Shak., p. 238. Webster defines frostnail, (which, under the word cork, he erroneously writes frost nail,) "A nail driven into a horse-shoe, to prevent the horse from slipping on ice." Worcester has it, "A nail driven into a horse's shoe, to prevent his slipping on the ice." Johnson, "A nail with a prominent head driven into the horse's shoes, that it may pierce the ice." Maunder, "A nail with a sharp head driven into the horses' shoes in frosty weather." None of these descriptions is very well written. Say rather, "A spur-headed nail driven into a horse's shoe to prevent him from slipping." There is commonly some difference, and sometimes a very great one, between the compound noun and the possessive relation, and also between the radical compound and that of the possessive. Thus a harelip is not a hare's lip, nor is a headman a headsman, or heart-ease heart's-ease. So, according to the books, a cat-head, a cat's-head, and a cat's head, are three very different things; yet what Webster writes, cat-tail, Johnson, cats-tail, Walker and others, cats-tail, means but the same thing, though not a cat's tail. Johnson's "kingspear, Jews-ear, lady-mantle, and lady-bedstraw," are no more proper, than Webster's "bear's-wort, lion's foot, lady's mantle, and lady's bed-straw." All these are wrong.

OBS. 33.--Particular examples, both of proper distinction, and of blind irregularity, under all the heads above suggested, may be quoted and multiplied indefinitely, even from our highest literary authorities; but, since nothing can be settled but by the force of principles, he who would be accurate, must resort to rules,--must consider what is analogical, and, in all doubtful cases, give this the preference. But, in grammar, particular analogies are to be respected, as well as those which are more general. For example, the noun side, in that relation which should seem to require the preceding noun to be in the possessive case, is usually compounded with it, the hyphen being used where the compound has more than two syllables, but not with two only; as, bedside, hillside, roadside, wayside, seaside, river-side, water-side, mountain-side. Some instances of the separate construction occur, but they are rare: as, "And her maidens walked along by the river's side."--Exodus, ii, 5. After this noun also, the possessive preposition of is sometimes omitted; as, "On this side the river;"(--Bible;) "On this side Trent."--Cowell. Better, "On this side of the river," &c. "Blind Bartimeus sat by the highway side, begging."--Mark, x, 46. Here Alger more properly writes "highway-side." In Rev., xiv, 20th, we have the unusual compound, "horse-bridles." The text ought to have been rendered, "even unto the horses' bridles." Latin, "usque ad frænos equorum." Greek, "[Greek: achri ton chalinon ton hippon]."

OBS. 34.--Correlatives, as father and son, husband and wife, naturally possess each other; hence such combinations as father's son, and son's father, though correct enough in thought, are redundant in expression. The whole and a part are a sort of correlatives, but the whole seems to possess its parts, more properly than any of the parts, the whole. Yet we seldom put the whole in the possessive case before its part, or parts, but rather express the relation by of; as, "a quarter of a dollar," rather than, "a dollar's quarter." After the noun half, we usually suppress this preposition, if an article intervene; as, "half a dollar," rather than, "half of a dollar," or "a dollar's half." So we may say, "half the way," for "half of the way;" but we cannot say, "half us" for "half of us." In the phrase, "a half dollar," the word half is an adjective, and a very different meaning is conveyed. Yet the compounds half-pint and half-penny are sometimes used to signify, the quantity of half a pint, the value of half a penny. In weight, measure, or time, the part is sometimes made possessive of the whole; as, "a pound's weight, a yard's length, an hour's time." On the contrary, we do not say, "weight's pound, length's yard, or time's hour;" nor yet, "a pound of weight, a yard of length;" and rarely do we say, "an hour of time." Pound and yard having other uses, we sometimes say, "a pound in weight, a yard in length;" though scarcely, "an hour in time."

OBS. 35.--Between a portion of time and its correlative action, passion, or being, the possessive relation is interchangeable; so that either term may be the principal, and either, the adjunct: as, "Three years' hard work," or, "Three years of hard work." Sometimes we may even put either term in either form; as, "During the ten years war,"--"During the ten years of war,"--"During the war of ten years,"--"During the war's ten years." Hence some writers, not perceiving why either word should make the other its governed adjunct, place both upon a par, as if they were in apposition; as, "Three days time."--Brown's Estimate, Vol. ii, p. 156. "By a few years preparation."--Blair's Rhet., p. 341. "Of forty years planting."--Wm. Penn. "An account, of five years standing." If these phrases were correct, it would also be correct to say, "one day time,"--"one year preparation,"--"one year planting,"--"of one year standing;" but all these are manifestly bad English; and, by analogy, so are the others.

OBS. 36.--Any noun of weight, measure, or time, put immediately before an other, if it be not in the possessive case, will naturally be understood adjectively; as, "No person can, by words only, give to an other an adequate idea of a pound weight, or [a] foot rule."--Gregory's Dict. This phraseology can, with propriety, refer only to the weight or the rule with which we weigh or measure; it cannot signify a pound in weight, or a foot in length, though it is very probable that the author intended the latter. When the noun times is used before an other noun by way of multiplication, there may be supposed an ellipsis of the preposition of between the two, just as when we divide by the word half; as, "An hour is sixty times the length of a minute."--Murray's Gram., p. 48. "Thirty seconds are half the length of a minute." That is,--"half of the length,"--"sixty times of the length."


NOTES TO RULE IV.

NOTE I.--In the syntax of the possessive case, its appropriate form, singular or plural, should be observed, agreeably to the sense and declension of the word. Thus, write John's, men's, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs; and not, Johns, mens', her's, it's, our's, your's, their's.

NOTE II.--When nouns of the possessive case are connected by conjunctions or put in apposition, the sign of possession must always be annexed to such, and such only, as immediately precede the governing noun, expressed or understood; as, "John and Eliza's teacher is a man of more learning than James's or Andrew's"--"For David my servant's sake."--Bible. "For my sake and the gospel's."--Ib. "Lost in love's and friendship's smile."--Scott.

NOTE III.--The relation of property may also be expressed by the preposition of and the objective; as, "The will of man," for "man's will." Of these forms, we should adopt that which will render the sentence the most perspicuous and agreeable; and, by the use of both, avoid an unpleasant repetition of either.

NOTE IV.--A noun governing the possessive plural, should not, by a forced agreement, be made plural, when its own sense does not require it; as, "For our parts,"--"Were I in your places:" for we may with propriety say, "Our part, your place, or your condition;" as well as, "Our desire, your intention, their resignation."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 169. A noun taken figuratively may also be singular, when the literal meaning would require the plural: such expressions as, "their face,"--"their neck,"--"their hand,"--"their head,"--"their heart,"--"our mouth,"--"our life,"--are frequent in the Scriptures, and not improper.

NOTE V.--The possessive case should not be needlessly used before a participle that is not taken in other respects as a noun. The following phrase is therefore wrong: "Adopted by the Goths in their pronouncing the Greek."--Walker's Key, p. 17. Expunge their. Again: "Here we speak of their becoming both in form and signification passive."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 226. Say rather, "Here we speak of them as becoming passive, both in form and signification."


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE IV.

EXAMPLES UNDER NOTE I.--THE POSSESSIVE FORM.

"Mans chief good is an upright mind." See Brown's Institutes of E. Gram., p. 179.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the noun mans, which is intended for the possessive singular of man, has not the appropriate form of that case and number. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 4th, "In the syntax ef the possessive case, its appropriate form, singular or plural, should be observed, agreeably to the sense and declension of the word." Therefore, mans should be maris, with the apostrophe before the s; thus, "Man's chief good is an upright mind."]

"The translator of Mallets History has the following note,"--Webster's Essays, p. 263. "The act, while it gave five years full pay to the officers, allowed but one year's pay to the privates."--Ib., p. 184. "For the study of English is preceded by several years attention to Latin and Greek."--Ib., p. 7. "The first, the Court Baron, is the freeholders or freemens court."--Coke, Litt., p. 74. "I affirm, that Vaugelas' definition labours under an essential defect."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 163. "I affirm, that Vangelas's definition labours under an essential defect."--Murray's Octavo Gram., Fourth Amer. Ed., Vol. ii, p. 360.[351] "There is a chorus in Aristophane's plays."--Blair's Rhet., p. 480. "It denotes the same perception in my mind as in their's."--Duncan's Logic, p. 65. "This afterwards enabled him to read Hicke's Saxon Grammar."--Life of Dr. Murray, p. 76. "I will not do it for tens sake."--Dr. Ash's Gram., p. 56. "I arose, and asked if those charming infants were her's."--Werter, p. 21. "They divide their time between milliners shops and taverns."--Brown's Estimate, Vol. i, p. 65. "The angels adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud."--Sale's Koran, p. 6. "Quarrels arose from the winners insulting of those who lost."--Ib., p. 171. "The vacancy, occasioned by Mr. Adams' resignation."--Adams's Rhet., Vol. i, p. vii. "Read for instance Junius' address, commonly called his letter to the king."--Ib., i, 225. "A perpetual struggle against the tide of Hortensius' influence."--Ib., ii, 23. "Which, for distinction sake, I shall put down severally."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 302. "The fifth case is in a clause signifying the matter of ones fear."--Ib., p. 312. "And they took counsel, and bought with them the potters' field."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Matt., xxvii, 7. "Arise for thy servant's help, and redeem them for thy mercy's sake."--Jenks's Prayers, p. 265. "Shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every beast of their's be ours?"--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Gen., xxxiv, 23. "And every beast of their's, be our's?"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: ib. "It's regular plural, bullaces, is used by Bacon."--Churchill's Gram., p. 213. "Mordecai walked every day before the court of the womens house."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Esther, ii, 11. "Behold, they that wear soft clothing are in king's houses."--IB. and FRIENDS' BIBLE: Matt., xi, 8: also Webster's Imp. Gram., p. 173. "Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, and her two sons; and Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came, with his sons and his wife, unto Moses."--ALGER'S BIBLE, and THE FRIENDS': Exod., xviii, 2--6. "King James' translators merely revised former translations."--Rev. B. Frazee's Gram., p. 137. "May they be like corn on houses tops."--White, on the English Verb., p. 160.

  "And for his Maker's image sake exempt."
       --Par. Lost, B. xi, l. 514.
   "By all the fame acquir'd in ten years war."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. i, l. 674.
   "Nor glad vile poets with true critics gore."
       --Pope's Dunicad, [sic--KTH] p. 175.
   "Man only of a softer mold is made,
   Not for his fellow's ruin, but their aid."
       --Dryden's Poems, p. 92.


UNDER NOTE II.--POSSESSIVES CONNECTED.

"It was necessary to have both the physician, and the surgeon's advice."--Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram., p. 140. "This out-side fashionableness of the Taylor on Tire-woman's making."--Locke, on Education, p. 49. "Some pretending to be of Paul's party, others of Apollos, others of Cephas, and others, pretending yet higher, to be of Christ's."--Woods Dict., w. Apollos. "Nor is it less certain that Spenser's and Milton's spelling agrees better with our pronunciation."-- Philol. Museum, i, 661. "Law's, Edwards', and Watts' surveys of the Divine Dispensations."--Burgh's Dignity, Vol. i, p. 193. "And who was Enoch's Saviour, and the Prophets?"--Bayly's Works, p. 600. "Without any impediment but his own, or his parents or guardians will."--Literary Convention, p. 145. "James relieves neither the boy[352] nor the girl's distress."--Nixon's Parser, p. 116. "John regards neither the master nor the pupil's advantage."--Ib., p. 117. "You reward neither the man nor the woman's labours."--Ib. "She examines neither James nor John's conduct."-- Ib. "Thou pitiest neither the servant nor the master's injuries."--Ib. "We promote England or Ireland's happiness."--Ib. "Were Cain and Abel's occupation the same?"--Brown's Inst., p. 179. "Were Cain's and Abel's occupations the same?"--Ib. "What was Simon's and Andrew's employment?"-- Author. "Till he can read himself Sanctii Minerva with Scioppius and Perizonius's Notes."--Locke, on Education, p. 295.

  "And love's and friendship's finely--pointed dart
   Falls blunted from each indurated heart."--Goldsmith.


UNDER NOTE III.--CHOICE OF FORMS.

"But some degree of trouble is all men's portion."--Murray's Key, p. 218; Merchant's, 197. "With his father's and mother's names upon the blank leaf."--Corner-Stone, p. 144. "The general, in the army's name, published a declaration."--HUME: in Priestley's Gram., p. 69. "The Commons' vote."--Id, ib. "The Lords' house."--Id., ib. "A collection of writers faults."--SWIFT: ib., p. 68. "After ten years wars."--Id., ib. "Professing his detestation of such practices as his predecessors."--Notes to the Dunciad. "By that time I shall have ended my years office."--Walker's Particles, p. 104. "For Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife."--Mark, vi, 17. "For Herodias's sake, his brother Philip's wife."--Murray's Key, p. 194. "I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain salvation."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: 2 Tim., ii, 10. "For the elects' sakes."--SCOTT'S BIBLE. "For the elect's sake."--ALGER'S BIBLE, and BRUCE'S. "He was Louis the Sixteenth's son's heir."--W. Allen's Exercises, Gram., p. 329. "The throne we honour is the choice of the people."--"An account of the proceedings of the court of Alexander."--"An excellent tutor of a person of fashion's child!"--Gil Bias, Vol. 1, p. 20. "It is curious enough, that this sentence of the Bishop is, itself, ungrammatical!"--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 201. "The troops broke into Leopold the emperor's palace."--Nixon's Parser, p. 59. "The meeting was called by Eldon the judge's desire."--Ibid. "Peter's, John's, and Andrew's occupation was that of fishermen."--Brace's Gram., p. 79. "The venerable president of the Royal Academy's debility has lately increased."--Maunder's Gram., p. 12.


UNDER NOTE IV.--NOUNS WITH POSSESSIVES PLURAL.

"God hath not given us our reasons to no purpose."--Barclay's Works, Vol. i, p. 496. "For our sakes, no doubt, this is written."--1 Cor., ix, 10. "Are not health and strength of body desirable for their own sakes?"--Hermes, p. 296; Murray's Gram., 289. "Some sailors who were boiling their dinners upon the shore."--Day's Sandford and Merton, p. 99. "And they in their turns were subdued by others."--Pinnock's Geography, p. 12. "Industry on our parts is not superseded by God's grace."--Arrowsmith. "Their Healths perhaps may be pretty well secur'd."--Locke, on Education, p. 51. "Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor."--Murray's Gram., p. 211. "It were to be wished, his correctors had been as wise on their parbs."--Harris's Hermes, p. 60. "The Arabs are commended by the ancients for being most exact to their words, and respectful to their kindred."--Sale's Koran. "That is, as a reward of some exertion on our parts."--Gurney's Evidences, p. 86. "So that it went ill with Moses for their sakes."--Psalms, cvi, 32. "All liars shall have their parts in the burning lake."--Watts, p. 33. "For our own sakes as well as for thine."--Pref. to Waller's Poems, p. 3. "By discover- ing their abilities to detect and amend errors."--Murray's Gram., Vol. 11, p. iv.


"This world I do renounce; and, in your sights, Shake patiently my great affliction off."--Beauties of Shak., p. 286 "If your relenting angers yield to treat, Pompey and thou, in safety, here may meet."--Rowe's Lucan, B. iii, l. 500.


UNDER NOTE Y.--POSSESSIVES WITH PARTICIPLES.

"This will encourage him to proceed without his acquiring the prejudice."--Smith's Gram., p. 5. "And the notice which they give of an action's being completed or not completed."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 72; Alger's, 30. "Some obstacle or impediment that prevents its taking place."--Priestley's Gram., p. 38; Alex. Murray's, 37. "They have apostolical authority for their so frequently urging the seeking of the Spirit."--The Friend, Vol. xii, p. 54. "Here then is a wide field for reason's exerting its powers in relation to the objects of taste."-- Blair's Rhet., p. 18. "Now this they derive altogether from their having a greater capacity of imitation and description."--Ib., p. 51. "This is one clear reason of their paying a greater attention to that construction." --Ib., p. 123. "The dialogue part had also a modulation of its own, which was capable of its being set to notes."--Ib., p. 471. "What is the reason of our being often so frigid and unpersuasive in public discourse?"--Ib., p. 334. "Which is only a preparation for his leading his forces directly upon us."--Ib., p. 264. "The nonsense about which's relating to things only, and having no declension, needs no refutation."--Fowle's True E. Gram., p. 18. "Who, upon his breaking it open, found nothing but the following inscription."--Rollin, Vol. ii, p. 33. "A prince will quickly have reason to repent his having exalted one person so high."--Id., ii, 116. "Notwithstanding it's being the immediate subject of his discourse."-- Churchill's Gram., p. 294. "With our definition of its being synonymous with time."--Booth's Introd., p. 29. "It will considerably increase the danger of our being deceived."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 293. "His beauties can never be mentioned without their suggesting his blemishes also."-- Blair's Rhet., p. 442. "No example has ever been adduced of a man's conscientiously approving of an action, because of its badness."--Gurney's Evidences, p. 90. "The last episode of the angel's shewing Adam the fate of his posterity, is happily imagined."--Blair's Rhet., p. 452. "And the news came to my son, of his and the bride being in Dublin."--Castle Rackrent, p. 44. "There is no room for the mind's exerting any great effort."--Blair's Rhet., p. 32. "One would imagine, that these criticks never so much as heard of Homer's having written first."--Pope's Preface to Homer. "Condemn the book, for its not being a geography."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 317. "There will be in many words a transition from their being the figurative to their being the proper signs of certain ideas."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 322. "The doctrine of the Pope's being the only source of ecclesiastical power."--Religious World, ii, 290. "This has been the more expedient from the work's being designed for the benefit of private learners."--Murray's Exercises, Introd., p. v. "This was occasioned by the Grammar's having been set up, and not admitting of enlargement."--Ib., Advertisement, p. ix.


RULE V.--OBJECTIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case: as, "I found her assisting him"--"Having finished the work, I submit it."

  "Preventing fame, misfortune lends him wings,
   And Pompey's self his own sad story brings."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. viii, l. 66.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE V.

OBS. 1.--To this rule there are no exceptions; but to the old one adopted by Murray and others, "Active verbs govern the objective case," there are more than any writer will ever think it worth his while to enumerate. In point of brevity, the latter has the advantage, but in nothing else; for, as a general rule for NOUNS AND PRONOUNS, this old brief assertion is very defective; and, as a rule for "THE SYNTAX OF VERBS," under which head it has been oftener ranked, it is entirely useless and inapplicable. As there are four different constructions to which the nominative case is liable, so there are four in which the objective may be found; and two of these are common to both; namely, apposition, and sameness of case. Every objective is governed by some verb or participle, according to Rule 5th, or by some preposition, according to Rule 7th; except such as are put in apposition with others, according to Rule 3d, or after an infinitive or a participle not transitive, according to Rule 6th: as, "Mistaking one for the other, they took him, a sturdy fellow, called Red Billy, to be me." Here is every construction which the objective case can have; except, perhaps, that in which, as an expression of time, place, measure, or manner, it is taken after the fashion of an adverb, the governing preposition being suppressed, or, as some say, no governing word being needed. Of this exception, the following quotations may serve for examples: "It holds on by a single button round my neck, cloak-fashion"--EDGEWORTH'S Castle Rackrent. p. 17. A man quite at leisure to parse all his words, would have said, "in the fashion of a cloak." Again: "He does not care the rind of a lemon for her all the while."--Ib., p. 108. "We turn our eyes this way or that way."--Webster's Philos. Gram., p. 172; Frazee's Gram., 157. Among his instances of "the objective case restrictive," or of the noun "used in the objective, without a governing word," Dr. Bullions gives this: "Let us go home" But, according to the better opinion of Worcester, home is here an adverb, and not a noun. See Obs. 6th on Rule 7th.

OBS. 2.--The objective case generally follows the governing word: as, "And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him"--Gen., xlii, 8. But when it is emphatic, it often precedes the nominative; as, "Me he restored to mine office, and him he hanged."--Gen., xli, 13. "John have I beheaded."--Luke, ix, 9. "But me ye have not always."--Matt., xxvi, 11. "Him walking on a sunny hill he found."--Milton. In poetry, the objective is sometimes placed between the nominative and the verb; as,

  "His daring foe securely him defied."--Milton.
   "Much he the place admired, the person more."--Id.
   "The broom its yellow leaf shed."--Langhorne.

If the nominative be a pronoun which cannot be mistaken for an objective, the words may possibly change places; as, "Silver and gold have I none."--Acts, iii, 6. "Created thing nought valued he nor shunn'd."--Milton, B. ii, l. 679. But such a transposition of two nouns can scarcely fail to render the meaning doubtful or obscure; as,

  "This pow'r has praise, that virtue scarce can warm,
   Till fame supplies the universal charm."--Dr. Johnson.

A relative or an interrogative pronoun is commonly placed at the head of its clause, and of course it precedes the verb which governs it; as, "I am Jesus, whom thou persecutest."--Acts, ix, 5. "Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted?"--Ib., vii, 52.

  "Before their Clauses plac'd, by settled use,
   The Relatives these Clauses introduce."--Ward's Gram., p. 86.

OBS. 3.--Every active-transitive verb or participle has some noun or pronoun for its object, or some pronominal adjective which assumes the relation of the objective case. Though verbs are often followed by the infinitive mood, or a dependent clause, forming a part of the logical predicate; yet these terms, being commonly introduced by a connecting particle, do not form such an object as is contemplated in our definition of a transitive verb. Its government of the objective, is the only proper criterion of this sort of verb. If, in the sentence, "Boys love to play," the former verb is transitive, as several respectable grammarians affirm; why not also in a thousand others; as, "Boys like to play;"--"Boys delight to play;"--"Boys long to play;"--"The boys seem to play;"--"The boys cease to play;"--"The boys ought to play;"--"The boys go out to play;"--"The boys are gone out to play;"--"The boys are allowed to play;" and the like? The construction in all is precisely the same, and the infinitive may follow one kind of verb just as well as an other. How then can the mere addition of this mood make any verb transitive? or where, on such a principle, can the line of distinction for transitive verbs be drawn? The infinitive, in fact, is governed by the preposition to; and the preceding verb, if it has no other object, is intransitive. It must, however, be confessed that some verbs which thus take the infinitive after them, cannot otherwise be intransitive; as, "A great mind disdains to hold any thing by courtesy."--Johnson's Life of Swift. "They require to be distinguished by a comma."--Murray's Gram., p. 272.

OBS. 4.--A transitive verb, as I have elsewhere shown, may both govern the objective case, and be followed by an infinitive also; as, "What have I to do with thee?"--John, ii, 4. This question, as one would naturally take it, implies, "I have nothing to do with thee;" and, by analogy, what is governed by have, and not by do; so that the latter verb, though not commonly intransitive, appears to be so here. Indeed the infinitive mood is often used without an objective, when every other part of the same verb would require one. Maunder's rule is, "Transitive verbs and participles govern either the objective case or the infinitive mode."--Comprehensive Gram., p. 14. Murray teaches, not only that, "The infinitive mood does the office of a substantive in the objective case; as, 'Boys love to play;'" but that, "The participle with its adjuncts, may be considered as a substantive phrase in the objective case, governed by the preposition or verb; as, 'He studied to avoid expressing himself too severely.'"--See his Octavo Gram., pp. 184 and 194. And again: "Part of a sentence, as well as a noun or pronoun, may be said to be in the objective case, or to be put objectively, governed by the active verb; as, 'We sometimes see virtue in distress, but we should consider how great will be her ultimate reward.' Sentences or phrases under this circumstance, may be termed objective sentences or phrases."--Ib., p. 180.

OBS. 5.--If we admit that sentences, parts of sentences, infinitives, participles with their adjuncts, and other phrases, as well as nouns and pronouns, may be "in the objective case;" it will be no easy matter, either to define this case, or to determine what words do, or do not, govern it.[353] The construction of infinitives and participles will be noticed hereafter. But on one of Murray's examples, I would here observe, that the direct use of the infinitive for an objective noun is a manifest Grecism; as, "For to will is present with me; but to perform that which is good, I find not."--Octavo Gram., p. 184. That is, "the performance of that which is good, I find not." Or perhaps we may supply a noun after the verb, and take this text to mean, "But to perform that which is good, I find not the ability." Our Bible has it, "But how to perform that which is good. I find not;" as if the manner in which he might do good, was what the apostle found not: but Murray cites it differently, omitting the word how, as we see above. All active verbs to which something is subjoined by when, where, whence, how, or why, must be accounted intransitive, unless we suppose them to govern such nouns of time, place, degree, manner, or cause, as correspond to these connectives; as, "I know why she blushed." Here we might supply the noun reason, as, "I know the reason why she blushed;" but the word is needless, and I should rather parse know as being intransitive. As for "virtue in distress," if this is an "objective phrase," and not to be analyzed, we have millions of the same sort; but, if one should say, "Virtue in distress excites pity," the same phrase would demonstrate the absurdity of Murray's doctrine, because the two nouns here take two different cases.

OBS. 6.--The word that, which is often employed to introduce a dependent clause, is, by some grammarians, considered as a pronoun, representing the clause which follows it; as, "I know that Messias cometh."--John, iv, 25. This text they would explain to mean, "Messias cometh, I know that;" and their opinion seems to be warranted both by the origin and by the usual import of the particle. But, in conformity to general custom, and to his own views of the practical purposes of grammatical analysis, the author has ranked it with the conjunctions. And he thinks it better, to call those verbs intransitive, which are followed by that and a dependent clause, than to supply the very frequent ellipses which the other explanation supposes. To explain it as a conjunction, connecting an active-transitive verb and its object, as several respectable grammarians do, appears to involve some inconsistency. If that is a conjunction, it connects what precedes and what follows; but a transitive verb should exercise a direct government, without the intervention of a conjunction. On the other hand, the word that has not, in any such sentence, the inherent nature of a pronoun. The transposition above, makes it only a pronominal adjective; as, "Messias cometh, I know that fact." And in many instances such a solution is impracticable; as, "The people sought him, and came unto him, and stayed him, that he should not depart from them."--Luke, iv, 42. Here, to prove that to be a pronoun, the disciples of Tooke and Webster must resort to more than one imaginary ellipsis, and to such inversion as will scarcely leave the sense in sight.

OBS. 7.--In some instances the action of a transitive verb gives to its direct object an additional name, which is also in the objective case, the two words being in apposition; as, "Thy saints proclaim thee king."--Cowper. "And God called the firmament Heaven."--Bible. "Ordering them to make themselves masters of a certain steep eminence."--Rollin, ii, 67. And, in such a construction, the direct object is sometimes placed before the verb; though the name which results from the action, cannot be so placed: as, "And Simon he surnamed Peter."--Mark, iii, 15. "Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God."--Rev., iii, 12. Some grammarians seem not to have considered this phraseology as coming within the rule of apposition. Thus Webster: "We have some verbs which govern two words in the objective case; as,

   'Did I request thee, maker, from my clay
   To mold me man?'--Milton, 10, 744.

'God seems to have made him what he was.'--Life of Cowper."[354]--Philosophical Gram., p. 170. Improved Gram., p. 120. See also Weld's Gram., 2d Ed., p. 154; "Abridged Ed.," p. 119; and Fowler's E. Gram., §450. So Murray: "Some of our verbs appear to govern two words in the objective case; as, 'The Author of my being formed me man.'--'They desired me to call them brethren.'--'He seems to have made him what he was.' "--Octavo Gram., p. 183. Yet this latter writer says, that in the sentence, "They appointed me executor," and others like it," the verb to be is understood."--Ib., p. 182. These then, according to his own showing, are instances of apposition; but I pronounce then such, without either confounding same cases with apposition, or making the latter a species of ellipsis. See Obs. 1st and 2d, under Rule 3d.

OBS. 8.--In general, if not always, when a verb is followed by two objectives which are neither in apposition nor connected by a conjunction, one of them is governed by a preposition understood; as, "I paid [to] him the money"--"They offered [to] me a seat"--"He asked [of] them the question"--"I yielded, and unlock'd [to] her all my heart."--Milton. In expressing such sentences passively, the object of the preposition is sometimes erroneously assumed for the nominative; as, "He was paid the money," in stead of, "The money was paid [to] him."--"I was offered a seat," in stead of, "A seat was offered [to] me." This kind of error is censured by Murray more than once, and yet he himself has, in very many instances, fallen into it. His first criticism on it, is in the following words: "We sometimes meet with such expressions as these: 'They were asked a question;' 'They were offered a pardon;' 'He hath been left a great estate by his father.' In these phrases, verbs passive are made to govern the objective case. This license is not to be approved. The expressions should be: 'A question was put to them;' 'A pardon was offered to them;' 'His father left him a great estate.'"--L. Murray's Octavo Gram., p. 183. See Obs. 12, below.

OBS. 9.--In the Latin syntax, verbs of asking and teaching are said to govern two accusatives; as, "Posce Deum veniam, Beg pardon of God."--Grant's Latin Gram., p. 207. "Docuit me grammaticam, He taught me grammar."--Grant, Adam, and others. And again: "When a verb in the active voice governs two cases, in the passive it retains the latter case; as, Doceor grammaticam, I am taught grammar."--Adam's Gram., p. 177. These writers however suggest, that in reality the latter accusative is governed, not by the verb, but by a preposition understood. "Poscere deos veniam is 'to ask the gods for pardon.'"--Barnes's Philological Gram., p. 116. In general the English idiom does not coincide with what occurs in Latin under these rules. We commonly insert a preposition to govern one or the other of the terms. But we sometimes leave to the verb the objective of the person, and sometimes that of the thing; and after the two verbs ask and teach, we sometimes seem to leave both: as, "When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down, and ask of thee forgiveness."-- Shakspeare. "In long journeys, ask your master leave to give ale to the horses."--Swift. "And he asked them of their welfare."--Gen., xliii, 27. "They asked of him the parable."--Mark, iv, 10. ("Interrogârunt eum de parabolâ."--Beza.) "And asking them questions"--Luke, ii, 46. "But teach them thy sons."--Deut., iv, 9. "Teach them diligently unto thy children"--Ib., vi, 7. '"Ye shall teach them your children."--Ib., xi, 19. "Shall any teach God knowledge?"--Job, xxi, 22. "I will teach you the fear of the Lord."--Psal, xxxiv, 11. "He will teach us of his ways."--Isaiah, ii, 3; Micah, iv, 2. "Let him that is taught in the word, communicate."--Gal., vi, 6.

OBS. 10.--After a careful review of the various instances in which more than one noun or pronoun may possibly be supposed to be under the government of a single active verb in English, I incline to the opinion that none of our verbs ought to be parsed as actually governing two cases, except such as are followed by two objectives connected by a conjunction. Consequently I do not admit, that any passive verb can properly govern an objective noun or pronoun. Of the ancient Saxon dative case, and of what was once considered the government of two cases, there yet appear some evident remains in our language; as, "Give him bread to eat."--"Bread shall be given him"--Bible. But here, by almost universal consent, the indirect object is referred to the government of a "preposition understood;" and in many instances this sort of ellipsis is certainly no elegance: as, "Give [to] truth and virtue the same arms which you give [to] vice and falsehood, and the former are likely to prevail."--Blair's Rhet., p. 235. The questionable expression, "Ask me blessing," if interpreted analogically, must mean, "Ask for me a blessing," which is more correct and explicit; or, if me be not supposed a dative, (and it does not appear to be so, above,) the sentence is still wrong, and the correction must be, "Ask of me a blessing," or, "Ask my blessing." So, "Ask your master leave," ought rather to be, "Ask of your master leave," "Ask your master for leave," or, "Ask your master's leave." The example from Mark ought to be, "They asked him about the parable." Again, the elliptical sentence, "Teach them thy sons," is less perspicuous, and therefore less accurate, than the full expression, "Teach them to thy sons." To teach is to tell things to persons, or to instruct persons in things; to ask is to request or demand things of or from persons, or to interrogate or solicit persons about or for things. These verbs cannot be proved to govern two cases in English, because it is more analogical and more reasonable to supply a preposition, (if the author omits it,) to govern one or the other of the objects.

OBS. 11.--Some writers erroneously allow passive verbs to govern the objective in English, not only where they imagine our idiom to coincide with the Latin, but even where they know that it does not. Thus Dr. Crombie: "Whatever is put in the accusative case after the verb, must be the nominative to it in the passive voice, while the other case is retained under the government of the verb, and cannot become its nominative. Thus, 'I persuade you to this or of this, 'Persuadeo hoc tibi. Here, the person persuaded is expressed in the dative case, and cannot, therefore, be the nominative to the passive verb. We must, therefore, say, Hoc tibi persuadetur, 'You are persuaded of this;' not, Tu persuaderis. 'He trusted me with this affair,' or 'He believed me in this,' Hoc mihi credidit.--Passively, Hoc mihi creditum est. 'I told you this,' Hoc tibi dixi. 'YOU WERE TOLD THIS,' Hoc tibi dictum est; not, Tu dictus es." [No, surely: for, Tu dictus es,' means, 'You were called,' or, 'Thou art reputed;'--and, if followed by any case, it must be the nominative.'] "It is the more necessary to attend to this rule, and to these distinctions, as the idioms of the two languages do not always concur. Thus, Hoc tibi dictum est, means not only 'This was told to you,' but 'YOU WERE TOLD THIS.' Liber mihi apatre promissus est, means both 'A book was promised (to) me by my father,' and 'I WAS PROMISED A BOOK.' Is primum rogatua est sententiam, 'He was first asked for his opinion,' and 'An opinion was first asked of him;' in which last the accusative of the person becomes, in Latin, the nominative in the passive voice." See Grants Latin Gram., p. 210.

OBS. 12.--Murray's second censure upon passive government, is this: "The following sentences, which give [to] the passive voice the regimen of an active verb, are very irregular, and by no means to be imitated. 'The bishops and abbots were allowed their seats in the house of lords.' 'Thrasea was forbidden the presence of the emperor.' 'He was shown that very story in one of his own books.'[355] These sentences should have been: 'The bishops and abbots were allowed to have (or to take) their seats in the house of lords;' or, 'Seats in the house of lords were allowed to the bishops and abbots:' 'Thrasea was forbidden to approach the presence of the emperor;' or, 'The presence of the emperor was forbidden to Thrasea:' 'That very story was shown to him in one of his own books.'"--Octavo Gram., p. 223. See Obs. 8, above. One late grammarian, whose style is on the whole highly commendable for its purity and accuracy, forbears to condemn the phraseology here spoken of; and, though he does not expressly defend and justify it, he seems disposed to let it pass, with the license of the following canon. "For convenience, it may be well to state it as a rule, that--Passive verbs govern an objective, when the nominative to the passive verb is not the proper object of the active voice."--Barnard's Analytic Gram., p. 134. An other asserts the government of two cases by very many of our active verbs, and the government of one by almost any passive verb, according to the following rules: "Verbs of teaching, giving, and some others of a similar nature, govern two objectives, the one of a person and the other of a thing; as, He taught me grammar: His tutor gave him a lesson: He promised me a reward. A passive verb may govern an objective, when the words immediately preceding and following it, do not refer to the same thing; as, Henry was offered a dollar by his father to induce him to remain."--J. M. Putnam's Gram., pp. 110 and 112.

OBS. 13.--The common dogmas, that an active verb must govern an object, and that a neuter or intransitive verb must not, amount to nothing as directions to the composer; because the classification of verbs depends upon this very matter, whether they have, or have not, an object after them; and no general principle has been, or can be, furnished beforehand, by which their fitness or unfitness for taking such government can be determined. This must depend upon usage, and usage must conform to the sense intended. Very many verbs--probably a vast majority--govern an object sometimes, but not always: many that are commonly intransitive or neuter, are not in all their uses so; and many that are commonly transitive, have sometimes no apparent regimen. The distinction, then, in our dictionaries, of verbs active and neuter, or transitive and intransitive, serves scarcely any other purpose, than to show how the presence or absence of the objective case, affects the meaning of the word. In some instances the signification of the verb seems almost merged in that of its object; as, to lay hold, to make use, to take care. In others, the transitive character of the word is partial; as, "He paid my board; I told you so." Some verbs will govern any objective whatever; as, to name, to mention. What is there that cannot be named or mentioned? Others again are restricted to one noun, or to a few; as, to transgress a law, or rule. What can be transgressed, but a law, a limit, or something equivalent? Some verbs will govern a kindred noun, or its pronoun, but scarcely any other; as, "He lived a virtuous life."--"Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed"--Gen., xxxvii, 6. "I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it."--Isaiah, v, 6.

OBS. 14.--Our grammarians, when they come to determine what verbs are properly transitive, and what are not so, do not in all instances agree in opinion. In short, plain as they think the matter, they are much at odds. Many of them say, that, "In the phrases, 'To dream a dream,' 'To live a virtuous life,' 'To run a race,' 'To walk a horse,' 'To dance a child,' the verbs assume a transitive character, and in these cases may be denominated active."--See Guy's Gram., p. 21; Murray's, 180; Ingersoll's, 183; Fisk's, 123; Smith's, 153. This decision is undoubtedly just; yet a late writer has taken a deal of pains to find fault with it, and to persuade his readers, that, "No verb is active in any sense, or under any construction, that will not, in every sense, permit the objective case of a personal pronoun after it."--Wright's Gram., p. 174. Wells absurdly supposes, "An intransitive verb may be used to govern an objective."--Gram., p. 145. Some imagine that verbs of mental action, such as conceive, think, believe, &c., are not properly transitive; and, if they find an object after such a verb, they choose to supply a preposition to govern it: as, "I conceived it (of it) in that light."--Guy's Gram., p. 21. "Did you conceive (of) him to be me?"--Ib., p. 28. With this idea, few will probably concur.

OBS. 15.--We sometimes find the pronoun me needlessly thrown in after a verb that either governs some other object or is not properly transitive, at least, in respect to this word; as, "It ascends me into the brain; dries me there all the foolish, dull, and crudy vapours."--Shakspeare's Falstaff. "Then the vital commoners and inland petty spirits muster me all to their captain, the heart."--Id. This is a faulty relic of our old Saxon dative case. So of the second person; "Fare you well, Falstaff."--Shak. Here you was written for the objective case, but it seems now to have become the nominative to the verb fare. "Fare thee well."--W. Scott. "Farewell to thee."--Id. These expressions were once equivalent in syntax; but they are hardly so now; and, in lieu of the former, it would seem better English to say, "Fare thou well." Again: "Turn thee aside to thy right hand or to thy left, and lay thee hold on one of the young men, and take thee his armour."--2 Sam., ii, 21. If any modern author had written this, our critics would have guessed he had learned from some of the Quakers to misemploy thee for thou. The construction is an imitation of the French reciprocal or reflected verbs. It ought to be thus: "Turn thou aside to thy right hand or to thy left, and lay hold on one of the young men, and take to thyself his armour." So of the third person: "The king soon found reason to repent him of his provoking such dangerous enemies."--HUME: Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 180. Here both of the pronouns are worse than useless, though Murray discerned but one error.

  "Good Margaret, run thee into the parlour;
   There thou shalt find my cousin Beatrice."--SHAK.: Much Ado.


NOTES TO RULE V.

NOTE I.--Those verbs or participles which require a regimen, or which signify action that must terminate transitively, should not be used without an object; as, "She affects [kindness,] in order to ingratiate [herself] with you."--"I must caution [you], at the same time, against a servile imitation of any author whatever."--Blair's Rhet., p. 192.

NOTE II.--Those verbs and participles which do not admit an object, or which express action that terminates in themselves, or with the doer, should not be used transitively; as, "The planters grow cotton." Say raise, produce, or cultivate. "Dare you speak lightly of the law, or move that, in a criminal trial, judges should advance one step beyond what it permits them to go?"--Blair's Rhet., p. 278. Say,--"beyond the point to which it permits them to go."

NOTE III.--No transitive verb or participle should assume a government to which its own meaning is not adapted; as, "Thou is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun--personal, it personates 'man.'"--Kirkham's Gram., p. 131. Say, "It represents man." "Where a string of such sentences succeed each other."--Blair's Rhet., p. 168. Say, "Where many such sentences come in succession."

NOTE IV.--The passive verb should always take for its subject or nominative the direct object of the active-transitive verb from which it is derived; as, (Active,) "They denied me this privilege." (Passive,) "This privilege was denied me;" not, "I was denied this privilege:" for me may be governed by to understood, but privilege cannot, nor can any other regimen be found for it.

NOTE V.--Passive verbs should never be made to govern the objective case, because the receiving of an action supposes it to terminate on the subject or nominative.[356] Errors: "Sometimes it is made use of to give a small degree of emphasis."--L. Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 197. Say, "Sometimes it is used," &c. "His female characters have been found fault with as insipid."--Hazlitt's Lect., p. 111. Say,--"have been censured;" or,--"have been blamed, decried, dispraised, or condemned."

NOTE VI.--The perfect participle, as such, should never be made to govern any objective term; because, without an active auxiliary, its signification is almost always passive: as, "We shall set down the characters made use of to represent all the elementary sounds."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 5; Fisk's, 34. Say,--"the characters employed, or used."

NOTE VII.--As the different cases in English are not always distinguished by their form, care must be taken lest their construction be found equivocal, or ambiguous; as, "And we shall always find our sentences acquire more vigour and energy when thus retrenched."--Blair's Rhet., p. 111. Say, "We shall always find that our sentences acquire more vigour," &c.; or, "We shall always find our sentences to acquire more vigour and energy when thus retrenched."

NOTE VIII.--In the language of our Bible, rightly quoted or printed, ye is not found in the objective case, nor you in the nominative; scriptural texts that preserve not this distinction of cases, are consequently to be considered inaccurate.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE V.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE OBJECTIVE FORM.

"Who should I meet the other day but my old friend!"--Spectator, No. 32.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun who is in the nominative case, and is used as the object of the active-transitive verb should meet. But, according to Rule 5th, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case." Therefore, who should be whom; thus, "Whom should I meet," &c.]

"Let not him boast that puts on his armour, but he that takes it off."--Barclay's Works, iii, 262. "Let none touch it, but they who are clean."--Sale's Koran, 95. "Let the sea roar, and the fullness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein."--Psalms, xcviii, 7. "Pray be private, and careful who you trust."--Mrs. Goffe's Letter. "How shall the people know who to entrust with their property and their liberties?"-- District School, p. 301. "The chaplain entreated my comrade and I to dress as well as possible."--World Displayed, i, 163. "He that cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out."--Tract, No. 3, p. 6. "Who, during this preparation, they constantly and solemnly invoke."--Hope of Israel, p. 84. "Whoever or whatever owes us, is Debtor; whoever or whatever we owe, is Creditor."--Marsh's Book-Keeping, p. 23. "Declaring the curricle was his, and he should have who he chose in it."--Anna Ross, p. 147. "The fact is, Burke is the only one of all the host of brilliant contemporaries who we can rank as a first-rate orator."--The Knickerbocker, May, 1833. "Thus you see, how naturally the Fribbles and the Daffodils have produced the Messalina's of our time:"--Brown's Estimate, ii, 53. "They would find in the Roman list both the Scipio's."--Ib., ii, 76. "He found his wife's clothes on fire, and she just expiring."--New-York Observer. "To present ye holy, unblameable, and unreproveable in his sight."--Barclay's Works, i, 353. "Let the distributer do his duty with simplicity; the superintendent, with diligence; he who performs offices of compassion, with cheerfulness."--Stuart's Romans, xii, 9. "If the crew rail at the master of the vessel, who will they mind?"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 106. "He having none but them, they having none but hee."--DRAYTON'S Polyolbion.

"Thou, nature, partial nature, I arraign! Of thy caprice maternal I complain!"--Burns's Poems, p. 50. "Nor knows he who it is his arms pursue With eager clasps, but loves he knows not who."--Addison's, p. 218.


UNDER NOTE I.--OF VERBS TRANSITIVE.

"When it gives that sense, and also connects, it is a conjunction."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 116. "Though thou wilt not acknowledge, thou canst not deny the fact."--Murray's Key, p. 209. "They specify, like many other adjectives, and connect sentences."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 114. "The violation of this rule tends so much to perplex and obscure, that it is safer to err by too many short sentences."--Murray's Gram., p. 312. "A few Exercises are subjoined to each important definition, for him to practice upon as he proceeds in committing."--Nutting's Gram., 3d Ed., p. vii. "A verb signifying actively governs the accusative."--Adam's Gram., p. 171; Gould's, 172; Grant's, 199; and others. "Or, any word that will conjugate, is a verb."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 44. "In these two concluding sentences, the author, hastening to finish, appears to write rather carelessly."--Blair's Rhet., p. 216. "He simply reasons on one side of the question, and then finishes."--Ib., p. 306. "Praise to God teaches to be humble and lowly ourselves."--ATTERBURY: ib., p. 304. "This author has endeavored to surpass."--Green's Inductive Gram., p. 54. "Idleness and plezure fateeg az soon az bizziness."--Noah Webster's Essays, p. 402. "And, in conjugating, you must pay particular attention to the manner in which these signs are applied."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 140. "He said Virginia would have emancipated long ago."--The Liberator, ix, 33. "And having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience."--2 Cor., x, 6. "However, in these cases, custom generally determines."--Wright's Gram., p. 50. "In proof, let the following cases demonstrate."--Ib., p. 46. "We must surprise, that he should so speedily have forgotten his first principles."--Ib., p. 147. "How should we surprise at the expression, 'This is a soft question!'"--Ib., p. 219. "And such as prefer, can parse it as a possessive adjective."--Goodenow's Gram., p. 89. "To assign all the reasons, that induced to deviate from other grammarians, would lead to a needless prolixity."--Alexander's Gram., p. 4. "The Indicative mood simply indicates or declares."--Farnum's Gram., p. 33.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF VERBS INTRANSITIVE.

"In his seventh chapter he expatiateth himself at great length."--Barclay's Works, iii, 350. "He quarrelleth my bringing some testimonies of antiquity, agreeing with what I say."--Ib., iii, 373. "Repenting him of his design."--Hume's Hist., ii, 56. "Henry knew, that an excommunication could not fail of operating the most dangerous effects."--Ib., ii, 165. "The popular lords did not fail to enlarge themselves on the subject."--Mrs. Macaulay's Hist., iii, 177. "He is always master of his subject; and seems to play himself with it."--Blair's Rhet., p. 445. "But as soon as it comes the length of disease, all his secret infirmities shew themselves."--Ib., p. 256. "No man repented him of his wickedness."--Jeremiah, viii, 6. "Go thee one way or other, either on the right hand, or on the left."--Ezekiel, xxi, 16. "He lies him down by the rivers side."--Walker's Particles, p. 99. "My desire has been for some years past, to retire myself to some of our American plantations."--Cowley's Pref. to his Poems, p. vii. "I fear me thou wilt shrink from the payment of it."--Zenobia, i, 76. "We never recur an idea, without acquiring some combination."--Rippingham's Art of Speaking, p. xxxii.

  "Yet more; the stroke of death he must abide,
   Then lies him meekly down fast by his brethren's side."--Milton.


UNDER NOTE III.--OF VERBS MISAPPLIED.

"A parliament forfeited all those who had borne arms against the king."--Hume's Hist., ii, 223. "The practice of forfeiting ships which had been wrecked."--Ib., i, 500. "The nearer his military successes approached him to the throne."--Ib., v, 383. "In the next example, you personifies ladies, therefore it is plural."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 103. "The first its personates vale; the second its represents stream."--Ib., p. 103. "Pronouns do not always avoid the repetition of nouns."--Ib., p. 96. "Very is an adverb of comparison, it compares the adjective good."--Ib., p. 88. "You will please to commit the following paragraph."--Ib., p. 140. "Even the Greek and Latin passive verbs require an auxiliary to conjugate some of their tenses."--Murray's Gram., p. 100. "The deponent verbs, in Latin, require also an auxiliary to conjugate several of their tenses."--Ib., p. 100. "I have no doubt he made as wise and true proverbs, as any body has done since."--Ib., p. 145. "A uniform variety assumes as many set forms as Proteus had shapes."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 72. "When words in apposition follow each other in quick succession."--Nixon's Parser, p. 57. "Where such sentences frequently succeed each other."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 349. "Wisdom leads us to speak and act what is most proper."--Blair's Rhet., p. 99; Murray's Gram., i, 303.

  "Jul. Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?
   Rom. Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike."--Shak.


UNDER NOTE IV.--OF PASSIVE VERBS.

"We too must be allowed the privilege of forming our own laws."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 134. "For we are not only allowed the use of all the ancient poetic feet," &c.--Ib., p. 259; Kirkham's Elocution, 143; Jamieson's Rhet., 310. "By what code of morals am I denied the right and privilege?"--Dr. Bartlett's Lect., p. 4. "The children of Israel have alone been denied the possession of it."--Keith's Evidences, p. 68. "At York fifteen hundred Jews were refused all quarter."--Ib., p. 73. "He would teach the French language in three lessons, provided he was paid fifty-five dollars in advance."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 4. "And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come."--Luke, xvii, 20. "I have been shown a book."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 392. "John Horne Tooke was refused admission only because he had been in holy orders."--Diversions of Purley, i, 60. "Mr. Horne Tooke having taken orders, he was refused admission to the bar."--Churchill's Gram., p. 145. "Its reference to place is lost sight of."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 116. "What striking lesson are we taught by the tenor of this history?"--Bush's Questions, p. 71. "He had been left, by a friend, no less than eighty thousand pounds."--Priestley's Gram., p. 112. "Where there are many things to be done, each must be allowed its share of time and labour."--Johnson's Pref. to Dict., p. xiii. "Presenting the subject in a far more practical form than it has been heretofore given."--Kirkham's Phrenology, p. v. "If a being of entire impartiality should be shown the two companies."--Scott's Pref. to Bible, p. vii. "He was offered the command of the British army."--Grimshaw's Hist., p. 81. "Who had been unexpectedly left a considerable sum."--Johnson's Life of Goldsmith. "Whether a maid or a widow may be granted such a privilege."--Spectator, No. 536. "Happily all these affected terms have been denied the public suffrage."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 199. "Let him next be shewn the parsing table."--Nutting's Gram., p. viii. "Thence, he may be shown the use of the Analyzing Table."--Ib., p. ix. "Pittacus was offered a great sum of money."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 228. "He had been allowed more time for study."--Ib., p. 229. "If the walks were a little taken care of that lie between them."--Addison's Spect., No. 414. "Suppose I am offered an office or a bribe."--Pierpont's Discourse, Jan. 27, 1839.

  "Am I one chaste, one last embrace deny'd?
   Shall I not lay me by his clay-cold side?"
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. ix, l. 103.


UNDER NOTE V.--PASSIVE VERBS TRANSITIVE.

"The preposition to is made use of before nouns of place, when they follow verbs and participles of motion."--Murray's Gram., p. 203; Ingersoll's, 231; Greenlef's, 35; Fisk's, 143; Smith's, 170; Guy's, 90; Fowler's, 555. "They were refused entrance into the house."--Murray's Key, ii, 204. "Their separate signification has been lost sight of."--Horne Tooke, ii, 422. "But, whenever ye is made use of, it must be in the nominative, and never in the objective, case."--Cobbett's E. Gram., 58. "It is said, that more persons than one are paid handsome salaries, for taking care to see acts of parliament properly worded."--Churchill's Gram., p. 334. "The following Rudiments of English Grammar, have been made use of in the University of Pennsylvania."--DR. ROGERS: in Harrison's Gram., p. 2. "It never should be lost sight of."--Newman's Rhetoric, p. 19. "A very curious fact hath been taken notice of by those expert metaphysicians."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 281. "The archbishop interfered that Michelet's lectures might be put a stop to."--The Friend, ix, 378. "The disturbances in Gottengen have been entirely put an end to."--Daily Advertiser. "Besides those that are taken notice of in these exceptions."--Priestley's Gram., p. 6. "As one, two, or three auxiliary verbs are made use of."--Ib., p. 24. "The arguments which have been made use of."--Addison's Evidences, p. 32. "The circumstance is properly taken notice of by the author."--Blair's Rhet., p. 217. "Patagonia has never been taken possession of by any European nation."--Cumming's Geog., p. 62. "He will be found fault withal no more, i. e. not hereafter."--Walker's Particles, p. 226. "The thing was to be put an end to somehow."--Leigh Hunt's Byron, p. 15. "In 1798, the Papal Territory was taken possession of by the French."--Pinnock's Geog., p. 223. "The idea has not for a moment been lost sight of by the Board."--Common School Journal, i, 37. "I shall easily be excused the labour of more transcription."--Johnson's Life of Dryden. "If I may be allowed that expression."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 259, and 288. "If without offence I may be indulged the observation."--Ib., p. 295. "There are other characters, which are frequently made use of in composition."-- Murray's Gram., p. 280; Ingersoll's, 293. "Such unaccountable infirmities might be in many, perhaps in most, cases got the better of."--Seattle's Moral Science, i, 153. "Which ought never to be had recourse to."--Ib., i, 186. "That the widows may be taken care of."--Barclay's Works, i, 499. "Other cavils will yet be taken notice of."--Pope's Pref. to Homer. "Which implies, that all Christians are offered eternal salvation."--West's Letters, p. 149. "Yet even the dogs are allowed the crumbs which fall from their master's table."--Campbell's Gospels, Matt., xv. 27. "For we say the light within must be taken heed unto."--Barclay's Works, i, 148. "This sound of a is taken notice of in Steele's Grammar."--Walker's Dict., p. 22. "One came to be paid ten guineas for a pair of silver buckles."--Castle Rackrent, p. 104. "Let him, therefore, be carefully shewn the application of the several questions in the table."--Nutting's Gram., p. 8, "After a few times, it is no longer taken notice of by the hearers."--Sheridan's Lect., p. 182. "It will not admit of the same excuse, nor be allowed the same indulgence, by people of any discernment."--Ibid. "Inanimate things may be made property of."--Beanie's M. Sci., p. 355.

  "And, when he's bid a liberaller price,
   Will not be sluggish in the work, nor nice."--Butler's Poems, p. 162.


UNDER NOTE VI.--OF PERFECT PARTICIPLES.

"All the words made use of to denote spiritual and intellectual things, are in their origin metaphors."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 380. "A reply to an argument commonly made use of by unbelievers."--Blair's Rhet., p. 293. "It was heretofore the only form made use of in the preter tenses."--Dr. Ash's Gram., p. 47. "Of the points, and other characters made use of in writing."--Ib., p. xv. "If thy be the personal pronoun made use of."--Walker's Dict. "The Conjunction is a word made use of to connect sentences."--Burn's Gram., p. 28. "The points made use of to answer these purposes are the four following."--Harrison's Gram., p. 67. "Incense signifies perfumes exhaled by fire, and made use of in religious ceremonies."--Murray's Key, p. 171. "In most of his orations, there is too much art; even carried the length of ostentation."--Blair's Rhet., p. 246. "To illustrate the great truth, so often lost sight of in our times."--Common School Journal, I, 88. "The principal figures, made use of to affect the heart, are Exclamation, Confession, Deprecation, Commination, and Imprecation."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 133. "Disgusted at the odious artifices made use of by the Judge."--Junius, p. 13. "The whole reasons of our being allotted a condition, out of which so much wickedness and misery would in fact arise."--Butler's Analogy p. 109. "Some characteristieal circumstance being generally invented or laid hold of."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 246.

  "And by is likewise us'd with Names that shew
   The Means made use of, or the Method how."--Ward's Gram., p. 105.


UNDER NOTE VII.--CONSTRUCTIONS AMBIGUOUS.

"Many adverbs admit of degrees of comparison as well as adjectives."--Priestley's Gram., p. 133. "But the author, who, by the number and reputation of his works, formed our language more than any one, into its present state, is Dryden."--Blair's Rhet., p. 180. "In some States, Courts of Admiralty have no juries, nor Courts of Chancery at all."--Webster's Essays, p, 146. "I feel myself grateful to my friend."--Murray's Key, p. 276. "This requires a writer to have, himself, a very clear apprehension of the object he means to present to us."--Blair's Rhet., p. 94. "Sense has its own harmony, as well as sound."--lb., p. 127. "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an i which was formerly inserted, and made an addition of a syllable to the word."--Priestley's Gram., p. 67. "There are few, whom I can refer to, with more advantage than Mr. Addison."--Blair's Rhet., p. 139. "DEATH, in theology, [is a] perpetual separation from God, and eternal torments."--Webster's Dict. "That could inform the traveler as well as the old man himself!"--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 345.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--YE AND YOU IN SCRIPTURE.

"Ye daughters of Rabbah, gird ye with sackcloth."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Jer., xlix, 3. "Wash ye, make you clean."--Brown's Concordance, w. Wash. "Strip ye, and make ye bare, and gird sackcloth upon your loins."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Isaiah, xxxii, 11. "You are not ashamed that you make yourselves strange to me."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Job, xix, 3. "You are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me."--ALGER'S BIBLE: ib. "If you knew the gift of God."--Brown's Concordance, w. Knew. "Depart from me, ye workers of iniquity, I know ye not."--Penington's Works, ii, 122.


RULE VI.--SAME CASES.

A Noun or a Pronoun put after a verb or participle not transitive, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing: as, "It is I."--"These are they."--"The child was named John."--"It could not be he."--"The Lord sitteth King forever."--Psalms, xxix, 10.

  "What war could ravish, commerce could bestow,
   And he return'd a friend, who came a foe."
       --Pope, Ep. iii, l. 206.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE VI.

OBS. 1.--Active-transitive verbs, and their imperfect and preperfect participles, always govern the objective case; but active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their participles, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing. The latter are rightly supposed not to govern[357] any case; nor are they in general followed by any noun or pronoun. But, because they are not transitive, some of them become connectives to such words as are in the same case and signify the same thing. That is, their finite tenses may be followed by a nominative, and their infinitives and participles by a nominative or an objective, agreeing with a noun or a pronoun which precedes them. The cases are the same, because the person or thing is one; as, "I am he."--"Thou art Peter."--"Civil government being the sole object of forming societies, its administration must be conducted by common consent."--Jefferson's Notes, p. 129. Identity is both the foundation and the characteristic of this construction. We chiefly use it to affirm or deny, to suggest or question, the sameness of things; but sometimes figuratively, to illustrate the relations of persons or things by comparison:[358] as, "I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman."--John, xv, 1. "I am the vine, ye are the branches."--John, xv, 5. Even the names of direct opposites, are sometimes put in the same case, under this rule; as,

  "By such a change thy darkness is made light,
   Thy chaos order, and thy weakness might."--Cowper, Vol. i, p. 88.

OBS. 2.--In this rule, the terms after and preceding refer rather to the order of the sense and construction, than to the mere placing of the words; for the words in fact admit of various positions. The proper subject of the verb is the nominative to it, or before it, by Rule 2d; and the other nominative, however placed, is understood to be that which comes after it, by Rule 6th. In general, however, the proper subject precedes the verb, and the other word follows it, agreeably to the literal sense of the rule. But when the proper subject is placed after the verb, as in certain instances specified in the second observation under Rule 2d, the explanatory nominative is commonly introduced still later; as, "But be thou an example of the believers."--1 Tim. iv, 12. "But what! is thy servant a dog?"--2 Kings, viii, 13. "And so would I, were I Parmenio."--Goldsmith. "O Conloch's daughter! is it thou?"--Ossian. But in the following example, on the contrary, there is a transposition of the entire lines, and the verb agrees with the two nominatives in the latter:

  "To thee were solemn toys or empty show,
   The robes of pleasure and the veils of wo."--Dr. Johnson.

OBS. 3.--In interrogative sentences, the terms are usually transposed,[359] or both are placed after the verb; as, "Am I a Jew?"--John, xviii, 35. "Art thou a king then?"--Ib., ver. 37. "What is truth?"--Ib., ver. 38. "Who art thou?"--Ib., i, 19. "Art thou Elias?"--Ib., i, 21. "Tell me, Alciphron, is not distance a line turned endwise to the eye?"--Berkley's Dialogues, p. 161.

  "Whence, and what art thou, execrable shape?"--Milton.
   "Art thou that traitor angel? art thou he?"--Idem.

OBS. 4.--In a declarative sentence also, there may be a rhetorical or poetical transposition of one or both of the terms: as, "And I thy victim now remain."--Francis's Horace, ii, 45. "To thy own dogs a prey thou shalt be made."--Pope's Homer, "I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame."--Job, xxix, 15. "Far other scene is Thrasymenè now."--Byron. In the following sentence, the latter term is palpably misplaced: "It does not clearly appear at first what the antecedent is to they."--Blair's Rhet., p. 218. Say rather: "It does not clearly appear at first, what is the antecedent to [the pronoun] they." In examples transposed like the following, there is an elegant ellipsis of the verb to which the pronoun is nominative; as, am, art, &c.

  "When pain and anguish wring the brow,
   A ministering angel thou."--Scott's Marmion.
   "The forum's champion, and the people's chief,
   Her new-born Numa thou--with reign, alas! too brief."--Byron.
   "For this commission'd, I forsook the sky--
   Nay, cease to kneel--thy fellow-servant I."--Parnell.

OBS. 5.--In some peculiar constructions, both words naturally come before the verb; as, "I know not who she is."--"Who did you say it was?"--"I know not how to tell thee who I am."--Romeo. "Inquire thou whose son the stripling is."--1 Sam., xvii, 56. "Man would not be the creature which he now is."--Blair. "I could not guess who it should be."--Addison. And they are sometimes placed in this manner by hyberbaton [sic--KTH], or transposition; as, "Yet he it is."--Young. "No contemptible orator he was."--Dr. Blair. "He it is to whom I shall give a sop."--John, xiii, 26. "And a very noble personage Cato is."--Blair's Rhet., p. 457. "Clouds they are without water."--Jude, 12.

  "Of worm or serpent kind it something looked,
   But monstrous, with a thousand snaky heads."--Pollok, B. i, l. 183.

OBS. 6.--As infinitives and participles have no nominatives of their own, such of them as are not transitive in their nature, may take different cases after them; and, in order to determine what case it is that follows them, the learner must carefully observe what preceding word denotes the same person or thing, and apply the principle of the rule accordingly. This word being often remote, and sometimes understood, the sense is the only clew to the construction. Examples: "Who then can bear the thought of being an outcast from his presence?"--Addison. Here outcast agrees with who, and not with thought. "I cannot help being so passionate an admirer as I am."--Steele. Here admirer agrees with I. "To recommend what the soberer part of mankind look upon to be a trifle."--Steele. Here trifle agrees with what as relative, the objective governed by upon. "It would be a romantic madness, for a man to be a lord in his closet."--Id. Here madness is in the nominative case, agreeing with it; and lord, in the objective, agreeing with man. "To affect to be a lord in one's closet, would be a romantic madness." In this sentence also, lord is in the objective, after to be; and madness, in the nominative, after would be.

  "'My dear Tibullus!' If that will not do,
   Let me be Horace, and be Ovid you."--Pope, B. ii, Ep. ii, 143.

OBS. 7.--An active-intransitive or a neuter participle in ing, when governed by a preposition, is often followed by a noun or a pronoun the case of which depends not on the preposition, but on the case which goes before. Example: "The Jews were in a particular manner ridiculed for being a credulous people."--Addison's Evidences, p. 28. Here people is in the nominative case, agreeing with Jews. Again: "The learned pagans ridiculed the Jews for being a credulous people." Here people is in the objective case, because the preceding noun Jews is so. In both instances the preposition for governs the participle being, and nothing else. "The atrocious crime of being a young man, I shall neither attempt to palliate or deny."--PITT: Bullions's E. Gram., p. 82; S. S. Greene's, 174. Sanborn has this text, with "nor" for "or."--Analytical Gram., p. 190. This example has been erroneously cited, as one in which the case of the noun after the participle is not determined by its relation to any other word. Sanborn absurdly supposes it to be "in the nominative independent." Bullions as strangely tells us, "it may correctly be called the objective indefinite"--like me in the following example: "He was not sure of its being me."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 82. This latter text I take to be bad English. It should be, "He was not sure of it as being me;" or, "He was not sure that it was I." But, in the text above, there is an evident transposition. The syntactical order is this: "I shall neither deny nor attempt to palliate the atrocious crime of being a young man." The words man and I refer to the same person, and are therefore in the same case, according to the rule which I have given above.

OBS. 8.--S. S. Greene, in his late Grammar, improperly denominates this case after the participle being, "the predicate-nominative," and imagines that it necessarily remains a nominative even when the possessive case precedes the participle. If he were right in this, there would be an important exception to Rule 6th above. But so singularly absurd is his doctrine about "abridged predicates," that in general the abridging shows an increase of syllables, and often a conversion of good English into bad. For example: "It [the predicate] remains unchanged in the nominative, when, with the participle of the copula, it becomes a verbal noun, limited by the possessive case of the subject; as, 'That he was a foreigner prevented his election,'='His being a foreigner prevented his election.'"--Greene's Analysis, p. 169. Here the number of syllables is unaltered; but foreigner is very improperly called "a verbal noun," and an example which only lacks a comma, is changed to what Wells rightly calls an "anomalous expression," and one wherein that author supposes foreigner and his to be necessarily in the same case. But Greene varies this example into other "abridged forms," thus: "I knew that he was a foreigner," = "I knew his being, or of his being a foreigner." "The fact that he was a foreigner, = of his being a foreigner, was undeniable." "When he was first called a foreigner, = on his being first called a foreigner, his anger was excited."--Ib., p. 171. All these changes enlarge, rather than abridge, the expression; and, at the same time, make it questionable English, to say the least of it.

OBS. 9.--In some examples, the adverb there precedes the participle, and we evidently have nothing by which to determine the case that follows; as, "These judges were twelve in number. Was this owing to there being twelve primary deities among the Gothic nations?"--Webster's Essays, p. 263. Say rather: "Was this because there were twelve primary deities among the Gothic nations?" "How many are injured by Adam's fall, that know nothing of there ever being such a man in the world!"--Barclay's Apology, p. 185. Say rather,--"who know not that there ever was such a man in the world!"

OBS. 10.--In some other examples, we find a possessive before the participle, and a doubtful case after it; as, "This our Saviour himself was pleased to make use of as the strongest argument of his being the promised Messiah"--Addison's Evidences, p. 81. "But my chief affliction consisted in my being singled out from all the other boys, by a lad about fifteen years of age, as a proper object upon whom he might let loose the cruelty of his temper."--Cowper's Memoir, p. 13. "[Greek: Tou patros [ontos] onou euthus hypemnæsthæ]. He had some sort of recollection of his father's being an ass"--Collectanea Græca Minora, Notæ, p. 7. This construction, though not uncommon, is anomalous in more respects than one. Whether or not it is worthy to form an exception to the rule of same cases, or even to that of possessives, the reader may judge from the observations made on it under the latter. I should rather devise some way to avoid it, if any can be found--and I believe there can; as, "This our Saviour himself was pleased to advance as the strongest proof that he was the promised Messiah."--"But my chief affliction consisted in this, that I was singled out," &c. The story of the mule is, "He seemed to recollect on a sudden that his father was an ass." This is the proper meaning of the Greek text above; but the construction is different, the Greek nouns being genitives in apposition.

OBS. 11.--A noun in the nominative case sometimes follows a finite verb, when the equivalent subject that stands before the verb, is not a noun or pronoun, but a phrase or a sentence which supplies the place of a nominative; as, "That the barons and freeholders derived their authority from kings, is wholly a mistake."--Webster's Essays, p. 277. "To speak of a slave as a member of civil society, may, by some, be regarded a solecism."--Stroud's Sketch, p. 65. Here mistake and solecism are as plainly nominatives, as if the preceding subjects had been declinable words.

OBS. 12.--When a noun is put after an abstract infinitive that is not transitive, it appears necessarily to be in the objective case,[360] though not governed by the verb; for if we supply any noun to which such infinitive may be supposed to refer, it must be introduced before the verb by the preposition for: as, "To be an Englishman in London, a Frenchman in Paris, a Spaniard in Madrid, is no easy matter; and yet it is necessary."--Home's Art of Thinking, p. 89. That is, "For a traveller to be an Englishman in London," &c. "It is certainly as easy to be a scholar, as a gamester."--Harris's Hermes, p. 425. That is, "It is as easy for a young man to be a scholar, as it is for him to be a gamester." "To be an eloquent speaker, in the proper sense of the word, is far from being a common or easy attainment."--Blair's Rhet., p. 337. Here attainment is in the nominative, after is--or, rather after being, for it follows both; and speaker, in the objective after to be. "It is almost as hard a thing [for a man] to be a poet in despite of fortune, as it is [for one to be a poet] in despite of nature."--Cowley's Preface to his Poems, p. vii.

OBS. 13.--Where precision is necessary, loose or abstract infinitives are improper; as, "But to be precise, signifies, that they express that idea, and no more."--Blair's Rhet., p. 94; Murray's Gram., 301; Jamieson's Rhet., 64. Say rather: "But, for an author's words to be precise, signifies, that they express his exact idea, and nothing more or less."

OBS. 14.--The principal verbs that take the same case after as before them, except those which are passive, are the following: to be, to stand, to sit, to lie, to live, to grow, to become, to turn, to commence, to die, to expire, to come, to go, to range, to wander, to return, to seem, to appear, to remain, to continue, to reign. There are doubtless some others, which admit of such a construction; and of some of these, it is to be observed, that they are sometimes transitive, and govern the objective: as, "To commence a suit."--Johnson. "O continue thy loving kindness unto them."--Psalms, xxxvi, 10. "A feather will turn the scale."--Shak. "Return him a trespass offering."--1 Samuel. "For it becomes me so to speak."--Dryden. But their construction with like cases is easily distinguished by the sense; as, "When I commenced author, my aim was to amuse."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 286. "Men continue men's destroyers."--Nixon's Parser, p. 56. "'Tis most just, that thou turn rascal"--Shak., Timon of Athens. "He went out mate, but he returned captain."--Murray's Gram., p. 182. "After this event he became physician to the king."--Ib. That is, "When I began to be an author," &c.

  "Ev'n mean self-love becomes, by force divine,
   The scale to measure others' wants by thine."--Pope.

OBS. 15.--The common instructions of our English grammars, in relation to the subject of the preceding rule, are exceedingly erroneous and defective. For example: "The verb TO BE, has always a nominative case after it, unless it be in the infinitive mode."--Lowth's Gram., p. 77. "The verb TO BE requires the same case after it as before it."--Churchill's Gram., p. 142. "The verb TO BE, through all its variations, has the same case after it, expressed or understood, as that which next precedes it."--Murray's Gram., p. 181; Alger's, 62; Merchant's, 91; Putnam's, 116; Smith's, 97; and many others. "The verb TO BE has usually the same case after it, as that which immediately precedes it."--Hall's Gram., p. 31. "Neuter verbs have the same case after them, as that which next precedes them."--Folker's Gram., p. 14. "Passive verbs which signify naming, and others of a similar nature, have the same case before and after them."--Murray's Gram., p. 182. "A Noun or Pronoun used in predication with a verb, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES--'Thou art a scholar.' 'It is I.' 'God is love.'"--S. W. Clark's Pract. Gram., p. 149. So many and monstrous are the faults of these rules, that nothing but very learned and reverend authority, could possibly impose such teaching anywhere. The first, though written by Lowth, is not a whit wiser than to say, "The preposition to has always an infinitive mood after it, unless it be a preposition." And this latter absurdity is even a better rule for all infinitives, than the former for all predicated nominatives. Nor is there much more fitness in any of the rest. "The verb TO BE, through all," or even in any, of its parts, has neither "always" nor usually a case "expressed or understood" after it; and, even when there is a noun or a pronoun put after it, the case is, in very many instances, not to be determined by that which "next" or "immediately" precedes the verb. Examples: "A sect of freethinkers is a sum of ciphers."--Bentley. "And I am this day weak, though anointed king."--2 Sam., iii, 39. "What made Luther a great man, was his unshaken reliance on God."--Kortz's Life of Luther, p. 13. "The devil offers his service; He is sent with a positive commission to be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets."--Calvin's Institutes, p. 131. It is perfectly certain that in these four texts, the words sum, king, reliance, and spirit, are nominatives, after the verb or participle; and not objectives, as they must be, if there were any truth in the common assertion, "that the two cases, which, in the construction of the sentence, are the next before and after it, must always be alike."--Smith's New Gram., p. 98. Not only may the nominative before the verb be followed by an objective, but the nominative after it may be preceded by a possessive; as, "Amos, the herdsman of Tekoa, was not a prophet's son."--"It is the king's chapel, and it is the king's court."--Amos, vii, 13. How ignorant then must that person be, who cannot see the falsity of the instructions above cited! How careless the reader who overlooks it!


NOTES TO RULE VI.

NOTE I.--The putting of a noun in an unknown case after a participle or a participial noun, produces an anomaly which it seems better to avoid; for the cases ought to be clear, even in exceptions to the common rules of construction. Examples: (1.) "WIDOWHOOD, n. The state of being a widow."--Webster's Dict. Say rather, "WIDOWHOOD, n. The state of a widow."--Johnson, Walker, Worcester. (2.) "I had a suspicion of the fellow's being a swindler/" Say rather, "I had a suspicion that the fellow was a swindler." (3.) "To prevent its being a dry detail of terms."--Buck. Better, "To prevent it from being a dry detail of terms." [361]

NOTE II.--The nominative which follows a verb or participle, ought to accord in signification, either literally or figuratively, with the preceding term which is taken for a sign of the same thing. Errors: (1.) "To be convicted of bribery, was then a crime altogether unpardonable."--Blair's Rhet., p. 265. To be convicted of a crime, is not the crime itself; say, therefore, "Bribery was then a crime altogether unpardonable." (2.) "The second person is the object of the Imperative."--Murray's Gram., Index, ii, 292. Say rather, "The second person is the subject of the imperative;" for the object of a verb is the word governed by it, and not its nominative.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VI.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF PROPER IDENTITY.

"Who would not say, 'If it be me,' rather than, If it be I?"--Priestley's Gram., p. 105.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun me,--which comes after the neuter verb be, is in the objective case, and does not agree with the pronoun it, the verb's nominative,[362] which refers to the same thing. But, according to Rule 6th, "A noun or a pronoun put after a verb or participle not transitive, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing." Therefore, me should be I; thus, "Who would not say, 'If it be I,' rather than, 'If it be me?'"]

"Who is there? It is me."--Priestley, ib., p. 104. "It is him."--Id., ib., 104. "Are these the houses you were speaking of? Yes, they are them."--Id., ib., 104. "It is not me you are in love with."--Addison's Spect., No. 290; Priestley's Gram., p. 104; and Campbell's Rhet., p. 203. "It cannot be me."--SWIFT: Priestley's Gram., p. 104. "To that which once was thee."--PRIOR: ib., 104. "There is but one man that she can have, and that is me."--CLARISSA: ib., 104. "We enter, as it were, into his body, and become, in some measure, him."--ADAM SMITH: ib., p. 105. "Art thou proud yet? Ay, that I am not thee."--Shak., Timon. "He knew not whom they were."--Milnes, Greek Gram., p. 234. "Who do you think me to be?"--Priestley's Gram., p. 108. "Whom do men say that I, the Son of man, am?"--Matt., xvi, 13. "But whom say ye that I am?"--Ib., xvi, 15.--"Whom think ye that I am? I am not he."--Acts, xiii, 25. "No; I am mistaken; I perceive it is not the person whom I supposed it was."--Winter in London, ii, 66. "And while it is Him I serve, life is not without value."--Zenobia, i, 76. "Without ever dreaming it was him."--Life of Charles XII, p. 271. "Or he was not the illiterate personage whom he affected to be."--Montgomery's Lect. "Yet was he him, who was to be the greatest apostle of the Gentiles."--Barclay's Works, i, 540. "Sweet was the thrilling ecstacy; I know not if 'twas love, or thee."--Queen's Wake, p. 14. "Time was, when none would cry, that oaf was me."--Dryden, Prol. "No matter where the vanquish'd be, nor whom."--Rowe's Lucan, B. i, l. 676. "No, I little thought it had been him."--Life of Oration. "That reverence and godly fear, whose object is 'Him who can destroy both body and soul in hell.'"--Maturin's Sermons, p. 312. "It is us that they seek to please, or rather to astonish."--West's Letters, p. 28. "Let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac."--Gen., xxiv, 14. "Although I knew it to be he."--Dickens's Notes, p. 9. "Dear gentle youth, is't none but thee?"--Dorset's Poems, p. 4. "Whom do they say it is?"--Fowler's E. Gram., §493.

  "These are her garb, not her; they but express
   Her form, her semblance, her appropriate dress."--Hannah More.


UNDER NOTE I.--THE CASE DOUBTFUL.

"I had no knowledge of there being any connexion between them."--Stone, on Freemasonry, p. 25. "To promote iniquity in others, is nearly the same as being the actors of it ourselves."--Murray's Key, p. 170. "It must arise from feeling delicately ourselves."--Blair's Rhet., p. 330; Murray's Gram., 248. "By reason of there not having been exercised a competent physical power for their enforcement."--Mass. Legislature, 1839. "PUPILAGE, n. The state of being a scholar."--Johnson, Walker, Webster, Worcester. "Then the other part's being the definition would make it include all verbs of every description."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 343. "John's being my friend,[363] saved me from inconvenience."--Ib., p. 201. "William's having become a judge, changed his whole demeanor."--Ib., p. 201. "William's having been a teacher, was the cause of the interest which he felt."--Ib., p. 216. "The being but one among many stifleth the chidings of conscience."--Book of Thoughts, p. 131. "As for its being esteemed a close translalation [sic--KTH], I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it."--Pope's Pref. to Homer. "All presumption of death's being the destruction of living beings, must go upon supposition that they are compounded, and so discerptible."--Butler's Analogy, p. 63. "This argues rather their being proper names."--Churchill's Gram., p. 382. "But may it not be retorted, that its being a gratification is that which excites our resentment?"--Campbell's Rhet., p. 145. "Under the common notion, of its being a system of the whole poetical art."--Blair's Rhet., p. 401. "Whose time or other circumstances forbid their becoming classical scholars."--Literary Convention, p. 113. "It would preclude the notion of his being a merely fictitious personage."--Philological Museum, i, 446. "For, or under pretence of their being heretics or infidels."--The Catholic Oath; Geo. III, 31st. "We may here add Dr. Home's sermon on Christ's being the Object of religious Adoration."--Relig. World, Vol. ii, p. 200. "To say nothing of Dr. Priestley's being a strenuous advocate," &c.--Ib., ii, 207. "By virtue of Adam's being their public head."--Ib., ii, 233. "Objections against there being any such moral plan as this."--Butler's Analogy, p. 57. "A greater instance of a man's being a blockhead."--Spect., No. 520. "We may insure or promote its being a happy state of existence to ourselves."--Gurney's Evidences, p. 86. "By its often falling a victim to the same kind of unnatural treatment."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 41. "Their appearing foolishness is no presumption against this."--Butler's Analogy, p. 189. "But what arises from their being offences; i. e. from their being liable to be perverted."--Ib., p. 185. "And he entered into a certain man's house, named Justus, one that worshipped God."--Acts, xviii, 7.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF FALSE IDENTIFICATION.

"But to be popular, he observes, is an ambiguous word."--Blair's Rhet., p. 307. "The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is often the nominative case to a verb."--L. Murray's Index, Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 290. "When any person, in speaking, introduces his own name, it is the first person; as, 'I, James, of the city of Boston.'"--R. C. Smith's New Gram., p. 43. "The name of the person spoken to, is the second person; as, 'James, come to me.'"--Ibid. "The name of the person or thing spoken of, or about, is the third person; as, 'James has come.'"--Ibid. "The object [of a passive verb] is always its subject or nominative case."--Ib., p. 62. "When a noun is in the nominative case to an active verb, it is the actor."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 44. "And the person commanded, is its nominative."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 120. "The first person is that who speaks."--Pasquier's Lévizac, p. 91. "The Conjugation of a Verb is its different variations or inflections throughout the Moods and Tenses."--Wright's Gram., p. 80. "The first person is the speaker. The second person is the one spoken to. The third person is the one spoken of."--Parker and Fox's Gram., Part i, p. 6; Hiley's, 18. "The first person is the one that speaks, or the speaker."--Sanborn's Gram., pp. 23 and 75. "The second person is the one that is spoken to, or addressed."--Ibid. "The third person is the one that is spoken of, or that is the topic of conversation."--Ibid. "I, is the first person Singular. We, is the first person Plural."--Murray's Gram., p. 51; Alger's, Ingersoll's, and many others. "Thou, is the second person Singular. Ye or you, is the second person Plural."--Ibid. "He, she, or it, is the third person Singular. They, is the third person Plural."--Ibid. "The nominative case is the actor, or subject of the verb."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 43. "The noun John is the actor, therefore John is in the nominative case."--Ibid. "The actor is always the nominative case."--Smith's New Gram., p. 62. "The nominative case is always the agent or actor."--Mack's Gram., p. 67. "Tell the part of speech each name is."--J. Flint's Gram., p. 6. "What number is boy? Why? What number is pens? Why?"--Ib., p. 27. "The speaker is the first person, the person spoken to, the second person, and the person or thing spoken of, is the third person."--Ib., p. 26. "What nouns are masculine gender? All males are masculine gender."--Ib., p. 28. "An interjection is a sudden emotion of the mind."--Barrett's Gram., p. 62.


RULE VII.--OBJECTIVES.

A Noun or a Pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case: as, "The temple of fame stands upon the grave: the flame that burns upon its altars, is kindled from the ashes of great men"--Hazlitt.

"Life is His gift, from whom whate'er life needs, With ev'ry good and perfect gift, proceeds."--Cowper, Vol. i, p. 95.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE VII.

OBS. 1.--To this rule there are no exceptions; for prepositions, in English, govern no other case than the objective.[364] But the learner should observe that most of our prepositions may take the imperfect participle for their object, and some, the pluperfect, or preperfect; as, "On opening the trial they accused him of having defrauded them."--"A quick wit, a nice judgment, &c., could not raise this man above being received only upon the foot of contributing to mirth and diversion."--Steele. And the preposition to is often followed by an infinitive verb; as, "When one sort of wind is said to whistle, and an other to roar; when a serpent is said to hiss, a fly to buzz, and falling timber to crash; when a stream is said to flow, and hail to rattle; the analogy between the word and the thing signified, is plainly discernible."--Blair's Rhet., p. 55. But let it not be supposed that participles or infinitives, when they are governed by prepositions, are therefore in the objective case; for case is no attribute of either of these classes of words: they are indeclinable in English, whatever be the relations they assume. They are governed as participles, or as infinitives, and not as cases. The mere fact of government is so far from creating the modification governed, that it necessarily presupposes it to exist, and that it is something cognizable in etymology.

OBS. 2.--The brief assertion, that, "Prepositions govern the objective case," which till very lately our grammarians have universally adopted as their sole rule for both terms, the governing and the governed,--the preposition and its object,--is, in respect to both, somewhat exceptionable, being but partially and lamely applicable to either. It neither explains the connecting nature of the preposition, nor applies to all objectives, nor embraces all the terms which a preposition may govern. It is true, that prepositions, when they introduce declinable words, or words that have cases, always govern the objective; but the rule is liable to be misunderstood, and is in fact often misapplied, as if it meant something more than this. Besides, in no other instance do grammarians attempt to parse both the governing word and the governed, by one and the same rule. I have therefore placed the objects of this government here, where they belong in the order of the parts of speech, expressing the rule in such terms as cannot be mistaken; and have also given, in its proper place, a distinct rule for the construction of the preposition itself. See Rule 23d.

OBS. 3.--Prepositions are sometimes elliptically construed with adjectives, the real object of the relation being thought to be some objective noun understood: as, in vain, in secret, at first, on high; i. e. in a vain manner, in secret places, at the first time, on high places. Such phrases usually imply time, place, degree, or manner, and are equivalent to adverbs. In parsing, the learner may supply the ellipsis.

OBS. 4.--In some phrases, a preposition seems to govern a perfect participle; but these expressions are perhaps rather to be explained as being elliptical: as, "To give it up for lost;"--"To take that for granted which is disputed."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 109. That is, perhaps, "To give it up for a thing lost;"--"To take that for a thing granted," &c. In the following passage the words ought and should are employed in such a manner that it is difficult to say to what part of speech they belong: "It is that very character of ought and should which makes justice a law to us; and the same character is applicable to propriety, though perhaps more faintly than to justice."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 286. The meaning seems to be, "It is that very character of being owed and required, that makes justice a law to us;" and this mode of expression, as it is more easy to be parsed, is perhaps more grammatical than his Lordship's. But, as preterits are sometimes put by enallage for participles, a reference of them to this figure may afford a mode of explanation in parsing, whenever they are introduced by a preposition, and not by a nominative: as, "A kind of conquest Cæsar made here; but made not here his brag Of, came, and saw, and overcame"--Shak., Cymb., iii, 1. That is,--"of having come, and seen, and overcome." Here, however, by assuming that a sentence is the object of the preposition, we may suppose the pronoun I to be understood, as ego is in the bulletin referred to, "Veni, vidi, vici." For, as a short sentence is sometimes made the subject of a verb, so is it sometimes made the object of a preposition; as,

  "Earth's highest station ends in, 'here he lies;'
   And 'dust to dust,' concludes her noblest song."--Young.

OBS. 5.--In some instances, prepositions precede adverbs; as, at once, at unawares, from thence, from above, till now, till very lately, for once, for ever. Here the adverb, though an indeclinable word, appears to be made the object of the preposition. It is in fact used substantively, and governed by the preposition. The term forever is often written as one word, and, as such, is obviously an adverb. The rest are what some writers would call adverbial phrases; a term not very consistent with itself, or with the true idea of parsing. If different parts of speech are to be taken together as having the nature of an adverb, they ought rather to coalesce and be united; for the verb to parse, being derived from the Latin pars, a part, implies in general a distinct recognition of the elements or words of every phrase or sentence.

OBS. 6.--Nouns of time, measure, distance, or value, have often so direct a relation to verbs or adjectives, that the prepositions which are supposed to govern them, are usually suppressed; as, "We rode sixty miles that day." That is,--"through sixty miles on that day." "The country is not a farthing richer."--Webster's Essays, p. 122. That is,--"richer by a farthing." "The error has been copied times without number."--Ib., p. 281. That is,--"on or at times innumerable." "A row of columns ten feet high, and a row twice that height, require different proportions." Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 344. That is,--"high to ten feet," and, "a row of twice that height." "Altus sex pedes, High on or at six feet."--Dr. Murray's Hist of Europ. Lang., ii, 150. All such nouns are in the objective case, and, in parsing them, the learner may supply the ellipsis;[365] or, perhaps it might be as well, to say, as do B. H. Smart and some others, that the noun is an objective of time, measure, or value, taken adverbially, and relating directly to the verb or adjective qualified by it. Such expressions as, "A board of six feet long,"--"A boy of twelve years old," are wrong. Either strike out the of, or say, "A board of six feet in length,"--"A boy of twelve years of age;" because this preposition is not suited to the adjective, nor is the adjective fit to qualify the time or measure.

OBS. 7.--After the adjectives like, near, and nigh, the preposition to or unto is often understood;[366] as, "It is like [to or unto] silver."--Allen. "How like the former."--Dryden. "Near yonder copse."--Goldsmith. "Nigh this recess."--Garth. As similarity and proximity are relations, and not qualities, it might seem proper to call like, near, and nigh, prepositions; and some grammarians have so classed the last two. Dr. Johnson seems to be inconsistent in calling near a preposition, in the phrase, "So near thy heart," and an adjective, in the phrase, "Being near their master." See his Quarto Dict. I have not placed them with the prepositions, for the following four reasons: (1.) Because they are sometimes compared; (2.) Because they sometimes have adverbs evidently relating to them; (3.) Because the preposition to or unto is sometimes expressed after them; and (4.) Because the words which usually stand for them in the learned languages, are clearly adjectives.[367] But like, when it expresses similarity of manner, and near and nigh, when they express proximity of degree, are adverbs.

OBS. 8.--The word worth is often followed by an objective, or a participle, which it appears to govern; as, "If your arguments produce no conviction, they are worth nothing to me."--Beattie. "To reign is worth ambition."--Milton. "This is life indeed, life worth preserving."--Addison. It is not easy to determine to what part of speech worth here belongs. Dr. Johnson calls it an adjective, but says nothing of the object after it, which some suppose to be governed by of understood. In this supposition, it is gratuitously assumed, that worth is equivalent to worthy, after which of should be expressed; as, "Whatsoever is worthy of their love, is worth their anger."--Denham. But as worth appears to have no certain characteristic of an adjective, some call it a noun, and suppose a double ellipsis; as, "'My knife is worth a shilling;' i. e. 'My knife is of the worth of a shilling.'"--Kirkham's Gram., p. 163. "'The book is worth that sum;' that is, 'The book is (the) worth (of) that sum;' 'It is worth while;' that is, 'It is (the) worth (of the) while.'"--Nixon's Parser, p. 54. This is still less satisfactory;[368] and as the whole appears to be mere guess-work, I see no good reason why worth is not a preposition, governing the noun or participle.[369] If an adverb precede worth, it may as well be referred to the foregoing verb, as when it occurs before any other preposition: as, "It is richly worth the money."--"It lies directly before your door." Or if we admit that an adverb sometimes relates to this word, the same thing may be as true of other prepositions; as, "And this is a lesson which, to the greatest part of mankind, is, I think, very well worth learning."--Blair's Rhet., p. 303. "He sees let down from the ceiling, exactly over his head, a glittering sword, hung by a single hair."--Murray's E. Reader, p. 33. See Exception 3d to Rule 21st.

OBS. 9.--Both Dr. Johnson and Horne Tooke, (who never agreed if they could help it,) unite in saying that worth, in the phrases, "Wo worth the man,"--"Wo worth the day," and the like, is from the imperative of the Saxon verb wyrthan or weorthan, to be; i. e., "Wo be [to] the man," or, "Wo betide the man," &c. And the latter affirms, that, as the preposition by is from the imperative of beon, to be, so with, (though admitted to be sometimes from withan, to join,) is often no other than this same imperative verb wyrth or worth: if so, the three words, by, with, and worth, were originally synonymous, and should now be referred at least to one and the same class. The dative case, or oblique object, which they governed as Saxon verbs, becomes their proper object, when taken as English prepositions; and in this also they appear to be alike. Worth, then, when it signifies value, is a common noun; but when it signifies equal in value to, it governs an objective, and has the usual characteristics of a preposition. Instances may perhaps be found in which worth is an adjective, meaning valuable or useful, as in the following lines:

  "They glow'd, and grew more intimate with God,
   More worth to men, more joyous to themselves."
       --Young, N. ix, l. 988.

In one instance, the poet Campbell appears to have used the word worthless as a preposition:

  "Eyes a mutual soul confessing,
   Soon you'll make them grow
   Dim, and worthless your possessing,
   Not with age, but woe!"

OBS. 10.--After verbs of giving, paying, procuring, and some others, there is usually an ellipsis of to or for before the objective of the person; as, "Give [to] him water to drink."--"Buy [for] me a knife."--"Pay [to] them their wages." So in the exclamation, "Wo is me!" meaning, "Wo is to me!" This ellipsis occurs chiefly before the personal pronouns, and before such nouns as come between the verb and its direct object; as, "Whosoever killeth you, will think that he doeth [to] God service."--John, xvi, 2. "Who brought [to] her masters much gain by soothsaying."--Acts, xvi, 16. "Because he gave not [to] God the glory."--Ib., xii, 23. "Give [to] me leave to allow [to] myself no respite from labour."--Spect., No. 454. "And the sons of Joseph, which were born [to] him in Egypt, were two souls."--Gen., xlvi, 27. This elliptical construction of a few objectives, is what remains to us of the ancient Saxon dative case. If the order of the words be changed, the preposition must be inserted; as, "Pray do my service to his majesty."--Shak. The doctrine inculcated by several of our grammarians, that, "Verbs of asking, giving, teaching, and some others, are often employed to govern two objectives," (Wells, §215,) I have, under a preceding rule, discountenanced; preferring the supposition, which appears to have greater weight of authority, as well as stronger support from reason, that, in the instances cited in proof of such government, a preposition is, in fact, understood. Upon this question of ellipsis, depends, in all such instances, our manner of parsing one of the objective words.

OBS. 11.--In dates, as they are usually written, there is much abbreviation; and several nouns of place and time are set down in the objective case, without the prepositions which govern them: as, "New York, Wednesday, 20th October, 1830."--Journal of Literary Convention. That is, "At New York, on Wednesday, the 20th day of October, in the year 1830."


NOTE TO RULE VII.

An objective noun of time or measure, if it qualifies a subsequent adjective, must not also be made an adjunct to a preceding noun; as, "To an infant of only two or three years old."--Dr. Wayland. Expunge of, or for old write of age. The following is right: "The vast army of the Canaanites, nine hundred chariots strong, covered the level plain of Esdraelon."--Milman's Jews, Vol. i, p. 159. See Obs. 6th above.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VII. UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF THE OBJECTIVE IN FORM.

"But I do not remember who they were for."--Abbott's Teacher, p. 265.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun who is in the nominative case, and is made the object of the preposition for. But, according to Rule 7th, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case." Therefore, who should be whom; thus, "But I do not remember whom they were for."]

"But if you can't help it, who do you complain of?"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 137. "Who was it from? and what was it about?"--Edgeworth's Frank, p. 72. "I have plenty of victuals, and, between you and I, something in a corner."--Day's Sandford and Merton. "The upper one, who I am now about to speak of."--Hunt's Byron, p. 311. "And to poor we, thine enmity's most capital."--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 201. "Which thou dost confess, were fit for thee to use, as they to claim."--Ib., p. 196. "To beg of thee, it is my more dishonour, than thou of them."--Ib., p. 197. "There are still a few who, like thou and I, drink nothing but water."--Gil Blas, Vol. i, p. 104. "Thus, I shall fall; Thou shalt love thy neighbour; He shall be rewarded, express no resolution on the part of I, thou, he."--Lennie's E. Gram., p. 22; Bullions's, 32. "So saucy with the hand of she here--What's her name?"--Shak., Ant. and Cleop., Act iii, Sc. 11. "All debts are cleared between you and I."--Id., Merchant of Venice, Act iii, Sc. 2. "Her price is paid, and she is sold like thou."--Milman's Fall of Jerusalem. "Search through all the most flourishing era's of Greece."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 16. "The family of the Rudolph's had been long distinguished."--The Friend, Vol. v, p. 54. "It will do well enough for you and I."--Castle Rackrent, p. 120. "The public will soon discriminate between him who is the sycophant, and he who is the teacher."--Chazotte's Essay, p. 10. "We are still much at a loss who civil power belongs to."--Locke. "What do you call it? and who does it belong to?"--Collier's Cebes. "He had received no lessons from the Socrates's, the Plato's, and the Confucius's of the age."--Hatter's Letters. "I cannot tell who to compare them to."--Bunyan's P. P., p. 128. "I see there was some resemblance betwixt this good man and I."--Pilgrim's Progress, p. 298. "They by that means have brought themselves into the hands and house of I do not know who."--Ib., p. 196. "But at length she said there was a great deal of difference between Mr. Cotton and we."--Hutchinson's Mass., ii, 430. "So you must ride on horseback after we." [370]--MRS. GILPIN: Cowper, i, 275. "A separation must soon take place between our minister and I."--Werter, p. 109. "When she exclaimed on Hastings, you, and I."--Shakspeare. "To who? to thee? What art thou?"--Id. "That they should always bear the certain marks who they came from."--Butler's Analogy, p. 221.

  "This life has joys for you and I,
   And joys that riches ne'er could buy."--Burns.


UNDER THE NOTE--OF TIME OR MEASURE.

"Such as almost every child of ten years old knows."--Town's Analysis, p. 4. "One winter's school of four months, will carry any industrious scholar, of ten or twelve years old, completely through this book."--Ib., p. 12. "A boy of six years old may be taught to speak as correctly, as Cicero did before the Roman Senate."--Webster's Essays, p. 27. "A lad of about twelve years old, who was taken captive by the Indians."--Ib., p. 235. "Of nothing else but that individual white figure of five inches long which is before him."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 288. "Where lies the fault, that boys of eight or ten years old, are with great difficulty made to understand any of its principles."--Guy's Gram., p. v. "Where language of three centuries old is employed."--Booth's Introd. to Dict., p. 21. "Let a gallows be made of fifty cubits high."--Esther, v. 14. "I say to this child of nine years old bring me that hat, he hastens and brings it me."--Osborn's Key, p. 3. "He laid a floor twelve feet long, and nine feet wide; that is, over the extent of twelve feet long, and of nine feet wide."--Merchants School Gram., p. 95. "The Goulah people are a tribe of about fifty thousand strong."--Examiner, No. 71. RULE VIII.--NOM. ABSOLUTE.

A Noun or a Pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word: as, "He failing, who shall meet success?"--"Your fathers, where are they? and the prophets, do they live forever?"--Zech., i, 5. "Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to forbear working?"--1 Cor., ix, 6. "Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God?"--Rom., ix, 20. "O rare we!"--Cowper. "Miserable they!"--Thomson.

"The hour conceal'd, and so remote the fear, Death still draws nearer, never seeming near."--Pope.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE VIII.

OBS. 1.--Many grammarians make an idle distinction between the nominative absolute and the nominative independent, as if these epithets were not synonymous; and, at the same time, they are miserably deficient in directions for disposing of the words so employed. Their two rules do not embrace more than one half of those frequent examples in which the case of the noun or pronoun depends on no other word. Of course, the remaining half cannot be parsed by any of the rules which they give. The lack of a comprehensive rule, like the one above, is a great and glaring defect in all the English grammars that the author has seen, except his own, and such as are indebted to him for such a rule. It is proper, however, that the different forms of expression which are embraced in this general rule, should be discriminated, one from an other, by the scholar: let him therefore, in parsing any nominative absolute, tell how it is put so; whether with a participle, by direct address, by pleonasm, or by exclamation. For, in discourse, a noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, after four modes, or under the following four circumstances: (of which Murray's "case absolute," or "nominative absolute," contains only the first:)

I. When, with a participle, it is used to express a cause, or a concomitant fact; as, "I say, this being so, the law being broken, justice takes place."--Law and Grace, p. 27. "Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea." &c.--Luke, iii, 1. "I being in the way, the Lord led me to the house of my master's brethren."--Gen., xxiv, 27.

   ---------"While shame, thou looking on,
   Shame to be overcome or overreach'd,
   Would utmost vigor raise."--Milton, P. L., B. ix, 1, 312.

II. When, by direct address, it is put in the second person, and set off from the verb, by a comma or an exclamation point; as, "At length, Seged, reflect and be wise."--Dr. Johnson. "It may be, drunkard, swearer, liar, thief, thou dost not think of this."--Law and Grace, p. 27.

  "This said, he form'd thee, Adam! thee, O man!
   Dust of the ground, and in thy nostrils breath'd
   The breath of life."--Milton's Paradise Lost, B. vii, l. 524.

III. When, by pleonasm, it is introduced abruptly for the sake of emphasis, and is not made the subject or the object of any verb; as, "He that hath, to him shall be given."--Mark, iv, 25. "He that is holy, let him be holy still."--Rev., xxii, 11. "Gad, a troop shall overcome him."--Gen., xlix, 19. "The north and the south, thou hast created them."--Psalms, lxxxix, 12. "And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them."--1 Tim., vi, 2. "And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare."--Levit., xiii, 45. "They who serve me with adoration,--I am in them, and they [are] in me."--R. W. EMERSON: Liberator, No. 996.

   -------------------------"What may this mean,
   That thou, dead corse, again in complete steel,
   Revisitst thus the glimpses of the moon,
   Making night hideous; and, we fools of nature,[371]
   So horribly to shake our disposition
   With thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls?"--Shak. Hamlet.

IV. When, by mere exclamation, it is used without address, and without other words expressed or implied to give it construction; as, "And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth." Exodus, xxxiv, 6. "O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!"--Rom., xi, 33. "I should not like to see her limping back, Poor beast!"--Southey.

  "Oh! deep enchanting prelude to repose,
   The dawn of bliss, the twilight of our woes!"--Campbell.

OBS. 2.--The nominative put absolute with a participle, is often equivalent to a dependent clause commencing with when, while, if, since, or because. Thus, "I being a child," may be equal to, "When I was a child," or, "Because I was a child." Here, in lieu of the nominative, the Greeks used the genitive case, and the Latins, the ablative. Thus, the phrase, "[Greek: Kai hysteræsantos oinou]," "And the wine failing," is rendered by Montanus, "Et deficiente vino;" but by Beza, "Et cum defecisset vinum;" and in our Bible, "And when they wanted wine."--John, ii, 3. After a noun or a pronoun thus put absolute, the participle being is frequently understood, especially if an adjective or a like case come after the participle; as,

  "They left their bones beneath unfriendly skies,
   His worthless absolution [being] all the prize."
       --Cowper, Vol. i, p. 84.
   "Alike in ignorance, his reason [------] such,
   Whether he thinks too little or too much."--Pope, on Man.

OBS. 3.--The case which is put absolute in addresses or invocations, is what in the Latin and Greek grammars is called the Vocative. Richard Johnson says, "The only use of the Vocative Case, is, to call upon a Person, or a thing put Personally, which we speak to, to give notice to what we direct our Speech; and this is therefore, properly speaking, the only Case absolute or independent which we may make use of without respect to any other Word."--Gram. Commentaries, p. 131. This remark, however, applies not justly to our language; for, with us, the vocative case, is unknown, or not distinguished from the nominative. In English, all nouns of the second person are either put absolute in the nominative, according to Rule 8th, or in apposition with their own pronouns placed before them, according to Rule 3d: as, "This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders."--Acts, iv, 11. "How much rather ought you receivers to be considered as abandoned and execrable!"--Clarkson's Essay, p. 114.

  "Peace! minion, peace! it boots not me to hear
   The selfish counsel of you hangers-on."
       --Brown's Inst., p. 189.
   "Ye Sylphs and Sylphids, to your chief give ear;
   Fays, Faries, Genii, Elves, and Dæmons, hear!"
       --Pope, R. L., ii, 74.

OBS. 4.--The case of nouns used in exclamations, or in mottoes and abbreviated sayings, often depends, or may be conceived to depend, on something understood; and, when their construction can be satisfactorily explained on the principle of ellipsis, they are not put absolute, unless the ellipsis be that of the participle. The following examples may perhaps be resolved in this manner, though the expressions will lose much of their vivacity: "A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!"--Shak. "And he said unto his father, My head! my head!"--2 Kings, iv, 19. "And Samson said, With the jaw-bone of an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the jaw of an ass, have I slain a thousand men."--Judges, xv, 16. "Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth."--Matt., v, 38. "Peace, be still."--Mark, iv, 39. "One God, world without end. Amen."--Com. Prayer.

  "My fan, let others say, who laugh at toil;
   Fan! hood! glove! scarf! is her laconic style."--Young.

OBS. 5.--"Such Expressions as, Hand to Hand, Face to Face, Foot to Foot, are of the nature of Adverbs, and are of elliptical Construction: For the Meaning is, Hand OPPOSED to Hand, &c."--W. Ward's Gram., p. 100. This learned and ingenious author seems to suppose the former noun to be here put absolute with a participle understood; and this is probably the best way of explaining the construction both of that word and of the preposition that follows it. So Samson's phrase, "heaps upon heaps," may mean, "heaps being piled upon heaps;" and Scott's, "man to man, and steel to steel," may be interpreted, "man being opposed to man, and steel being opposed to steel:"

  "Now, man to man, and steel to steel,
   A chieftain's vengeance thou shalt feel."--Lady of the Lake.

OBS. 6.--Cobbett, after his own hasty and dogmatical manner, rejects the whole theory of nominatives absolute, and teaches his "soldiers, sailors, apprentices, and ploughboys," that, "The supposition, that there can be a noun, or pronoun, which has reference to no verb, and no preposition, is certainly a mistake."--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 201. To sustain his position, he lays violent hands upon the plain truth, and even trips himself up in the act. Thus: "For want of a little thought, as to the matter immediately before us, some grammarians have found out an absolute case,' as they call it; and Mr. Lindley Murray gives an instance of it in these words: 'Shame being lost, all virtue is lost.' The full meaning of this sentence is this: It being, or the state of things being such, that shame is lost, all virtue is lost.'"--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 191. Again: "There must, you will bear in mind, always be a verb expressed or understood. One would think, that this was not the case in [some instances: as,] 'Sir, I beg you to give me a bit of bread.' The sentence which follows the Sir, is complete; but the Sir appears to stand wholly without connexion. However, the full meaning is this: 'I beg you, who are a Sir, to give me a bit of bread.' Now, if you take time to reflect a little on this matter, you will never be puzzled for a moment by those detached words, to suit which grammarians have invented vocative cases and cases absolute, and a great many other appellations, with which they puzzle themselves, and confuse and bewilder and torment those who read their books."--Ib., Let. xix, ¶¶ 225 and 226. All this is just like Cobbett. But, let his admirers reflect on the matter as long as they please, the two independent nominatives it and state, in the text, "It being, or the state of things being such," will forever stand a glaring confutation both of his doctrine and of his censure: "the case absolute" is there still! He has, in fact, only converted the single example into a double one!

OBS. 7.--The Irish philologer, J. W. Wright, is even more confident than Cobbett, in denouncing "the case absolute;" and more severe in his reprehension of "Grammarians in general, and Lowth and Murray in particular," for entertaining the idea of such a case. "Surprise must cease," says he, "on an acquaintance with the fact, that persons who imbibe such fantastical doctrine should be destitute of sterling information on the subject of English grammar.--The English language is a stranger to this case. We speak thus, with confidence, conscious of the justness of our opinion:--an opinion, not precipitately formed, but one which is the result of mature and deliberate inquiry. 'Shame being lost, all virtue is lost:' The meaning of this is,--'When shame is being lost, all virtue is lost.' Here, the words is being lost form the true present tense of the passive voice; in which voice, all verbs, thus expressed, are unsuspectedly situated: thus, agreeing with the noun shame, as the nominative of the first member of the sentence."--Wright's Philosophical Gram., p. 192. With all his deliberation, this gentleman has committed one oversight here, which, as it goes to contradict his scheme of the passive verb, some of his sixty venerable commenders ought to have pointed out to him. My old friend, the "Professor of Elocution in Columbia College," who finds by this work of "superior excellence," that "the nature of the verb, the most difficult part of grammar, has been, at length, satisfactorily explained," ought by no means, after his "very attentive examination" of the book, to have left this service to me. In the clause, "all virtue is lost," the passive verb "is lost" has the form which Murray gave it--the form which, till within a year or two, all men supposed to be the only right one; but, according to this new philosophy of the language, all men have been as much in error in this matter, as in their notion of the nominative absolute. If Wright's theory of the verb is correct, the only just form of the foregoing expression is, "all virtue is being lost." If this central position is untenable, his management of the nominative absolute falls of course. To me, the inserting of the word being into all our passive verbs, seems the most monstrous absurdity ever broached in the name of grammar. The threescore certifiers to the accuracy of that theory, have, I trow, only recorded themselves as so many ignoramuses; for there are more than threescore myriads of better judgements against them.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VIII.

NOUNS OR PRONOUNS PUT ABSOLUTE.

"Him having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed."--Brown's Inst., p. 190.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun him, whose case depends on no other word, is in the objective case. But, according to Rule 8th, "A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word." Therefore, him should be he; thus, "He having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed."]

"Me being young, they deceived me."--Inst. E. Gram., p. 190. "Them refusing to comply, I withdrew."--Ib. "Thee being present, he would not tell what he knew."--Ib. "The child is lost; and me, whither shall I go?"--Ib. "Oh! happy us, surrounded with so many blessings."--Murray's Key, p. 187; Merchant's, 197; Smith's New Gram., 96; Farnum's, 63. "'Thee, too! Brutus, my son!' cried Cæsar, overcome."--Brown's Inst., p. 190. "Thee! Maria! and so late! and who is thy companion?"--New-York Mirror, Vol. x, p. 353. "How swiftly our time passes away! and ah! us, how little concerned to improve it!"--Comly's Gram., Key, p. 192.

  "There all thy gifts and graces we display,
   Thee, only thee, directing all our way."



CHAPTER IV.--ADJECTIVES.

The syntax of the English Adjective is fully embraced in the following brief rule, together with the exceptions, observations, and notes, which are, in due order, subjoined.


RULE IX.--ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns: as, "Miserable comforters are ye all"--Job, xvi, 2. "No worldly enjoyments are adequate to the high desires and powers of an immortal spirit."--Blair.

  "Whatever faction's partial notions are,
   No hand is wholly innocent in war."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. vii, l. 191.


EXCEPTION FIRST.

An adjective sometimes relates to a phrase or sentence which is made the subject of an intervening verb; as, "To insult the afflicted, is impious"--Dillwyn. "That he should refuse, is not strange"--"To err is human." Murray says, "Human belongs to its substantive 'nature' understood."--Gram., p. 233. From this I dissent.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

In combined arithmetical numbers, one adjective often relates to an other, and the whole phrase, to a subsequent noun; as, "One thousand four hundred and fifty-six men."--"Six dollars and eighty-seven and a half cents for every five days' service."--"In the one hundred and twenty-second year."--"One seven times more than it was wont to be heated."--Daniel, iii, 19.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

With an infinitive or a participle denoting being or action in the abstract, an adjective is sometimes also taken abstractly; (that is, without reference to any particular noun, pronoun, or other subject;) as, "To be sincere, is to be wise, innocent, and safe."--Hawkesworth. "Capacity marks the abstract quality of being able to receive or hold."--Crabb's Synonymes. "Indeed, the main secret of being sublime, is to say great things in few and plain words."--Hiley's Gram., p. 215. "Concerning being free from sin in heaven, there is no question."--Barclay's Works, iii, 437. Better: "Concerning freedom from sin," &c.

EXCEPTION FOURTH.

Adjectives are sometimes substituted for their corresponding abstract nouns; (perhaps, in most instances, elliptically, like Greek neuters;) as, "The sensations of sublime and beautiful are not always distinguished by very distant boundaries."--Blair's Rhet., p. 47. That is, "of sublimity and beauty." "The faults opposite to the sublime are chiefly two: the frigid, and the bombast"--Ib., p. 44. Better: "The faults opposite to sublimity, are chiefly two; frigidity and bombast." "Yet the ruling character of the nation was that of barbarous and cruel."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 26. That is, "of barbarity and cruelty." "In a word, agreeable and disagreeable are qualities of the objects we perceive," &c.--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 99. "Polished, or refined, was the idea which the author had in view."--Blair's Rhet., p. 219.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE IX.

OBS. 1.--Adjectives often relate to nouns or pronouns understood; as, "A new sorrow recalls all the former" [sorrows].--Art of Thinking, p. 31. [The place] "Farthest from him is best."--Milton, P. L. "To whom they all gave heed, from the least [person] to the greatest" [person].--Acts, viii, 10. "The Lord your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords, a great God, a mighty [God], and a terrible" [God].--Deut., x, 17. "Every one can distinguish an angry from a placid, a cheerful from a melancholy, a thoughtful from a thoughtless, and a dull from a penetrating, countenance."--Beattie's Moral Science, p. 192. Here the word countenance is understood seven times; for eight different countenances are spoken of. "He came unto his own [possessions], and his own [men] received him not."--John, i, 11. The Rev. J. G. Cooper, has it: "He came unto his own (creatures,) and his own (creatures) received him not."--Pl. and Pract. Gram., p. 44. This ambitious editor of Virgil, abridger of Murray, expounder of the Bible, and author of several "new and improved" grammars, (of different languages,) should have understood this text, notwithstanding the obscurity of our version. "[Greek: Eis ta idia ælthe. kai oi idioi auton ou parelabon]."--"In propria venit, et proprii eum non receperunt."--Montanus. "Ad sua venit, et sui eum non exceperunt."--Beza. "Il est venu chez soi; et les siens ne l'ont point reçu."--French Bible. Sometimes the construction of the adjective involves an ellipsis of several words, and those perhaps the principal parts of the clause; as, "The sea appeared to be agitated more than [in that degree which is] usual."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 217. "During the course of the sentence, the scene should be changed as little as [in the least] possible" [degree].--Blair's Rhet., p. 107; Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 312.

  "Presumptuous man! the reason wouldst thou find,
   Why [thou art] form'd so weak, so little, and so blind"
       --Pope.


OBS. 2.--Because qualities belong only to things, most grammarians teach, that, "Adjectives are capable of being added to nouns only."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 26. Or, as Murray expresses the doctrine: "Every adjective, and every adjective pronoun, belongs to a substantive, expressed or understood."--Octavo Gram., p. 161. "The adjective always relates to a substantive."--Ib., p. 169. This teaching, which is alike repugnant to the true definition of an adjective, to the true rule for its construction, and to all the exceptions to this rule, is but a sample of that hasty sort of induction, which is ever jumping to false conclusions for want of a fair comprehension of the facts in point. The position would not be tenable, even if all our pronouns were admitted to be nouns, or "substantives;" and, if these two parts of speech are to be distinguished, the consequence must be, that Murray supposes a countless number of unnecessary and absurd ellipses. It is sufficiently evident, that in the construction of sentences, adjectives often relate immediately to pronouns, and only through them to the nouns which they represent. Examples: "I should like to know who has been carried off, except poor dear me."--Byron. "To poor us there is not much hope remaining."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p 204. "It is the final pause which alone, on many occasions, marks the difference between prose and verse."--Murray's Gram., p. 260. "And sometimes after them both."--Ib., p. 196. "All men hail'd me happy."--Milton. "To receive unhappy me."--Dryden. "Superior to them all."--Blair's Rhet., p. 419. "They returned to their own country, full of the discoveries which they had made."--Ib., p. 350. "All ye are brethren."--Matt., xxiii, 8. "And him only shalt thou serve."--Matt., iv, 10.

  "Go wiser thou, and in thy scale of sense
   Weigh thy opinion against Providence."--Pope.

OBS. 3.--When an adjective follows a finite verb, and is not followed by a noun, it generally relates to the subject of the verb; as, "I am glad that the door is made wide."--"An unbounded prospect doth not long continue agreeable."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 244. "Every thing which is false, vicious, or unworthy, is despicable to him, though all the world should approve it."--Spectator, No. 520. Here false, vicious, and unworthy, relate to which; and despicable relates to thing. The practice of Murray and his followers, of supplying a "substantive" in all such cases, is absurd. "When the Adjective forms the Attribute of a Proposition, it belongs to the noun [or pronoun] which serves as the Subject of the Proposition, and cannot be joined to any other noun, since it is of the Subject that we affirm the quality expressed by this Adjective."--De Sacy, on General Gram., p. 37. In some peculiar phrases, however, such as, to fall short of, to make bold with, to set light by, the adjective has such a connexion with the verb, that it may seem questionable how it ought to be explained in parsing. Examples: (1.) "This latter mode of expression falls short of the force and vehemence of the former."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 353. Some will suppose the word short to be here used adverbially, or to qualify falls only; but perhaps it may as well be parsed as an adjective, forming a predicate with "falls," and relating to "mode," the nominative. (2.) "And that I have made so bold with thy glorious Majesty."--Jenks's Prayers, p. 156. This expression is perhaps elliptical: it may mean, "that I have made myself so bold," &c. (3.) "Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother: and all the people shall say, Amen."--Deut., xxvii, 16. This may mean, "that setteth light esteem or estimation," &c.

OBS. 4.--When an adjective follows an infinitive or a participle, the noun or pronoun to which it relates, is sometimes before it, and sometimes after it, and often considerably remote; as, "A real gentleman cannot but practice those virtues which, by an intimate knowledge of mankind, he has found to be useful to them."--"He [a melancholy enthusiast] thinks himself obliged in duty to be sad and disconsolate."--Addison. "He is scandalized at youth for being lively, and at childhood for being playful."--Id. "But growing weary of one who almost walked him out of breath, he left him for Horace and Anacreon."--Steele.

OBS. 5.--Adjectives preceded by the definite article, are often used, by ellipsis, as nouns; as, the learned, for learned men. Such phrases usually designate those classes of persons or things, which are characterized by the qualities they express; and this, the reader must observe, is a use quite different from that substitution of adjectives for nouns, which is noticed in the fourth exception above. In our language, the several senses in which adjectives may thus be taken, are not distinguished with that clearness which the inflections of other tongues secure. Thus, the noble, the vile, the excellent, or the beautiful, may be put for three extra constructions: first, for noble persons, vile persons, &c.; secondly, for the noble man, the vile man, &c.; thirdly, for the abstract qualities, nobility, vileness, excellence, beauty. The last-named usage forms an exception to the rule; in the other two the noun is understood, and should be supplied by the parser. Such terms, if elliptical, are most commonly of the plural number, and refer to the word persons or things understood; as, "The careless and the imprudent, the giddy and the fickle, the ungrateful and the interested, everywhere meet us."--Blair. Here the noun persons is to be six times supplied. "Wherever there is taste, the witty and the humorous make themselves perceived."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 21. Here the author meant, simply, the qualities wit and humour, and he ought to have used these words, because the others are equivocal, and are more naturally conceived to refer to persons. In the following couplet, the noun places or things is understood after "open," and again after "covert," which last word is sometimes misprinted "coverts:"

  "Together let us beat this ample field,
   Try what the open, what the covert, yield."--Pope, on Man.

OBS. 6.--The adjective, in English, is generally placed immediately before its noun; as, "Vain man! is grandeur given to gay attire?"--Beattie. Those adjectives which relate to pronouns, most commonly follow them; as, "They left me weary on a grassy turf."--Milton. But to both these general rules there are many exceptions; for the position of an adjective may be varied by a variety of circumstances, not excepting the mere convenience of emphasis: as, "And Jehu said, Unto which of all us?"--2 Kings, ix, 5. In the following instances the adjective is placed after the word to which it relates:

1. When other words depend on the adjective, or stand before it to qualify it; as, "A mind conscious of right,"--"A wall three feet thick,"--"A body of troops fifty thousand strong."

2. When the quality results from an action, or receives its application through a verb or participle; as, "Virtue renders life happy."--"He was in Tirzah, drinking himself drunk in the house of Arza."--1 Kings, xvi, 9. "All men agree to call vinegar sour, honey sweet, and aloes bitter."--Burke, on Taste, p. 38. "God made thee perfect, not immutable."--Milton.

3. When the quality excites admiration, and the adjective would thus be more clearly distinctive; as, "Goodness infinite,"--"Wisdom unsearchable."--Murray.

4. When a verb comes between the adjective and the noun; as, "Truth stands independent of all external things."--Burgh. "Honour is not seemly for a fool."--Solomon.

5. When the adjective is formed by means of the prefix a; as, afraid, alert, alike, alive, alone, asleep, awake, aware, averse, ashamed, askew. To these may be added a few other words; as, else, enough, extant, extinct, fraught, pursuant.

6. When the adjective has the nature, but not the form, of a participle; as, "A queen regnant,"--"The prince regent,"--"The heir apparent,"--"A lion, not rampant, but couchant or dormant"--"For the time then present."

OBS. 7.--In some instances, the adjective may either precede or follow its noun; and the writer may take his choice, in respect to its position: as, 1. In poetry--provided the sense be obvious; as,

   ------------------"Wilt thou to the isles
   Atlantic, to the rich Hesperian clime,
   Fly in the train of Autumn?"
       --Akenside, P. of I., Book i, p. 27.
   -----------------------------"Wilt thou fly
   With laughing Autumn to the Atlantic isles,
   And range with him th' Hesperian field?"
       --Id. Bucke's Gram., p. 120.

2. When technical usage favours one order, and common usage an other; as, "A notary public," or, "A public notary;"--"The heir presumptive," or, "The presumptive heir."--See Johnson's Dict., and Webster's.

3. When an adverb precedes the adjective; as, "A Being infinitely wise," or, "An infinitely wise Being." Murray, Comly, and others, here approve only the former order; but the latter is certainly not ungrammatical.

4. When several adjectives belong to the same noun; as, "A woman, modest, sensible, and virtuous," or, "A modest, sensible, and virtuous woman." Here again, Murray, Comly, and others, approve only the former order; but I judge the latter to be quite as good.

5. When the adjective is emphatic, it may be foremost in the sentence, though the natural order of the words would bring it last; as, "Weighty is the anger of the righteous."--Bible. "Blessed are the pure in heart."--Ib. "Great is the earth, high is the heaven, swift is the sun in his course."--1 Esdras, iv, 34. "The more laborious the life is, the less populous is the country."--Goldsmith's Essays, p. 151.

6. When the adjective and its noun both follow a verb as parts of the predicate, either may possibly come before the other, yet the arrangement is fixed by the sense intended: thus there is a great difference between the assertions, "We call the boy good," and, "We call the good boy"

OBS. 8.--By an ellipsis of the noun, an adjective with a preposition before it, is sometimes equivalent to an adverb; as, "In particular;" that is, "In a particular manner;" equivalent to particularly. So "in general" is equivalent to generally. It has already been suggested, that, in parsing, the scholar should here supply the ellipsis. See Obs. 3d, under Rule vii.

OBS. 9.--Though English adjectives are, for the most part, incapable of any agreement, yet such of them as denote unity or plurality, ought in general to have nouns of the same number: as, this man, one man, two men, many men.[372] In phrases of this form, the rule is well observed; but in some peculiar ways of numbering things, it is commonly disregarded; for certain nouns are taken in a plural sense without assuming the plural termination. Thus people talk of many stone of cheese,--many sail of vessels,--many stand of arms,--many head of cattle,--many dozen of eggs,--many brace of partridges,--many pair of shoes. So we read in the Bible of "two hundred pennyworth of bread," and "twelve manner of fruits." In all such phraseology, there is, in regard to the form of the latter word, an evident disagreement of the adjective with its immediate noun; but sometimes, (where the preposition of does not occur,) expressions that seem somewhat like these, may be elliptical: as when historians tell of many thousand foot (soldiers), or many hundred horse (troops). To denote a collective number, a singular adjective may precede a plural one; as, "One hundred men,"--"Every six weeks." And to denote plurality, the adjective many may, in like manner, precede an or a with a singular noun; as, "The Odyssey entertains us with many a wonderful adventure, and many a landscape of nature."--Blair's Rhet., p. 436." There starts up many a writer."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 306.

  "Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
   And waste its sweetness on the desert air."--Gray.

OBS. 10.--Though this and that cannot relate to plurals, many writers do not hesitate to place them before singulars taken conjointly, which are equivalent to plurals; as, "This power and will do necessarily produce that which man is empowered to do."--Sale's Koran, i, 229. "That sobriety and self-denial which are essential to the support of virtue."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 218. "This modesty and decency were looked upon by them as a law of nature."--Rollin's Hist., ii, 45. Here the plural forms, these and those, cannot be substituted; but the singular may be repeated, if the repetition be thought necessary. Yet, when these same pronominal adjectives are placed after the nouns to suggest the things again, they must be made plural; as, "Modesty and decency were thus carefully guarded, for these were looked upon as being enjoined by the law of nature."

OBS. 11.--In prose, the use of adjectives for adverbs is improper; but, in poetry, an adjective relating to the noun or pronoun, is sometimes elegantly used in stead of an adverb qualifying the verb or participle; as; "Gradual sinks the breeze Into a perfect calm."--Thomson's Seasons, p. 34. "To Thee I bend the knee; to Thee my thoughts Continual climb."--Ib., p. 48. "As on he walks Graceful, and crows defiance."--Ib., p. 56. "As through the falling glooms Pensive I stray."--Ib., p. 80. "They, sportive, wheel; or, sailing down the stream, Are snatch'd immediate by the quick-eyed trout."--Ib., p. 82. "Incessant still you flow."--Ib., p. 91. "The shatter'd clouds Tumultuous rove, the interminable sky Sublimer swells."--Ib., p. 116. In order to determine, in difficult cases, whether an adjective or an adverb is required, the learner should carefully attend to the definitions of these parts of speech, and consider whether, in the case in question, quality is to be expressed, or manner: if the former, an adjective is always proper; if the latter, an adverb. That is, in this case, the adverb, though not always required in poetry, is specially requisite in prose. The following examples will illustrate this point: "She looks cold;"--"She looks coldly on him."--"I sat silent;"--"I sat silently musing."--"Stand firm; maintain your cause firmly." See Etymology, Chap, viii, Obs. 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th, on the Modifications of Adverbs.

OBS. 12.--In English, an adjective and its noun are often taken as a sort of compound term, to which other adjectives may be added; as, "An old man; a good old man; a very learned, judicious, good old man."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 169; Brit. Gram., 195; Buchanan's, 79. "Of an other determinate positive new birth, subsequent to baptism, we know nothing."--West's Letters, p. 183. When adjectives are thus accumulated, the subsequent ones should convey such ideas as the former may consistently qualify, otherwise the expression will be objectionable. Thus the ordinal adjectives, first, second, third, next, and last, may qualify the cardinal numbers, but they cannot very properly be qualified by them. When, therefore, we specify any part of a series, the cardinal adjective ought, by good right, to follow the ordinal, and not, as in the following phrase, be placed before it: "In reading the nine last chapters of John."--Fuller. Properly speaking, there is but one last chapter in any book. Say, therefore, "the last nine chapters;" for, out of the twenty-one chapters in John, a man may select several different nines. (See Etymology, Chap, iv, Obs. 7th, on the Degrees of Comparison.) When one of the adjectives merely qualifies the other, they should be joined together by a hyphen; as, "A red-hot iron."--"A dead-ripe melon." And when both or all refer equally and solely to the noun, they ought either to be connected by a conjunction, or to be separated by a comma. The following example is therefore faulty: "It is the business of an epic poet, to form a probable interesting tale."--Blair's Rhet., p. 427. Say, "probable and interesting;" or else insert a comma in lieu of the conjunction.

  "Around him wide a sable army stand,
   A low-born, cell-bred, selfish, servile band."
       --Dunciad, B. ii, l. 355.

OBS. 13.--Dr. Priestley has observed: "There is a remarkable ambiguity in the use of the negative adjective no; and I do not see," says he, "how it can be remedied in any language. If I say, No laws are better than the English,' it is only my known sentiments that can inform a person whether I mean to praise, or dispraise them."--Priestley's Gram., p. 136. It may not be possible to remove the ambiguity from the phraseology here cited, but it is easy enough to avoid the form, and say in stead of it, "The English laws are worse than none," or, "The English laws are as good as any;" and, in neither of these expressions, is there any ambiguity, though the other may doubtless be taken in either of these senses. Such an ambiguity is sometimes used on purpose: as when one man says of an other, "He is no small knave;" or, "He is no small fool."

  "There liv'd in primo Georgii (they record)
   A worthy member, no small fool, a lord."--Pope, p. 409.


NOTES TO RULE IX.

NOTE I.--Adjectives that imply unity or plurality, must agree with their nouns in number: as, "That sort, those sorts;"--"This hand, these hands." [373]

NOTE II.--When the adjective is necessarily plural, or necessarily singular, the noun should be made so too: as, "Twenty pounds" not, "Twenty pound;"--"Four feet long," not, "Four foot long;"--"One session" not, "One sessions."

NOTE III.--The reciprocal expression, one an other, should not be applied to two objects, nor each other, or one the other, to more than two; as, "Verse and prose, on some occasions, run into one another, like light and shade."--Blair's Rhet., p. 377; Jamieson's, 298. Say, "into each other" "For mankind have always been butchering each other"--Webster's Essays, p. 151. Say, "one an other" See Etymology, Chap, iv, Obs. 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th, on the Classes of Adjectives.

NOTE IV.--When the comparative degree is employed with than, the latter term of comparison should never include the former; nor the former the latter: as, "Iron is more useful than all the metals"--"All the metals are less useful than iron." In either case, it should be, "all the other metals,"

NOTE V.--When the superlative degree is employed, the latter term of comparison, which is introduced by of, should never exclude the former; as, "A fondness for show, is, of all other follies, the most vain." Here the word other should be expunged; for this latter term must include the former: that is, the fondness for show must be one of the follies of which it is the vainest.

NOTE VI.--When equality is denied, or inequality affirmed, neither term of the comparison should ever include the other; because every thing must needs be equal to itself, and it is absurd to suggest that a part surpasses the whole: as, "No writings whatever abound so much with the bold and animated figures, as the sacred books."--Blair's Rhet., p. 414. Say, "No other writings whatever;" because the sacred books are "writings" See Etymology, Chap, iv, Obs. 6th, on Regular Comparison.

NOTE VII.--Comparative terminations, and adverbs of degree, should not be applied to adjectives that are not susceptible of comparison; and all double comparatives and double superlatives should be avoided: as, "So universal a complaint:" say rather, "So general."--"Some less nobler plunder:" say, "less noble"--"The most straitest sect:" expunge most. See Etymology, Chap, iv, from Obs. 5th to Obs. 13th, on Irregular Comparison.[374]

NOTE VIII.--When adjectives are connected by and, or, or nor, the shortest and simplest should in general be placed first; as, "He is older and more respectable than his brother." To say, "more respectable and older" would be obviously inelegant, as possibly involving the inaccuracy of "more older."

NOTE IX.--When one adjective is superadded to an other without a conjunction expressed or understood, the most distinguishing quality must be expressed next to the noun, and the latter must be such as the former may consistently qualify; as, "An agreeable young man," not, "A young agreeable man."--"The art of speaking, like all other practical arts, may be facilitated by rules,"--Enfield's Speaker, p. 10. Example of error: "The Anglo-Saxon language possessed, for the two first persons, a Dual number."--Fowler's E. Gram., 1850, p. 59. Say, "the first two persons;" for the second of three can hardly be one of the first; and "two first" with the second and third added, will clearly make more than three. See Obs. 12th, above.

NOTE X.--In prose, the use of adjectives for adverbs, is a vulgar error; the adverb alone being proper, when manner or degree is to be expressed, and not quality; as, "He writes elegant;" say, "elegantly."--"It is a remarkable good likeness;" say, "remarkably good."

NOTE XI.--The pronoun them should never be used as an adjective, in lieu of those: say, "I bought those books;" not, "them books." This also is a vulgar error, and chiefly confined to the conversation of the unlearned.[375]

NOTE XII.--When the pronominal adjectives, this and that, or these and those, are contrasted; this or these should represent the latter of the antecedent terms, and that or those the former: as,

  "And, reason raise o'er instinct as you can,
   In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis man."--Pope.
   "Farewell my friends! farewell my foes!
   My peace with these, my love with those!"--Burns.

NOTE XIII.--The pronominal adjectives either and neither, in strict propriety of syntax, relate to two things only; when more are referred to, any and none, or any one and no one, should be used in stead of them: as, "Any of the three," or, "Any one of the three;" not, "Either of the three."--"None of the four," or, "No one of the four;" not, "Neither of the four." [376]

NOTE XIV.--The adjective whole must not be used in a plural sense, for all; nor less, in the sense of fewer; nor more or most, in any ambiguous construction, where it may be either an adverb of degree, or an adjective of number or quantity: as, "Almost the whole inhabitants were present."--HUME: see Priestley's Gram., p. 190.[377] Say, "Almost all the inhabitants." "No less than three dictionaries have been published to correct it."--Dr. Webster. Say, "No fewer." "This trade enriched some people more than them."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 215. This passage is not clear in its import: it may have either of two meanings. Say, "This trade enriched some other people, besides them." Or, "This trade enriched some others more than it did them."

NOTE XV.--Participial adjectives retain the termination, but not the government of participles; when, therefore, they are followed by the objective case, a preposition must be inserted to govern it: as, "The man who is most sparing of his words, is generally most deserving of attention."

NOTE XVI.--When the figure of any adjective affects the syntax and sense of the sentence, care must be taken to give to the word or words that form, simple or compound, which suits the true meaning and construction. Examples: "He is forehead bald, yet he is clean."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Lev., xiii, 41. Say, "forehead-bald.,"--ALGER'S BIBLE, and SCOTT'S. "From such phrases as, 'New England scenery,' convenience requires the omission of the hyphen."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 89. This is a false notion. Without the hyphen, the phrase properly means, "New scenery in England;" but New-England scenery is scenery in New England. "'Many coloured wings,' means many wings which are coloured; but many-coloured wings means wings of many colours."--Blair's Gram., p. 116.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE IX.

EXAMPLES UNDER NOTE I.--AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.

"I am not recommending these kind of sufferings to your liking."--BP. SHERLOCK: Lowth's Gram., p. 87.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the adjective these is plural, and does not agree with its noun kind, which is singular. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 9th: "Adjectives that imply unity or plurality, must agree with their nouns in number." Therefore, these should be this; thus, "I am not recommending this kind of sufferings."]

"I have not been to London this five years."--Webster's Philos. Gram., p. 152. "These kind of verbs are more expressive than their radicals."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., Vol. ii, p. 163. "Few of us would be less corrupted than kings are, were we, like them, beset with flatterers, and poisoned with that vermin."--Art of Thinking, p. 66. "But it seems this literati had been very ill rewarded for their ingenious labours."--Roderick Random, Vol. ii, p. 87. "If I had not left off troubling myself about those kind of things."--Swift. "For these sort of things are usually join'd to the most noted fortune."--Bacon's Essays, p. 101. "The nature of that riches and long-suffering is, to lead to repentance."--Barclay's Works, iii, 380. "I fancy they are these kind of gods, which Horace mentions."--Addison, on Medals, p. 74. "During that eight days they are prohibited from touching the skin."--Hope of Israel, p. 78. "Besides, he had not much provisions left for his army."--Goldsmith's Greece, i, 86. "Are you not ashamed to have no other thoughts than that of amassing wealth, and of acquiring glory, credit, and dignities?"--Ib., p. 192. "It distinguisheth still more remarkably the feelings of the former from that of the latter."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. xvii. "And this good tidings of the reign shall be published through all the world."--Campbell's Gospels, Matt., xxiv, 14. "This twenty years have I been with thee."--Gen., xxxi, 38. "In these kind of expressions some words seem to be understood."--Walker's Particles, p. 179. "He thought these kind of excesses indicative of greatness."--Hunt's Byron, p. 117. "These sort of fellows are very numerous."--Spect., No. 486. "Whereas these sort of men cannot give account of their faith."--Barclay's Works, i, 444. "But the question is, whether that be the words."--Ib., iii, 321. "So that these sort of Expressions are not properly Optative."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 276. "Many things are not that which they appear to be."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 176. "So that every possible means are used."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. iv.

  "We have strict statutes, and most biting laws,
   Which for this nineteen years we have let sleep."--Shak.
   "They could not speak; and so I left them both,
   To bear this tidings to the bloody king."--Id., Richard III.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF FIXED NUMBERS.

"Why, I think she cannot be above six foot two inches high."--Spect., No. 533. "The world is pretty regular for about forty rod east and ten west."--Ib., No. 535. "The standard being more than two foot above it."--BACON: Joh. Dict., w. Standard. "Supposing (among other Things) he saw two Suns, and two Thebes."--Bacon's Wisdom, p. 25. "On the right hand we go into a parlour thirty three foot by thirty nine."--Sheffield's Works, ii, 258. "Three pound of gold went to one shield."--1 Kings, x, 17. "Such an assemblage of men as there appears to have been at that sessions."--The Friend, x, 389. "And, truly, he hath saved me this pains."--Barclay's Works, ii, 266. "Within this three mile may you see it coming."--SHAK.: Joh. Dict., w. Mile. "Most of the churches, not all, had one or more ruling elder."--Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass., i, 375. "While a Minute Philosopher, not six foot high, attempts to dethrone the Monarch of the universe."--Berkley's Alciphron, p. 151. "The wall is ten foot high."--Harrison's Gram., p. 50. "The stalls must be ten foot broad."--Walker's Particles, p. 201. "A close prisoner in a room twenty foot square, being at the north side of his chamber, is at liberty to walk twenty foot southward, not to walk twenty foot northward."--LOCKE: Joh. Dict., w. Northward. "Nor, after all this pains and industry, did they think themselves qualified."--Columbian Orator, p. 13. "No less than thirteen gypsies were condemned at one Suffolk assizes, and executed."--Webster's Essays, p. 333. "The king was petitioned to appoint one, or more, person, or persons."--MACAULAY: Priestley's Gram., p. 194. "He carries weight! he rides a race! 'Tis for a thousand pound!"--Cowper's Poems, i, 279. "They carry three tire of guns at the head, and at the stern there are two tire of guns."--Joh. Dict., w. Galleass. "The verses consist of two sort of rhymes."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 112. "A present of 40 camel's load of the most precious things of Syria."--Wood's Dict., Vol. i, p. 162. "A large grammar, that shall extend to every minutiæ."--S. Barrett's Gram., Tenth Ed., Pref., p. iii.

  "So many spots, like næves on Venus' soil,
   One jewel set off with so many foil."--Dryden.
   "For, of the lower end, two handful
   It had devour'd, it was so manful."--Hudibras, i, 365.


UNDER NOTE III.--OF RECIPROCALS.

"That shall and will might be substituted for one another."--Priestley's Gram., p. 131. "We use not shall and will promiscuously for one another."--Brightland's Gram., p. 110. "But I wish to distinguish the three high ones from each other also."--Fowle's True Eng. Gram., p. 13. "Or on some other relation, which two objects bear to one another."--Blair's Rhet., p. 142. "Yet the two words lie so near to one another in meaning, that in the present case, any one of them, perhaps, would have been sufficient."--Ib., p. 203. "Both orators use great liberties with one another."--Ib., p. 244. "That greater separation of the two sexes from one another."--Ib., p. 466. "Most of whom live remote from each other."--Webster's Essays, p. 39. "Teachers like to see their pupils polite to each other."--Webster's El. Spelling-Book, p. 28. "In a little time, he and I must keep company with one another only."--Spect., No. 474. "Thoughts and circumstances crowd upon each other."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 32. "They cannot see how the ancient Greeks could understand each other."--Literary Convention, p. 96. "The spirit of the poet, the patriot, and the prophet, vied with each other in his breast."--Hazlitt's Lect., p. 112. "Athamas and Ino loved one another."--Classic Tales, p. 91. "Where two things are compared or contrasted to one another."--Blair's Rhet., p. 119. "Where two things are compared, or contrasted, with one another."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 324. "In the classification of words, almost all writers differ from each other."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. iv.

  "I will not trouble thee, my child. Farewell;
   We'll no more meet; no more see one another."--Shak. Lear.


UNDER NOTE IV.--OF COMPARATIVES.

"Errours in Education should be less indulged than any."--Locke, on Ed., p. iv. "This was less his case than any man's that ever wrote."--Pref. to Waller. "This trade enriched some people more than it enriched them." [378]--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 215. "The Chaldee alphabet, in which the Old Testament has reached us, is more beautiful than any ancient character known."--Wilson's Essay, p. 5. "The Christian religion gives a more lovely character of God, than any religion ever did."--Murray's Key, p. 169. "The temple of Cholula was deemed more holy than any in New Spain."--Robertson's America, ii, 477. "Cibber grants it to be a better poem of its kind than ever was writ."--Pope. "Shakspeare is more faithful to the true language of nature, than any writer."--Blair's Rhet., p. 468. "One son I had--one, more than all my sons, the strength of Troy."--Cowper's Homer. "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age."--Gen., xxxvii, 3.


UNDER NOTE V.--OF SUPERLATIVES.

"Of all other simpletons, he was the greatest."--Nutting's English Idioms. "Of all other beings, man has certainly the greatest reason for gratitude."--Ibid., Gram., p. 110. "This lady is the prettiest of all her sisters."--Peyton's Elements of Eng. Lang., p. 39. "The relation which, of all others, is by far the most fruitful of tropes, I have not yet mentioned."--Blair's Rhet., p. 141. "He studied Greek the most of any nobleman."--Walker's Particles, p. 231. "And indeed that was the qualification of all others most wanted at that time."--Goldsmith's Greece, ii, 35. "Yet we deny that the knowledge of him, as outwardly crucified, is the best of all other knowledge of him."--Barclay's Works, i, 144. "Our ideas of numbers are of all others the most accurate and distinct."--Duncan's Logic, p. 35. "This indeed is of all others the case when it can be least necessary to name the agent."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., i, 231. "The period, to which you have arrived, is perhaps the most critical and important of any moment of your lives."--Ib., i, 394. "Perry's royal octavo is esteemed the best of any pronouncing Dictionary yet known."--Red Book, p. x. "This is the tenth persecution, and of all the foregoing, the most bloody."--Sammes's Antiquities, Chap. xiii. "The English tongue is the most susceptible of sublime imagery, of any language in the world."--See Bucke's Gram., p. 141. "Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest Invention of any writer whatever."--Pope's Preface to Homer. "In a version of this particular work, which most of any other seems to require a venerable antique cast."--Ib. "Because I think him the best informed of any naturalist who has ever written."-- Jefferson's Notes, p. 82. "Man is capable of being the most social of any animal."--Sheridan's Elocution, p. 145. "It is of all others that which most moves us."--Ib., p. 158. "Which of all others, is the most necessary article."--Ib., p. 166.

  "Quoth he 'this gambol thou advisest,
   Is, of all others, the unwisest.'"--Hudibras, iii, 316.


UNDER NOTE VI.--INCLUSIVE TERMS. "Noah and his family outlived all the people who lived before the flood."--Webster's El. Spelling-Book, p. 101. "I think it superior to any work of that nature we have yet had."--Dr. Blair's Rec. in Murray's Gram., Vol. ii, p. 300. "We have had no grammarian who has employed so much labour and judgment upon our native language, as the author of these volumes."--British Critic, ib., ii, 299. "No persons feel so much the distresses of others, as they who have experienced distress themselves."--Murray's Key, 8vo., p. 227. "Never was any people so much infatuated as the Jewish nation."--Ib., p. 185; Frazee's Gram., p. 135. "No tongue is so full of connective particles as the Greek."--Blair's Rhet., p. 85. "Never sovereign was so much beloved by the people."--Murray's Exercises, R. xv, p. 68. "No sovereign was ever so much beloved by the people."--Murray's Key, p. 202. "Nothing ever affected her so much as this misconduct of her child."--Ib., p. 203; Merchant's, 195. "Of all the figures of speech, none comes so near to painting as metaphor."--Blair's Rhet., p. 142; Jamieson's, 149. "I know none so happy in his metaphors as Mr. Addison."--Blair's Rhet., p. 150. "Of all the English authors, none is so happy in his metaphors as Addison."--Jamieson's, Rhet., p. 157. "Perhaps no writer in the world was ever so frugal of his words as Aristotle."--Blair, p. 177; Jamieson, 251. "Never was any writer so happy in that concise spirited style as Mr. Pope."--Blair's Rhet., p. 403. "In the harmonious structure and disposition of periods, no writer whatever, ancient or modern, equals Cicero."--Blair, 121; Jamieson, 123. "Nothing delights me so much as the works of nature."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 150. "No person was ever so perplexed as he has been to-day."--Murray's Key, ii, 216. "In no case are writers so apt to err as in the position of the word only."--Maunder's Gram., p. 15. "For nothing is so tiresome as perpetual uniformity."--Blair's Rhet., p. 102.

  "No writing lifts exalted man so high,
   As sacred and soul-moving poesy."--Sheffield.


UNDER NOTE VII.--EXTRA COMPARISONS.

"How much more are ye better than the fowls!"--Luke, xii, 24. "Do not thou hasten above the Most Highest."--2 Esdras, iv, 34. "This word peer is most principally used for the nobility of the realm."--Cowell. "Because the same is not only most universally received," &c.--Barclay's Works, i, 447. "This is, I say, not the best and most principal evidence."--Ib., iii, 41. "Offer unto God thanksgiving, and pay thy vows unto the Most Highest."--The Psalter, Ps. 1, 14. "The holy place of the tabernacle of the Most Highest."--Ib., Ps. xlvi, 4. "As boys should be educated with temperance, so the first greatest lesson that should be taught them is to admire frugality."--Goldsmith's Essays, p. 152. "More universal terms are put for such as are more restricted."--Brown's Metaphors, p. 11. "This was the most unkindest cut of all."--Dodd's Beauties of Shak., p. 251; Singer's Shak., ii, 264. "To take the basest and most poorest shape."--Dodd's Shak., p. 261. "I'll forbear: and am fallen out with my more headier will."--Ib., p. 262. "The power of the Most Highest guard thee from sin."--Percival, on Apostolic Succession, p. 90. "Which title had been more truer, if the dictionary had been in Latin and Welch."--VERSTEGAN: Harrison's E. Lang., p. 254. "The waters are more sooner and harder frozen, than more further upward, within the inlands."--Id., ib. "At every descent, the worst may become more worse."--H. MANN: Louisville Examiner, 8vo, Vol. i, p. 149.

  "Or as a moat defensive to a house
   Against the envy of less happier lands."--Shakspeare.
   "A dreadful quiet felt, and worser far
   Than arms, a sullen interval of war."--Dryden.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"It breaks forth in its most energetick, impassioned, and highest strain."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 66. "He has fallen into the most gross and vilest sort of railing."--Barclay's Works, iii, 261. "To receive that more general and higher instruction which the public affords."--District School, p. 281. "If the best things have the perfectest and best operations."--HOOKER: Joh. Dict. "It became the plainest and most elegant, the most splendid and richest, of all languages."--See Bucke's Gram., p. 140. "But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is, to mark the divisions of the sense."--Blair's Rhet., p. 331; Murray's Gram., 248. "That every thing belonging to ourselves is the perfectest and the best."--Clarkson's Prize Essay, p. 189. "And to instruct their pupils in the most thorough and best manner."--Report of a School Committee.


UNDER NOTE IX.--ADJECTIVES SUPERADDED.

"The Father is figured out as an old venerable man."--Dr. Brownlee's Controversy. "There never was exhibited such another masterpiece of ghostly assurance."--Id. "After the three first sentences, the question is entirely lost."--Spect., No, 476. "The four last parts of speech are commonly called particles."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 14. "The two last chapters will not be found deficient in this respect."--Student's Manual, p. 6. "Write upon your slates a list of the ten first nouns."--Abbott's Teacher, p. 85. "We have a few remains of other two Greek poets in the pastoral style, Moschus and Bion."--Blair's Rhet., p. 393. "The nine first chapters of the book of Proverbs are highly poetical."--Ib., p. 417. "For of these five heads, only the two first have any particular relation to the sublime."--Ib., p. 35. "The resembling sounds of the two last syllables give a ludicrous air to the whole."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 69. "The three last are arbitrary."--Ib., p. 72. "But in the phrase 'She hangs the curtains,' the verb hangs is a transitive active verb."--Comly's Gram., p. 30. "If our definition of a verb, and the arrangement of transitive or intransitive active, passive, and neuter verbs, are properly understood."--Ib., 15th Ed., p. 30. "These two last lines have an embarrassing construction."--Rush, on the Voice, p. 160. "God was provoked to drown them all, but Noah and other seven persons."--Wood's Dict., ii, 129. "The six first books of the Æneid are extremely beautiful."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 27. "A few more instances only can be given here."--Murray's Gram., p. 131. "A few more years will obliterate every vestige of a subjunctive form."--Nutting's Gram., p. 46. "Some define them to be verbs devoid of the two first persons."--Crombie's Treatise, p. 205. "In such another Essay-tract as this."--White's English Verb, p. 302. "But we fear that not such another man is to be found."--REV. ED. IRVING: on Horne's Psalms, p. xxiii.

  "Oh such another sleep, that I might see
   But such another man!"--SHAK., Antony and Cleopatra.


UNDER NOTE X.--ADJECTIVES FOR ADVERBS.

"The is an article, relating to the noun balm, agreeable to Rule 11."--Comly's Gram., p. 133. "Wise is an adjective relating to the noun man's, agreeable to Rule 11th."--Ibid., 12th Ed., often. "To whom I observed, that the beer was extreme good."--Goldsmith's Essays, p. 127. "He writes remarkably elegant."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 152. "John behaves truly civil to all men."--Ib., p. 153. "All the sorts of words hitherto considered have each of them some meaning, even when taken separate."--Beattie's Moral Science, i, 44. "He behaved himself conformable to that blessed example."--Sprat's Sermons, p. 80. "Marvellous graceful."--Clarendon, Life, p. 18. "The Queen having changed her ministry suitable to her wisdom."--Swift, Exam., No. 21. "The assertions of this author are easier detected."--Swift: censured in Lowth's Gram., p. 93. "The characteristic of his sect allowed him to affirm no stronger than that."--Bentley: ibid. "If one author had spoken nobler and loftier than an other."--Id., ib. "Xenophon says express."--Id., ib. "I can never think so very mean of him."--Id., ib. "To convince all that are ungodly among them, of all their ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed."--Jude, 15th: ib. "I think it very masterly written."--Swift to Pope, Let. 74: ib. "The whole design must refer to the golden age, which it lively represents."--Addison, on Medals: ib. "Agreeable to this, we read of names being blotted out of God's book."--BURDER: approved in Webster's Impr. Gram., p. 107; Frazee's, 140; Maltby's, 93. "Agreeable to the law of nature, children are bound to support their indigent parents."--Webster's Impr. Gram., p. 109. "Words taken independent of their meaning are parsed as nouns of the neuter gender."--Maltby's Gr., 96.

  "Conceit in weakest bodies strongest works."--Beaut. of Shak., p. 236.


UNDER NOTE XI.--THEM FOR THOSE.

"Though he was not known by them letters, or the name Christ."--Wm. Bayly's Works, p. 94. "In a gig, or some of them things."--Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent, p. 35. "When cross-examined by them lawyers."--Ib., p. 98. "As the custom in them cases is."--Ib., p. 101. "If you'd have listened to them slanders."--Ib., p. 115. "The old people were telling stories about them fairies, but to the best of my judgment there's nothing in it."--Ib., p. 188. "And is it not a pity that the Quakers have no better authority to substantiate their principles than the testimony of them old Pharisees?"--Hibbard's Errors of the Quakers, p. 107.


UNDER NOTE XII.--THIS AND THAT.

"Hope is as strong an incentive to action, as fear: this is the anticipation of good, that of evil."--Brown's Institutes, p. 135. "The poor want some advantages which the rich enjoy; but we should not therefore account those happy, and these miserable."--Ib.

  "Ellen and Margaret fearfully,
   Sought comfort in each other's eye;
   Then turned their ghastly look each one,
   This to her sire, that to her son."
       Scott's Lady of the Lake, Canto ii, Stanza 29.
   "Six youthful sons, as many blooming maids,
   In one sad day beheld the Stygian shades;
   These by Apollo's silver bow were slain,
   Those Cynthia's arrows stretched upon the plain."
       --Pope, Il., xxiv, 760.
   "Memory and forecast just returns engage,
   This pointing back to youth, that on to age."
       --See Key.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--EITHER AND NEITHER.

"These make the three great subjects of discussion among mankind; truth, duty, and interest. But the arguments directed towards either of them are generically distinct."--Blair's Rhet., p. 318. "A thousand other deviations may be made, and still either of them may be correct in principle. For these divisions and their technical terms, are all arbitrary."--R. W. Green's Inductive Gram., p. vi. "Thus it appears, that our alphabet is deficient, as it has but seven vowels to represent thirteen different sounds; and has no letter to represent either of five simple consonant sounds."--Churchill's Gram., p. 19. "Then neither of these [five] verbs can be neuter."--Oliver B. Peirce's Gram., p. 343. "And the asserter is in neither of the four already mentioned."--Ib., p. 356. "As it is not in either of these four."--Ib., p. 356. "See whether or not the word comes within the definition of either of the other three simple cases."--Ib., p. 51. "Neither of the ten was there."--Frazee's Gram., p. 108. "Here are ten oranges, take either of them."--Ib., p. 102. "There are three modes, by either of which recollection will generally be supplied; inclination, practice, and association."--Rippingham's Art of Speaking, p. xxix. "Words not reducible to either of the three preceding heads."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, pp. 335 and 340. "Now a sentence may be analyzed in reference to either of these [four] classes."--Ib., p. 577.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--WHOLE, LESS, MORE, AND MOST.

"Does not all proceed from the law, which regulates the whole departments of the state?"--Blair's Rhet., p. 278. "A messenger relates to Theseus the whole particulars."--Kames. El. of Crit., Vol. ii, p. 313. "There are no less than twenty dipthhongs [sic--KTH] in the English language."--Dr. Ash's Gram., p. xii. "The Redcross Knight runs through the whole steps of the Christian life."--Spectator No. 540. "There were not less than fifty or sixty persons present."--Teachers' Report. "Greater experience, and more cultivated society, abate the warmth of imagination, and chasten the manner of expression."--Blair's Rhet., p. 152; Murray's Gram., i, 351. "By which means knowledge, much more than oratory, is become the principal requisite."--Blair's Rhet., p. 254. "No less than seven illustrious cities disputed the right of having given birth to the greatest of poets."--Lemp. Dict., n. Homer. "Temperance, more than medicines, is the proper means of curing many diseases."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 222. "I do not suppose, that we Britons want genius, more than our neighbours."--Ib., p. 215. "In which he saith, he has found no less than twelve untruths."--Barclay's Works, i, 460. "The several places of rendezvous were concerted, and the whole operations fixed."--HUME: see Priestley's Gram., p. 190. "In these rigid opinions the whole sectaries concurred."--Id., ib. "Out of whose modifications have been made most complex modes."--LOCKE: Sanborn's Gram., p. 148. "The Chinese vary each of their words on no less than five different tones."--Blair's Rhet., p. 58. "These people, though they possess more shining qualities, are not so proud as he is, nor so vain as she."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 211. "'Tis certain, we believe ourselves more, after we have made a thorough Inquiry into the Thing."--Brightland's Gram., p. 244. "As well as the whole Course and Reasons of the Operation."--Ib. "Those rules and principles which are of most practical advantage."--Newman's Rhet., p. 4. "And there shall be no more curse."--Rev., xxii, 3. "And there shall be no more death."--Rev., xxi, 4. "But in recompense, we have more pleasing pictures of ancient manners."--Blair's Rhet., p. 436. "Our language has suffered more injurious changes in America, since the British army landed on our shores, than it had suffered before, in the period of three centuries."--Webster's Essays, Ed. of 1790, p. 96. "The whole conveniences of life are derived from mutual aid and support in society."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 166.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

"To such as think the nature of it deserving their attention."--Butler's Analogy, p. 84. "In all points, more deserving the approbation of their readers."--Keepsake, 1830. "But to give way to childish sensations was unbecoming our nature."--Lempriere's Dict., n. Zeno. "The following extracts are deserving the serious perusal of all."--The Friend, Vol. v, p. 135. "No inquiry into wisdom, however superficial, is undeserving attention."--Bulwer's Disowned, ii, 95. "The opinions of illustrious men are deserving great consideration."--Porter's Family Journal, p. 3. "And resolutely keeps its laws, Uncaring consequences."--Burns's Works, ii, 43. "This is an item that is deserving more attention."--Goodell's Lectures.

"Leave then thy joys, unsuiting such an age, To a fresh comer, and resign the stage."--Dryden.


UNDER NOTE XVI.--FIGURE OF ADJECTIVES.

"The tall dark mountains and the deep toned seas."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 278. "O! learn from him To station quick eyed Prudence at the helm."--ANON.: Frost's El. of Gram., p. 104. "He went in a one horse chaise."--Blair's Gram., p. 113. "It ought to be, 'in a one horse chaise.'"--Dr. Crombie's Treatise, p. 334. "These are marked with the above mentioned letters."--Folker's Gram., p. 4. "A many headed faction."--Ware's Gram., p. 18. "Lest there should be no authority in any popular grammar for the perhaps heaven inspired effort."--Fowle's True English Gram., Part 2d, p. 25. "Common metre stanzas consist of four Iambic lines; one of eight, and the next of six syllables. They were formerly written in two fourteen syllable lines."--Goodenow's Gram., p. 69. "Short metre stanzas consist of four Iambic lines; the third of eight, and the rest of six syllables."--Ibid. "Particular metre stanzas consist of six Iambic lines; the third and sixth of six syllables, the rest of eight."--Ibid. "Hallelujah metre stanzas consist of six Iambic lines; the last two of eight syllables, and the rest of six."--Ibid. "Long metre stanzas are merely the union of four Iambic lines, of ten syllables each."--Ibid. "A majesty more commanding than is to be found among the rest of the Old Testament poets."--Blair's Rhet., p. 418.

"You sulphurous and thought executed fires, Vaunt couriers to oak cleaving thunderbolts, Singe my white head! And thou, all shaking thunder Strike flat the thick rotundity o' the world!"--Beauties of Shak., p. 264.



CHAPTER V.--PRONOUNS.

The rules for the agreement of Pronouns with their antecedents are four; hence this chapter extends from the tenth rule to the thirteenth, inclusively. The cases of Pronouns are embraced with those of nouns, in the seven rules of the third chapter.


RULE X.--PRONOUNS.

A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:[379] as, "This is the friend of whom I spoke; he has just arrived."--"This is the book which I bought; it is an excellent work."--"Ye, therefore, who love mercy, teach your sons to love it too."--Cowper.

  "Speak thou, whose thoughts at humble peace repine,
   Shall Wolsey's wealth with Wolsey's end be thine?"--Dr. Johnson.


EXCEPTION FIRST.

When a pronoun stands for some person or thing indefinite, or unknown to the speaker, this rule is not strictly applicable; because the person, number, and gender, are rather assumed in the pronoun, than regulated by an antecedent: as, "I do not care who knows it."--Steele. "Who touched me? Tell me who it was."--"We have no knowledge how, or by whom, it is inhabited."--ABBOT: Joh. Dict.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

The neuter pronoun it may be applied to a young child, or to other creatures masculine or feminine by nature, when they are not obviously distinguishable with regard to sex; as, "Which is the real friend to the child, the person who gives it the sweetmeats, or the person who, considering only its health, resists its importunities?"--Opis. "He loads the animal he is showing me, with so many trappings and collars, that I cannot distinctly view it"--Murray's Gram., p. 301. "The nightingale sings most sweetly when it sings in the night."--Bucke's Gram., p. 52.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

The pronoun it is often used without a definite reference to any antecedent, and is sometimes a mere expletive, and sometimes the representative of an action expressed afterwards by a verb; as, "Whether she grapple it with the pride of philosophy."--Chalmers. "Seeking to lord it over God's heritage."--The Friend, vii, 253. "It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine, nor for princes strong drink."--Prov., xxxi, 4. "Having no temptation to it, God cannot act unjustly without defiling his nature."--Brown's Divinity, p. 11.

  "Come, and trip it as you go, On the light fantastic toe."--Milton.

EXCEPTION FOURTH.

A singular antecedent with the adjective many, sometimes admits a plural pronoun, but never in the same clause; as, "Hard has been the fate of many a great genius, that while they have conferred immortality on others, they have wanted themselves some friend to embalm their names to posterity."--Welwood's Pref. to Rowe's Lucan.

  "In Hawick twinkled many a light,
   Behind him soon they set in night."--W. Scott.

EXCEPTION FIFTH.

When a plural pronoun is put by enallagè for the singular, it does not agree with its noun in number, because it still requires a plural verb; as, "We [Lindley Murray] have followed those authors, who appear to have given them the most natural and intelligible distribution."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 29. "We shall close our remarks on this subject, by introducing the sentiments of Dr. Johnson respecting it."--Ib. "My lord, you know I love you"--Shakspeare.

EXCEPTION SIXTH.

The pronoun sometimes disagrees with its antecedent in one sense, because it takes it in an other; as, "I have perused Mr. Johnson's Grammatical Commentaries, and find it[380] a very laborious, learned, and useful Work."--Tho. Knipe, D. D. "Lamps is of the plural number, because it means more than one."--Smith's New Gram., p. 8. "Man is of the masculine gender, because it is the name of a male."--Ib. "The Utica Sentinel says it has not heard whether the wounds are dangerous."--Evening Post. (Better: "The editor of the Utica Sentinel says, he has not heard," &c.) "There is little Benjamin with their ruler."--Psalms, lxviii, 27.

  "Her end when emulation misses,
   She turns to envy, stings, and hisses."--Swift's Poems, p. 415.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE X.

OBS. 1.--Respecting a pronoun, the main thing is, that the reader perceive clearly for what it stands; and next, that he do not misapprehend its relation of case. For the sake of completeness and uniformity in parsing, it is, I think, expedient to apply the foregoing rule not only to those pronouns which have obvious antecedents expressed, but also to such as are not accompanied by the nouns for which they stand. Even those which are put for persons or things unknown or indefinite, may be said to agree with whatever is meant by them; that is, with such nouns as their own properties indicate. For the reader will naturally understand something by every pronoun, unless it be a mere expletive, and without any antecedent. For example: "It would depend upon who the forty were."--Trial at Steubenville, p. 50. Here who is an indefinite relative, equivalent to what persons; of the third person, plural, masculine; and is in the nominative case after were, by Rule 6th. For the full construction seems to be this: "It would depend upon the persons who the forty were." So which, for which person, or which thing, (if we call it a pronoun rather than an adjective,) may be said to have the properties of the noun person or thing understood; as,

  "His notions fitted things so well,
   That which was which he could not tell."--Hudibras.

OBS. 2.--The pronoun we is used by the speaker or writer to represent himself and others, and is therefore plural. But it is sometimes used, by a sort of fiction, in stead of the singular, to intimate that the speaker or writer is not alone in his opinions; or, perhaps more frequently, to evade the charge of egotism; for this modest assumption of plurality seems most common with those who have something else to assume: as, "And so lately as 1809, Pope Pius VII, in excommunicating his 'own dear son,' Napoleon, whom he crowned and blessed, says: 'We, unworthy as we are, represent the God of peace.'"--Dr. Brownlee. "The coat fits us as well as if we had been melted and poured into it."--Prentice. Monarchs sometimes prefer we to I, in immediate connexion with a singular noun; as, "We Alexander, Autocrat of all the Russias."--"We the Emperor of China," &c.--Economy of Human Life, p. vi. They also employ the anomalous compound ourself, which is not often used by other people; as, "Witness ourself at Westminster, 28 day of April, in the tenth year of our reign. CHARLES."

  "Cæs. What touches us ourself, shall be last serv'd."
       --Shak., J. C., Act iii, Sc. 1.
   "Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. x, l. 65.

OBS. 3.--The pronoun you, though originally and properly plural, is now generally applied alike to one person or to more. Several observations upon this fashionable substitution of the plural number for the singular, will be found in the fifth and sixth chapters of Etymology. This usage, however it may seem to involve a solecism, is established by that authority against which the mere grammarian has scarcely a right to remonstrate. Alexander Murray, the schoolmaster, observes, "When language was plain and simple, the English always said thou, when speaking to a single person. But when an affected politeness, and a fondness for continental manners and customs began to take place, persons of rank and fashion said you in stead of thou. The innovation gained ground, and custom gave sanction to the change, and stamped it with the authority of law."--English Gram., Third Edition, 1793, p. 107. This respectable grammarian acknowledged both thou and you to be of the second person singular. I do not, however, think it necessary or advisable to do this, or to encumber the conjugations, as some have done, by introducing the latter pronoun, and the corresponding form of the verb, as singular.[381] It is manifestly better to say, that the plural is used for the singular, by the figure Enallagè. For if you has literally become singular by virtue of this substitution, we also is singular for the same reason, as often as it is substituted for I; else the authority of innumerable authors, editors, compilers, and crowned, heads, is insufficient to make it so. And again, if you and the corresponding form of the verb are literally of the second person singular, (as Wells contends, with an array of more than sixty names of English grammarians to prove it,) then, by their own rule of concord, since thou and its verb are still generally retained in the same place by these grammarians, a verb that agrees with one of these nominatives, must also agree with the other; so that you hast and thou have, you seest and thou see, may be, so far as appears from their instructions, as good a concord as can be made of these words!

OBS. 4.--The putting of you for thou has introduced the anomalous compound yourself, which is now very generally used in stead of thyself. In this instance, as in the less frequent adoption of ourself for myself, Fashion so tramples upon the laws of grammar, that it is scarcely possible to frame an intelligible exception in her favour. These pronouns are essentially singular, both in form and meaning; and yet they cannot be used with I or thou, with me or thee, or with any verb that is literally singular; as, "I ourself am." but, on the contrary, they must be connected only with such plural terms as are put for the singular; as, "We ourself are king."--"Undoubtedly you yourself become an innovator."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 364; Campbell's Rhet., 167.

  "Try touch, or sight, or smell; try what you will,
   You strangely find nought but yourself alone."
       --Pollok, C. of T., B. i, l. 162.

OBS. 5.--Such terms of address, as your Majesty, your Highness, your Lordship, your Honour, are sometimes followed by verbs and pronouns of the second person plural, substituted for the singular; and sometimes by words literally singular, and of the third person, with no other figure than a substitution of who for which: as, "Wherein your Lordship, who shines with so much distinction in the noblest assembly in the world, peculiarly excels"--Dedication of Sale's Koran. "We have good cause to give your Highness the first place; who, by a continued series of favours have obliged us, not only while you moved in a lower orb, but since the Lord hath called your Highness to supreme authority."--Massachusetts to Cromwell, in 1654.

OBS. 6.--The general usage of the French is like that of the English, you for thou; but Spanish, Portuguese, or German politeness requires that the third person be substituted for the second. And when they would be very courteous, the Germans use also the plural for the singular, as they for thou. Thus they have a fourfold method of addressing a person: as, they, denoting the highest degree of respect; he, a less degree; you, a degree still less; and thou, none at all, or absolute reproach. Yet, even among them, the last is used as a term of endearment to children, and of veneration to God! Thou, in English, still retains its place firmly, and without dispute, in all addresses to the Supreme Being; but in respect to the first person, an observant clergyman has suggested the following dilemma: "Some men will be pained, if a minister says we in the pulpit; and others will quarrel with him, if he says I."--Abbott's Young Christian, p. 268.

OBS. 7.--Any extensive perversion of the common words of a language from their original and proper use, is doubtless a matter of considerable moment. These changes in the use of the pronouns, being some of them evidently a sort of complimentary fictions, some religious people have made it a matter of conscience to abstain from them, and have published their reasons for so doing. But the moral objections which may lie against such or any other applications of words, do not come within the grammarian's province. Let every one consider for himself the moral bearing of what he utters: not forgetting the text, "But I say unto you, that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgement: for by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned."--Matt., xii, 36 and 37. What scruples this declaration ought to raise, it is not my business to define. But if such be God's law, what shall be the reckoning of those who make no conscience of uttering continually, or when they will, not idle words only, but expressions the most absurd, insignificant, false, exaggerated, vulgar, indecent, injurious, wicked, sophistical, unprincipled, ungentle, and perhaps blasphemous, or profane?

OBS. 8.--The agreement of pronouns with their antecedents, it is necessary to observe, is liable to be controlled or affected by several of the figures of rhetoric. A noun used figuratively often suggests two different senses, the one literal, and the other tropical; and the agreement of the pronoun must be sometimes with this, and sometimes with that, according to the nature of the trope. If the reader be unacquainted with tropes and figures, he should turn to the explanation of them in Part Fourth of this work; but almost every one knows something about them, and such as must here be named, will perhaps be made sufficiently intelligible by the examples. There seems to be no occasion to introduce under this head more than four; namely, personification, metaphor, metonymy, and synecdoche.

OBS. 9.--When a pronoun represents the name of an inanimate object personified, it agrees with its antecedent in the figurative, and not in the literal sense; as, "There were others whose crime it was rather to neglect Reason than to disobey her."--Dr. Johnson. "Penance dreams her life away."--Rogers. "Grim Darkness furls his leaden shroud."--Id. Here if the pronoun were made neuter, the personification would be destroyed; as, "By the progress which England had already made in navigation and commerce, it was now prepared for advancing farther."--Robertson's America, Vol. ii, p. 341. If the pronoun it was here intended to represent England, the feminine she would have been much better; and, if such was not the author's meaning, the sentence has some worse fault than the agreement of a pronoun with its noun in a wrong sense.

OBS. 10.--When the antecedent is applied metaphorically, the pronoun usually agrees with it in its literal, and not in its figurative sense; as, "Pitt was the pillar which upheld the state."--"The monarch of mountains rears his snowy head."--"The stone which the builders rejected."--Matt., xxi, 42. According to this rule, which would be better than whom, in the following text: "I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them an other little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots."--Daniel, vii, 8. In Rom., ix, 33, there is something similar: "Behold, I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed." Here the stone or rock is a metaphor for Christ, and the pronoun him may be referred to the sixth exception above; but the construction is not agreeable, because it is not regular: it would be more grammatical, to change on him to thereon. In the following example, the noun "wolves," which literally requires which, and not who, is used metaphorically for selfish priests; and, in the relative, the figurative or personal sense is allowed to prevail:

  "Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous wolves,
   Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven
   To their own vile advantages shall turn."
       --Milton, P. L., B. xii, l. 508.

This seems to me somewhat forced and catachrestical. So too, and worse, the following; which makes a star rise and speak:

  "So spake our Morning Star then in his rise,
   And looking round on every side beheld
   A pathless desert, dusk with horrid shades."
       --Id., P. R., B. i, l. 294.

OBS. 11.--When the antecedent is put by metonymy for a noun of different properties, the pronoun sometimes agrees with it in the figurative, and sometimes in the literal sense; as, "When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt. As they called them, so they went from them: [i. e., When Moses and the prophets called the Israelites, they often refused to hear:] they sacrificed unto Baalim, and burnt incense to graven images. I taught Ephraim also to go, taking them by their arms; but they knew not that I healed them."--Hosea, xi, 1, 2, 3. The mixture and obscurity which are here, ought not to be imitated. The name of a man, put for the nation or tribe of his descendants, may have a pronoun of either number, and a nation may be figuratively represented as feminine; but a mingling of different genders or numbers ought to be avoided: as, "Moab is spoiled, and gone up out of her cities, and his chosen young men are gone down to the slaughter."--Jeremiah, xlviii, 15.

  "The wolf, who [say that] from the nightly fold,
   Fierce drags the bleating prey, ne'er drunk her milk,
   Nor wore her warming fleece."--Thomson's Seasons.
   "That each may fill the circle mark'd by Heaven,
   Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,
   A hero perish or a sparrow fall."--Pope's Essay on Man.
   "And heaven behold its image in his breast."--Ib.
   "Such fate to suffering worth is given,
   Who long with wants and woes has striven."--Burns.

OBS. 12.--When the antecedent is put by synecdoche for more or less than it literally signifies, the pronoun agrees with it in the figurative, and not in the literal sense; as,

  "A dauntless soul erect, who smiled on death."--Thomson
   "But to the generous still improving mind,
   That gives the hopeless heart to sing for joy,
   To him the long review of ordered life
   Is inward rapture only to be felt."--Id. Seasons.

OBS. 13.--Pronouns usually follow the words which they represent; but this order is sometimes reversed: as, "Whom the cap fits, let him put it on."--"Hark! they whisper; angels say," &c.--Pope. "Thou, O Lord, art a God full of compassion."--Old Test. And in some cases of apposition, the pronoun naturally comes first; as, "I Tertius"--"Ye lawyers." The pronoun it, likewise, very often precedes the clause or phrase which it represents; as, "Is it not manifest, that the generality of people speak and write very badly?"--Campbell's Rhet., p. 160; Murray's Gram., i, 358. This arrangement is too natural to be called a transposition. The most common form of the real inversion is that of the antecedent and relative in poetry; as,

  "Who stops to plunder at this signal hour,
   The birds shall tear him, and the dogs devour."
       --POPE: Iliad, xv, 400.

OBS. 14.--A pronoun sometimes represents a phrase or a sentence; and in this case the pronoun is always in the third person singular neuter: as, "Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not."--Gen., xxviii, 10. "Yet men can go on to vilify or disregard Christianity; which is to talk and act as if they had a demonstration of its falsehood."--Butler's Analogy, p. 269. "When it is asked wherein personal identity consists, the answer should be the same as if it were asked, wherein consists similitude or equality."--Ib., p. 270. "Also, that the soul be without knowledge, it is not good."--Prov., xix, 2. In this last example, the pronoun is not really necessary. "That the soul be without knowledge, is not good."--Jenks's Prayers, p. 144. Sometimes an infinitive verb is taken as an antecedent; as, "He will not be able to think, without which it is impertinent to read; nor to act, without which it is impertinent to think."--Bolingbroke, on History, p. 103.

OBS. 15.--When a pronoun follows two words, having a neuter verb between them, and both referring to the same thing, it may represent either of them, but not often with the same meaning: as, 1. "I am the man, who command." Here, who command belongs to the subject I, and the meaning is, "I who command, am the man." (The latter expression places the relative nearer to its antecedent, and is therefore preferable.) 2. "I am the man who commands." Here, who commands belongs to the predicate man, and the meaning is, "I am the commander." Again: "I perceive thou art a pupil, who possessest good talents."--Cooper's Pl. and Pract. Gram., p. 136. Here the construction corresponds not to the perception, which is, of the pupil's talents. Say, therefore, "I perceive thou art a pupil possessing (or, who possesses) good talents."

OBS. 16.--After the expletive it, which may be employed to introduce a noun or a pronoun of any person, number, or gender, the above-mentioned distinction is generally disregarded; and the relative is most commonly made to agree with the latter word, especially if this word be of the first or the second person: as, "It is no more I that do it."--Rom., vii, 20. "For it is not ye that speak."--Matt., x, 20. The propriety of this construction is questionable. In the following examples, the relative agrees with the it, and not with the subsequent nouns: "It is the combined excellencies of all the denominations that gives to her her winning beauty and her powerful charms."--Bible Society's Report, 1838, p. 89. "It is purity and neatness of expression which is chiefly to be studied."--Blair's Rhet., p. 271. "It is not the difficulty of the language, but on the contrary the simplicity and facility of it, that occasions this neglect."--Lowth's Gram., p. vi. "It is a wise head and a good heart that constitutes a great man."--Child's Instructor, p. 22.

OBS. 17.--The pronoun it very frequently refers to something mentioned subsequently in the sentence; as, "It is useless to complain of what is irremediable." This pronoun is a necessary expletive at the commencement of any sentence in which the verb is followed by a phrase or a clause which, by transposition, might be made the subject of the verb; as, "It is impossible to please every one."--W. Allen's Gram. "It was requisite that the papers should be sent."--Ib. The following example is censured by the Rev. Matt. Harrison: "It is really curious, the course which balls will sometimes take."--Abernethy's Lectures. "This awkward expression," says the critic, "might have been avoided by saying, 'The course which balls will sometimes take is really curious.'"--Harrison, on the English Language, p. 147. If the construction is objectionable, it may, in this instance, be altered thus: "It is really curious, to observe the course which balls will sometimes take!" So, it appears, we may avoid a pleonasm by an addition. But he finds a worse example: saying, "Again, in an article from the 'New Monthly,' No. 103, we meet with the same form of expression, but with an aggravated aspect:--'It is incredible, the number of apothecaries' shops, presenting themselves.' It would be quite as easy to say, 'The number of apothecaries' shops, presenting themselves, is incredible.' "--Ib., p. 147. This, too, may take an infinitive, "to tell," or "to behold;" for there is no more extravagance in doubting one's eyes, than in declaring one's own statement "incredible." But I am not sure that the original form is not allowable. In the following line, we seem to have something like it:

  "It curled not Tweed alone, that breeze."--Sir W. Scott.

OBS. 18.--Relative and interrogative pronouns are placed at or near the beginning of their own clauses; and the learner must observe that, through all their cases, they almost invariably retain this situation in the sentence, and are found before their verbs even when the order of the construction would reverse this arrangement: as, "He who preserves me, to whom I owe my being, whose I am, and whom I serve, is eternal."--Murray, p. 159. "He whom you seek."--Lowth.

  "The good must merit God's peculiar care;
   But who, but God, can tell us who they are?"--Pope.

OBS. 19.--A relative pronoun, being the representative of some antecedent word or phrase, derives from this relation its person, number, and gender, but not its case. By taking an other relation of case, it helps to form an other clause; and, by retaining the essential meaning of its antecedent, serves to connect this clause to that in which the antecedent is found. No relative, therefore, can ever be used in an independent simple sentence, or be made the subject of a subjunctive verb, or be put in apposition with any noun or pronoun; but, like other connectives, this pronoun belongs at the head of a clause in a compound sentence, and excludes conjunctions, except when two such clauses are to be joined together, as in the following example: "I should be glad, at least, of an easy companion, who may tell me his thoughts, and to whom I may communicate mine."--Goldsmith's Essays, p. 196.

OBS. 20.--The two special rules commonly given by the grammarians, for the construction of relatives, are not only unnecessary,[382] but faulty. I shall notice them only to show my reasons for discarding them. With whom they originated, it is difficult to say. Paul's Accidence has them, and if Dean Colet, the supposed writer, did not take them from some earlier author, they must have been first taught by him, about the year 1510; and it is certain that they have been copied into almost every grammar published since. The first one is faulty, because, "When there cometh no nominative case between the relative and the verb, the relative shall [not always] be the nominative case to the verb;" as may be seen by the following examples: "Many are the works of human industry, which to begin and finish are [say is] hardly granted to the same man."--Dr. Johnson's Adv. to Dict. "They aim at his removal; which there is reason to fear they will effect."--"Which to avoid, I cut them off."--Shak., Hen. IV. The second rule is faulty, because, "When there cometh a nominative case between the relative and the verb, the relative shall [not always] be such case as the verb will have after it;" as may be seen by the following examples: "The author has not advanced any instances, which he does not think are pertinent."--Murray's Gram., i, 192. "Which we have reason to think was the case with the Greek and Latin."--Ib., 112. "Is this your son, who ye say was born blind?"--John, ix, 19. The case of the relative cannot be accurately determined by any rules of mere location. It may be nominative to a verb afar off, or it may be objective with a verb immediately following; as, "Which I do not find that there ever was."--Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 31. "And our chief reason for believing which is that our ancestors did so before us."--Philological Museum, i, 641. Both these particular rules are useless, because the general rules for the cases, as given in chapter third above, are applicable to relatives, sufficient to all the purpose, and not liable to any exceptions.

OBS. 21.--In syntactical parsing, each word, in general, is to be resolved by some one rule; but the parsing of a pronoun commonly requires two; one for its agreement with the noun or nouns for which it stands, and an other for its case. The rule of agreement will be one of the four which are embraced in this present chapter; and the rule for the case will be one of the seven which compose chapter third. So that the whole syntax of pronouns requires the application of eleven different rules, while that of nouns or verbs is embraced in six or seven, and that of any other part of speech, in one only. In respect to their cases, relatives and interrogatives admit of every construction common to nouns, or to the personal pronouns, except apposition. This is proved by the following examples:

1. Nominatives by Rule 2d: "I who write;--Thou who writest;--He who writes;--The animal which runs."--Dr. Adam. "He that spareth his rod, hateth his son."--Solomon. "He who does any thing which he knows is wrong, ventures on dangerous ground."--"What will become of us without religion?"--Blair. "Here I determined to wait the hand of death; which, I hope, when at last it comes, will fall lightly upon me."--Dr. Johnson. "What is sudden and unaccountable, serves to confound."--Crabb. "They only are wise, who are wise to salvation."--Goodwin.

2. Nominatives by Rule 6th: (i.e., words parsed as nominatives after the verbs, though mostly transposed:) "Who art thou?"--Bible. "What were we?"--Ib. "Do not tell them who I am."--"Let him be who he may, he is not the honest fellow that he seemed."--"The general conduct of mankind is neither what it was designed, nor what it ought to be."

3. Nominatives absolute by Rule 8th: "There are certain bounds to imprudence, which being transgressed, there remains no place for repentance in the natural course of things."--Bp. Butler. "Which being so, it need not be any wonder, why I should."--Walker's Particles, Pref., p. xiv. "He offered an apology, which not being admitted, he became submissive."--Murray's Key, p. 202. This construction of the relative is a Latinism, and very seldom used by the best English writers.

4. Possessives by Rule 4th: "The chief man of the island, whose name was Publius."--Acts. "Despair, a cruel tyrant, from whose prisons none can escape."--Dr. Johnson. "To contemplate on Him whose yoke is easy and whose burden is light."--Steele.

5. Objectives by Rule 5th: "Those whom she persuaded."--Dr. Johnson. "The cloak that I left at Troas."--St. Paul. "By the things which he suffered."--Id. "A man whom there is reason to suspect."--"What are we to do?"--Burke. "Love refuses nothing that love sends."--Gurnall. "The first thing, says he, is, to choose some maxim or point of morality; to inculcate which, is to be the design of his work."--Blair's Rhet., p. 421. "Whomsoever you please to appoint."--Lowth. "Whatsover [sic--KTH] he doeth, shall prosper."--Bible. "What we are afraid to do before men, we should be afraid to think before God."--Sibs. "Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do?"--Gen., xviii, 32. "Shall I hide from Abraham what I am going to do?"--"Call imperfection what thou fanciest such."--Pope.

6. Objectives by Rule 6th: (i.e., pronouns parsed as objectives after neuter verbs, though they stand before them:) "He is not the man that I took him to be."--"Whom did you suppose me to be?"--"If the lad ever become what you wish him to be."

7. Objectives by Rule 7th: "To whom shall we go?"--Bible. "The laws by which the world is governed, are general."--Bp. Butler. "Whom he looks upon as his defender."--Addison. "That secret heaviness of heart which unthinking men are subject to."--Id. "I cannot but think the loss of such talents as the man of whom I am speaking was master of, a more melancholy instance."--Steele. "Grammar is the solid foundation upon which all other science rests."--Buchanan's Eng. Synt., p. xx.

OBS. 22.--In familiar language, the relative of the objective case is frequently understood; as, "The man [whom] I trust."--Cowper. "Here is the letter [which] I received." So in the following sentences: "This is the man they hate. These are the goods they bought. Are these the Gods they worship? Is this the woman you saw?"--Ash's Gram., p. 96. This ellipsis seems allowable only in the familiar style. In grave writing, or deliberate discourse, it is much better to express this relative. The omission of it is often attended with some obscurity; as, "The next error [that] I shall mention [,] is a capital one."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 157. "It is little [that] we know of the divine perfections."--Scougal, p. 94. "The faith [which] we give to memory, may be thought, on a superficial view, to be resolvable into consciousness, as well as that [which] we give to the immediate impressions of sense."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 53. "We speak that [which] we do know, and testify that [which] we have seen."--John, iii, 11. The omission of a relative in the nominative case, is almost always inelegant; as, "This is the worst thing [that] could happen."--"There were several things [which] brought it upon me."--Pilgrim's Progress, p. 162. The latter ellipsis may occur after but or than, and it is also sometimes allowed in poetry; as, [There is] "No person of reflection but [who] must be sensible, that an incident makes a stronger impression on an eye-witness, than when heard at second hand."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 257.

  "In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis man."--Pope, on Man.
   "Abuse on all he lov'd, or lov'd him, spread."--Id., to Arbuthnot.
   "There's nothing blackens like the ink of fools."--Id., to Augustus.

OBS. 23.--The antecedent is sometimes suppressed, especially in poetry; as, "Who will, may be a judge."--Churchill. "How shall I curse [him or them] whom God hath not cursed?"--Numbers, xxiii, 8. "There are, indeed, [some persons] who seem disposed to extend her authority much farther."--Campbell's Philosophy of Rhet., p. 187.

   [He] "Who lives to nature, rarely can be poor;
   [He] Who lives to fancy, never can be rich."--Young.
   "Serious should be an author's final views;
   [They] Who write for pure amusement, ne'er amuse."--Id.

OBS. 24.--Which, as well as who, was formerly applied to persons; as, "Our Father which art in heaven."--Bible. "Pray for them which despitefully use you."--Luke, vi, 28. And, as to the former example here cited, some British critics, still preferring the archaism, have accused "The Americans" of "poor criticism," in that they "have changed which into who, as being more consonant to the rules of Grammar." Falsely imagining, that which and who, with the same antecedent, can be of different genders, they allege, that, "The use of the neuter pronoun carried with it a certain vagueness and sublimity, not inappropriate in reminding us that our worship is addressed to a Being, infinite, and superior to all distinctions applicable to material objects."--Men and Manners in America: quoted and endorsed by the REV. MATT. HARRISON, in his treatise on the English Language, p. 191. This is all fancy; and, in my opinion, absurd. It is just like the religious prejudice which could discern "a singular propriety" in "the double superlative most highest."--Lowth's Gram., p. 28. But which may still be applied to a young child, if sex and intelligence be disregarded; as, "The child which died." Or even to adults, when they are spoken of without regard to a distinct personality or identity; as, "Which of you will go?"--"Crabb knoweth not which is which, himself or his parodist."--Leigh Hunt.

OBS. 25.--A proper name taken merely as a name, or an appellative taken in any sense not strictly personal, must be represented by which, and not by who; as, "Herod--which is but an other name for cruelty."--"In every prescription of duty, God proposeth himself as a rewarder; which he is only to those that please him."--Dr. J. Owen. Which would perhaps be more proper than whom, in the following passage: "They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the Lord commanded them."--Psalms, cvi, 34. Dr. Blair has preferred it in the following instance: "My lion and my pillar are sufficiently interpreted by the mention of Achilles and the minister, which I join to them."--Lectures, p. 151. He meant, "whose names I connect with theirs;" and not, that he joined the person of Achilles to a lion, or that of a minister to a pillar.

OBS. 26.--When two or more relative clauses pertain to the same antecedent, if they are connected by a conjunction, the same relative ought to be employed in each, agreeably to the doctrine of the seventh note below; but if no conjunction is expressed or understood between them, the pronouns ought rather to be different; as, "There are many things that you can speak of, which cannot be seen."--R W. Green's Gram., p. 11. This distinction is noticed in the fifth chapter of Etymology, Obs. 29th, on the Classes of Pronouns. Dr. Priestley says, "Whatever relative be used, in a series of clauses, relating to the same antecedent, the same ought to be used in them all. 'It is remarkable, that Holland, against which the war was undertaken, and that, in the very beginning, was reduced to the brink of destruction, lost nothing.'--Universal History, Vol. 25, p. 117. It ought to have been, and which in the very beginning."--Priestley's Gram., p. 102. L. Murray, (as I have shown in the Introduction, Ch. x, ¶ 22,) assumes all this, without references; adding as a salvo the word "generally," which merely impairs the certainty of the rule:--"the same relative ought generally to be used in them all."--Octavo Gram., p. 155. And, of who and that, Cobbett says: "Either may do; but both never ought to be relatives of the same antecedent in the same sentence."--Gram., ¶ 202. The inaccuracy of these rules is as great as that of the phraseology which is corrected under them. In the following sentence, the first relative only is restrictive, and consequently the other may be different: "These were the officers that were called Homotimoi, and who signalized themselves afterwards so gloriously upon all occasions."--Rollin's Hist., ii, 62. See also in Rev., x, 6th, a similar example without the conjunction.

OBS. 27.--In conversation, the possessive pronoun your is sometimes used in a droll way, being shortened into your in pronunciation, and nothing more being meant by it, than might be expressed by the article an or a: as, "Rich honesty dwells, like your miser, sir, in a poor house; as, your pearl in your foul oyster."--Shakspeare.


NOTES TO RULE X.

NOTE 1.--A pronoun should not be introduced in connexion with words that belong more properly to the antecedent, or to an other pronoun; as, "And then there is good use for Pallas her glass."--Bacon's Wisdom, p. 22. Say--"for Pallas's glass."

  "My banks they are furnish'd with bees,
   Whose murmur invites one to sleep."--Shenstone, p. 284.

This last instance, however, is only an example of pleonasm; which is allowable and frequent in animated discourse, but inelegant in any other. Our grammarians have condemned it too positively. It occurs sundry times in the Bible; as, "Know ye that the LORD he is God."--Psalms, c, 3.

NOTE II.--A change of number in the second person, or even a promiscuous use of ye and you in the same case and the same style, is inelegant, and ought to be avoided; as, "You wept, and I for thee"--"Harry, said my lord, don't cry; I'll give you something towards thy loss."--Swift's Poems, p. 267. "Ye sons of sloth, you offspring of darkness, awake from your sleep."--Brown's Metaphors, p. 96. Our poets have very often adopted the former solecism, to accommodate their measure, or to avoid the harshness of the old verb in the second person singular: as, "Thy heart is yet blameless, O fly while you may!"--Queen's Wake, p. 46.

  "Oh! Peggy, Peggy, when thou goest to brew,
   Consider well what you're about to do."--King's Poems, p. 594.
   "As in that lov'd Athenian bower,
   You learn'd an all-commanding power,
   Thy mimic soul, O nymph endear'd!
   Can well recall what then it heard."--Collins, Ode to Music.

NOTE III.--The relative who is applied only to persons, and to animals or things personified; and which, to brute animals and inanimate things spoken of literally: as, "The judge who presided;"--"The old crab who advised the young one;"--"The horse which ran away;"--"The book which was given me."

NOTE IV.--Nouns of multitude, unless they express persons directly as such, should not be represented by the relative who: to say, "The family whom I visited," would hardly be proper; that would here be better. When such nouns are strictly of the neuter gender, which may represent them; as, "The committees which were appointed." But where the idea of rationality is predominant, who or whom seems not to be improper; as, "The conclusion of the Iliad is like the exit of a great man out of company whom he has entertained magnificently."--Cowper. "A law is only the expression of the desire of a multitude who have power to punish."--Brown's Philosophy of the Mind.

NOTE V.--In general, the pronoun must so agree with its antecedent as to present the same idea, and never in such a manner as to confound the name with the thing signified, or any two things with each other. Examples: "Jane is in the nominative case, because it leads the sentence."--Infant School Gram., p. 30. Here it represents the word "Jane" and not the person Jane. "What mark or sign is put after master to show that he is in the possessive case? Spell it"--Ib., p. 32. Here the word "master" is most absurdly confounded with the man; and that to accommodate grammar to a child's comprehension!

NOTE VI.--The relative that may be applied either to persons or to things. In the following cases, it is more appropriate than who, whom, or which; and ought to be preferred, unless it be necessary to use a preposition before the relative:--(1.) After an adjective of the superlative degree, when the relative clause is restrictive;[383] as, "He was the first that came."--"He was the fittest person that could then be found."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 422. "The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared in the world."--BEATTIE: Murray's Gram., p. 127. (2.) After the adjective same, when the relative clause is restrictive; as, "He is the same man that you saw before."-- Priestley's Gram., p. 101; Murray's, 156; Campbell's Rhet., 422. (3.) After the antecedent who; as, "Who that is a sincere friend to it, can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric?"--Washington. (4.) After two or more antecedents that demand a relative adapted both to persons and to things; as, "He spoke largely of the men and things that he had seen."--"When some particular person or thing is spoken of, that ought to be more distinctly marked."-- Murray's Gram., p. 51. (5.) After an unlimited antecedent which the relative clause is designed to restrict; as, "Thoughts that breathe, and words that burn."--Gray. "Music that accords with the present tone of mind, is, on that account, doubly agreeable."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 311. "For Theocritus descends sometimes into ideas that are gross and mean."--Blair's Rhet., p. 393. (6.) After any antecedent introduced by the expletive it; as, "It is you that suffer."--"It was I, and not he, that did it."--Churchill's Gram., p. 142. "It was not he[384] that they were so angry with."--Murray's Exercises, R. 17. "It was not Gavius alone that Verres meant to insult."--Blair's Rhet., p. 325. (7.) And, in general, wherever the propriety of who or which is doubtful; as, "The little child that was placed in the midst."

NOTE VII.--When two or more relative clauses connected by a conjunction have a similar dependence in respect to the antecedent, the same pronoun must be employed in each; as, "O thou, who art, and who wast, and who art to come!"--"And they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshiped."--Jer., viii, 2. NOTE VIII.--The relative, and the preposition governing it, should not be omitted, when they are necessary to the sense intended, or to a proper connexion of the parts of the sentence; as, "He is still in the situation you saw him." Better thus: "He is still in the situation in which you saw him."

NOTE IX.--After certain nouns, of time, place, manner, or cause, the conjunctive adverbs when, where, whither, whence, how, and why, are a sort of special relatives; but no such adverb should be used where a preposition and a relative pronoun would better express the relation of the terms: as, "A cause where justice is so much concerned." Say, "A cause in which." See Etymology, Obs. 6th, 7th, and 8th, on the Classes of Adverbs.

NOTE X.--Where a pronoun or a pronominal adjective will not express the meaning clearly, the noun must be repeated, or inserted in stead of it: as, "We see the beautiful variety of colour in the rainbow, and are led to consider the cause of it." Say,--"the cause of that variety;" because the it may mean the variety, the colour, or the rainbow.

NOTE XI.--To prevent ambiguity or obscurity, the relative should, in general, be placed as near as possible to the antecedent. The following sentence is therefore faulty: "He is like a beast of prey, that is void of compassion." Better thus: "He that is void of compassion, is like a beast of prey."

NOTE XII.--The pronoun what should never be used in stead of the conjunction that; as, "Think no man so perfect but what he may err." This is a vulgar fault. Say,--"but that he may err."

NOTE XIII.--A pronoun should never be used to represent an adjective,--except the pronominal adjectives, and others taken substantively; because a pronoun can neither express a concrete quality as such, nor convert it properly into an abstract: as, "Be attentive; without which you will learn nothing." Better thus: "Be attentive; for without attention you will learn nothing."

NOTE XIV.--Though the relative which may in some instances stand for a phrase or a sentence, it is seldom, if ever, a fit representative of an indicative assertion; as, "The man opposed me, which was anticipated."-- Nixon's Parser, p. 127. Say,--"but his opposition was anticipated." Or: "The man opposed me, as was anticipated." Or:--"as I expected he would." Again: "The captain disobeys orders, which is punished."--Ib., p. 128. This is an other factitious sentence, formed after the same model, and too erroneous for correction: none but a conceited grammatist could ever have framed such a construction.

NOTE XV.--The possessive pronouns, my, thy, his, her, its, &c., should be inserted or repeated as often as the sense or construction of the sentence requires them; their omission, like that of the articles, can scarcely in any instance constitute a proper ellipsis: as, "Of Princeton and vicinity."--Say, "Of Princeton and its vicinity." "The man and wife."--Say, "The man and his wife." "Many verbs vary both their signification and construction."--Adam's Gram., p. 170; Gould's, 171. Say,--"and their construction."

NOTE XVI.--In the correcting of any discord between the antecedent and its pronoun, if the latter for any sufficient reason is most proper as it stands, the former must be changed to accord with it: as, "Let us discuss what relates to each particular in their order:--its order."-- Priestley's Gram., p. 193. Better thus: "Let us discuss what relates to the several particulars, in their order." For the order of things implies plurality.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE X. UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF AGREEMENT

"The subject is to be joined with his predicate."--BP. WILKINS: Lowth's Gram., p. 42.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun his is of the masculine gender, and does not correctly represent its antecedent noun subject, which is of the third person, singular, neuter. But, according to Rule 10th, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender." Therefore, his should be its; thus, "The subject is to be joined with its predicate."]

"Every one must judge of their own feelings."--Byron's Letters. "Every one in the family should know their duty."--Wm. Penn. "To introduce its possessor into 'that way in which it should go.'"--Infant School Gram., p. v. "Do not they say, every true believer has the Spirit of God in them?"--Barclay's Works, iii, 388. "There is none in their natural state righteous, no not one."--Wood's Dict. of Bible, ii, 129. "If ye were of the world, the world would love his own."--John, xv, 19. "His form had not yet lost all her original brightness."--Milton. "No one will answer as if I were their friend or companion."--Steele, Spect., No. 534. "But in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves."-- Philippians, ii, 3. "And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his neighbour."--Zechariah, viii, 17. "For every tree is known by his own fruit."--Luke, vi, 44. "But she fell to laughing, like one out of their right mind."--Castle Rackrent, p. 51. "Now these systems, so far from having any tendency to make men better, have a manifest tendency to make him worse."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 128. "And nobody else would make that city their refuge any more."--Josephus's Life, p. 158. "What is quantity, as it respects syllables or words? It is that time which is occupied in pronouncing it."--Bradley's Gram., p. 108. "In such expressions the adjective so much resembles an adverb in its meaning, that they are usually parsed as such."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 103. "The tongue is like a race-horse; which runs the faster the less weight it carries."--ADDISON: Joh. Dict.; Murray's Key, Rule 8. "As two thoughtless boys were trying to see which could lift the greatest weight with their jaws, one of them had several of his firm-set teeth wrenched from their sockets."--Newspaper. "Everybody nowadays publishes memoirs; everybody has recollections which they think worthy of recording."--Duchess D'Abrantes, p. 25. "Every body trembled for themselves or their friends."--Goldsmith's Greece, i, 171.

  "A steed comes at morning: no rider is there;
   But its bridle is red with the sign of despair."--Campbell.


UNDER NOTE I.--PRONOUNS WRONG OR NEEDLESS.

"Charles loves to study; but John, alas! he is very idle."--Merchant's School Gram., p. 22. "Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone?"--Matt., vii, 9. "Who, in stead of going about doing good, they are perpetually intent upon doing mischief."-- Tillotson. "Whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pontius Pilate."--Acts, iii, 13. "Whom, when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber."--Acts, ix, 37. "Then Manasseh knew that the Lord he was God."--2 Chron., xxxiii, 13. "Whatever a man conceives clearly, he may, if he will be at the trouble, put it into distinct propositions, and express it clearly to others."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 293. "But to that point of time which he has chosen, the painter being entirely confined, he cannot exhibit various stages of the same action."--Blair's Rhet., p. 52. "It is without any proof at all what he subjoins."--Barclay's Works, i, 301. "George Fox his Testimony concerning Robert Barclay."--Ib., i, 111. "According to the author of the Postscript his advice."--Ib., iii, 263. "These things seem as ugly to the Eye of their Meditations, as those Æthiopians pictur'd in Nemesis her Pitcher."--Bacon's Wisdom of the Ancients, p. 49. "Moreover, there is always a twofold Condition propounded with Sphynx her Ænigma's."--Ib., p. 73. "Whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish."--Sale's Koran, p. 20. "When, at Sestius his entreaty, I had been at his house."--Walker's Particles, p. 59.

  "There high on Sipylus his shaggy brow,
   She stands, her own sad monument of woe."
       --Pope's Homer, B. xxiv, l. 777.


UNDER NOTE II.--CHANGE OF NUMBER.

"So will I send upon you famine, and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee."--Ezekiel, v, 17. "Why do you plead so much for it? why do ye preach it up?"--Barclay's Works, i, 180. "Since thou hast decreed that I shall bear man, your darling."--Edward's First Lesson in Gram., p. 106. "You have my book and I have thine; i.e. thy book."--Chandler's Gram., 1821, p. 22. "Neither art thou such a one as to be ignorant of what you are."--Bullions, Lat. Gram., p. 70. "Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the Lord, and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you."--Jeremiah, iii, 12. "The Almighty, unwilling to cut thee off in the fullness of iniquity, has sent me to give you warning."--Art of Thinking, p. 278. "Wert thou born only for pleasure? were you never to do any thing?"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 63. "Thou shalt be required to go to God, to die, and give up your account."--BARNES'S NOTES: on Luke, xii, 20. "And canst thou expect to behold the resplendent glory of the Creator? would not such a sight annihilate you?"--Milton. "If the prophet had commanded thee to do some great thing, would you have refused?"--Common School Journal, i, 80. "Art thou a penitent? Evince your sincerity by bringing forth fruits meet for repentance."--Christian's Vade-Mecum, p. 117. "I will call thee my dear son: I remember all your tenderness."-- Classic Tales, p. 8. "So do thou, my son: open your ears, and your eyes."--Wright's Athens, p. 33. "I promise you, this was enough to discourage thee."--Pilgrim's Progress, p. 446. "Ere you remark an other's sin, Bid thy own conscience look within."--Gay. "Permit that I share in thy woe, The privilege can you refuse?"--Perfect's Poems, p. 6. "Ah! Strephon, how can you despise Her who without thy pity dies?"--Swift's Poems, p. 340.

  "Thy verses, friend, are Kidderminster stuff,
   And I must own, you've measur'd out enough."--Shenstone.
   "This day, dear Bee, is thy nativity;
   Had Fate a luckier one, she'd give it ye."--Swift.


UNDER NOTE III.--WHO AND WHICH.

"Exactly like so many puppets, who are moved by wires."--Blair's Rhet., p. 462. "They are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt."--Leviticus, xxv, 42. "Behold I and the children which God hath given me."--Heb., ii, 13; Webster's Bible, and others. "And he sent Eliakim which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe."--2 Kings, xix, 2. "In a short time the streets were cleared of the corpses who filled them."--M'Ilvaine's Led., p. 411. "They are not of those which teach things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake."--Barclay's Works, i, 435. "As a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep; who, if he go through, both treadeth down and teareth in pieces."--Micah, v, 8. "Frequented by every fowl whom nature has taught to dip the wing in water."--Rasselas, p. 10. "He had two sons, one of which was adopted by the family of Maximus."--Lempriere, w. Æmytius. "And the ants, who are collected by the smell, are burned by fire."--The Friend, xii, 49. "They being the agents, to which this thing was trusted."--Nixon's Parser, p. 139. "A packhorse who is driven constantly forwards and backwards to market."--LOCKE: Joh. Dict. "By instructing children, the affection of which will be increased."--Nixon's Parser, p. 136. "He had a comely young woman which travelled with him."--Hutchinson's Hist., i, 29. "A butterfly, which thought himself an accomplished traveller, happened to light upon a beehive."--Inst., p. 143. "It is an enormous elephant of stone, who disgorges from his uplifted trunk a vast but graceful shower."--Zenobia, i, 150. "He was met by a dolphin, who sometimes swam before him, and sometimes behind him."--Edward's First Lessons in Gram., p. 34.

  "That Cæsar's horse, who, as fame goes,
   Had corns upon his feet and toes,
   Was not by half so tender-hooft,
   Nor trod upon the ground so soft."--Hudibras, p. 6.


UNDER NOTE IV.--NOUNS OF MULTITUDE.

"He instructed and fed the crowds who surrounded him."--Murray's Exercises, p. 52. "The court, who gives currency to manners, ought to be exemplary."--Ibid. "Nor does he describe classes of sinners who do not exist."--Anti-Slavery Magazine, i, 27. "Because the nations among whom they took their rise, were not savage."--Murray's Gram., p. 113. "Among nations who are in the first and rude periods of society."--Blair's Rhet., p. 60. "The martial spirit of those nations, among whom the feudal government prevailed."--Ib., p. 374. "France who was in alliance with Sweden."--Smollett's Voltaire, vi, 187. "That faction in England who most powerfully opposed his arbitrary pretensions."--Mrs. Macaulay's Hist., iii, 21. "We may say, the crowd, who was going up the street.'"--Cobbett's Gram., ¶ 204. "Such members of the Convention who formed this Lyceum, as have subscribed this Constitution."--New-York Lyceum.


UNDER NOTE V.--CONFUSION OF SENSES.

"The possessor shall take a particular form to show its case."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 53. "Of which reasons the principal one is, that no Noun, properly so called, implies its own Presence."--Harris's Hermes, p. 76. "Boston is a proper noun, which distinguishes it from other cities."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 22. "Conjunction means union, or joining together. It is used to join or unite either words or sentences."--Ib., p. 20. "The word interjection means thrown among. It is interspersed among other words to express sudden or strong emotion."--Ib., p. 21. "In deed, or in very deed, may better be written separately, as they formerly were."--Cardell's Gram., 12mo, p. 89. "Alexander, on the contrary, is a particular name, and is restricted to distinguish him alone."--Jamieson's Rhet., p. 25. "As an indication that nature itself had changed her course."--Hist. of America, p. 9. "Of removing from the United States and her territories the free people of colour."--Jenifer. "So that gh may be said not to have their proper sound."--Webster's El. Spelling-Book, p. 10. "Are we to welcome the loathsome harlot, and introduce it to our children?"--Maturin's Sermons, p. 167. "The first question is this, 'Is reputable, national, and present use, which, for brevity's sake, I shall hereafter simply denominate good use, always uniform in her decisions?"--Campbell's Rhet., p. 171. "Time is always masculine, on account of its mighty efficacy. Virtue is feminine from its beauty, and its being the object of love."--Murray's Gram., p. 37; Blair's, 125; Sanborn's, 189; Emmons's, 13; Putnam's, 25; Fisk's, 57; Ingersoll's, 26; Greenleaf's, 21. See also Blair's Rhet., p. 76. "When you speak to a person or thing, it is in the second person."--Bartlett's Manual, Part ii, p. 27. "You now know the noun, for it means name."--Ibid. "T. What do you see? P. A book. T. Spell it."--R. W. Green's Gram., p. 12. "T. What do you see now? P. Two books. T. Spell them."--Ibid. "If the United States lose her rights as a nation."--Liberator, Vol. ix, p. 24. "When a person or thing is addressed or spoken to, it is in the second person."--Frost's El. of Gram., p. 7. "When a person or thing is spoken of, it is in the third person."--Ibid. "The ox, that ploughs the ground, has the same plural termination also, oxen."--Bucke's Classical Gram., p. 40.

  "Hail, happy States! thine is the blissful seat,
   Where nature's gifts and art's improvements meet."
            EVERETT: Columbian Orator, p. 239.


UNDER NOTE VI.--THE RELATIVE THAT.

(1.) "This is the most useful art which men possess."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 275. "The earliest accounts which history gives us concerning all nations, bear testimony to these facts."--Blair's Rhet., p. 379; Jamieson's, 300. "Mr. Addison was the first who attempted a regular inquiry" [into the pleasures of taste.]--Blair's Rhet., p. 28. "One of the first who introduced it was Montesquieu."--Murray's Gram., p. 125. "Massillon is perhaps the most eloquent writer of sermons which modern times have produced."--Blair's Rhet., p. 289. "The greatest barber who ever lived, is our guiding star and prototype."--Hart's Figaro, No. 6.

(2.) "When prepositions are subjoined to nouns, they are generally the same which are subjoined to the verbs, from which the nouns are derived."--Priestley's Gram., p. 157. "The same proportions which are agreeable in a model, are not agreeable in a large building."--Kames, EL of Crit., ii, 343. "The same ornaments, which we admire in a private apartment, are unseemly in a temple."--Murray's Gram., p. 128. "The same whom John saw also in the sun."--Milton. P. L., B. iii, l. 623.

(3.) "Who can ever be easy, who is reproached with his own ill conduct?"--Thomas à Kempis, p. 72. "Who is she who comes clothed in a robe of green?"--Inst., p. 143. "Who who has either sense or civility, does not perceive the vileness of profanity?"

(4.) "The second person denotes the person or thing which is spoken to."--Compendium in Kirkham's Gram. "The third person denotes the person or thing which is spoken of."--Ibid. "A passive verb denotes action received or endured by the person or thing which is its nominative."--Ibid, and Gram., p. 157. "The princes and states who had neglected or favoured the growth of this power."--Bolingbroke, on History, p. 222. "The nominative expresses the name of the person, or thing which acts, or which is the subject of discourse."--Hiley's Gram., p. 19. (5.) "Authors who deal in long sentences, are very apt to be faulty."--Blair's Rhet., p. 108. "Writers who deal in long sentences, are very apt to be faulty."--Murray's Gram., p. 313. "The neuter gender denotes objects which are neither male nor female."--Merchant's Gram., p. 26. "The neuter gender denotes things which have no sex."--Kirkham's Compendium. "Nouns which denote objects neither male nor female, are of the neuter gender."--Wells's Gram., 1st Ed., p. 49. "Objects and ideas which have been long familiar, make too faint an impression to give an agreeable exercise to our faculties."--Blair's Rhet., p. 50. "Cases which custom has left dubious, are certainly within the grammarian's province."--Murray's Gram., p. 164. "Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit."--Ib., p. 132. "After all which can be done to render the definitions and rules of grammar accurate," &c.--Ib., p. 36. "Possibly, all which I have said, is known and taught."--A. B. Johnson's Plan of a Dict., p. 15.

(6.) "It is a strong and manly style which should chiefly be studied."--Blair's Rhet., p. 261. "It is this which chiefly makes a division appear neat and elegant."--Ib., p. 313. "I hope it is not I with whom he is displeased."--Murray's Key, R. 17. "When it is this alone which renders the sentence obscure."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 242. "This sort of full and ample assertion, 'it is this which,' is fit to be used when a proposition of importance is laid down."--Blair's Rhet., p. 197. "She is the person whom I understood it to have been." See Murray's Gram., p. 181. "Was it thou, or the wind, who shut the door?"--Inst., p. 143. "It was not I who shut it."--Ib.

(7.) "He is not the person who it seemed he was."--Murray's Gram., p. 181; Ingersoll's, p. 147. "He is really the person who he appeared to be."--Same. "She is not now the woman whom they represented her to have been."--Same. "An only child, is one who has neither brother nor sister; a child alone, is one who is left by itself"--Blair's Rhet., p. 98; Jamieson's, 71; Murray's Gram. 303.


UNDER NOTE VII.--RELATIVE CLAUSES CONNECTED.

(1.) "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of a thing; of whatever we conceive in any way to subsist, or of which we have any notion."--Lowth's Gram., p. 14. (2.) "A Substantive or noun is the name of any thing that exists, or of which we have any notion."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 27; Alger's, 15; Bacon's, 9; E. Dean's, 8; A. Flint's, 10; Folker's, 5; Hamlin's, 9; Ingersoll's, 14; Merchant's, 25; Pond's, 15; S. Putnam's, 10; Rand's, 9; Russell's, 9; T. Smith's, 12; and others. (3.) "A substantive or noun is the name of any person, place, or thing that exists, or of which we can have an idea."--Frost's El. of E. Gram., p. 6. (4.) "A noun is the name of anything that exists, or of which we form an idea."--Hallock's Gram., p. 37. (5.) "A Noun is the name of any person, place, object, or thing, that exists, or which we may conceive to exist."--D. C. Allen's Grammatic Guide, p. 19. (6.) "The name of every thing that exists, or of which we can form any notion, is a noun."--Fisk's Murray's Gram., p. 56. (7.) "An allegory is the representation of some one thing by an other that resembles it, and which is made to stand for it."--Murray's Gram., p. 341. (8.) "Had he exhibited such sentences as contained ideas inapplicable to young minds, or which were of a trivial or injurious nature."--Murray's Gram., Vol. ii, p. v. (9.) "Man would have others obey him, even his own kind; but he will not obey God, that is so much above him, and who made him."--Penn's Maxims. (10.) "But what we may consider here, and which few Persons have taken Notice of, is," &c.--Brightland's Gram., p. 117. (11.) "The Compiler has not inserted such verbs as are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly terminated by t, instead of ed."--Murray's Gram., p. 107; Fisk's, 81; Hart's, 68; Ingersoll's, 104; Merchant's, 63. (12.) "The remaining parts of speech, which are called the indeclinable parts, or that admit of no variations, will not detain us long."--Blair's Rhet., p. 84.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--THE RELATIVE AND PREPOSITION.

"In the temper of mind he was then."--Addison, Spect., No. 54. "To bring them into the condition I am at present."--Spect., No. 520. "In the posture I lay."--Swift's Gulliver. "In the sense it is sometimes taken."--Barclay's Works, i, 527. "Tools and utensils are said to be right, when they serve for the uses they were made."--Collier's Antoninus, p. 99. "If, in the extreme danger I now am, I do not imitate the behaviour of those," &c.--Goldsmith's Greece, i, 193. "News was brought, that Darius was but twenty miles from the place they then were."--Ib., ii, 113. "Alexander, upon hearing this news, continued four days in the place he then was."--Ib., ii, 113. "To read, in the best manner it is now taught."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 246. "It may be expedient to give a few directions as to the manner it should be studied."--Hallock's Gram., p. 9. "Participles are words derived from verbs, and convey an idea of the acting of an agent, or the suffering of an object, with the time it happens."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 50.

  "Had I but serv'd my God with half the zeal
   I serv'd my king, he would not in mine age
   Have left me naked to mine enemies."--Beauties of Shak., p. 173.


UNDER NOTE IX.--ADVERBS FOR RELATIVES.

"In compositions where pronunciation has no place."--Blair's Rhet., p. 101. "They framed a protestation, where they repeated their claims."--Hume's Hist. "Which have reference to Substances, where Sex never had existence."--Harris's Hermes, p. 43. "Which denote substances where sex never had existence."--Murray's Gram., p. 38; Fisk's, 57. "There is no rule given how truth may be found out."--Walker's Particles, p. 160. "The nature of the objects whence they are taken."--Blair's Rhet., p. 165. "That darkness of character, where we can see no heart."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 236. "The states where they negotiated."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 159. "Till the motives whence men act be known."--Beattie's Moral Science, p. 262. "He assigns the principles whence their power of pleasing flows."--Blair's Rhet., p. 19. "But I went on, and so finished this History in that form as it now appears."--Sewel's Preface, p. v. "By prepositions we express the cause why, the instrument by which, wherewith, or the manner how a thing is done."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 128; John Burn's, 121. "They are not such in the language whence they are derived."--Town's Analysis, p. 13. "I find it very hard to persuade several, that their passions are affected by words from whence they have no ideas."--Burke, on the Sublime, p. 95. "The known end, then, why we are placed in a state of so much affliction, hazard, and difficulty, is our improvement in virtue and piety."--Butler's Anal., p. 109.

  "Yet such his acts, as Greeks unborn shall tell,
   And curse the battle where their fathers fell."
       --Pope, Il., B. x, I. 61.


UNDER NOTE X.--REPEAT THE NOUN.

"Youth may be thoughtful, but it is not very common."--Webster's El. Spelling-Book, p. 85. "A proper name is that given to one person or thing."--Bartlett's School Manual, ii, 27. "A common name is that given to many things of the same sort."--Ibid. "This rule is often violated; some instances of which are annexed."--Murray's Gram., p. 149; Ingersoll's, 237. "This is altogether careless writing. It renders style often obscure, always embarrassed and inelegant."--Blair's Rhet., p. 106. "Every inversion which is not governed by this rule, will be disrelished by every one of taste."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 62. "A proper diphthong is that in which both the vowels are sounded."--Murray's Gram., p. 9; Alger's, 11; Bacon's, 8; Merchant's, 9; Hiley's, 3; and others. "An improper Diphthong is one in which only one of the two Vowels is sounded."--Lennie's Gram., p. 5. "Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and his descendants, are called Hebrews."--Wood's Dict. "Every word in our language, of more than one syllable, has one of them distinguished from the rest in this manner."--Murray's Gram., p. 236. "Two consonants proper to begin a word must not be separated; as, fa-ble, sti-fle. But when they come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided; as, ut-most, un-der."--Ib., p. 22. "Shall the intellect alone feel no pleasures in its energy, when we allow them to the grossest energies of appetite and sense?"--Harris's Hermes, p. 298; Murray's Gram., 289. "No man hath a propensity to vice as such: on the contrary, a wicked deed disgusts him, and makes him abhor the author."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 66. "The same that belong to nouns, belong also to pronouns."--Greenleaf's Gram., p. 8. "What is Language? It is the means of communicating thoughts from one to another."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 15. "A simple word is that which is not made up of more than one."--Adam's Gram., p. 4; Gould's, p. 4. "A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words."--Ib. "When a conjunction is to be supplied, it is called Asyndeton."--Adam's Gram., p. 235.


UNDER NOTE XI.--PLACE OF THE RELATIVE.

"It gives a meaning to words, which they would not have."--Murray's Gram., p. 244. "There are many words in the English language, that are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs."--Ib., p. 114. "Which do not more effectually show the varied intentions of the mind, than the auxiliaries do which are used to form the potential mood."--Ib., p. 67. "These accents make different impressions on the mind, which will be the subject of a following speculation."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 108. "And others very much differed from the writer's words, to whom they were ascribed."--Pref. to Lily's Gram., p. xii. "Where there is nothing in the sense which requires the last sound to be elevated, an easy fall will be proper."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 250; Bullions's E. Gram., 167. "There is an ellipsis of the verb in the last clause, which, when you supply, you find it necessary to use the adverb not."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 176; Murray's Gram., 368. "Study is singular number, because its nominative I is, with which it agrees."--Smith's New Gram., p. 22. "John is the person, or, thou art who is in error."--Wright's Gram., p. 136. "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin."--2 Cor., v, 21.

  "Take that of me, my friend, who have the power
   To seal the accuser's lips."--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 268.


UNDER NOTE XII.--WHAT FOR THAT.

"I had no idea but what the story was true."--Browns Inst., p. 144. "The post-boy is not so weary but what he can whistle."--Ib. "He had no intimation but what the men were honest."--Ib. "Neither Lady Haversham nor Miss Mildmay will ever believe, but what I have been entirely to blame."--See Priestley's Gram., p. 93. "I am not satisfied, but what the integrity of our friends is more essential to our welfare than their knowledge of the world."--Ibid. "There is, indeed, nothing in poetry, so entertaining or descriptive, but what a didactic writer of genius may be allowed to introduce in some part of his work."--Blair's Rhet., p. 401. "Brasidas, being bit by a mouse he had catched, let it slip out of his fingers: 'No creature, (says he,) is so contemptible but what may provide for its own safety, if it have courage.'"--PLUTARCH: Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 81.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--ADJECTIVES FOR ANTECEDENTS.

"In narration, Homer is, at all times, remarkably concise, which renders him lively and agreeable."--Blair's Rhet., p. 435. "It is usual to talk of a nervous, a feeble, or a spirited style; which are plainly the characters of a writer's manner of thinking."--Ib., p. 92. "It is too violent an alteration, if any alteration were necessary, which none is."--Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 134. "Some men are too ignorant to be humble, without which, there can be no docility."--Berkley's Alciphron, p. 385. "Judas declared him innocent; which he could not be, had he in any respect deceived the disciples."--Porteus. "They supposed him to be innocent, which he certainly was not."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 50; Emmons's, 25. "They accounted him honest, which he certainly was not."--Fetch's Comp. Gram., p. 89. "Be accurate in all you say or do; for it is important in all the concerns of life."--Brown's Inst., p. 145. "Every law supposes the transgressor to be wicked; which indeed he is, if the law is just."--Ib. "To be pure in heart, pious, and benevolent, which all may be, constitutes human happiness."--Murray's Gram., p. 232. "To be dexterous in danger, is a virtue; but to court danger to show it, is weakness."--Penn's Maxims.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--SENTENCES FOR ANTECEDENTS.

"This seems not so allowable in prose; which the following erroneous examples will demonstrate."--Murray's Gram., p. 175. "The accent is laid upon the last syllable of a word; which is favourable to the melody."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 86. "Every line consists of ten syllables, five short and five long; from which there are but two exceptions, both of them rare."--Ib., ii, 89. "The soldiers refused obedience, which has been explained."--Nixon's Parser, p. 128. "Cæsar overcame Pompey, which was lamented."--Ib. "The crowd hailed William, which was expected."--Ib. "The tribunes resisted Scipio, which was anticipated."--Ib. "The censors reproved vice, which was admired."--Ib. "The generals neglected discipline, which has been proved."--Ib. "There would be two nominatives to the verb was, which is improper."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 205; Gould's, 202. "His friend bore the abuse very patiently; which served to increase his rudeness: it produced, at length, contempt and insolence."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 50; Emmons's, 25. "Almost all compounded sentences, are more or less elliptical; some examples of which may be seen under the different parts of speech."--Murray's Gram., p. 217; Guy's, 90; R G. Smith's, 180; Ingersoll's, 153; Fisk's, 144; J. M. Putnam's, 137; Weld's, 190, Weld's Imp. Ed., 214.


UNDER NOTE XV.--REPEAT THE PRONOUN.

"In things of Nature's workmanship, whether we regard their internal or external structure, beauty and design are equally conspicuous."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 269. "It puzzles the reader, by making him doubt whether the word ought to be taken in its proper or figurative sense."--Ib., ii, 231. "Neither my obligations to the muses, nor expectations from them, are so great."--Cowley's Preface. "The Fifth Annual Report of the Anti-Slavery Society of Ferrisburgh and vicinity."--Liberator, ix, 69. "Meaning taste in its figurative as well as proper sense."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 360. "Every measure in which either your personal or political character is concerned."--Junius, Let. ix. "A jealous, righteous God has often punished such in themselves or offspring."--Extracts, p. 179. "Hence their civil and religious history are inseparable."--Milman's Jews, i, 7. "Esau thus carelessly threw away both his civil and religious inheritance."--Ib., i, 24. "This intelligence excited not only our hopes, but fears likewise."--Jaudon's Gram., p. 170. "In what manner our defect of principle and ruling manners have completed the ruin of the national spirit of union."--Brown's Estimate, i, 77. "Considering her descent, her connexion, and present intercourse."--Webster's Essays, p. 85. "His own and wife's wardrobe are packed up in a firkin."--Parker and Fox's Gram., Part i, p. 73.


UNDER NOTE XVI.--CHANGE THE ANTECEDENT.

"The sound of e and o long, in their due degrees, will be preserved, and clearly distinguished."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 242. "If any person should be inclined to think," &c., "the author takes the liberty to suggest to them," &c.--Ib., Pref., p. iv. "And he walked in all the ways of Asa his father; he turned not aside from it."--1 Kings, xxii, 43. "If ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses."--Matt., xviii, 35. "Nobody ever fancied they were slighted by him, or had the courage to think themselves his betters."--Collier's Antoninus, p. 8. "And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son."--Gen., xxvii, 15. "Where all the attention of man is given to their own indulgence."-- Maturin's Sermons, p. 181. "The idea of a father is a notion superinduced to the substance, or man--let man be what it will."--Locke's Essay, i, 219. "Leaving every one to do as they list."--Barclay's Works, i, 460. "Each body performed his part handsomely."--J. Flint's Gram., p. 15. "This block of marble rests on two layers of stone, bound together with lead, which, however, has not prevented the Arabs from forcing out several of them."--Parker and Fox's Gram., Part i, p. 72.

  "Love gives to every power a double power,
   Above their functions and their offices."--Shakspeare.


RULE XI.--PRONOUNS.

When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Pronoun must agree with it in the plural number: as, "The council were divided in their sentiments."--"The Christian world are beginning to awake out of their slumber."--C. Simeon. "Whatever Adam's posterity lost through him, that and more they gain in Christ."--J. Phipps.

  "To this, one pathway gently-winding leads,
   Where march a train with baskets on their heads."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xviii, l. 657.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XI.

OBS. 1.--The collective noun, or noun of multitude, being a name that signifies many, may in general be taken in either of two ways, according to the intention of the user: that is, either with reference to the aggregate as one thing, in which sense it will accord with the neuter pronoun it or which; or with reference to the individuals, so as to accord with a plural pronoun they, their, them, or who, masculine, or feminine, as the individuals of the assemblage may happen to be. The noun itself, being literally singular both in form and in fact, has not unfrequently some article or adjective before it that implies unity; so that the interpretation of it in a plural sense by the pronoun or verb, was perhaps not improperly regarded by the old grammarians as an example of the figure syllepsis:.as, "Liberty should reach every individual of a people, as they all share one common nature."--Spectator, No. 287.

  "Thus urg'd the chief; a generous troop appears,
   Who spread their bucklers and advance their spears."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xi, l. 720.

OBS. 2.--Many of our grammarians say, "When a noun of multitude is preceded by a definitive word, which clearly limits the sense to an aggregate with an idea of unity, it requires a verb and pronoun to agree with it in the singular number."--Murray's Gram., p. 153; Ingersoll's, 249; Fisk's, 122; Fowler's, 528. But this principle, I apprehend, cannot be sustained by an appeal to general usage. The instances in practice are not few, in which both these senses are clearly indicated with regard to the same noun; as, "Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgement require secrecy."--Constitution of the United States, Art. i, Sec. 5. "I mean that part of mankind who are known by the name of women's men, or beaux."--Addison, Spect., No. 536. "A set of men who are common enough in the world."--Ibid. "It is vain for a people to expect to be free, unless they are first willing to be virtuous."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 397. "For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed."--Matt., xiii, 15. "This enemy had now enlarged their confederacy, and made themselves more formidable than before."--Life of Antoninus, p. 62.

  "Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms;
   So loud their clamour, and so keen their arms."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xvi, l. 320.

OBS. 3.--Most collective nouns of the neuter gender, may take the regular plural form, and be represented by a pronoun in the third person, plural, neuter; as, "The nations will enforce their laws." This construction comes under Rule 10th, as does also the singular, "The nations will enforce its laws;" for, in either case, the agreement is entirely literal. Half of Murray's Rule 4th is therefore needless. To Rule 11th above, there are properly no exceptions; because the number of the pronoun is itself the index to the sense in which the antecedent is therein taken. It does not follow, however, but that there may be violations of the rule, or of the notes under it, by the adoption of one number when the other would be more correct, or in better taste. A collection of things inanimate, as a fleet, a heap, a row, a tier, a bundle, is seldom, if ever, taken distributively, with a plural pronoun. For a further elucidation of the construction of collective nouns, see Rule 15th, and the observations under it.


NOTES TO RULE XI.

NOTE I.--A collective noun conveying the idea of unity, requires a pronoun in the third person, singular, neuter; as, "When a legislative body makes laws, it acts for itself only; but when it makes grants or contracts, it acts as a party."--Webster's Essays, p. 40. "A civilized people has no right to violate its solemn obligations, because the other party is uncivilized."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 314.

NOTE II.--When a collective noun is followed by two or more words which must each in some sense agree with it, uniformity of number is commonly preferable to diversity, and especially to such a mixture as puts the singular both before and after the plural; as, "That ingenious nation who have done so much honour to modern literature, possesses, in an eminent degree, the talent of narration."--Blair's Rhet., p. 364. Better: "which has done."


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XI.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE IDEA OF PLURALITY.

"The jury will be confined till it agrees on a verdict."--Brown's Inst., p. 145.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun it is of the singular number, and does not correctly represent its antecedent jury, which is a collective noun conveying rather the idea of plurality. But, according to Rule 11th, "When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the pronoun must agree with it in the plural number." Therefore, it should be they; thus, "The jury will be confined till they agree on a verdict."]

"And mankind directed its first cares towards the needful."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 114. "It is difficult to deceive a free people respecting its true interest."--Life of Charles XII, p. 67. "All the virtues of mankind are to be counted upon a few fingers, but his follies and vices are innumerable."--Swift. "Every sect saith, 'Give me liberty:' but give it him, and to his power, he will not yield it to any body else."--Oliver Cromwell. "Behold, the people shall rise up as a great lion, and lift up himself as a young lion."--Numbers, xxiii, 24. "For all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth."--Gen., vi, 12. "There happened to the army a very strange accident, which put it in great consternation."--Goldsmith.

UNDER NOTE I.--THE IDEA OF UNITY.

"The meeting went on in their business as a united body."--Foster's Report, i, 69. "Every religious association has an undoubted right to adopt a creed for themselves."--Gould's Advocate, iii, 405. "It would therefore be extremely difficult to raise an insurrection in that State against their own government."--Webster's Essays, p. 104. "The mode in which a Lyceum can apply themselves in effecting a reform in common schools."--New York Lyceum. "Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods?"--Jeremiah, ii, 11. "In the holy scriptures each of the twelve tribes of Israel is often called by the name of the patriarch, from whom they descended."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., ii, 331.

UNDER NOTE II.--UNIFORMITY OF NUMBER.

"A nation, by the reparation of their own wrongs, achieves a triumph more glorious than any field of blood can ever give."--J. Q. Adams. "The English nation, from which we descended, have been gaining their liberties inch by inch."--Webster's Essays, p. 45. "If a Yearly Meeting should undertake to alter its fundamental doctrines, is there any power in the society to prevent their doing so?"--Foster's Report, i, 96. "There is a generation that curseth their father, and doth not bless their mother."--Proverbs, xxx, 11. "There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes, and yet is not washed from their filthiness."--Ib., xxx, 12. "He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel: the Lord his God is with him, and the shout of a king is among them."--Numb., xxiii, 21. "My people hath forgotten me, they have burnt incense to vanity."--Jer., xviii, 15. "When a quarterly meeting hath come to a judgment respecting any difference, relative to any monthly meeting belonging to them," &c.--Extracts, p. 195; N. E. Discip., p. 118. "The number of such compositions is every day increasing, and appear to be limited only by the pleasure or conveniency of the writer."--Booth's Introd. to Dict., p. 37. "The church of Christ hath the same power now as ever, and are led by the same Spirit into the same practices."--Barclay's Works, i, 477. "The army, whom the chief had thus abandoned, pursued meanwhile their miserable march."--Lockhart's Napoleon, ii, 165.


RULE XII.--PRONOUNS.

When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together: as, "Minos and Thales sung to the lyre the laws which they composed."--STRABO: Blair's Rhet., p. 379. "Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their death they were not divided."--2 Sam., i, 23.

  "Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills,
   Caresus roaring down the stony hills."--Pope, Il., B. xii, l. 17.

EXCEPTION FIRST.

When two or more antecedents connected by and serve merely to describe one person or thing, they are either in apposition or equivalent to one name, and do not require a plural pronoun; as, "This great philosopher and statesman continued in public life till his eighty-second year."--"The same Spirit, light, and life, which enlighteneth, also sanctifieth, and there is not an other."--Penington. "My Constantius and Philetus confesseth me two years older when I writ it."--Cowley's Preface. "Remember these, O Jacob and Israel! for thou art my servant."--Isaiah, xliv, 21. "In that strength and cogency which renders eloquence powerful."--Blair's Rhet., p. 252.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

When two antecedents connected by and are emphatically distinguished, they belong to different propositions, and, if singular, do not require a plural pronoun; as, "The butler, and not the baker, was restored to his office."--"The good man, and the sinner too, shall have his reward."--"Truth, and truth only, is worth seeking for its own sake."--"It is the sense in which the word is used, and not the letters of which it is composed, that determines what is the part of speech to which it belongs."--Cobbett's Gram., ¶ 130.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

When two or more antecedents connected by and are preceded by the adjective each, every, or no, they are taken separately, and do not require a plural pronoun; as, "Every plant and every tree produces others after its own kind."--"It is the cause of every reproach and distress which has attended your government."--Junius, Let. xxxv. But if the latter be a collective noun, the pronoun may be plural; as, "Each minister and each church act according to their own impressions."--Dr. M'Cartee.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XII.

OBS. 1.--When the antecedents are of different persons, the first person is preferred to the second, and the second to the third; as, "John, and thou, and I, are attached to our country."--"John and thou are attached to your country."--"The Lord open some light, and show both you and me our inheritance!"--Baxter. "Thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood."--Numbers, xviii, 1.

  "For all are friends in heaven; all faithful friends;
   And many friendships in the days of Time
   Begun, are lasting here, and growing still:
   So grows ours evermore, both theirs and mine."
       --Pollok, C. of T., B. v, l. 335.

OBS 2.--The gender of pronouns, except in the third person singular, is distinguished only by their antecedents. In expressing that of a pronoun which has antecedents of different genders, the masculine should be preferred to the feminine, and the feminine to the neuter. The parser of English should remember, that this is a principle of General Grammar.

OBS 3.--When two words are taken separately as nominatives, they ought not to be united in the same sentence as antecedents. In the following example, therefore, them should be it: "The first has a lenis, and the other an asper over them."--Printer's Gram., p. 246. Better thus: "The first has a lenis over it, and the other an asper."

OBS. 4.--Nouns that stand as nominatives or antecedents, are sometimes taken conjointly when there is no conjunction expressed; as, "The historian, the orator, the philosopher, address themselves primarily to the understanding: their direct aim is, to inform, to persuade, to instruct."--Blair's Rhet., p. 377. The copulative and may here be said to be understood, because the verb and the pronouns are plural; but it seems better in general, either to introduce the connective word, or to take the nouns disjunctively: as, "They have all the copiousness, the fervour, the inculcating method, that is allowable and graceful in an orator; perhaps too much of it for a writer."--Blair's Rhet., p. 343. To this, however, there may be exceptions,--cases in which the plural form is to be preferred,--especially in poetry; as,

  "Faith, justice, heaven itself, now quit their hold,
   When to false fame the captive heart is sold."--Brown, on Satire.

OBS. 5.--When two or more antecedents connected by and are nominally alike, one or more of them may be understood; and, in such a case, the pronoun must still be plural, as agreeing with all the nouns, whether expressed or implied: as, "But intellectual and moral culture ought to go hand in hand; they will greatly help each other."--Dr. Weeks. Here they stands for intellectual culture and moral culture. The following example is incorrect: "The Commanding and Unlimited mode may be used in an absolute sense, or without a name or substitute on which it can depend."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 80. Change it to they, or and to or. See Note 6th to Rule 16th.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XII.

PRONOUNS WITH ANTECEDENTS CONNECTED BY AND.

"Discontent and sorrow manifested itself in his countenance."--Brown's Inst., p. 146.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the pronoun itself is of the singular number, and does not correctly represent its two antecedents discontent and sorrow, which are connected by and, and taken conjointly. But, according to Rule 12th, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with then, jointly in the plural, because they are taken together." Therefore, itself should be themselves; thus, "Discontent and sorrow manifested themselves in his countenance."]

"Both conversation and public speaking became more simple and plain, such as we now find it."--Blair's Rhet., p. 59. "Idleness and ignorance, if it be suffered to proceed, &c."--JOHNSON: Priestley's Gram., p. 186. "Avoid questions and strife; it shows a busy and contentious disposition."--Wm. Penn. "To receive the gifts and benefits of God with thanksgiving, and witness it blessed and sanctified to us by the word and prayer, is owned by us."--Barclays Works, i, 213. "Both minister and magistrate are compelled to choose between his duty and his reputation."--Junius, p. 9. "All the sincerity, truth, and faithfulness, or disposition of heart or conscience to approve it, found among rational creatures, necessarily originate from God."--Brown's Divinity, p. 12. "Your levity and heedlessness, if it continue, will prevent all substantial improvement."--Brown's Inst., p. 147. "Poverty and obscurity will oppress him only who esteems it oppressive."--Ib. "Good sense and refined policy are obvious to few, because it cannot be discovered but by a train of reflection."--Ib. "Avoid haughtiness of behaviour, and affectation, of manners: it implies a want of solid merit."--Ib. "If love and unity continue, it will make you partakers of one an other's joy."--Ib. "Suffer not jealousy and distrust to enter: it will destroy, like a canker, every germ of friendship."--Ib. "Hatred and animosity are inconsistent with Christian charity; guard, therefore, against the slightest indulgence of it."--Ib. "Every man is entitled to liberty of conscience, and freedom of opinion, if he does not pervert it to the injury of others."--Ib.

  "With the azure and vermilion
   Which is mix'd for my pavilion."--Byron's Manfred, p. 9.


RULE XIII.--PRONOUNS.

When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together: as; "James or John will favour us with his company."--"Neither wealth nor honour can secure the happiness of its votaries."

  "What virtue or what mental grace,
   But men unqualified and base
       Will boast it their possession?"--Cowper, on Friendship.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XIII.

OBS. 1.--When two or more singular antecedents are connected by or or nor, the pronoun which represents them, ought in general to be singular, because or and nor are disjunctives; and, to form a complete concord, the nouns ought also to be of the same person and gender, that the pronoun may agree in all respects with each of them. But when plural nouns are connected in this manner, the pronoun will of course be plural, though it still agrees with the antecedents singly; as, "Neither riches nor honours ever satisfy their pursuers." Sometimes, when different numbers occur together, we find the plural noun put last, and the pronoun made plural after both, especially if this noun is a mere substitute for the other; as,

  "What's justice to a man, or laws,
   That never comes within their claws."--Hudibras.

OBS. 2.--When antecedents of different persons, numbers, or genders, are connected by or or nor, they cannot very properly be represented by any pronoun that is not applicable to each of them. The following sentences are therefore inaccurate; or at least they contradict the teachings of their own authors: "Either thou or I am greatly mistaken, in our judgment on this subject."--Murray's Key, p. 184 "Your character, which I, or any other writer, may now value ourselves by (upon) drawing."--SWIFT: Lowth's Gram., p. 96. "Either you or I will be in our place in due time."--Coopers Gram., p. 127. But different pronouns may be so connected as to refer to such antecedents taken separately; as, "By requiring greater labour from such slave or slaves, than he or she or they are able to perform."--Prince's Digest. Or, if the gender only be different, the masculine may involve the feminine by implication; as, "If a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish, he shall let him go free for his eye's sake."--Exodus, xxi, 26.

OBS. 3.--It is however very common to resort to the plural number in such instances as the foregoing, because our plural pronouns are alike in all the genders; as, "When either man or woman shall separate themselves to vow a vow of a Nazarite."--Numbers, vi, 2. "Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman unto thy gates, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die."--Deut., xvii, 5. "Not on outward charms could he or she build their pretensions to please."--Opie, on Lying, p. 148. "Complimenting either man or woman on agreeable qualities which they do not possess, in hopes of imposing on their credulity."--Ib., p. 108. "Avidien, or his wife, (no matter which,) sell their presented partridges and fruits."--Pope, Sat. ii, l. 50. "Beginning with Latin or Greek hexameter, which are the same."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 79.

  "Did ever Proteus, Merlin, any witch,
   Transform themselves so strangely as the rich?"
       --Pope, Ep. i, l. 152.

OBS. 4.--From the observations and examples above, it may be perceived, that whenever there is a difference of person, number, or gender, in antecedents connected disjunctively, there is an inherent difficulty respecting the form of the pronoun personal. The best mode of meeting this inconvenience, or of avoiding it by a change of the phraseology, may be different on different occasions. The disjunctive connexion of explicit pronouns is the most correct, but it savours too much of legal precision and wordiness to be always eligible. Commonly an ingenious mind may invent some better expression, and yet avoid any syntactical anomaly. In Latin, when nouns are connected by the conjunctions which correspond to or or nor, the pronoun or verb is so often made plural, that no such principle as that of the foregoing Rule, or of Rule 17th, is taught by the common grammars of that language. How such usage can be logically right, however, it is difficult to imagine. Lowth, Murray, Webster, and most other English grammarians, teach, that, "The conjunction disjunctive has an effect contrary to that of the copulative; and, as the verb, noun, or pronoun, is referred to the preceding terms taken separately, it must be in the singular number."--Lowth's Gram., p. 75; L. Murray's, 151; Churchill's, 142; W. Allen's, 133; Lennie's, 83; and many others. If there is any allowable exception to this principle, it is for the adoption of the plural when the concord cannot be made by any one pronoun singular; as, "If I value my friend's wife or son upon account of their connexion with him."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 73. "Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation."--Levit., x, 8. These examples, though they do not accord with the preceding rule, seem not to be susceptible of any change for the better. There are also some other modes of expression, in which nouns that are connected disjunctively, may afterwards be represented together; as "Foppery is a sort of folly much more contagious THAN pedantry; but as they result alike from affectation, they deserve alike to be proscribed."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 217.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XIII.

PRONOUNS WITH ANTECEDENTS CONNECTED BY OR OR NOR.

"Neither prelate nor priest can give their flocks any decisive evidence that you are lawful pastors."--Dr. Brownlee.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pronoun their is of the plural number, and does not correctly represent its two antecedents prelate and priest, which are connected by nor, and taken disjunctively. But, according to Rule 13th, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together." Therefore, their should be his; thus, "Neither prelate nor priest can give his flocks any decisive evidence that you are lawful pastors."]

"And is there a heart of parent or of child, that does not beat and burn within them?"--Maturin's Sermons, p. 367. "This is just as if an eye or a foot should demand a salary for their service to the body."--Collier's Antoninus, p. 178. "If thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee."--Matt., xviii, 8. "The same might as well be said of Virgil, or any great author, whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation."--Pope's Pref. to Homer. "Either James or John, one of them, will come."--Smith's New Gram., p. 37. "Even a rugged rock or barren heath, though in themselves disagreeable, contribute by contrast to the beauty of the whole."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 185. "That neither Count Rechteren nor Monsieur Mesnager had behaved themselves right in this affair."--Spect., No. 481. "If an Aristotle, a Pythagoras, or a Galileo, suffer for their opinions, they are 'martyrs.'"--Gospel its own Witness, p. 80. "If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die; then the ox shall be surely stoned."--Exodus, xxi, 28. "She was calling out to one or an other, at every step, that a Habit was ensnaring them."--DR. JOHNSON: Murray's Sequel, 181. "Here is a Task put upon Children, that neither this Author, nor any other have yet undergone themselves."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 162. "Hence, if an adjective or participle be subjoined to the verb, when of the singular number, they will agree both in gender and number with the collective noun."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 154; Gould's, 158. "And if you can find a diphthong, or a triphthong, be pleased to point them out too."--Bucke's Classical Gram., p. 16. "And if you can find a diphthong, or a triphthong, a trissyllable, or a polysyllable, point them respectively out."--Ib., p. 25. "The false refuges in which the atheist or the sceptic have intrenched themselves."--Christian Spect., viii, 185. "While the man or woman thus assisted by art expects their charms will be imputed to nature alone."--Opie, 141. "When you press a watch, or pull a clock, they answer your question with precision; for they repeat exactly the hour of the day, and tell you neither more nor less than you desire to know."--Bolingbroke, on History, p. 102.

  "Not the Mogul, or Czar of Muscovy,
   Not Prester John, or Cham of Tartary,
   Are in their houses Monarch more than I."
       --KING: Brit. Poets, Vol. iii, p. 613.



CHAPTER VI.--VERBS.

In this work, the syntax of Verbs is embraced in six consecutive rules, with the necessary exceptions, notes, and observations, under them; hence this chapter extends from the fourteenth to the twentieth rule in the series.


RULE XIV.--FINITE VERBS.

Every finite Verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number: as, "I know; thou knowst, or knowest; he knows, or knoweth"--"The bird flies; the birds fly."

  "Our fathers' fertile fields by slaves are till'd,
   And Rome with dregs of foreign lands is fill'd."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. vii, l. 600.

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XIV.

OBS. 1.--To this general rule for the verb, there are properly no exceptions;[385] and all the special rules that follow, which prescribe the concord of verbs in particular instances, virtually accord with it. Every finite verb, (that is, every verb not in the infinitive mood,) must have some noun, pronoun, or phrase equivalent, known as the subject of the being, action, or passion;[386] and with this subject, whether expressed or understood, the verb must agree in person and number. The infinitive mood, as it does not unite with a nominative to form an assertion, is of course exempt from any such agreement. These may be considered principles of Universal Grammar. The Greeks, however, had a strange custom of using a plural noun of the neuter gender, with a verb of the third person singular; and in both Greek and Latin, the infinitive mood with an accusative before it was often equivalent to a finite verb with its nominative. In English we have neither of these usages; and plural nouns, even when they denote no absolute plurality, (as shears, scissors, trowsers, pantaloons, tongs,) require plural verbs or pronouns: as, "Your shears come too late, to clip the bird's wings."--SIDNEY: Churchill's Gram., p. 30.

OBS. 2.--When a book that bears a plural title, is spoken of as one thing, there is sometimes presented an apparent exception to the foregoing rule; as, "The Pleasures of Memory was published in the year 1792, and became at once popular."--Allan Cunningham. "The 'Sentiments of a Church-of-England Man' is written with great coolness, moderation, ease, and perspicuity."--Johnson's Life of Swift. "The 'Pleasures of Hope' is a splendid poem; it was written for perpetuity."--Samuel L. Knapp. In these instances, there is, I apprehend, either an agreement of the verb, by the figure syllepsis, with the mental conception of the thing spoken of; or an improper ellipsis of the common noun, with which each sentence ought to commence; as, "The poem entitled,"--"The work entitled," &c. But the plural title sometimes controls the form of the verb; as, "My Lives are reprinting."--Dr. Johnson.

OBS. 3.--In the figurative use of the present tense for the past or imperfect, the vulgar have a habit of putting the third person singular with the pronoun I; as, "Thinks I to myself."--Rev. J. Marriott. "O, says I, Jacky, are you at that work?"--Day's Sandford and Merton. "Huzza! huzza! Sir Condy Rackrent forever, was the first thing I hears in the morning."--Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent, p. 97. This vulgarism is to be avoided, not by a simple omission of the terminational s, but rather by the use of the literal preterit: as, "Thought I to myself;"--"O, said I;"--"The first thing I heard." The same mode of correction is also proper, when, under like circumstances, there occurs a disagreement in number; as, "After the election was over, there comes shoals of people from all parts."--Castle Rackrent, p. 103. "Didn't ye hear it? says they that were looking on."--Ib., p. 147. Write, "there came,"--"said they."

OBS. 4.--It has already been noticed, that the article a, or a singular adjective, sometimes precedes an arithmetical number with a plural noun; as, "A thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday."--Psalms, xc, 4. So we might say, "One thousand years are,"--"Each thousand years are"--"Every thousand years are," &c. But it would not be proper to say, "A thousand years is," or, "Every thousand years is;" because the noun years is plainly plural, and the anomaly of putting a singular verb after it, is both needless and unauthorized. Yet, to this general rule for the verb, the author of a certain "English Grammar on the Productive System," (a strange perversion of Murray's compilation, and a mere catch-penny work, now extensively used in New England,) is endeavouring to establish, by his own bare word, the following exception: "Every is sometimes associated with a plural noun, in which case the verb must be singular; as, 'Every hundred years constitutes a century.'"--Smith's New Gram., p. 103. His reason is this; that the phrase containing the nominative, "signifies a single period of time, and is, therefore, in reality singular."--Ib. Cutler also, a more recent writer, seems to have imbibed the same notion; for he gives the following sentence as an example of "false construction: Every hundred years are called a century."--Cutler's Grammar and Parser, p. 145. But, according to this argument, no plural verb could ever be used with any definite number of the parts of time; for any three years, forty years, or threescore years and ten, are as single a period of time, as "every hundred years," "every four years," or "every twenty-four hours." Nor is it true, that, "Every is sometimes associated with a plural noun;" for "every years" or "every hours," would be worse than nonsense. I, therefore, acknowledge no such exception; but, discarding the principle of the note, put this author's pretended corrections among my quotations of false syntax.

OBS. 5.--Different verbs always have different subjects, expressed or understood; except when two or more verbs are connected in the same construction, or when the same word is repeated for the sake of emphasis. But let not the reader believe the common doctrine of our grammarians, respecting either the ellipsis of nominatives or the ellipsis of verbs. In the text, "The man was old and crafty," Murray sees no connexion of the ideas of age and craftiness, but thinks the text a compound sentence, containing two nominatives and two verbs; i.e., "The man was old, and the man was crafty." [387] And all his other instances of "the ellipsis of the verb" are equally fanciful! See his Octavo Gram., p. 219; Duodecimo, 175. In the text, "God loves, protects, supports, and rewards the rights," there are four verbs in the same construction, agreeing with the same nominative, and governing the same object; but Buchanan and others expound it, "God loves, and God protects, and God supports, and God rewards the righteous."--English Syntax, p. 76; British Gram., 192. This also is fanciful and inconsistent. If the nominative is here "elegantly understood to each verb," so is the objective, which they do not repeat. "And again," they immediately add, "the verb is often understood to its noun or nouns; as, He dreams of gibbets, halters, racks, daggers, &c. i.e. He dreams of gibbets, and he dreams of halters, &c."--Same works and places. In none of these examples is there any occasion to suppose an ellipsis, if we admit that two or more words can be connected in the same construction!

OBS. 6.--Verbs in the imperative mood commonly agree with the pronoun thou, ye, or you, understood after them; as, "Heal [ye] the sick, cleanse [ye] the lepers, raise [ye] the dead, cast [ye] out devils."--Matt., x, 8. "Trust God and be doing, and leave the rest with him."--Dr. Sibs. When the doer of a thing must first proceed to the place of action, we sometimes use go or come before an other verb, without any conjunction between the two; as, "Son, go work to-day in my vineyard."--Matt., xxi, 28. "Come see a man who [has] told me all things that ever I did."--John, iv, 29. "He ordered his soldiers to go murder every child about Bethlehem, or near it."--Wood's Dict. of Bible, w. Herod. "Take a present in thine hand, and go meet the man of God."--2 Kings, viii, 8. "I will go see if he be at home."--Walker's Particles, p. 169.

OBS. 7.--The place of the verb has reference mainly to that of the subject with which it agrees, and that of the object which it governs; and as the arrangement of these, with the instances in which they come before or after the verb, has already been noticed, the position of the latter seems to require no further explanation. See Obs. 2d under Rule 2d, and Obs. 2d under Rule 5th.

OBS. 8.--The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, (and, according to some authors, the participle in ing, or a phrase beginning with this participle,) is sometimes the proper subject of a verb, being equivalent to a nominative of the third person singular; as, "To play is pleasant."--Lowth's Gram., p. 80. "To write well, is difficult; to speak eloquently, is still more difficult."--Blair's Rhet., p. 81. "To take men off from prayer, tends to irreligiousness, is granted."--Barclay's Works, i, 214. "To educate a child perfectly, requires profounder thought, greater wisdom, than to govern a state."--Channing's Self-Culture, p. 30. "To determine these points, belongs to good sense."--Blair's Rhet., p. 321. "How far the change would contribute to his welfare, comes to be considered."--Id., Sermons. "That too much care does hurt in any of our tasks, is a doctrine so flattering to indolence, that we ought to receive it with extreme caution."--Life of Schiller, p. 148. "That there is no disputing about taste, is a saying so generally received as to have become a proverb."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 360. "For what purpose they embarked, is not yet known."--"To live in sin and yet to believe the forgiveness of sin, is utterly impossible."--Dr. J. Owen.

  "There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
   But drinking largely sobers us again."--Pope.

OBS. 9.--The same meaning will be expressed, if the pronoun it be placed before the verb, and the infinitive, phrase, or santance, after it; as, "It is pleasant to play,"--"It is difficult to write well;" &c. The construction of the following sentences is rendered defective by the omission of this pronoun: "Why do ye that which [it] is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?"--Luke, vi, 2. "The show-bread, which [it] is not lawful to eat, but for the priests only."--Ib., vi, 4. "We have done that which [it] was our duty to do."--Ib., xvii, 10. Here the relative which ought to be in the objective case, governed by the infinitives; but the omission of the word it makes this relative the nominative to is or was, and leaves to do and to eat without any regimen. This is not ellipsis, but error. It is an accidental gap into which a side piece falls, and leaves a breach elsewhere. The following is somewhat like it, though what falls in, appears to leave no chasm: "From this deduction, [it] may be easily seen how it comes to pass, that personification makes so great a figure."--Blair's Rhet., p. 155. "Whether the author had any meaning in this expression, or what it was, [it] is not easy to determine."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 298. "That warm climates should accelerate the growth of the human body, and shorten its duration, [it] is very reasonable to believe."--Ib., p. 144. These also need the pronoun, though Murray thought them complete without it.

OBS. 10.--When the infinitive mood is made the subject of a finite verb, it is most commonly used to express action or state in the abstract; as, "To be contents his natural desire."--Pope. Here to be stands for simple existence; or if for the existence of the Indian, of whom the author speaks, that relation is merely implied. "To define ridicule, has puzzled and vexed every critic."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 300. Here "to define" expresses an action quite as distinct from any agent, as would the participial noun; as, "The defining of ridicule," &c. In connexion with the infinitive, a concrete quality may also be taken as an abstract; as, "To be good is to be happy." Here good and happy express the quality of goodness and the state of happiness considered abstractly; and therefore these adjectives do not relate to any particular noun. So also the passive infinitive, or a perfect participle taken in a passive sense; as, "To be satisfied with a little, is the greatest wisdom."--"To appear discouraged, is the way to become so." Here the satisfaction and the discouragement are considered abstractly, and without reference to any particular person. (See Obs. 12th and 13th on Rule 6th.) So too, apparently, the participles doing and suffering, as well as the adjective weak, in the following example:

  "Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable,
   Doing or suffering."--Milton's Paradise Lost.

OBS. 11.--When the action or state is to be expressly limited to one class of beings, or to a particular person or thing, without making the verb finite; the noun or pronoun may be introduced before the infinitive by the preposition for: as, "For men to search their own glory, is not glory."--Prov., xxv, 27. "For a prince to be reduced by villany [sic--KTH] to my distressful circumstances, is calamity enough."--Translation of Sallust. "For holy persons to be humble, is as hard, as for a prince to submit himself to be guided by tutors."--TAYLOR: Priestley's Gram., p. 132; Murray's, 184. But such a limitation is sometimes implied, when the expression itself is general; as, "Not to know me, argues thyself unknown."--Milton. That is, "For thee not to know me." The phrase is put far, "Thy ignorance of me;" for an other's ignorance would be no argument in regard to the individual addressed. "I, to bear this, that never knew but better, is some burden."--Beauties of Shak., p. 327. Here the infinitive to bear, which is the subject of the verb is, is limited in sense by the pronoun I, which is put absolute in the nominative, though perhaps improperly; because, "For me to bear this," &c., will convey the same meaning, in a form much more common, and perhaps more grammatical. In the following couplet, there is an ellipsis of the infinitive; for the phrase, "fool with fool," means, "for fool to contend with fool," or, "for one fool to contend with an other:"

  "Blockheads with reason wicked wits abhor,
   But fool with fool is barb'rous civil war."
       --Pope, Dunciad, B. iii, l. 175.

OBS. 12.--The objective noun or pronoun thus introduced by for before the infinitive, was erroneously called by Priestley, "the subject of the affirmation;" (Gram., p. 132;) and Murray, Ingersoll, and others, have blindly copied the blunder. See Murray's Gram., p. 184; Ingersoll's, 244. Again, Ingersoll says, "The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is sometimes the subject of a verb, and is, therefore, its NOMINATIVE."--Conversations on English Gram., p. 246. To this erroneous deduction, the phraseology used by Murray and others too plainly gives countenance: "The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is sometimes put as the nominative case to the verb."--Murray's Gram., p. 144; Fisk's, 123; Kirkham's, 188; Lennie's, 99; Bullions's, 89; and many more. Now the objective before the infinitive may not improperly be called the subject of this form of the verb, as the nominative is, of the finite; but to call it "the subject of the affirmation," is plainly absurd; because no infinitive, in English, ever expresses an affirmation. And again, if a whole phrase or sentence is made the subject of a finite verb, or of an affirmation, no one word contained in it, can singly claim this title. Nor can the whole, by virtue of this relation, be said to be "in the nominative case;" because, in the nature of things, neither phrases nor sentences are capable of being declined by cases.

OBS. 13.--Any phrase or sentence which is made the subject of a finite verb, must be taken in the sense of one thing, and be spoken of as a whole; so that the verb's agreement with it, in the third person singular, is not an exception to Rule 14th, but a construction in which the verb may be parsed by that rule. For any one thing merely spoken of, is of the third person singular, whatever may be the nature of its parts. Not every phrase or sentence, however, is fit to be made the subject of a verb;--that is, if its own import, and not the mere expression, is the thing whereof we affirm. Thus Dr. Ash's example for this very construction, "a sentence made the subject of a verb," is, I think, a palpable solecism: "The King and Queen appearing in public was the cause of my going."--Ash's Gram., p. 52. What is here before the verb was, is no "sentence;" but a mere phrase, and such a one as we should expect to see used independently, if any regard were had to its own import. The Doctor would tell us what "was the cause of his going:" and here he has two nominatives, which are equivalent to the plural they; q.d., "They appearing in public was the cause." But such a construction is not English. It is an other sample of the false illustration which grammar receives from those who invent the proof-texts which they ought to quote.

OBS. 14.--One of Murray's examples of what he erroneously terms "nominative sentences," i.e., "sentences or clauses constituting the subject of an affirmation," is the following: "A desire to excel others in learning and virtue [,] is commendable."--Gram., 8vo, p. 144. Here the verb is agrees regularly with the noun desire, and with that only; the whole text being merely a simple sentence, and totally irrelevant to the doctrine which it accompanies.[388] But the great "Compiler" supposes the adjuncts of this noun to be parts of the nominative, and imagines the verb to agree with all that precedes it. Yet, soon after, he expends upon the ninth rule of Webster's Philosophical Grammar a whole page of useless criticism, to show that the adjuncts of a noun are not to be taken as parts of the nominative; and that, when objectives are thus subjoined, "the assertion grammatically respects the first nouns only."--Ib., p. 148. I say useless, because the truth of the doctrine is so very plain. Some, however, may imagine an example like the following to be an exception to it; but I do not, because I think the true nominative suppressed:

  "By force they could not introduce these gods;
   For ten to one in former days was odds."--Dryden's Poems, p. 38.

OBS. 15.--Dr. Webster's ninth rule is this: "When the nominative consists of several words, and the last of the names is in the plural number, the verb is commonly in the plural also; as, 'A part of the exports consist of raw silk.' 'The number of oysters increase.' GOLDSMITH. 'Such as the train of our ideas have lodged in our memories.' LOCKE. 'The greater part of philosophers have acknowledged the excellence of this government.' ANACHARSIS."--Philos. Gram., p. 146; Impr. Gram., 100. The last of these examples Murray omits; the second he changes thus: "A number of men and women were present." But all of them his reasoning condemns as ungrammatical. He thinks them wrong, upon the principle, that the verbs, being plural, do not agree with the first nouns only. Webster, on the contrary, judges them all to be right; and, upon this same principle, conceives that his rule must be so too. He did not retract or alter the doctrine after he saw the criticism, but republished it verbatim, in his "Improved Grammar," of 1831. Both err, and neither convinces the other.

OBS. 16.--In this instance, as Webster and Murray both teach erroneously, whoever follows either, will be led into many mistakes. The fact is, that some of the foregoing examples, though perhaps not all, are perfectly right; and hundreds more, of a similar character, might be quoted, which no true grammarian would presume to condemn. But what have these to do with the monstrous absurdity of supposing objective adjuncts to be "parts of the actual nominative?" The words, "part," "number," "train" and the like, are collective nouns; and, as such, they often have plural verbs in agreement with them. To say, "A number of men and women were present," is as correct as to say, "A very great number of our words are plainly derived from the Latin."--Blair's Rhet., p. 86. Murray's criticism, therefore, since it does not exempt these examples from the censure justly laid upon Webster's rule, will certainly mislead the learner. And again the rule, being utterly wrong in principle, will justify blunders like these: "The truth of the narratives have never been disputed;"--"The virtue of these men and women are indeed exemplary."--Murray's Gram., p. 148. In one of his notes, Murray suggests, that the article an or a before a collective noun must confine the verb to the singular number; as, "A great number of men and women was collected."--Ib., p. 153. But this doctrine he sometimes forgot or disregarded; as, "But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory sentences are thrown into one general group."--Ib., p. 284; Comly, 166; Fisk, 160; Ingersoll, 295.

OBS. 17.--Cobbett, in a long paragraph, (the 245th of his English Grammar,) stoutly denies that any relative pronoun can ever be the nominative to a verb; and, to maintain this absurdity, he will have the relative and its antecedent to be always alike in case, the only thing in which they are always independent of each other. To prove his point, he first frames these examples: "The men who are here, the man who is here; the cocks that crow, the cock that crows;" and then asks, "Now, if the relative be the nominative, why do the verbs change, seeing that here is no change in the relative?" He seems ignorant of the axiom, that two things severally equal to a third, are also equal to each other: and accordingly, to answer his own question, resorts to a new principle: "The verb is continually varying. Why does it vary? Because it disregards the relative and goes and finds the antecedent, and accommodates its number to that."--Ibid. To this wild doctrine, one erratic Irishman yields a full assent; and, in one American grammatist, we find a partial and unintentional concurrence with it.[389] But the fact is, the relative agrees with the antecedent, and the verb agrees with the relative: hence all three of the words are alike in person and number. But between the case of the relative and that of the antededent [sic--KTH], there never is, or can be, in our language, any sort of connexion or interference. The words belong to different clauses; and, if both be nominatives, they must be the subjects of different verbs: or, if the noun be sometimes put absolute in the nominative, the pronoun is still left to its own verb. But Cobbett concludes his observation thus: "You will observe, therefore, that, when I, in the etymology and syntax as relating to relative pronouns, speak of relatives as being in the nominative case, I mean, that they relate to nouns or to personal pronouns, which are in that case. The same observation applies to the other cases."--Ib., ¶ 245. This suggestion betrays in the critic an unaccountable ignorance of his subject.

OBS. 18.--Nothing is more certain, than that the relatives, who, which, what, that, and as, are often nominatives, and the only subjects of the verbs which follow them: as, "The Lord will show who are his, and who is holy."--Numbers, xvi, 5. "Hardly is there any person, but who, on such occasions, is disposed to be serious."--Blair's Rhet., p. 469. "Much of the merit of Mr. Addison's Cato depends upon that moral turn of thought which distinguishes it."--Ib., 469. "Admit not a single word but what is necessary."--Ib., p. 313. "The pleader must say nothing but what is true; and, at the same time, he must avoid saying any thing that will hurt his cause."--Ib., 313. "I proceed to mention such as appear to me most material."--Ib., p. 125. After but or than, there is sometimes an ellipsis of the relative, and perhaps also of the antecedent; as, "There is no heart but must feel them."--Blair's Rhet., p. 469. "There is no one but must be sensible of the extravagance."--Ib., p. 479. "Since we may date from it a more general and a more concerted opposition to France than there had been before."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 213. That is, "than what there had been before;"--or, "than any opposition which there had been before." "John has more fruit than can be gathered in a week."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., pp. 196 and 331. I suppose this sentence to mean, "John has more fruit than what can be gathered in a week." But the author of it denies that it is elliptical, and seems to suppose that can be gathered agrees with John. Part of his comment stands thus: "The above sentence--'John has more fruit than can be gathered in a week'--in every respect full and perfect--must, to be grammatical! according to all the 'old theories,' stand, John has more fruit than that fruit is which, or which fruit can be gathered in a week!!!"--Ib., 331. What shall be done with the headlong critic who thus mistakes exclamation points for arguments, and multiplies his confidence in proportion to his fallacies and errors?

OBS. 19.--In a question, the nominative I or thou put after the verb, controls the agreement, in preference to the interrogative who, which, or what, put before it; as, "Who am I? What am I? Who art thou? What art thou?" And, by analogy, this seems to be the case with all plurals; as, "Who are we? Who are you? Who are they? What are these?" But sometimes the interrogative pronoun is the only nominative used; and then the verb, whether singular or plural, must agree with this nominative, in the third person, and not, as Cobbett avers, with an antecedent understood: as, "Who is in the house? Who are in the house? Who strikes the iron? Who strike the iron? Who was in the street? Who were in the street?"--Cobbett's Gram., ¶ 245. All the interrogative pronouns may be used in either number, but, in examples like the following, I imagine the singular to be more proper than the plural: "What have become of our previous customs?"--Hunt's Byron, p. 121. "And what have become of my resolutions to return to God?"--Young Christian, 2d Ed., p. 91. When two nominatives of different properties come after the verb, the first controls the agreement, and neither the plural number nor the most worthy person is always preferred; as, "Is it I? Is it thou? Is it they?"

OBS. 20.--The verb after a relative sometimes has the appearance of disagreeing with its nominative, because the writer and his reader disagree in their conceptions of its mood. When a relative clause is subjoined to what is itself subjunctive or conditional, some writers suppose that the latter verb should be put in the subjunctive mood; as, "If there be any intrigue which stand separate and independent."--Blair's Rhet., p. 457. "The man also would be of considerable use, who should vigilantly attend to every illegal practice that were beginning to prevail."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 171. But I have elsewhere shown, that relatives, in English, are not compatible with the subjunctive mood; and it is certain, that no other mood than the indicative or the potential is commonly used after them. Say therefore, "If there be any intrigue which stands," &c. In assuming to himself the other text, Murray's says, "That man also would be of considerable use, who should vigilantly attend to every illegal practice that was beginning to prevail."--Octavo Gram., p. 366. But this seems too positive. The potential imperfect would be better: viz., "that might begin to prevail."

OBS. 21.--The termination st or est, with which the second person singular of the verb is formed in the indicative present, and, for the solemn style, in the imperfect also; and the termination s or es, with which the third person singular is formed in the indicative present, and only there; are signs of the mood and tense, as well as of the person and number, of the verb. They are not applicable to a future uncertainty, or to any mere supposition in which we would leave the time indefinite and make the action hypothetical; because they are commonly understood to fix the time of the verb to the present or the past, and to assume the action as either doing or done. For this reason, our best writers have always omitted those terminations, when they intended to represent the action as being doubtful and contingent as well as conditional. And this omission constitutes the whole formal difference between the indicative and the subjunctive mood. The essential difference has, by almost all grammarians, been conceived to extend somewhat further; for, if it were confined strictly within the limits of the literal variation, the subjunctive mood would embrace only two or three words in the whole formation of each verb. After the example of Priestley, Dr. Murray, A. Murray, Harrison, Alexander, and others, I have given to it all the persons of the two simple tenses, singular and plural; and, for various reasons, I am decidedly of the opinion, that these are its most proper limits. The perfect and pluperfect tenses, being past, cannot express what is really contingent or uncertain; and since, in expressing conditionally what may or may not happen, we use the subjunctive present as embracing the future indefinitely, there is no need of any formal futures for this mood. The comprehensive brevity of this form of the verb, is what chiefly commends it. It is not an elliptical form of the future, as some affirm it to be; nor equivalent to the indicative present, as others will have it; but a true subjunctive, though its distinctive parts are chiefly confined to the second and third persons singular of the simple verb: as, "Though thou wash thee with nitre."--Jer., ii, 22. "It is just, O great king! that a murderer perish."--Corneille. "This single crime, in my judgment, were sufficient to condemn him."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 82. "Beware that thou bring not my son thither."--BIBLE: Ward's Gram., p. 128. "See [that] thou tell no man."--Id., ib. These examples can hardly be resolved into any thing else than the subjunctive mood.


NOTES TO RULE XIV.

NOTE I.--When the nominative is a relative pronoun, the verb must agree with it in person and number, according to the pronoun's agreement with its true antecedent or antecedents. Example of error: "The second book [of the Æneid] is one of the greatest masterpieces that ever was executed by any hand."--Blair's Rhet., p. 439. Here the true antecedent is masterpieces, and not the word one; but was executed is singular, and "by any hand" implies but one agent. Either say, "It is one of the greatest masterpieces that ever were executed;" or else, "It is the greatest masterpiece that ever was executed by any hand." But these assertions differ much in their import.

NOTE II.--"The adjuncts of the nominative do not control its agreement with the verb; as, Six months' interest was due. The progress of his forces was impeded."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 131. "The ship, with all her furniture, was destroyed."--Murray's Gram., p. 150. "All appearances of modesty are favourable and prepossessing."--Blair's Rhet., p. 308. "The power of relishing natural enjoyments is soon gone."--Fuller, on the Gospel, p. 135. "I, your master, command you (not commands)"-- Latham's Hand-Book, p. 330.[390]

NOTE III.--Any phrase, sentence, mere word, or other sign, taken as one whole, and made the subject of an assertion, requires a verb in the third person singular; as, "To lie is base."--Adam's Gram., p. 154. "When, to read and write, was of itself an honorary distinction."--Hazlitt's Lect., p. 40. "To admit a God and then refuse to worship him, is a modern and inconsistent practice."--Fuller, on the Gospel, p. 30. "We is a personal pronoun."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 227. "Th has two sounds."--Ib., p. 161. "The 's is annexed to each."--Bucke's Gram., p. 89. "Ld. stands for lord."--Webster's American Dict., 8vo.

NOTE IV.--The pronominal adjectives, each, one,[391] either, and neither, are always in the third person singular; and, when they are the leading words in their clauses, they require verbs and pronouns to agree with them accordingly: as, "Each of you is entitled to his share."--"Let no one deceive himself."

NOTE V.--A neuter or a passive verb between two nominatives should be made to agree with that which precedes it;[392] as, "Words are wind:" except when the terms are transposed, and the proper subject is put after the verb by question or hyperbaton; as, "His pavilion were dark waters and thick clouds of the sky."--Bible. "Who art thou?"--Ib. "The wages of sin is death."--Ib. Murray, Comly, and others. But, of this last example, Churchill says, "Wages are the subject, of which it is affirmed, that they are death."--New Gram., p. 314. If so, is ought to be are; unless Dr. Webster is right, who imagines wages to be singular, and cites this example to prove it so. See his Improved Gram., p. 21.

NOTE VI.--When the verb cannot well be made singular, the nominative should be made plural, that they may agree: or, if the verb cannot be plural, let the nominative be singular. Example of error: "For every one of them know their several duties."--Hope of Israel, p. 72. Say, "For all of them know their several duties."

NOTE VII.--When the verb has different forms, that form should be adopted, which is the most consistent with present and reputable usage in the style employed: thus, to say familiarly, "The clock hath stricken;"--"Thou laughedst and talkedst, when thou oughtest to have been silent;"--"He readeth and writeth, but he doth not cipher," would be no better, than to use don't, won't, can't, shan't, and didn't, in preaching.

NOTE VIII.--Every finite verb not in the imperative mood, should have a separate nominative expressed; as, "I came, I saw, I conquered:" except when the verb is repeated for the sake of emphasis, or connected to an other in the same construction, or put after but or than; as, "Not an eminent orator has lived but is an example of it."--Ware. "Where more is meant than meets the ear."--Milton's Allegro. (See Obs. 5th and Obs. 18th above.)

  "They bud, blow, wither, fall, and die."--Watts.
   "That evermore his teeth they chatter,
   Chatter, chatter, chatter still."--Wordsworth.

NOTE IX.--A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive present; and a mere supposition, with indefinite time, by a verb in the subjunctive imperfect; but a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the indicative mood:[393] as, "If thou forsake him, he will cast thee off forever."--Bible. "If it were not so, I would have told you."--Ib. "If thou went, nothing would be gained."--"Though he is poor, he is contented."--"Though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor."--2 Cor., viii, 9.

NOTE X.--In general, every such use or extension of the subjunctive mood, as the reader will be likely to mistake for a discord between the verb and its nominative, ought to be avoided as an impropriety: as, "We are not sensible of disproportion, till the difference between the quantities compared become the most striking circumstance."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 341. Say rather, "becomes;" which is indicative. "Till the general preference of certain forms have been declared."--Priestley's Gram., Pref., p. xvii. Say, "has been declared;" for "preference" is here the nominative, and Dr. Priestley himself recognizes no other subjunctive tenses than the present and the imperfect; as, "If thou love, If thou loved."--Ib., p. 16.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XIV.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--VERB AFTER THE NOMINATIVE.

"Before you left Sicily, you was reconciled to Verres."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 19.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the passive verb was reconciled is of the singular number, and does not agree with its nominative you, which is of the second person plural. But, according to Rule 14th, "Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number." Therefore, was reconciled should be were reconciled; thus, "Before you left Sicily, you were reconciled to Verres."]

"Knowing that you was my old master's good friend."--Spect., No. 517. "When the judge dare not act, where is the loser's remedy?"--Webster's Essays, p. 131. "Which extends it no farther than the variation of the verb extend."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, Vol. i, p. 211. "They presently dry without hurt, as myself hath often proved."--Roger Williams. "Whose goings forth hath been from of old, from everlasting."--Keith's Evidences. "You was paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him."--Porter's Analysis, p. 70. "Where more than one part of speech is almost always concerned."--Churchill's Gram., Pref., p. viii. "Nothing less than murders, rapines, and conflagrations, employ their thoughts."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 175. "I wondered where you was, my dear."--Lloyd's Poems, p. 185. "When thou most sweetly sings."--Drummond of Hawthornden. "Who dare, at the present day, avow himself equal to the task?"--Music of Nature, p. 11. "Every body are very kind to her, and not discourteous to me."--Byron's Letters. "As to what thou says respecting the diversity of opinions."--The Friend, Vol. ix, p. 45. "Thy nature, immortality, who knowest?"--Everest's Gram., p. 38. "The natural distinction of sex in animals gives rise to what, in grammar, is called genders."--Ib., p. 51. "Some pains has likewise been taken."--Scott's Pref. to Bible. "And many a steed in his stables were seen."--Penwarne's Poems, p. 108. "They was forced to eat what never was esteemed food."--Josephus's Jewish War, B. i, Ch. i, §7. "This that yourself hath spoken, I desire that they may take their oaths upon."--Hutchinson's Mass., ii, 435. "By men whose experience best qualify them to judge."--Committee on Literature, N. Y. Legislature. "He dare venture to kill and destroy several other kinds of fish."--Johnson's Dict, w. Perch. "If a gudgeon meet a roach, He dare not venture to approach."--SWIFT: Ib., w. Roach. "Which thou endeavours to establish unto thyself."--Barclay's Works, i, 164. "But they pray together much oftener than thou insinuates."--Ib., i, 215. "Of people of all denominations, over whom thou presideth."--The Friend, Vol. v, p. 198. "I can produce ladies and gentlemen whose progress have been astonishing."--Chazotte, on Teaching Lang., p. 62. "Which of these two kinds of vice are more criminal?"--Brown's Estimate, ii, 115. "Every twenty-four hours affords to us the vicissitudes of day and night."--Smith's New Gram., p. 103. "Every four years adds another day."--Ib. "Every error I could find, Have my busy muse employed."--Swift's Poems, p. 335. "A studious scholar deserve the approbation of his teacher."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 226. "Perfect submission to the rules of a school indicate good breeding."--Ib., p. 37. "A comparison in which more than two is concerned."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 114. "By the facilities which artificial language afford them."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 16. "Now thyself hath lost both lop and top."--SPENSER: Joh. Dict., w. Lop. "Glad tidings is brought to the poor."--Campbell's Gospels: Luke, vii, 23. "Upon which, all that is pleasurable, or affecting in elocution, chiefly depend."--Sheridan's Elocution, p. 129. "No pains has been spared to render this work complete."--Bullions, Lat. Gram., Pref., p. iv. "The United States contains more than a twentieth part of the land of this globe."--DE WITT CLINTON: Cobb's N. Amer. Reader, p. 173. "I am mindful that myself is (or am) strong."--Fowler's E. Gram., § 500. "Myself is (not am) weak; thyself is (not art) weak."--Ib., §479.

  "How pale each worshipful and reverend guest
   Rise from a clergy or a city feast!"--Pope, Sat. ii, l. 75.


UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--VERB BEFORE THE NOMINATIVE.

"Where was you born? In London."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 133. "There is frequent occasions for commas."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 281. "There necessarily follows from thence, these plain and unquestionable consequences."--Priestley's Gram., p. 191. "And to this impression contribute the redoubled effort."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 112. "Or if he was, was there no spiritual men then?"--Barclay's Works, iii, 86. "So by these two also is signified their contrary principles."--Ib., iii, 200. "In the motions made with the hands, consist the chief part of gesture in speaking."--Blair's Rhet., p. 336. "Dare he assume the name of a popular magistrate?"--Duncan's Cicero, p. 140. "There was no damages as in England, and so Scott lost his wager."--Byron. "In fact there exists such resemblances."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 64. "To him giveth all the prophets witness."--Crewdson's Beacon, p. 79. "That there was so many witnesses and actors."--Addison's Evidences, p. 37. "How does this man's definitions stand affected?"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 136. "Whence comes all the powers and prerogatives of rational beings?"--Ib., p. 144. "Nor does the Scriptures cited by thee prove thy intent."--Barclay's Works, i, 155. "Nor do the Scripture cited by thee prove the contrary."--Ib., i, 211. "Why then cite thou a Scripture which is so plain and clear for it?"--Ib., i, 163. "But what saith the Scriptures as to respect of persons among Christians?"--Ib., i, 404. "But in the mind of man, while in the savage state, there seems to be hardly any ideas but what enter by the senses."--Robertson's America, i, 289. "What sounds have each of the vowels?"--Griscom's Questions. "Out of this has grown up aristocracies, monarchies, despotisms, tyrannies."--Brownson's Elwood, p. 222. "And there was taken up, of fragments that remained to them, twelve baskets."-- Luke, ix, 17. "There seems to be but two general classes."--Day's Gram., p. 3. "Hence arises the six forms of expressing time."--Ib., p. 37. "There seems to be no other words required."--Chandler's Gram., p. 28. "If there is two, the second increment is the syllable next the last."--Bullions, Lat. Gram., 12th Ed., p. 281. "Hence arises the following advantages."--Id., Analyt. and Pract. Gram., 1849, p. 67. "There is no data by which it can be estimated."--J. C. Calhoun's Speech, March 4, 1850. "To this class belong the Chinese [language], in which we have nothing but naked roots."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, p. 27. "There was several other grotesque figures that presented themselves."-- Spect., No. 173. "In these consist that sovereign good which ancient sages so much extol."--Percival's Tales, ii, 221. "Here comes those I have done good to against my will."--Shak., Shrew. "Where there is more than one auxiliary."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 80.

  "On me to cast those eyes where shine nobility."
       --SIDNEY: Joh. Dict.
   "Here's half-pence in plenty, for one you'll have twenty."
       --Swift's Poems, p. 347.
   "Ah, Jockey, ill advises thou, I wis,
   To think of songs at such a time as this."
       --Churchill, p. 18.


UNDER NOTE I.--THE RELATIVE AND VERB.

"Thou who loves us, wilt protect us still."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 67. "To use that endearing language, Our Father, who is in heaven"--Bates's Doctrines, p. 103. "Resembling the passions that produceth these actions."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 157. "Except dwarf, grief, hoof, muff, &c. which takes s to make the plural."--Ash's Gram., p. 19. "As the cattle that goeth before me and the children be able to endure."-- Gen. xxxiii, 14 "Where is the man who dare affirm that such an action is mad?"--Werter. "The ninth book of Livy affords one of the most beautiful exemplifications of historical painting, that is any where to be met with."--Blair's Rhet., p. 360. "In some studies too, that relate to taste and fine writing, which is our object," &c.--Ib., p. 349. "Of those affecting situations, which makes man's heart feel for man."--Ib., p. 464. "We see very plainly, that it is neither Osmyn, nor Jane Shore, that speak."--Ib., p. 468. "It should assume that briskness and ease, which is suited to the freedom of dialogue."--Ib., p. 469. "Yet they grant, that none ought to be admitted into the ministry, but such as is truly pious."--Barclay's Works, iii, 147. "This letter is one of the best that has been written about Lord Byron."--Hunt's Byron, p. 119. "Thus, besides what was sunk, the Athenians took above two hundred ships."--Goldsmith's Greece, i, 102. "To have made and declared such orders as was necessary."--Hutchinson's Hist., i, 470. "The idea of such a collection of men as make an army."--Locke's Essay, p. 217. "I'm not the first that have been wretched."--Southern's In. Ad., Act 2. "And the faint sparks of it, which is in the angels, are concealed from our view."--Calvin's Institutes, B. i, Ch. 11. "The subjects are of such a nature, as allow room for much diversity of taste and sentiment."--Blair's Rhet., Pref., p. 5. "It is in order to propose examples of such perfection, as are not to be found in the real examples of society."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 16. "I do not believe that he would amuse himself with such fooleries as has been attributed to him."--Ib., p. 218. "That shepherd, who first taughtst the chosen seed."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 238. "With respect to the vehemence and warmth which is allowed in popular eloquence."-- Blair's Rhet., p. 261. "Ambition is one of those passions that is never to be satisfied."--Home's Art of Thinking, p. 36. "Thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel."--2 Samuel, v, 2; and 1 Chron., xi, 2. "Art thou the man of God that camest from Judah?"--1 Kings, xiii, 14.

  "How beauty is excell'd by manly grace
   And wisdom, which alone is truly fair."--Milton, B. iv, l. 490.
   "What art thou, speak, that on designs unknown,
   While others sleep, thus range the camp alone?"--Pope, Il., x, 90.


UNDER NOTE II.--NOMINATIVE WITH ADJUNCTS.

"The literal sense of the words are, that the action had been done."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., i, 65. "The rapidity of his movements were beyond example."--Wells's Hist., p. 161. "Murray's Grammar, together with his Exercises and Key, have nearly superseded every thing else of the kind."--EVAN'S REC.: Murray's Gram., 8vo, ii, 305. "The mechanism of clocks and watches were totally unknown."--HUME: Priestley's Gram., p. 193. "The it, together with the verb to be, express states of being."--Cobbett's Eng. Gram., ¶ 190. "Hence it is, that the profuse variety of objects in some natural landscapes, neither breed confusion nor fatigue."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 266. "Such a clatter of sounds indicate rage and ferocity."--Music of Nature, p. 195. "One of the fields make threescore square yards, and the other only fifty-five."--Duncan's Logic, p. 8. "The happy effects of this fable is worth attending to."--Bailey's Ovid, p. x. "Yet the glorious serenity of its parting rays still linger with us."--Gould's Advocate. "Enough of its form and force are retained to render them uneasy."--Maturin's Sermons, p. 261. "The works of nature, in this respect, is extremely regular."--Dr. Pratt's Werter. "No small addition of exotic and foreign words and phrases have been made by commerce."--Bicknell's Gram., Part ii, p. 10. "The dialect of some nouns are taken notice of in the notes."--Milnes, Greek Gram., p. 255. "It has been said, that a discovery of the full resources of the arts, afford the means of debasement, or of perversion."--Rush, on the Voice, p. xxvii. "By which means the Order of the Words are disturbed."--Holmes's Rhet., B. i, p. 57. "The twofold influence of these and the others require the asserter to be in the plural form."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 251. "And each of these afford employment."--Percival's Tales, Vol. ii, p. 175. "The pronunciation of the vowels are best explained under the rules relative to the consonants."--Coar's Gram., p. 7. "The judicial power of these courts extend to all cases in law and equity."--Hall and Baker's School Hist., p. 286. "One of you have stolen my money."--Rational Humorist, p. 45. "Such redundancy of epithets, instead of pleasing, produce satiety and disgust."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 256. "It has been alleged, that a compliance with the rules of Rhetoric, tend to cramp the mind."--Hiley's Gram., 3d Ed., p. 187. "Each of these are presented to us in different relations"--Hendrick's Gram., 1st Ed., p. 34. "The past tense of these verbs, should, would, might, could, are very indefinite with respect to time."--Bullions, E. Gram., 2d Ed., p. 33; 5th Ed., p. 31. "The power of the words, which are said to govern this mood, are distinctly understood."--Chandler's Gram., Ed. of 1821, p. 33.

  "And now, at length, the fated term of years
   The world's desire have brought, and lo! the God appears."
       --Dr. Lowth, on "the Genealogy of Christ."
   "Variety of Numbers still belong
   To the soft Melody of Ode or Song."
       --Brightland's Gram., p. 170.


UNDER NOTE III.--COMPOSITE OR CONVERTED SUBJECTS.

"Many are the works of human industry, which to begin and finish are hardly granted to the same man."--Johnson, Adv. to Dict. "To lay down rules for these are as inefficacious."--Dr. Pratt's Werter, p. 19. "To profess regard, and to act differently, discover a base mind."--Murray's Key, ii, p. 206. See also Bullions's E. Gram., 82 and 112; Lennie's, 58. "To magnify to the height of wonder things great, new, and admirable, extremely please the mind of man."--Fisher's Gram., p. 152. "In this passage, according as are used in a manner which is very common."--Webster's Philosophical Gram., p. 183. "A cause de are called a preposition; a cause que, a conjunction."--DR. WEBSTER: Knickerbocker, 1836. "To these are given to speak in the name of the Lord."--The Friend, vii, 256. "While wheat has no plural, oats have seldom any singular."--Cobbett's E. Gram. ¶ 41. "He cannot assert that ll are inserted in fullness to denote the sound of u."--Cobb's Review of Webster, p. 11. "ch have the power of k."--Gould's Adam's Gram., p. 2. "ti, before a vowel, and unaccented, have the sound of si or ci."--Ibid. "In words derived from the French, as chagrin, chicanery, and chaise, ch are sounded like sh."--Bucke's Gram., p. 10. "But in the word schism, schismatic, &c., the ch are silent."--Ibid. "Ph are always sounded like f, at the beginning of words."--Bucke's Gram. "Ph have the sound of f as in philosophy."--Webster's El. Spelling-Book, p. 11. "Sh have one sound only as in shall."--Ib. "Th have two sounds."--Ib. "Sc have the sound of sk, before a, o, u, and r."--Ib. "Aw, have the sound of a in hall."--Bolles's Spelling-Book, p. vi. "Ew, sound like u."--Ib. "Ow, when both sounded, have the sound of ou."--Ib. "Ui, when both pronounced in one syllable sound like wi in languid."--Ib.

  "Ui three several Sorts of Sound express,
   As Guile, rebuild, Bruise and Recruit confess."
       --Brightland's Gram., p. 34.


UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, ONE, EITHER, AND NEITHER.

"When each of the letters which compose this word, have been learned."--Dr. Weeks, on Orthog., p. 22. "As neither of us deny that both Homer and Virgil have great beauties."--Blair's Rhet., p. 21. "Yet neither of them are remarkable for precision."--Ib., p. 95. "How far each of the three great epic poets have distinguished themselves."--Ib., p. 427. "Each of these produce a separate agreeable sensation."--Ib., p. 48. "On the Lord's day every one of us Christians keep the sabbath."--Tr. of Irenæus. "And each of them bear the image of purity and holiness."--Hope of Israel, p. 81. "Were either of these meetings ever acknowledged or recognized?"--Foster's Report, i, 96. "Whilst neither of these letters exist in the Eugubian inscription."--Knight, on Greek Alph., p. 122. "And neither of them are properly termed indefinite."--Wilson's Essay on Gram., p. 88. "As likewise of the several subjects, which have in effect each their verb."--Lowth's Gram., p. 120. "Sometimes when the word ends in s, neither of the signs are used."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 21. "And as neither of these manners offend the ear."--Walker's Dict., Pref., p. 5. "Neither of these two Tenses are confined to this signification only."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 339. "But neither of these circumstances are intended here."--Tooke's Diversions, ii, 237. "So that all are indebted to each, and each are dependent upon all."--Am. Bible Society's Rep., 1838, p. 89. "And yet neither of them express any more action in this case than they did in the other."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 201. "Each of these expressions denote action."--Hallock's Gram., p. 74. "Neither of these moods seem to be defined by distinct boundaries."--Butler's Practical Gram., p. 66. "Neither of these solutions are correct."-- Bullions, Lat. Gram., p. 236. "Neither bear any sign of case at all."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, §217.

  "Each in their turn like Banquo's monarchs stalk."--Byron.
   "And tell what each of them by th'other lose."--Shak., Cori., iii, 2.


UNDER NOTE V.--VERB BETWEEN TWO NOMINATIVES.

"The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 156; Alexander's, 49; Gould's, 159; Bullions's, 206. "Two dots, one placed above the other, is called Sheva."--Dr. Wilson's Heb. Gram., p. 43. "A few centuries, more or less, is a matter of small consequence."--Ib. p. 31. "Pictures were the first step towards the art of writing. Hieroglyphicks was the second step."--Parker's English Composition, p. 27. "The comeliness of youth are modesty and frankness; of age, condescension and dignity."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 166. "Merit and good works is the end of man's motion."--Lord Bacon. "Divers philosophers hold that the lips is parcel of the mind."--Shakspeare. "The clothing of the natives were the skins of wild beasts."--Indian Wars, p. 92. "Prepossessions in favor of our nativ town, is not a matter of surprise."--Webster's Essays, p. 217. "Two shillings and six pence is half a crown, but not a half crown."--Priestley's Gram., p. 150; Bicknell's, ii, 53. "Two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and uniting in one sound, is called a dipthong."--Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram., p. 1. "Two or more sentences united together is called a Compound Sentence."--P. E. Day's District School Gram., p. 10. "Two or more words rightly put together, but not completing an entire proposition, is called a Phrase."--Ibid. "But the common Number of Times are five."--The British Grammar, p. 122. "Technical terms, injudiciously introduced, is another source of darkness in composition."--Jamieson's Rhet., p. 107. "The United States is the great middle division of North America."--Morse's Geog., p. 44. "A great cause of the low state of industry were the restraints put upon it."--HUME: Murray's Gram., p. 145; Ingersoll's, 172; Sanborn's, 192; Smith's, 123; and others. "Here two tall ships becomes the victor's prey."--Rowe's Lucan, B. ii, l. 1098. "The expenses incident to an outfit is surely no object."--The Friend, Vol. iii., p. 200.

  "Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep,
   Was all that did their silly thoughts so busy keep."--Milton.


UNDER NOTE VI.--CHANGE THE NOMINATIVE.

"Much pains has been taken to explain all the kinds of words."--Infant School Gram. p. 128. "Not less [time] than three years are spent in attaining this faculty."--Music of Nature, p. 28. "Where this night are met in state Many a friend to gratulate His wish'd presence."--Milton's Comus. l. 948. "Peace! my darling, here's no danger, Here's no oxen near thy bed."--Watts. "But every one of these are mere conjectures, and some of them very unhappy ones."--Coleridge's Introduction, p. 61. "The old theorists, calling the Interrogatives and Repliers, adverbs, is only a part of their regular system of naming words."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 374. "Where a series of sentences occur, place them in the order in which the facts occur."--Ib., p. 264. "And that the whole in conjunction make a regular chain of causes and effects."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 275. "The origin of the Grecian, and Roman republics, though equally involved in the obscurities and uncertainties of fabulous events, present one remarkable distinction."--Adam's Rhet., i, 95. "In these respects, mankind is left by nature an unformed, unfinished creature."--Butler's Analogy, p. 144. "The scripture are the oracles of God himself."--HOOKER: Joh. Dict., w. Oracle. "And at our gates are all manner of pleasant fruits."--Solomon's Song, vii, 13. "The preterit of pluck, look, and toss are, in speech, pronounced pluckt, lookt, tosst."--Fowler's E. Gram., 1850, §68.

  "Severe the doom that length of days impose,
   To stand sad witness of unnumber'd woes!"--Melmoth.


UNDER NOTE VII.--ADAPT FORM TO STYLE.

1. Forms not proper for the Common or Familiar Style.

"Was it thou that buildedst that house?"--Inst., p. 151. "That boy writeth very elegantly."--Ib. "Couldest not thou write without blotting thy book?"--Ib. "Thinkest thou not it will rain to-day?"--Ib. "Doth not your cousin intend to visit you?"--Ib. "That boy hath torn my book."--Ib. "Was it thou that spreadest the hay?"--Ib. "Was it James, or thou, that didst let him in?"--Ib. "He dareth not say a word."--Ib. "Thou stoodest in my way and hinderedst me."--Ib.

"Whom see I?--Whom seest thou now?--Whom sees he?--Whom lovest thou most?--What dost thou to-day?--What person seest thou teaching that boy?--He hath two new knives.--Which road takest thou?--What child teaches he?"--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 66. "Thou, who makest my shoes, sellest many more."--Ib., p. 67.

"The English language hath been much cultivated during the last two hundred years. It hath been considerably polished and refined."--Lowth's Gram., Pref., p. iii. "This stile is ostentatious, and doth not suit grave writing."--Priestley's Gram., p. 82. "But custom hath now appropriated who to persons, and which to things."--Ib., p. 97. "The indicative mood sheweth or declareth; as, Ego amo, I love: or else asketh a question; as, Amas tu? Dost thou love?"--Paul's Accidence, Ed. of 1793, p. 16. "Though thou canst not do much for the cause, thou mayst and shouldst do something."--Murray's Gram., p. 143. "The support of so many of his relations, was a heavy task; but thou knowest he paid it cheerfully."--Murray's Key, R. 1, p. 180. "It may, and often doth, come short of it."--Campbell's Rhetoric, p. 160.

  "'Twas thou, who, while thou seem'dst to chide,
   To give me all thy pittance tried."--Mitford's Blanch, p. 78.

2. Forms not proper for the Solemn or Biblical Style.

"The Lord has prepaid his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom rules over all."--See Key. "Thou answer'd them, O Lord our God: thou was a God that forgave them, though thou took vengeance of their inventions."--See Key. "Then thou spoke in vision to thy Holy One, and said, I have laid help upon one that is mighty."--See Key. "So then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that rules, but of God that shows mercy; who dispenses his blessings, whether temporal or spiritual, as seems good in his sight."--See Key.

  "Thou, the mean while, was blending with my thought;
   Yea, with my life, and life's own secret joy."--Coleridge.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--EXPRESS THE NOMINATIVE.

"Who is here so base, that would be a bondman?"--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 249. "Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman?"--Ib. "There is not a sparrow falls to the ground without his notice."--Murray's Gram., p. 300. "In order to adjust them so, as shall consist equally with the perspicuity and the strength of the period."--Ib., p. 324; Blair's Rhet., 118. "But, sometimes, there is a verb comest in."--Cobbett's English Gram., ¶248. "Mr. Prince has a genius would prompt him to better things."--Spectator, No. 466. "It is this removes that impenetrable mist."--Harris's Hermes, p. 362. "By the praise is given him for his courage."--Locke, on Education, p. 214. "There is no man would be more welcome here."--Steele, Spect., No. 544. "Between an antecedent and a consequent, or what goes before, and immediately follows."--Blair's Rhet., p. 141. "And as connected with what goes before and follows."-- Ib., p. 354. "There is no man doth a wrong for the wrong's sake."--Lord Bacon. "All the various miseries of life, which people bring upon themselves by negligence and folly, and might have been avoided by proper care, are instances of this."--Butler's Analogy, p. 108. "Ancient philosophers have taught many things in favour of morality, so far at least as respect justice and goodness towards our fellow-creatures."--Gospel its own Witness, p. 56. "Indeed, if there be any such, have been, or appear to be of us, as suppose, there is not a wise man among us all, nor an honest man, that is able to judge betwixt his brethren; we shall not covet to meddle in their matter."--Barclay's Works, i, 504. "There were that drew back; there were that made shipwreck of faith: yea, there were that brought in damnable heresies."--Ib., i, 466. "The nature of the cause rendered this plan altogether proper, and in similar situations is fit to be imitated."--Blair's Rhet., p. 274. "This is an idiom to which our language is strongly inclined, and was formerly very prevalent."-- Churchill's Gram., p. 150. "His roots are wrapped about the heap, and seeth the place of stones."--Job, viii, 17.

   "New York, Fifthmonth 3d, 1823.
   "Dear friend, Am sorry to hear of thy loss; but hope it may be
   retrieved. Should be happy to render thee any assistance in my power.
   Shall call to see thee to-morrow morning. Accept assurances of my
   regard. A. B."
   "New York, May 3d, P. M., 1823.
   "Dear Sir, Have just received the kind note favoured me with this
   morning; and cannot forbear to express my gratitude to you. On further
   information, find have not lost so much as at first supposed; and
   believe shall still be able to meet all my engagements. Should,
   however, be happy to see you. Accept, dear sir, my most cordial thanks.
   C. D."--See Brown's Institutes, p. 151.
  "Will martial flames forever fire thy mind,
   And never, never be to Heaven resign'd?"--Pope, Odys., xii, 145.


UNDER NOTE IX.--APPLICATION OF MOODS.

First Clause of the Note.--For the Subjunctive Present.

"He will not be pardoned, unless he repents."--Brown's Institutes, p. 191.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb repents, which is here used to express a future contingency, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the first clause of Note 9th to Rule 14th, "A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive present." Therefore, repents should be repent; thus, "He will not be pardoned, unless he repent."]

"If thou findest any kernelwort in this marshy meadow, bring it to me."--Neef's Method of Teaching, p. 258. "If thou leavest the room, do not forget to shut that drawer."--Ib., p. 246. "If thou graspest it stoutly, thou wilt not be hurt."--Ib., p. 196. "On condition that he comes, I will consent to stay."--Murray's Exerc., p. 74. "If he is but discreet, he will succeed."--Inst., p. 191. "Take heed that thou speakest not to Jacob."--Ib. "If thou castest me off, I shall be miserable."-- Ib. "Send them to me, if thou pleasest."--Ib. "Watch the door of thy lips, lest thou utterest folly."--Ib. "Though a liar speaks the truth, he will hardly be believed."--Common School Manual, ii, 124. "I will go unless I should be ill."--Murray's Gram., p. 300. "If the word or words understood are supplied, the true construction will be apparent."-- Murray's Exercises in Parsing, p. 21. "Unless thou shalt see the propriety of the measure, we shall not desire thy support."--Murray's Key, p. 209. "Unless thou shouldst make a timely retreat, the danger will be unavoidable."--Ib., p. 209. "We may live happily, though our possessions are small."--Ib., p. 202. "If they are carefully studied, they will enable the student to parse all the exercises."--Ib., Note, p. 165. "If the accent is fairly preserved on the proper syllable, this drawling sound will never be heard."--Murray's Gram., p. 242. "One phrase may, in point of sense, be equivalent to another, though its grammatical nature is essentially different."--Ib., p. 108. "If any man obeyeth not our word by this epistle, note that man."--Dr. Webster's Bible. "Thy skill will be the greater, if thou hittest it."--Putnam's Analytical Reader, p. 204. "Thy skill will be the greater if thou hit'st it."--Cobb's N. A. Reader, p. 321. "We shall overtake him though he should run."--Priestley's Gram., p. 113; Murray's, 207; Smith's, 173. "We shall be disgusted if he gives us too much."--Blair's Rhet., p. 388.

  "What is't to thee, if he neglect thy urn,
   Or without spices lets thy body burn?"--DRYDEN: Joh. Dict., w. What.

Second Clause of Note IX.--For the Subjunctive Imperfect.

"And so would I, if I was he."--Brown's Institutes, p. 191.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb was, which is here used to express a mere supposition, with indefinite time, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the second clause of Note 9th to Rule 14th, "A mere supposition, with indefinite time, is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive imperfect." Therefore, was should be were; thus, "And so would I, if I were he."]

"If I was a Greek, I should resist Turkish despotism."--Cardell's Elements of Gram., p. 80. "If he was to go, he would attend to your business."--Ib., p. 81. "If thou feltest as I do, we should soon decide."--Inst., p. 191. "Though thou sheddest thy blood in the cause, it would but prove thee sincerely a fool."--Ib. "If thou lovedst him, there would be more evidence of it."--Ib. "If thou couldst convince him, he would not act accordingly."--Murray's Key, p. 209. "If there was no liberty, there would be no real crime."--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 118. "If the house was burnt down, the case would be the same."--Foster's Report, i, 89. "As if the mind was not always in action, when it prefers any thing!"--West, on Agency, p. 38. "Suppose I was to say, 'Light is a body.'"--Harris's Hermes, p. 78. "If either oxygen or azote was omitted, life would be destroyed."--Gurney's Evidences, p. 155. "The verb dare is sometimes used as if it was an auxiliary."--Priestley's Gram., p. 132. "A certain lady, whom I could name, if it was necessary."--Spectator, No. 536. "If the e was dropped, c and g would assume their hard sounds."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. 10. "He would no more comprehend it, than if it was the speech of a Hottentot."--Neef's Sketch, p. 112. "If thou knewest the gift of God," &c.--John, iv, 10. "I wish I was at home."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 260. "Fact alone does not constitute right; if it does, general warrants were lawful."--Junius, Let. xliv, p. 205. "Thou look'st upon thy boy as though thou guessest it."--Putnam's Analytical Reader, p. 202. "Thou look'st upon thy boy as though thou guessedst it."--Cobb's N. A. Reader, p. 320. "He fought as if he had contended for life."--Hiley's Gram., p. 92. "He fought as if he had been contending for his life."--Ib., 92.

  "The dewdrop glistens on thy leaf,
     As if thou seem'st to shed a tear;
   As if thou knew'st my tale of grief,
     Felt all my sufferings severe."--Alex. Letham.

Last Clause of Note IX.--For the Indicative Mood.

"If he know the way, he does not need a guide."--Brown's Institutes, p. 191.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb know, which is used to express a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, is in the subjunctive mood. But, according to the last clause of Note 9th to Rule 14th, "A conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the indicative mood." Therefore, know should be knows; thus, "If he knows the way, he does not need a guide."]

"And if there be no difference, one of them must be superfluous, and ought to be rejected."--Murray's Gram., p. 149. "I cannot say that I admire this construction, though it be much used."--Priestley's Gram., p. 172. "We are disappointed, if the verb do not immediately follow it."--Ib., p. 177. "If it were they who acted so ungratefully, they are doubly in fault."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 223. "If art become apparent, it disgusts the reader."--Jamieson's Rhet., p. 80. "Though perspicuity be more properly a rhetorical than a grammatical quality, I thought it better to include it in this book."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 238. "Although the efficient cause be obscure, the final cause of those sensations lies open."--Blair's Rhet., p. 29. "Although the barrenness of language, and the want of words be doubtless one cause of the invention of tropes."--Ib., p. 135. "Though it enforce not its instructions, yet it furnishes us with a greater variety."--Ib., p. 353. "In other cases, though the idea be one, the words remain quite separate"--Priestley's Gram., p. 140. "Though the Form of our language be more simple, and has that peculiar Beauty."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. v. "Human works are of no significancy till they be completed."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 245. "Our disgust lessens gradually till it vanish altogether."--Ib., i, 338. "And our relish improves by use, till it arrive at perfection."--Ib., i, 338. "So long as he keep himself in his own proper element."--COKE: ib., i, 233. "Whether this translation were ever published or not I am wholly ignorant."--Sale's Koran, i, 13. "It is false to affirm, 'As it is day, it is light,' unless it actually be day."--Harris's Hermes, p. 246. "But we may at midnight affirm, 'If it be day, it is light.'"--Ibid. "If the Bible be true, it is a volume of unspeakable interest."--Dickinson. "Though he were a son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered."--Heb., v, 8. "If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?"--Matt., xxii, 45.

  "'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill
   Appear in writing or in judging ill."--Pope, Ess. on Crit.


UNDER NOTE X.--FALSE SUBJUNCTIVES.

"If a man have built a house, the house is his."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 286.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb have built, which extends the subjunctive mood into the perfect tense, has the appearance of disagreeing with its nominative man. But, according to Note 10th to Rule 14th, "Every such use or extension of the subjunctive mood, as the reader will be likely to mistake for a discord between the verb and its nominative, ought to be avoided as an impropriety." Therefore, have built should be has built; thus, "If a man has built a house, the house is his."]

"If God have required them of him, as is the fact, he has time."--Ib., p. 351. "Unless a previous understanding to the contrary have been had with the Principal."--Berrian's Circular, p. 5. "O if thou have Hid them in some flowery cave."--Milton's Comus, l. 239. "O if Jove's will Have linked that amorous power to thy soft lay."--Milton, Sonnet 1. "SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD: If thou love, If thou loved, If thou have loved, If thou had loved, If thou shall or will love, If thou shall or will have loved."--L. Murray's Gram., 2d Ed., p. 71; Cooper's Murray, 58; D. Adams's Gram., 48; and others. "Till religion, the pilot of the soul, have lent thee her unfathomable coil."--Tupper's Thoughts, p. 170. "Whether nature or art contribute most to form an orator, is a trifling inquiry."--Blair's Rhet., p. 338. "Year after year steals something from us; till the decaying fabric totter of itself, and crumble at length into dust."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 225. "If spiritual pride have not entirely vanquished humility."--West's Letters, p. 184. "Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter."--Exodus, xxi, 31. "It is doubtful whether the object introduced by way of simile, relate to what goes before, or to what follows."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 45.

  "And bridle in thy headlong wave,
   Till thou our summons answer'd have."--Milt., Comus, l. 887.


RULE XV.--FINITE VERBS.

When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Verb must agree with it in the plural number: as, "The council were divided."--"The college of cardinals are the electors of the pope."--Murray's Key, p. 176. "Quintus Curtius relates, that a number of them were drowned in the river Lycus."--Home's Art of Thinking, p. 125.

  "Yon host come learn'd in academic rules."
       --Rowe's Lucan, vii, 401.
   "While heaven's high host on hallelujahs live."
       --Young's N. Th., iv, 378.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XV.

OBS. 1.--To this rule there are no exceptions; because, the collective noun being a name which even in the singular number "signifies many," the verb which agrees with it, can never properly be singular, unless the collection be taken literally as one aggregate, and not as "conveying the idea of plurality." Thus, the collective noun singular being in general susceptible of two senses, and consequently admitting two modes of concord, the form of the verb, whether singular or plural, becomes the principal index to the particular sense in which the nominative is taken. After such a noun, we can use either a singular verb, agreeing with it literally, strictly, formally, according to Rule 14th; as, "The whole number WAS two thousand and six hundred;" or a plural one, agreeing with it figuratively, virtually, ideally, according to Rule 15th; as, "The whole number WERE two thousand and six hundred."--2 Chron., xxvi, 12. So, when the collective noun is an antecedent, the relative having in itself no distinction of the numbers, its verb becomes the index to the sense of all three; as, "Wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that IS left."--Isaiah, xxxvii, 4. "Wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that ARE left."--2 Kings, xix, 4. Ordinarily the word remnant conveys no idea of plurality; but, it being here applied to persons, and having a meaning to which the mere singular neuter noun is not well adapted, the latter construction is preferable to the former. The Greek version varies more in the two places here cited; being plural in Isaiah, and singular in Kings. The Latin Vulgate, in both, is, "pro reliquiis quæ repertæ sunt:" i.e., "for the remains, or remnants, that are found."

OBS. 2.--Dr. Adam's rule is this: "A collective noun may be joined with a verb either of the singular or of the plural number; as, Multitudo stat, or stant; the multitude stands, or stand."--Latin and English Gram. To this doctrine, Lowth, Murray, and others, add: "Yet not without regard to the import of the word, as conveying unity or plurality of idea."--Lowth, p. 74; Murray, 152. If these latter authors mean, that collective nouns are permanently divided in import, so that some are invariably determined to the idea of unity, and others to that of plurality, they are wrong in principle; for, as Dr. Adam remarks, "A collective noun, when joined with a verb singular, expresses many considered as one whole; but when joined with a verb plural, it signifies many separately, or as individuals."--Adam's Gram., p. 154. And if this alone is what their addition means, it is entirely useless; and so, for all the purposes of parsing, is the singular half of the rule itself. Kirkham divides this rule into two, one for "unity of idea," and the other for "plurality of idea," shows how each is to be applied in parsing, according to his "systematick order;" and then, turning round with a gallant tilt at his own work, condemns both, as idle fabrications, which it were better to reject than to retain; alleging that, "The existence of such a thing as 'unity or plurality of idea,' as applicable to nouns of this class, is doubtful."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 59.[394] How then shall a plural verb or pronoun, after a collective noun, be parsed, seeing it does not agree with the noun by the ordinary rule of agreement? Will any one say, that every such construction is bad English? If this cannot be maintained, rules eleventh and fifteenth of this series are necessary. But when the noun conveys the idea of unity or takes the plural form, the verb or pronoun has no other than a literal agreement by the common rule; as,

  "A priesthood, such as Baal's was of old,
   A people, such as never was till now."--Cowper.

OBS. 3.--Of the construction of the verb and collective noun, a late British author gives the following account: "Collective nouns are substantives which signify many in the singular number. Collective nouns are of two sorts: 1. Those which cannot become plural like other substantives; as, nobility, mankind, &c. 2. Those which can be made plural by the usual rules for a substantive; as, 'A multitude, multitudes; a crowd, crowds;' &c. Substantives which imply plurality in the singular number, and consequently have no other plural, generally require a plural verb. They are cattle, cavalry, clergy, commonalty, gentry, laity, mankind, nobility, peasantry people, populace, public, rabble, &c. [;] as, 'The public are informed.' Collective nouns which form a regular plural, such as, number, numbers; multitude, multitudes; have, like all other substantives, a singular verb, when they are in the singular number; and a plural verb, when they are in the plural number; as, 'A number of people is assembled; Numbers are assembled.'--'The fleet was dispersed; a part of it was injured; the several parts are now collected.'"-- Nixon's Parser, p. 120. To this, his main text, the author appends a note, from which the following passages are extracted: "There are few persons acquainted with Grammar, who may not have noticed, in many authors as well as speakers, an irregularity in supposing collective nouns to have, at one time, a singular meaning, and consequently to require a singular verb; and, at an other time, to have a plural meaning, and therefore to require a plural verb. This irregularity appears to have arisen from the want of a clear idea of the nature of a collective noun. This defect the author has endeavoured to supply; and, upon his definition, he has founded the two rules above. It is allowed on all sides that, hitherto, no satisfactory rules have been produced to enable the pupil to ascertain, with any degree of certainty, when a collective noun should have a singular verb, and when a plural one. A rule that simply tells its examiner, that when a collective noun in the nominative case conveys the idea of unity, its verb should be singular; and when it implies plurality, its verb should be plural, is of very little value; for such a rule will prove the pupil's being in the right, whether he should put the verb in the singular or the plural."--Ibid.

OBS. 4.--The foregoing explanation has many faults; and whoever trusts to it, or to any thing like it, will certainly be very much misled. In the first place, it is remarkable that an author who could suspect in others "the want of a clear idea of the nature of a collective noun," should have hoped to supply the defect by a definition so ambiguous and ill-written as is the one above. Secondly, his subdivision of this class of nouns into two sorts, is both baseless and nugatory; for that plurality which has reference to the individuals of an assemblage, has no manner of connexion or affinity with that which refers to more than one such aggregate; nor is there any interference of the one with the other, or any ground at all for supposing that the absence of the latter is, has been, or ought to be, the occasion for adopting the former. Hence, thirdly, his two rules, (though, so far as they go, they seem not untrue in themselves,) by their limitation under this false division, exclude and deny the true construction of the verb with the greater part of our collective nouns. For, fourthly, the first of these rules rashly presumes that any collective noun which in the singular number implies a plurality of individuals, is consequently destitute of any other plural; and the second accordingly supposes that no such nouns as, council, committee, jury, meeting, society, assembly, court, college, company, army, host, band, retinue, train, multitude, number, part, half, portion, majority, minority, remainder, set, sort, kind, class, nation, tribe, family, race, and a hundred more, can ever be properly used with a plural verb, except when they assume the plural form. To prove the falsity of this supposition, is needless. And, finally, the objection which this author advances against the common rules, is very far from proving them useless, or not greatly preferable to his own. If they do not in every instance enable the student to ascertain with certainty which form of concord he ought to prefer, it is only because no rules can possibly tell a man precisely when he ought to entertain the idea of unity, and when that of plurality. In some instances, these ideas are unavoidably mixed or associated, so that it is of little or no consequence which form of the verb we prefer; as, "Behold, the people IS one, and they have all one language."--Gen., xi, 6.

  "Well, if a king's a lion, at the least
   The people ARE a many-headed beast."--Pope, Epist. i, l. 120.

OBS. 5.--Lindley Murray says, "On many occasions, where a noun of multitude is used, it is very difficult to decide, whether the verb should be in the singular, or in the plural number; and this difficulty has induced some grammarians to cut the knot at once, and to assert that every noun of multitude must always be considered as conveying the idea of unity."--Octavo Gram., p. 153. What these occasions, or who these grammarians, are, I know not; but it is certain that the difficulty here imagined does not concern the application of such rules as require the verb and pronoun to conform to the sense intended; and, where there is no apparent impropriety in adopting either number, there is no occasion to raise a scruple as to which is right. To cut knots by dogmatism, and to tie them by sophistry, are employments equally vain. It cannot be denied that there are in every multitude both a unity and a plurality, one or the other of which must be preferred as the principle of concord for the verb or the pronoun, or for both. Nor is the number of nouns small, or their use unfrequent, which, according to our best authors, admit of either construction: though Kirkham assails and repudiates his own rules, because, "Their application is quite limited."--Grammar in Familiar Lectures, p. 59.

OBS. 6.--Murray's doctrine seems to be, not that collective nouns are generally susceptible of two senses in respect to number, but that some naturally convey the idea of unity, others, that of plurality, and a few, either of these senses. The last, which are probably ten times more numerous than all the rest, he somehow merges or forgets, so as to speak of two classes only: saying, "Some nouns of multitude certainly convey to the mind an idea of plurality, others, that of a whole as one thing, and others again, sometimes that of unity, and sometimes that of plurality. On this ground, it is warrantable, and consistent with the nature of things, to apply a plural verb and pronoun to the one class, and a singular verb and pronoun to the other. We shall immediately perceive the impropriety of the following constructions: 'The clergy has withdrawn itself from the temporal courts;' 'The assembly was divided in its opinion;' &c."--Octavo Gram., p. 153. The simple fact is, that clergy, assembly, and perhaps every other collective noun, may sometimes convey the idea of unity, and sometimes that of plurality; but an "opinion" or a voluntary "withdrawing" is a personal act or quality; wherefore it is here more consistent to adopt the plural sense and construction, in which alone we take the collection as individuals, or persons.

OBS. 7.--Although a uniformity of number is generally preferable to diversity, in the construction of words that refer to the same collective noun: and although many grammarians deny that any departure from such uniformity is allowable; yet, if the singular be put first, a plural pronoun may sometimes follow without obvious impropriety: as, "So Judah was carried away out of their land."--2 Kings, xxv, 21. "Israel is reproved and threatened for their impiety and idolatry."--Friends' Bible, Hosea, x. "There is the enemy who wait to give us battle."--Murray's Introductory Reader, p. 36. When the idea of plurality predominates in the author's mind, a plural verb is sometimes used before a collective noun that has the singular article an or a; as, "There are a sort of authors, who seem to take up with appearances."-- Addison. "Here are a number of facts or incidents leading to the end in view."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 296. "There are a great number of exceedingly good writers among the French."--Maunder's Gram., p. 11.

  "There in the forum swarm a numerous train,
   The subject of debate a townsman slain."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. xviii, l. 578.

OBS. 8.--Collective nouns, when they are merely partitive of the plural, like the words sort and number above, are usually connected with a plural verb, even though they have a singular definitive; as, "And this sort of adverbs commonly admit of Comparison."--Buchanan's English Syntax, p. 64. Here, perhaps, it would be better to say, "Adverbs of this sort commonly admit of comparison." "A part of the exports consist of raw silk."--Webster's Improved Gram., p. 100. This construction is censured by Murray, in his octavo Gram., p. 148; where we are told, that the verb should agree with the first noun only. Dr. Webster alludes to this circumstance, in improving his grammar, and admits that, "A part of the exports consists, seems to be more correct."--Improved Gram., p. 100. Yet he retains his original text, and obviously thinks it a light thing, that, "in some cases," his rules or examples "may not be vindicable." (See Obs. 14th, 15th, and 16th, on Rule 14th, of this code.) It would, I think, be better to say, "The exports consist partly of raw silk." Again: "A multitude of Latin words have, of late, been poured in upon us."--Blair's Rhet., p. 94. Better, perhaps: "Latin words, in great multitude, have, of late, been poured in upon us." So: "For the bulk of writers are very apt to confound them with each other."--Ib., p. 97. Better: "For most writers are very apt to confound them with each other." In the following example, (here cited as Kames has it, El. of Crit., ii, 247,) either the verb is, or the phrase, "There are some moveless men" might as well have been used:

  "There are a sort of men, whose visages
   Do cream and mantle like a standing pond."--Shak.

OBS. 9.--Collections of things are much less frequently and less properly regarded as individuals, or under the idea of plurality, than collections of persons. This distinction may account for the difference of construction in the two clauses of the following example; though I rather doubt whether a plural verb ought to be used in the former: "The number of commissioned officers in the guards are to the marching regiments as one to eleven: the number of regiments given to the guards, compared with those given to the line, is about three to one."--Junius, p. 147. Whenever the multitude is spoken of with reference to a personal act or quality, the verb ought, as I before suggested, to be in the plural number; as, "The public are informed."--"The plaintiff's counsel have assumed a difficult task."--"The committee were instructed to prepare a remonstrance." "The English nation declare they are grossly injured by their representatives."--Junius, p. 147. "One particular class of men are permitted to call themselves the King's friends."--Id., p. 176. "The Ministry have realized the compendious ideas of Caligula."--Id., p. 177. It is in accordance with this principle, that the following sentences have plural verbs and pronouns, though their definitives are singular, and perhaps ought to be singular: "So depraved were that people whom in their history we so much admire."--HUME: M'Ilvaine's Lect., p. 400. "Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold."--Exodus, xxxii, 31. "This people thus gathered have not wanted those trials."--Barclay's Works, i, 460. The following examples, among others, are censured by Priestley, Murray, and the copyists of the latter, without sufficient discrimination, and for a reason which I think fallacious; namely, "because the ideas they represent seem not to be sufficiently divided in the mind:"--"The court of Rome were not without solicitude."--Hume. "The house of Lords were so much influenced by these reasons."--Id. See Priestley's Gram., p. 188; Murray's, 152; R. C. Smith's, 129; Ingersoll's, 248; and others.

OBS. 10.--In general, a collective noun, unless it be made plural in form, no more admits a plural adjective before it, than any other singular noun. Hence the impropriety of putting these or those before kind or sort; as, "These kind of knaves I know."--Shakspeare. Hence, too, I infer that cattle is not a collective noun, as Nixon would have it to be, but an irregular plural which has no singular; because we can say these cattle or those cattle, but neither a bullock nor a herd is ever called a cattle, this cattle, or that cattle. And if "cavalry, clergy, commonalty," &c., were like this word, they would all be plurals also, and not "substantives which imply plurality in the singular number, and consequently have no other plural." Whence it appears, that the writer who most broadly charges others with not understanding the nature of a collective noun, has most of all misconceived it himself. If there are not many clergies, it is because the clergy is one body, with one Head, and not because it is in a particular sense many. And, since the forms of words are not necessarily confined to things that exist, who shall say that the plural word clergies, as I have just used it, is not good English?

OBS. 11.--If we say, "these people," "these gentry," "these folk," we make people, gentry, and folk, not only irregular plurals, but plurals to which there are no correspondent singulars; but by these phrases, we must mean certain individuals, and not more than one people, gentry, or folk. But these names are sometimes collective nouns singular; and, as such, they may have verbs of either number, according to the sense; and may also form regular plurals, as peoples, and folks; though we seldom, if ever, speak of gentries; and folks is now often irregularly applied to persons, as if one person were a folk. So troops is sometimes irregularly, if not improperly, put for soldiers, as if a soldier were a troop; as, "While those gallant troops, by whom every hazardous, every laborious service is performed, are left to perish."--Junius, p. 147. In Genesis, xxvii, 29th, we read, "Let people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee." But, according to the Vulgate, it ought to be, "Let peoples serve thee, and nations bow down to thee;" according to the Septuagint, "Let nations serve thee, and rulers bow down to thee." Among Murray's "instances of false syntax," we find the text, "This people draweth near to me with their mouth," &c.--Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 49. This is corrected in his Key, thus: "These people draw near to me with their mouth."--Ib., ii, 185. The Bible has it: "This people draw near me with their mouth."--Isaiah, xxix, 13. And again: "This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth.,"--Matt., xv, 8. Dr. Priestley thought it ought to be, "This people draws nigh unto me with their mouths."--Priestley's Gram., p. 63. The second evangelist omits some words: "This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me."--Mark, vii, 6. In my opinion, the plural verb is here to be preferred; because the pronoun their is plural, and the worship spoken of was a personal rather than a national act. Yet the adjective this must be retained, if the text specify the Jews as a people. As to the words mouth and heart, they are to be understood figuratively of speech and love; and I agree not with Priestley, that the plural number must necessarily be used. See Note 4th to Rule 4th.

OBS. 12.--In making an assertion concerning a number or quantity with some indefinite excess or allowance, we seem sometimes to take for the subject of the verb what is really the object of a preposition; as, "In a sermon, there may be from three to five, or six heads."--Blair's Rhet., p. 313. "In those of Germany, there are from eight to twelve professors."-- Dwight, Lit. Convention, p. 138. "About a million and a half was subscribed in a few days."--N. Y. Daily Advertiser. "About one hundred feet of the Muncy dam has been swept off."--N. Y. Observer. "Upwards of one hundred thousand dollars have been appropriated."--Newspaper. "But I fear there are between twenty and thirty of them."--Tooke's Diversions, ii, 441. "Besides which, there are upwards of fifty smaller islands."--Balbi's Geog., p. 30. "On board of which embarked upwards of three hundred passengers."--Robertson's Amer., ii, 419. The propriety of using above or upwards of for more than, is questionable, but the practice is not uncommon. When there is a preposition before what seems at first to be the subject of the verb, as in the foregoing instances, I imagine there is an ellipsis of the word number, amount, sum or quantity; the first of which words is a collective noun and may have a verb either singular or plural: as, "In a sermon, there may be any number from three to five or six heads." This is awkward, to be sure; but what does the Doctor's sentence mean, unless it is, that there may be an optional number of heads, varying from three to six?

OBS. 13.--Dr. Webster says, "When an aggregate amount is expressed by the plural names of the particulars composing that amount, the verb may be in the singular number; as, 'There was more than a hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling.' Mavor's Voyages." To this he adds, "However repugnant to the principles of grammar this may seem at first view, the practice is correct; for the affirmation is not made of the individual parts or divisions named, the pounds, but of the entire sum or amount."--Philosophical Gram., p. 146; Improved Gram., p. 100. The fact is, that the Doctor here, as in some other instances, deduces a false rule from a correct usage. It is plain that either the word more, taken substantively, or the noun to which it relates as an adjective, is the only nominative to the verb was. Mavor does not affirm that there were a hundred and fitly thousand pounds; but that there was more--i.e., more money than so many pounds are, or amount to. Oliver B. Peirce, too. falls into a multitude of strange errors respecting the nature of more than, and the construction of other words that accompany these. See his "Analytical Rules," and the manner in which he applies them, in "The Grammar," p. 195 et seq.

OBS. 14.--Among certain educationists,--grammarians, arithmeticians, schoolmasters, and others,--there has been of late not a little dispute concerning the syntax of the phraseology which we use, or should use, in expressing multiplication, or in speaking of abstract numbers. For example: is it better to say, "Twice one is two," or, "Twice one are two?"--"Two times one is two," or, "Two times one are two?"--"Twice two is four," or, "Twice two are four?"--"Thrice one is or are, three?"--"Three times one is, or are, three?"--"Three times naught is, or are, naught?"--"Thrice three is, or are, nine?"--"Three times four is, or are, twelve?"--"Seven times three make, or makes, twenty-one?"--"Three times his age do not, or does not, equal mine?"--"Three times the quantity is not, or are not, sufficient?"--"Three quarters of the men were discharged; and three quarters of the money was, or were, sent back?"--"As 2 is to 4, so is 6 to 12;" or, "As two are to four, so are six to twelve?"

OBS. 15.--Most of the foregoing expressions, though all are perhaps intelligible enough in common practice, are, in some respect, difficult of analysis, or grammatical resolution. I think it possible, however, to frame an argument of some plausibility in favour of every one of them. Yet it is hardly to be supposed, that any teacher will judge them all to be alike justifiable, or feel no interest in the questions which have been raised about them. That the language of arithmetic is often defective or questionable in respect to grammar, may be seen not only in many an ill choice between the foregoing variant and contrasted modes of expression, but in sundry other examples, of a somewhat similar character, for which it may be less easy to find advocates and published arguments. What critic will not judge the following phraseology to be faulty? "4 times two units is 8 units, and 4 times 5 tens is twenty tens."--Chase's Common School Arithmetic, 1848, p. 42. Or this? "1 time 1 is l. 2 times 1 are 2; 1 time 4 is 4, 2 times 4 are 8."--Ray's Arithmetic, 1853. Or this? "8 and 7 is 15, 9's out leaves 6; 3 and 8 is 11, 9's out leaves 2."--Babcock's Practical Arithmetic, 1829, p. 22. Or this again? "3 times 3 is 9, and 2 we had to carry is 11."--Ib., p. 20.

OBS. 16.--There are several different opinions as to what constitutes the grammatical subject of the verb in any ordinary English expression of multiplication. Besides this, we have some variety in the phraseology which precedes the verb; so that it is by no means certain, either that the multiplying terms are always of the same part of speech, or that the true nominative to the verb is not essentially different in different examples. Some absurdly teach, that an abstract number is necessarily expressed by "a singular noun," with only a singular meaning; that such a number, when multiplied, is always, of itself the subject of the assertion; and, consequently, that the verb must be singular, as agreeing only with this "singular noun." Others, not knowing how to parse separately the multiplying word or words and the number multiplied, take them both or all together as "the grammatical subject" with which the verb must agree. But, among these latter expounders, there are two opposite opinions on the very essential point, whether this "entire expression" requires a singular verb or a plural one:--as, whether we ought to say, "Twice one is two," or, "Twice one are two;"--"Twice two is four," or, "Twice two are four;"--"Three times one is three," or, "Three times one are three;"--"Three times three is nine," or, "Three times three are nine." Others, again, according to Dr. Bullions, and possibly according to their own notion, find the grammatical subject, sometimes, if not generally, in the multiplying term only; as, perhaps, is the case with those who write or speak as follows: "If we say, 'Three times one are three,' we make times the subject of the verb."--Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram., 1849, p. 39. "Thus, 2 times 1 are 2; 2 times 2 are four; 2 times 3 are 6."--Chase's C. S. Arith., p. 43. "Say, 2 times O are O; 2 times 1 are 2."--Robinson's American Arith., 1825, p. 24.

OBS. 17.--Dr. Bullions, with a strange blunder of some sort in almost every sentence, propounds and defends his opinion on this subject thus: "Numeral adjectives, being also names of numbers, are often used as nouns, and so have the inflection and construction of nouns: thus, by twos, by tens, by fifties. Two is an even number. Twice two is four. Four is equal to twice two. In some arithmetics the language employed in the operation of multiplying--such as 'Twice two are four, twice three are six'--is incorrect. It should be, 'Twice two is four,' &c.; for the word two is used as a singular noun--the name of a number. The adverb twice is not in construction with it, and consequently does not make it plural. The meaning is, 'The number two taken twice is equal to four.' For the same reason we should say, 'Three times two is six,' because the meaning is, 'Two taken three times is six.' If we say, 'Three times one are three,' we make times the subject of the verb, whereas the subject of the verb really is one,' and times is in the objective of number (§828). 2:4:: 6:12, should be read, 'As 2 is to 4, so is 6 to 12;' not 'As two are to four, so are six to twelve.' But when numerals denoting more than one, are used as adjectives, with a substantive expressed or understood, they must have a plural construction."--Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram., 1849, p. 39.

OBS. 18.--Since nouns and adjectives are different parts of speech, the suggestion, that, "Numeral adjectives are also names, or nouns," is, upon the very face of it, a flat absurdity; and the notion that "the name of a number" above unity, conveys only and always the idea of unity, like an ordinary "singular noun," is an other. A number in arithmetic is most commonly an adjective in grammar; and it is always, in form, an expression that tells how many, or--"denotes how many things are spoken of."--Chase, p. 11. But the name of a number is also a number, whenever it is not made plural in form. Thus four is a number, but fours is not; so ten is a number, but tens is not. Arithmetical numbers, which run on to infinity, severally consist of a definite idea of how many; each is a precise count by the unit; one being the beginning of the series, and the measure of every successive step. Grammatical numbers are only the verbal forms which distinguish one thing from more of the same sort. Thus the word fours or tens, unless some arithmetical number be prefixed to it, signifies nothing but a mere plurality which repeats indefinitely the collective idea of four or ten.

OBS. 19.--All actual names of numbers calculative, except one, (for naught, though it fills a place among numbers, is, in itself, a mere negation of number; and such terms as oneness, unity, duality, are not used in calculation,) are collective nouns--a circumstance which seems to make the discussion of the present topic appropriate to the location which is here given it under Rule 15th. Each of them denotes a particular aggregate of units. And if each, as signifying one whole, may convey the idea of unity, and take a singular verb; each, again, as denoting so many units, may quite as naturally take a plural verb, and be made to convey the idea of plurality. For the mere abstractness of numbers, or their separation from all "particular objects," by no means obliges us to limit them always to the construction with verbs singular. If it is right to say, "Two is an even number;" it is certainly no error to say, "Two are an even number." If it is allowable to say, "As 2 is to 4, so is 6 to 12;" it is as well, if not better, to say, "As two are to four, so are six to twelve." If it is correct to say, "Four is equal to twice two;" it is quite as grammatical to say, "Four are equal to twice two." Bullions bids say, "Twice two is four," and, "Three times two is six;" but I very much prefer to say, "Twice two are four," and, "Three times two are six." The Doctor's reasoning, whereby he condemns the latter phraseology, is founded only upon false assumptions. This I expect to show; and more--that the word which he prefers, is wrong.

OBS. 20.--As to what constitutes the subject of the verb in multiplication, I have already noticed three different opinions. There are yet three or four more, which must not be overlooked in a general examination of this grammatical dispute. Dr. Bullions's notion on this point, is stated with so little consistency, that one can hardly say what it is. At first, he seems to find his nominative in the multiplicand, "used as a singular noun;" but, when he ponders a little on the text, "Twice two is four," he finds the leading term not to be the word "two," but the word "number," understood. He resolves, indeed, that no one of the four words used, "is in construction with" any of the rest; for he thinks, "The meaning is, The number two taken twice is equal to four.'" Here, then, is a fourth opinion in relation to the subject of the verb: it must be "number" understood. Again, it is conceded by the same hand, that, "When numerals denoting more than one, are used as adjectives, with a substantive expressed or understood, they must have a plural construction." Now who can show that this is not the case in general with the numerals of multiplication? To explain the syntax of "Twice two are four," what can be more rational than to say, "The sense is, 'Twice two units, or things, are four?'" Is it not plain, that twice two things, of any sort, are four things of that same sort, and only so? Twice two duads are how many? Answer: Four duads, or eight units. Here, then, is a fifth opinion,--and a very fair one too,--according to which we have for the subject of the verb, not "two" nor "twice" nor "twice two," nor "number," understood before "two," but the plural noun "units" or "things" implied in or after the multiplicand.

OBS. 21.--It is a doctrine taught by sundry grammarians, and to some extent true, that a neuter verb between two nominatives "may agree with either of them." (See Note 5th to Rule 14th, and the footnote.) When, therefore, a person who knows this, meets with such examples as, "Twice one are two;"--"Twice one unit are two units;"--"Thrice one are three;"--he will of course be apt to refer the verb to the nominative which follows it, rather than to that which precedes it; taking the meaning to be, "Two are twice one;"--"Two units are twice one unit;"--"Three are thrice one." Now, if such is the sense, the construction in each of these instances is right, because it accords with such sense; the interpretation is right also, because it is the only one adapted to such a construction; and we have, concerning the subject of the verb, a sixth opinion,--a very proper one too,--that it is found, not where it is most natural to look for it, in the expression of the factors, but in a noun which is either uttered or implied in the product. But, no doubt, it is better to avoid this construction, by using such a verb as may be said to agree with the number multiplied. Again, and lastly, there may be, touching all such cases as, "Twice one are two," a seventh opinion, that the subject of the verb is the product taken substantively, and not as a numeral adjective. This idea, or the more comprehensive one, that all abstract numbers are nouns substantive, settles nothing concerning the main question, What form of the verb is required by an abstract number above unity? If the number be supposed an adjective, referring to the implied term units, or things, the verb must of course be plural; but if it be called a collective noun, the verb only follows and fixes "the idea of plurality," or "the idea of unity," as the writer or speaker chooses to adopt the one or the other.

OBS. 22.--It is marvellous, that four or five monosyllables, uttered together in a common simple sentence, could give rise to all this diversity of opinion concerning the subject of the verb; but, after all, the chief difficulty presented by the phraseology of multiplication, is that of ascertaining, not "the grammatical subject of the verb," but the grammatical relation between the multiplier and the multiplicand--the true way of parsing the terms once, twice, three times, &c., but especially the word times. That there must be some such relation, is obvious; but what is it? and how is it to be known? To most persons, undoubtedly, "Twice two," and, "Three times two," seem to be regular phrases, in which the words cannot lack syntactical connexion; yet Dr. Bullions, who is great authority with some thinkers, denies all immediate or direct relation between the word "two," and the term before it, preferring to parse both "twice" and "three times" as adjuncts to the participle "taken," understood. He says, "The adverb twice is not in construction with 'two,' and consequently does not make it plural." His first assertion here is, in my opinion, untrue; and the second implies the very erroneous doctrine, that the word twice, if it relate to a singular term, will "make it plural." From a misconception like this, it probably is, that some who ought to be very accurate in speech, are afraid to say, "Twice one is two," or, "Thrice one is three," judging the singular verb to be wrong; and some there are who think, that "usage will not permit" a careful scholar so to speak. Now, analysis favours the singular form here; and it is contrary to a plain principle of General Grammar, to suppose that a plural verb can be demanded by any phrase which is made collectively the subject of the assertion. (See Note 3d, and Obs. 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th, under Rule 14th.) Are is, therefore, not required here; and, if allowable, it is so only on the supposition that the leading nominative is put after it.

OBS. 23.--In Blanchard's small Arithmetic, published in 1854, the following inculcations occur: "When we say, 3 times 4 trees are 12 trees, we have reference to the objects counted; but in saying 3 times 4 is twelve, we mean, that 3 times the number 4, is the number 12. Here we use 4 and 12, not as numeral adjectives, but as nouns, the names of particular numbers, and as such, each conveys the idea of unity, and the entire expression is the subject of is, and conveys the idea of unity."--P. iv. Here we have, with an additional error concerning "the entire expression," a repetition of Dr. Bullions's erroneous assumption, that the name of a particular number, as being "a singular noun," must "convey the idea of unity," though the number itself be a distinct plurality. These men talk as if there were an absurdity in affirming that "the number 4" is plural! But, if four be taken as only one thing, how can three multiply this one thing into twelve? It is by no means proper to affirm, that, "Every four, taken three times, is, or are, twelve;" for three instances, or "times," of the figure 4, or of the word four, are only three 4's, or three verbal fours. And is it not because "the number 4" is plural--is in itself four units--and because the word four, or the figure 4, conveys explicitly the idea of this plurality, that the multiplication table is true, where it says, "3 times 4 are 12?" It is not right to say, "Three times one quaternion is twelve;" nor is it quite unobjectionable to say, with Blanchard "3 times the number 4, is the number 12." Besides, this pretended interpretation explains nothing. The syntax of the shorter text, "3 times 4 is 12," is in no way justified or illustrated by it. Who does not perceive that the four here spoken of must be four units, or four things of some sort; and that no such "four," multiplied by 3, or till "3 times," can "convey the idea of unity," or match a singular verb? Dr. Webster did not so conceive of this "abstract number," or of "the entire expression" in which it is multiplied; for he says, "Four times four amount to sixteen."--American Dict., w. Time.

OBS. 24.--In fact no phrase of multiplication is of such a nature that it can, with any plausibility be reckoned a composite subject of the verb. Once, twice, and thrice, are adverbs; and each of them may, in general, be parsed as relating directly to the multiplicand. Their construction, as well as that of the plural verb, is agreeable to the Latin norm; as, when Cicero says of somebody, "Si, bis bina quot essent, didicisset,"--"If he had learned how many twice two are."--See Ainsworth's Dict., w. Binus. The phrases, "one time," for once, and "two times" for twice, seem puerile expressions: they are not often used by competent teachers. Thrice is a good word, but more elegant than popular. Above twice, we use the phrases, three times, four times, and the like, which are severally composed of a numeral adjective and the noun times. If these words were united, as some think they ought to be, the compounds would be adverbs of time repeated; as, threetimes, fourtimes, &c., analogous to sometimes. Each word would answer, as each phrase now does, to the question, How often? These expressions are taken by some as having a direct adverbial relation to the terms which they qualify; but they are perhaps most commonly explained as being dependent on some preposition understood. See Obs. 1st on Rule 5th, and Obs. 6th on Rule 7th.

OBS. 25.--In multiplying one only, it is evidently best to use a singular verb: as, "Twice naught is naught;"--"Three times one is three." And, in multiplying any number above one, I judge a plural verb to be necessary: as, "Twice two are four;"--"Three times two are six;" because this number must be just so many in order to give the product. Dr. Bullions says, "We should say, 'Three times two is six,' because the meaning is, 'Two taken three times is six.'" This is neither reasoning, nor explanation, nor good grammar. The relation between "two" and "three," or the syntax of the word "times," or the propriety of the singular verb, is no more apparent in the latter expression than in the former. It would be better logic to affirm, "We should say, 'Three times two are six;' because the meaning is, 'Two (units), taken for, to, or till three times, are six.'" The preposition till, or until, is sometimes found in use before an expression of times numbered; as, "How oft shall I forgive? till seven times? I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but, Until seventy times seven."--Matt., xviii, 21. But here is still a difficulty with repect to the multiplying term, or the word "times." For, unless, by an unallowable ellipsis, "seventy times seven," is presumed to mean, "seventy times of seven," the preposition Until must govern, not this noun "times." expressed, but an other, understood after "seven;" and the meaning must be, "Thou shalt forgive him until seventy-times seven times;" or--"until seven times taken for, to, or till, seventy times."

OBS. 26.--With too little regard to consistency. Dr. Bullions suggests that when "we make times the subject of the verb," it is not "really" such, but "is in the objective of number." He is, doubtless, right in preferring to parse this word as an objective case, rather than as a nominative, in the construction to which he alludes; but to call it an "objective of number," is an uncouth error, a very strange mistake for so great a grammarian to utter: there being in grammar no such thing as "the objective of number:" nothing of the sort, even under his own "Special Rule," to which he refers us for it! And, if such a thing there were, so that a number could be "put in the objective case without a governing word," (see his §828,) the plural word times, since it denotes no particular aggregate of units, could never be an example of it. It is true that times, like days, weeks, and other nouns of time, may be, and often is, in the objective case without a governing word expressed; and, in such instances, it may be called the objective of repetition, or of time repeated. But the construction of the word appears to be such as is common to many nouns of time, of value, or of measure; which, in their relation to other words, seem to resemble adverbs, but which are usually said to be governed by prepositions understood: as, "Three days later;" i.e., "Later by three days."--"Three shillings cheaper;" i.e., "Cheaper by three shillings."--"Seven times hotter;" i.e., "Hotter by seven times."--"Four feet high;" i.e., "High to four feet."--"Ten years old;" i.e., "Old to ten years."--"Five times ten;" i.e., "Ten by five times;" or, perhaps, "Ten taken till five times."


NOTE TO RULE XV.

A collective noun conveying the idea of unity, requires a verb in the third person, singular; and generally admits also the regular plural construction: as, "His army was defeated."--"His armies were defeated."


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XV.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE IDEA OF PLURALITY.

"The gentry is punctilious in their etiquette."

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb is is of the singular number, and does not correctly agree with its nominative gentry, which is a collective noun conveying rather the idea of plurality. But, according to Rule 15th, "When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the verb must agree with it in the plural number." Therefore, is should be are; thus, "The gentry are punctilious in their etiquette."]

"In France the peasantry goes barefoot, and the middle sort makes use of wooden shoes."--HARVEY: Priestley's Gram., p. 188. "The people rejoices in that which should cause sorrow."--See Murray's Exercises, p. 49. "My people is foolish, they have not known me."--Jer., iv, 22; Lowth's Gram., p. 75. "For the people speaks, but does not write."--Philological Museum, i, 646. "So that all the people that was in the camp, trembled."--Exodus, xix, 16. "No company likes to confess that they are ignorant."--Student's Manual, p. 217. "Far the greater part of their captives was anciently sacrificed."--Robertson's America, i, 339. "Above one half of them was cut off before the return of spring."--Ib., ii, 419. "The other class, termed Figures of Thought, supposes the words to be used in their proper and literal meaning."--Blair's Rhet., p. 133; Murray's Gram., 337. "A multitude of words in their dialect approaches to the Teutonic form, and therefore afford excellent assistance."--Dr. Murray's Hist of Lang., i, 148. "A great majority of our authors is defective in manner."--James Brown's Crit. "The greater part of these new-coined words has been rejected."--Tooke's Diversions, ii, 445. "The greater part of the words it contains is subject to certain modifications and inflections."--The Friend, ii, 123. "While all our youth prefers her to the rest."--Waller's Poems, p. 17. "Mankind is appointed to live in a future state."--Butler's Analogy, p. 57. "The greater part of human kind speaks and acts wholly by imitation."--Wright's Gram., p. 169. "The greatest part of human gratifications approaches so nearly to vice."--Ibid.

  "While still the busy world is treading o'er
   The paths they trod five thousand years before."--Young.


UNDER THE NOTE.--THE IDEA OF UNITY.

"In old English this species of words were numerous."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., ii, 6. "And a series of exercises in false grammar are introduced towards the end."--Frost's El. of E. Gram., p. iv. "And a jury, in conformity with the same idea, were anciently called homagium, the homage, or manhood."--Webster's Essays, p. 296. "With respect to the former, there are indeed plenty of means."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 319. "The number of school districts have increased since the last year."--Governor Throop, 1832. "The Yearly Meeting have purchased with its funds these publications."--Foster's Reports, i, 76. "Have the legislature power to prohibit assemblies?"--Wm. Sullivan. "So that the whole number of the streets were fifty."--Rollin's Ancient Hist., ii, 8. "The number of inhabitants were not more than four millions."--SMOLLETT: see Priestley's Gram., p. 193. "The House of Commons were of small weight."--HUME: Ib., p. 188. "The assembly of the wicked have enclosed me."--Psal. xxii, 16; Lowth's Gram., p. 75. "Every kind of convenience and comfort are provided."--Com. School Journal, i, 24. "Amidst the great decrease of the inhabitants of Spain, the body of the clergy have suffered no diminution; but has rather been gradually increasing."--Payne's Geog., ii, 418. "Small as the number of inhabitants are, yet their poverty is extreme."--Ib., ii, 417. "The number of the names were about one hundred and twenty."--Ware's Gram., p. 12; see Acts, i, 15.


RULE XVI.--FINITE VERBS.

When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together: as, "True rhetoric and sound logic are very nearly allied."--Blair's Rhet., p. 11. "Aggression and injury in no case justify retaliation."--Wayland's Moral Science, p. 406.

  "Judges and senates have been bought for gold,
   Esteem and love were never to be sold."--Pope.

EXCEPTION FIRST.

When two nominatives connected by and serve merely to describe one person or thing, they are either in apposition or equivalent to one name, and do not require a plural verb; as, "Immediately comes a hue and cry after a gang of thieves."--L'Estrange. "The hue and cry of the country pursues him."--Junius, Letter xxiii. "Flesh and blood [i. e. man, or man's nature,] hath not revealed it unto thee."--Matt., xvi, 17." Descent and fall to us is adverse."--Milton, P. L., ii, 76. "This philosopher and poet was banished from his country."--"Such a Saviour and Redeemer is actually provided for us."--Gurney's Essays, p. 386. "Let us then declare what great things our God and Saviour has done for us."--Dr. Scott, on Luke viii. "Toll, tribute, and custom, was paid unto them."--Ezra, iv, 20.

  "Whose icy current and compulsive course
   Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on."--Shakspeare.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

When two nominatives connected by and, are emphatically distinguished, they belong to different propositions, and, if singular, do not require a plural verb; as, "Ambition, and not the safety of the state, was concerned."--Goldsmith. "Consanguinity, and not affinity, is the ground of the prohibition."--Webster's Essays, p. 324. "But a modification, and oftentimes a total change, takes place."--Maunder. "Somewhat, and, in many circumstances, a great deal too, is put upon us."--Butler's Analogy, p. 108. "Disgrace, and perhaps ruin, was the certain consequence of attempting the latter."--Robertson's America, i, 434.

  "Ay, and no too, was no good divinity."--Shakespeare.
   "Love, and love only, is the loan for love."--Young.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

When two or more nominatives connected by and are preceded by the adjective each, every, or no, they are taken separately, and do not require a plural verb; as, "When no part of their substance, and no one of their properties, is the same."--Bp. Butler. "Every limb and feature appears with its respective grace."--Steele. "Every person, and every occurrence, is beheld in the most favourable light."--Murray's Key, p. 190. "Each worm, and each insect, is a marvel of creative power."

  "Whose every look and gesture was a joke
   To clapping theatres and shouting crowds."--Young.

EXCEPTION FOURTH.

When the verb separates its nominatives, it agrees with that which precedes it, and is understood to the rest; as, "The earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof."--Murray's Exercises, p. 36.

  "Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame."--Milton.
   "------Forth in the pleasing spring,
   Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness, and love."--Thomson.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XVI.

OBS. 1.--According to Lindley Murray, (who, in all his compilation, from whatever learned authorities, refers us to no places in any book but his own.) "Dr. Blair observes, that 'two or more substantives, joined by a copulative, must always require the verb or pronoun to which they refer, to be placed in the plural number:' and this," continues the great Compiler, "is the general sentiment of English grammarians."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 150. The same thing is stated in many other grammars: thus, Ingersoll has the very same words, on the 238th page of his book; and R. C. Smith says, "Dr. Blair very justly observes," &c.--Productive Gram., p. 126. I therefore doubt not, the learned rhetorician has somewhere made some such remark: though I can neither supply the reference which these gentlemen omit, nor vouch for the accuracy of their quotation. But I trust to make it very clear, that so many grammarians as hold this sentiment, are no great readers, to say the least of them. Murray himself acknowledges one exception to this principle, and unconsciously furnishes examples of one or two more; but, in stead of placing the former in his Grammar, and under the rule, where the learner would be likely to notice it, he makes it an obscure and almost unintelligible note, in the margin of his Key, referring by an asterisk to the following correction: "Every man and every woman was numbered."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, Vol. ii. p. 190. To justify this phraseology, he talks thus: "Whatever number of nouns may be connected by a conjunction with the pronoun EVERY, this pronoun is as applicable to the whole mass of them, as to any one of the nouns; and therefore the verb is correctly put in the singular number, and refers to the whole separately and individually considered."--Ib. So much, then, for "the pronoun EVERY!" But, without other exceptions, what shall be done with the following texts from Murray himself? "The flock, and not the fleece, is, or ought to be the object of the shepherd's care."--Ib., ii, 184. "This prodigy of learning, this scholar, critic, and antiquary, was entirely destitute of breeding and civility."--Ib., ii, 217. And, in the following line, what conjunction appears, or what is the difference between "horror" and "black despair." that the verb should be made plural?

  "What black despair, what horror, fill his mind!"--Ib., ii, 183.
   "What black despair, what horror fills his heart!"--Thomson.[395]

OBS. 2.--Besides the many examples which may justly come under the four exceptions above specified, there are several questionable but customary expressions, which have some appearance of being deviations from this rule, but which may perhaps be reasonably explained on the principle of ellipsis: as, "All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy."--"Slow and steady often outtravels haste."--Dillwyn's Reflections, p. 23. "Little and often fills the purse."--Treasury of Knowledge, Part i, p. 446. "Fair and softly goes far." These maxims, by universal custom, lay claim to a singular verb; and, for my part, I know not how they can well be considered either real exceptions to the foregoing rule, or real inaccuracies under it; for, in most of them, the words connected are not nouns; and those which are so, may not be nominatives. And it is clear, that every exception must have some specific character by which it may be distinguished; else it destroys the rule, in stead of confirming it, as known exceptions are said to do. Murray appears to have thought the singular verb wrong; for, among his examples for parsing, he has, "Fair and softly go far," which instance is no more entitled to a plural verb than the rest. See his Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 5. Why not suppose them all to be elliptical? Their meaning may be as follows: "To have all work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy."--"What is slow and steady, often outtravels haste."--"To put in little and often, fills the purse."--"What proceeds fair and softly, goes far." The following line from Shakspeare appears to be still more elliptical:

  "Poor and content is rich, and rich enough."--Othello.

This may be supposed to mean, "He who is poor and content," &c. In the following sentence again, we may suppose an ellipsis of the phrase To have, at the beginning; though here, perhaps, to have pluralized the verb, would have been as well:

  "One eye on death and one full fix'd on heaven,
   Becomes a mortal and immortal man."--Young.

OBS. 3.--The names of two persons are not unfrequently used jointly as the name of their story; in which sense, they must have a singular verb, if they have any; as, "Prior's Henry and Emma contains an other beautiful example."--Jamieson's Rhetoric, p. 179. I somewhat hesitate to call this an exception to the foregoing rule, because here too the phraseology may be supposed elliptical. The meaning is, "Prior's little poem, entitled, 'Henry and Emma,' contains," &c.;--or, "Prior's story of Henry and Emma contains," &c. And, if the first expression is only an abbreviation of one of these, the construction of the verb contains may be referred to Rule 14th. See Exception 1st to Rule 12th, and Obs. 2d on Rule 14th.

OBS. 4.--The conjunction and, by which alone we can with propriety connect different words to make them joint nominatives or joint antecedents, is sometimes suppressed and understood; but then its effect is the same, as if it were inserted; though a singular verb might sometimes be quite as proper in the same sentences, because it would merely imply a disjunctive conjunction or none at all: as, "The high breach of trust, the notorious corruption, are stated in the strongest terms."--Junius, Let. xx. "Envy, self-will, jealousy, pride, often reign there."--Abbott's Corner Stone, p. 111. (See Obs. 4th on Rule 12th.)

  "Art, empire, earth itself, to change are doomed."--Beattie.
   "Her heart, her mind, her love, is his alone."--Cowley.

In all the foregoing examples, a singular verb might have been used without impropriety; or the last, which is singular, might have been plural. But the following couplet evidently requires a plural verb, and is therefore correct as the poet wrote it; both because the latter noun is plural, and because the conjunction and is understood between the two. Yet a late grammarian, perceiving no difference between the joys of sense and the pleasure of reason, not only changes "lie" to "lies," but uses the perversion for a proof text, under a rule which refers the verb to the first noun only, and requires it to be singular. See Oliver B. Peirce's Gram., p. 250.

  "Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense.
   Lie in three words--health, peace, and competence."
       --Pope's Ess., Ep. iv, l. 80.

OBS. 5.--When the speaker changes his nominative to take a stronger expression, he commonly uses no conjunction; but, putting the verb in agreement with the noun which is next to it, he leaves the other to an implied concord with its proper form of the same verb: as, "The man whose designs, whose whole conduct, tends to reduce me to subjection, that man is at war with me, though not a blow has yet been given, nor a sword drawn."--Blair's Rhet., p. 265. "All Greece, all the barbarian world, is too narrow for this man's ambition."--Ibid. "This self-command, this exertion of reason in the midst of passion, has a wonderful effect both to please and to persuade."--Ib., p. 260. "In the mutual influence of body and soul, there is a wisdom, a wonderful wisdom, which we cannot fathom."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 150. If the principle here stated is just, Murray has written the following models erroneously: "Virtue, honour, nay, even self-interest, conspire to recommend the measure."--Ib., p. 150. "Patriotism, morality, every public and private consideration, demand our submission to just and lawful government."--Ibid. In this latter instance, I should prefer the singular verb demands; and in the former, the expression ought to be otherwise altered, thus. "Virtue, honour, and interest, all conspire to recommend the measure." Or thus: "Virtue, honour--nay, even self-interest, recommends the measure." On this principle, too, Thomson was right, and this critic wrong, in the example cited at the close of the first observation above. This construction is again recurred to by Murray, in the second chapter of his Exercises; where he explicitly condemns the following sentence because the verb is singular: "Prudence, policy, nay, his own true interest, strongly recommends the line of conduct proposed to him."--Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 22.

OBS. 6.--When two or more nominatives are in apposition with a preceding one which they explain, the verb must agree with the first word only, because the others are adjuncts to this, and not joint subjects to the verb; as, "Loudd, the ancient Lydda and Diospolis, appears like a place lately ravaged by fire and sword."--Keith's Evidences, p. 93. "Beattie, James,--a philosopher and poet,--was born in Scotland, in the year 1735."--Murray's Sequel, p. 306. "For, the quantity, the length, and shortness of our syllables, is not, by any means, so fixed."--Blair's Rhet., p. 124. This principle, like the preceding one, persuades me again to dissent from Murray, who corrects or perverts the following sentence, by changing originates to originate: "All that makes a figure on the great theatre of the world; the employments of the busy, the enterprises of the ambitious, and the exploits of the warlike; the virtues which form the happiness, and the crimes which occasion the misery of mankind; originates in that silent and secret recess of thought, which is hidden from every human eye."--See Murray's Octavo Gram., Vol. ii, p. 181; or his Duodecimo Key, p. 21. The true subject of this proposition is the noun all, which is singular; and the other nominatives are subordinate to this, and merely explanatory of it.

OBS. 7.--Dr. Webster says, "Enumeration and addition of numbers are usually expressed in the singular number; [as,] two and two is four; seven and nine is sixteen; that is, the sum of seven and nine is sixteen. But modern usage inclines to reject the use of the verb in the singular number, in these and similar phrases."--Improved Gram., p. 106. Among its many faults, this passage exhibits a virtual contradiction. For what "modern usage inclines to reject," can hardly be the fashion in which any ideas "are usually expressed." Besides, I may safely aver, that this is a kind of phraseology which all correct usage always did reject. It is not only a gross vulgarism, but a plain and palpable violation of the foregoing rule of syntax; and, as such it must be reputed, if the rule has any propriety at all. What "enumeration" has to do with it, is more than I can tell. But Dr. Webster once admired and commended this mode of speech, as one of the "wonderful proofs of ingenuity in the framers of language;" and laboured to defend it as being "correct upon principle;" that is, upon the principle that "the sum of" is understood to be the subject of the affirmation, when one says, "Two and two is four," in stead of, "Two and two are four."--See Webster's Philosophical Gram., p. 153. This seems to me a "wonderful proof" of ignorance in a very learned man. OBS. 8.--In Greek and Latin, the verb frequently agrees with the nearest nominative, and is understood to the rest; and this construction is sometimes imitated in English, especially if the nouns follow the verb: as, "[Greek: Nuni do MENEI pistis, elpis agape, ta tria tanta]."--"Nunc vero manet fides, spes, charitas; tria hæc."--"Now abideth faith, hope, charity; these three."--1 Cor., xiii, 13. "And now abideth confession, prayer, and praise, these three; but the greatest of these is praise."--ATTERBURY: Blair's Rhet., p. 300. The propriety of this usage, so far as our language is concerned, I doubt. It seems to open a door for numerous deviations from the foregoing rule, and deviations of such a sort, that if they are to be considered exceptions, one can hardly tell why. The practice, however, is not uncommon, especially if there are more nouns than two, and each is emphatic; as, "Wonderful was the patience, fortitude, self-denial, and bravery of our ancestors."--Webster's Hist. of U. S., p. 118. "It is the very thing I would have you make out: for therein consists the form, and use, and nature of language."--Berkley's Alciphron, p. 161. "There is the proper noun, and the common noun. There is the singular noun, and the plural noun."--Emmons's Gram., p. 11. "From him proceeds power, sanctification, truth, grace, and every other blessing we can conceive."--Calvin's Institutes, B. i, Ch. 13. "To what purpose cometh there to me incense from Sheba, and the sweet cane from a far country?"--Jer., vi, 20. "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever."--Matt., vi, 13. In all these instances, the plural verb might have been used; and yet perhaps the singular may be justified on the ground that there is a distinct and emphatic enumeration of the nouns. Thus, it would be proper to say, "Thine are the kingdom, the power, and the glory;" but this construction seems less emphatic than the preceding, which means, "For thine is the kingdom, thine is the power, and thine is the glory, forever;" and this repetition is still more emphatic, and perhaps more proper, than the elliptical form. The repetition of the conjunction "and," in the original text as above, adds time and emphasis to the reading, and makes the singular verb more proper than it would otherwise be; for which reason, the following form, in which the Rev. Dr. Bullions has set the sentence down for bad English, is in some sort a perversion of the Scripture: "Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 141.

OBS. 9.--When the nominatives are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third; for thou and I, or he, thou, and I, are equivalent to we; and thou and he are equivalent to you: as, "Why speakest thou any more of thy matters? I have said, thou and Ziba divide the land."--2 Sam., xix. 29. That is, "divide ye the land." "And live thou and thy children of the rest."--2 Kings, iv, 7. "That I and thy people have found grace in thy sight."--Exodus, xxxiii, 16. "I and my kingdom are guiltless."--2 Sam., iii, 28. "I, and you, and Piso perhaps too, are in a state of dissatisfaction."--Zenobia, i, 114.

  "Then I, and you, and all of us, fell down,
   Whilst bloody treason flourish'd over us."--Shak., J. Cæsar.

OBS. 10.--When two or more nominatives connected by and are of the same form but distinguished by adjectives or possessives, one or more of them may be omitted by ellipsis, but the verb must be plural, and agree with them all; as, "A literary, a scientific, a wealthy, and a poor man, were assembled in one room."--Peirce's Gram., p. 263. Here four different men are clearly spoken of. "Else the rising and the falling emphasis are the same."--Knowles's Elocutionist, p. 33. Here the noun emphasis is understood after rising. "The singular and [the] plural form seem to be confounded."--Lowth's Gram., p. 22. Here the noun form is presented to the mind twice; and therefore the article should have been repeated. See Obs. 15th on Rule 1st. "My farm and William's are adjacent to each other."--Peirce's Gram., p. 220. Here the noun farm is understood after the possessive William's, though the author of the sentence foolishly attempts to explain it otherwise. "Seth's, Richard's and Edmund's farms are those which their fathers left them."--Ib., p. 257. Here the noun farms is understood after Seth's, and again after Richard's; so that the sentence is written wrong, unless each man has more than one farm. "Was not Demosthenes's style, and his master Plato's, perfectly Attic; and yet none more lofty?"--Milnes's Greek Gram., p. 241. Here style is understood after Plato's; wherefore was should rather be were, or else and should be changed to as well as. But the text, as it stands, is not much unlike some of the exceptions noticed above. "The character of a fop, and of a rough warrior, are no where more successfully contrasted."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 236. Here the ellipsis is not very proper. Say, "the character of a fop, and that of a rough warrior," &c. Again: "We may observe, that the eloquence of the bar, of the legislature, and of public assemblies, are seldom or ever found united to high perfection in the same person."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., Vol. i, p. 256. Here the ellipsis cannot so well be avoided by means of the pronominal adjective that, and therefore it may be thought more excusable; but I should prefer a repetition of the nominative: as, "We may observe, that the eloquence of the bar, the eloquence of the legislature, and the eloquence of public assemblies, are seldom if ever found united, in any high degree, in the same person."

OBS. 11.--The conjunction as, when it connects nominatives that are in apposition, or significant of the same person or thing, is commonly placed at the beginning of a sentence, so that the verb agrees with its proper nominative following the explanatory word: thus, "As a poet, he holds a high rank."--Murray's Sequel, p. 355. "As a poet, Addison claims a high praise."--Ib., p. 304. "As a model of English prose, his writings merit the greatest praise."--Ib., p. 305. But when this conjunction denotes a comparison between different persons or things signified by two nominatives, there must be two verbs expressed or understood, each agreeing with its own subject; as, "Such writers as he [is,] have no reputation worth any man's envy." [396]

  "Such men as he [is] be never at heart's ease
   Whiles they behold a greater than themselves."--Shakspeare.

OBS. 12.--When two nominatives are connected by as well as, but, or save, they must in fact have two verbs, though in most instances only one is expressed; as, "Such is the mutual dependence of words in sentences, that several others, as well as [is] the adjective, are not to be used alone."--Dr. Wilson's Essay, p. 99. "The Constitution was to be the one fundamental law of the land, to which all, as well States as people, should submit."--W. I. BOWDITCH: Liberator, No. 984. "As well those which history, as those which experience offers to our reflection."-- Bolingbroke, on History, p. 85. Here the words "offers to our reflection" are understood after "history." "None but He who discerns futurity, could have foretold and described all these things."--Keith's Evidences, p. 62. "That there was in those times no other writer, of any degree of eminence, save he himself."--Pope's Works, Vol. iii, p. 43.

  "I do entreat you not a man depart,
   Save I alone, till Antony have spoke."--Shak., J. Cæsar.

OBS. 13.--Some grammarians say, that but and save, when they denote exception, should govern the objective case as prepositions. But this idea is, without doubt, contrary to the current usage of the best authors, either ancient or modern. Wherefore I think it evident that these grammarians err. The objective case of nouns being like the nominative, the point can be proved only by the pronouns; as, "There is none but he alone."--Perkins's Theology, 1608. "There is none other but he."--Mark, xii, 32. (This text is good authority as regards the case, though it is incorrect in an other respect: it should have been, "There is none but he," or else, "There is no other than he.") "No man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven."--John, iii, 13. "Not that any man hath seen the father, save he which is of God."--John, vi, 46. "Few can, save he and I."--Byron's Werner. "There is none justified, but he that is in measure sanctified."--Isaac Penington. Save, as a conjunction, is nearly obsolete.

OBS. 14.--In Rev., ii, 17th, we read, "Which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it;" and again, xiii, 17th, "That no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark." The following text is inaccurate, but not in the construction of the nominative they: "All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given."--Matt., xix, 11. The version ought to have been, "Not all men can receive this saying, but they only to whom it is given:" i.e., "they only can receive it, to whom there is given power to receive it." Of but with a nominative, examples may be multiplied indefinitely. The following are as good as any: "There is no God but He."--Sale's Koran, p. 27. "The former none but He could execute."--Maturin's Sermons, p. 317. "There was nobody at home but I."--Walker's Particles, p. 95. "A fact, of which as none but he could be conscious, [so] none but he could be the publisher of it."--Pope's Works, Vol. iii, p. 117. "Few but they who are involved in the vices, are involved in the irreligion of the times."--Brown's Estimate, i, 101.

  "I claim my right. No Grecian prince but I
   Has power this bow to grant, or to deny."
       --Pope, Odys., B. xxi, l. 272.
   "Thus she, and none but she, the insulting rage
   Of heretics oppos'd from age to age."
       --Dryden's Poems, p. 98.

In opposition to all these authorities, and many more that might be added, we have, with now and then a text of false syntax, the absurd opinion of perhaps a score or two of our grammarians; one of whom imagines he has found in the following couplet from Swift, an example to the purpose; but he forgets that the verb let governs the objective case:

  "Let none but him who rules the thunder,
   Attempt to part these twain asunder."
       --Perley's Gram., p. 62.

OBS. 15.--It is truly a wonder, that so many professed critics should not see the absurdity of taking but and save for "prepositions," when this can be done only by condemning the current usage of nearly all good authors, as well as the common opinion of most grammarians; and the greater is the wonder, because they seem to do it innocently, or to teach it childishly, as not knowing that they cannot justify both sides, when the question lies between opposite and contradictory principles. By this sort of simplicity, which approves of errors, if much practised, and of opposites, or essential contraries, when authorities may be found for them, no work, perhaps, is more strikingly characterized, than the popular School Grammar of W. H. Wells. This author says, "The use of but as a preposition is approved by J. E. Worcester, John Walker, R. C. Smith, Picket, Hiley, Angus, Lynde, Hull, Powers, Spear, Farnum, Fowle, Goldsbury, Perley, Cobb, Badgley, Cooper, Jones, Davis, Beall, Hendrick, Hazen, and Goodenow."--School Gram., 1850, p. 178. But what if all these authors do prefer, "but him," and "save him," where ten times as many would say, "but he," "save he?" Is it therefore difficult to determine which party is right? Or is it proper for a grammarian to name sundry authorities on both sides, excite doubt in the mind of his reader, and leave the matter unsettled? "The use of but as a preposition," he also states, "is discountenanced by G. Brown, Sanborn, Murray, S. Oliver, and several other grammarians. (See also an able article in the Mass. Common School Journal, Vol. ii, p. 19.)"--School Gram., p. 178.

OBS. 16.--Wells passes no censure on the use of nominatives after but and save; does not intimate which case is fittest to follow these words; gives no false syntax under his rule for the regimen of prepositions; but inserts there the following brief remarks and examples:

"REM. 3.--The word save is frequently used to perform the office of a preposition; as, 'And all desisted, all save him alone.'--Wordsworth."

"REM. 4.--But is sometimes employed as a preposition, in the sense of except; as, 'The boy stood on the burning deck, Whence all but him had fled.'--Hemans."--Ib., p. 167.

Now, "BUT," says Worcester, as well as Tooke and others, was "originally bot, contracted from be out;" and, if this notion of its etymology is just, it must certainly be followed by the nominative case, rather than by the objective; for the imperative be or be out governs no case, admits no additional term but a nominative--an obvious and important fact, quite overlooked by those who call but a preposition. According to Allen H. Weld, but and save "are commonly considered prepositions," but "are more commonly termed conjunctions!" This author repeats Wells's examples of "save him," and "but him," as being right; and mixes them with opposite examples of "save he," "but he," "save I," which he thinks to be more right!--Weld's Gram., p. 187.

OBS. 17.--Professor Fowler, too, an other author remarkable for a facility of embracing incompatibles, contraries, or dubieties, not only condemns as "false syntax" the use of save for an exceptive conjunction. (§587. ¶28,) but cites approvingly from Latham the following very strange absurdity: "One and the same word, in one and the same sentence, may be a Conjunction or [a] Preposition, as the case may be: [as] All fled but John."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, § 555. This is equivalent to saying, that "one and the same sentence" may be two different sentences; may, without error, be understood in two different senses; may be rightly taken, resolved, and parsed in two different ways! Nay, it is equivalent to a denial of the old logical position, that "It is impossible for a thing to be and not be at the same time;" for it supposes "but," in the instance given, to be at once both a conjunction and not a conjunction, both a preposition and not a preposition, "as the case may be!" It is true, that "one and the same word" may sometimes be differently parsed by different grammarians, and possibly even an adept may doubt who or what is right. But what ambiguity of construction, or what diversity of interpretation, proceeding from the same hand, can these admissions be supposed to warrant? The foregoing citation is a boyish attempt to justify different modes of parsing the same expression, on the ground that the expression itself is equivocal. "All fled but John," is thought to mean equally well, "All fled but he," and, "All fled but him;" while these latter expressions are erroneously presumed to be alike good English, and to have a difference of meaning corresponding to their difference of construction. Now, what is equivocal, or ambiguous, being therefore erroneous, is to be corrected, rather than parsed in any way. But I deny both the ambiguity and the difference of meaning which these critics profess to find among the said phrases. "John fled not, but all the rest fled," is virtually what is told us in each of them; but, in the form, "All fled but him," it is told ungrammatically; in the other two, correctly.

OBS. 18.--In Latin, cum with an ablative, sometimes has, or is supposed to have, the force of the conjunction et with a nominative; as, "Dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur."--LIVY: W. Allen's Gram., p. 131. In imitation of this construction, some English writers have substituted with for and, and varied the verb accordingly; as, "A long course of time, with a variety of accidents and circumstances, are requisite to produce those revolutions."--HUME: Allen's Gram., p. 131; Ware's, 12; Priestley's, 186. This phraseology, though censured by Allen, was expressly approved by Priestley, who introduced the present example, as his proof text under the following observation: "It is not necessary that the two subjects of an affirmation should stand in the very same construction, to require the verb to be in the plural number. If one of them be made to depend upon the other by a connecting particle, it may, in some cases, have the same force, as if it were independent of it."--Priestley's Gram., p. 186. Lindley Murray, on the contrary, condemns this doctrine, and after citing the same example with others, says: "It is however, proper to observe that these modes of expression do not appear to be warranted by the just principles of construction."-- Octavo Gram., p. 150. He then proceeds to prove his point, by alleging that the preposition governs the objective case in English, and the ablative in Latin, and that what is so governed, cannot be the nominative, or any part of it. All this is true enough, but still some men who know it perfectly well, will now and then write as if they did not believe it. And so it was with the writers of Latin and Greek. They sometimes wrote bad syntax; and the grammarians have not always seen and censured their errors as they ought. Since the preposition makes its object only an adjunct of the preceding noun, or of something else, I imagine that any construction which thus assumes two different cases as joint nominatives or joint antecedents, must needs be inherently faulty.

OBS. 19.--Dr. Adam simply remarks, "The plural is sometimes used after the preposition cum put for et; as, Remo cum fratre Quirinus jura dabunt. Virg."--Latin and English Gram., p. 207; Gould's Adam's Latin Gram., p. 204; W. Allen's English Gram., 131. This example is not fairly cited; though many have adopted the perversion, as if they knew no better. Alexander has it in a worse form still: "Quirinus, cum fratre, jura dabunt."--Latin Gram., p. 47. Virgil's words are, "Cana FIDES, et VESTA, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, Jura dabunt."--Æneid, B. i, l. 296. Nor is cum here "put for et," unless we suppose also an antiptosis of Remo fratre for Remus frater; and then what shall the literal meaning be, and how shall the rules of syntax be accommodated to such changes? Fair examples, that bear upon the point, may, however, be adduced from good authors, and in various languages; but the question is, are they correct in syntax? Thus Dr. Robertson: "The palace of Pizarro, together with the houses of several of his adherents, were pillaged by the soldiers."-- Hist. of Amer., Vol. ii, p. 133. To me, this appears plainly ungrammatical; and, certainly, there are ways enough in which it may be corrected. First, with the present connective retained, "were" ought to be was. Secondly, if were be retained, "together with" ought to be changed to and, or and also. Thirdly, we may well change both, and say, "The palace of Pizarro, as well as the houses of several of his adherents, was pillaged by the soldiers." Again, in Mark, ix, 4th, we read: "And there appeared unto them Elias, with Moses; and they were talking with Jesus." If this text meant that the three disciples were talking with Jesus, it would be right as it stands; but St. Matthew has it, "And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias, talking with him;" and our version in Luke is, "And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias."--Chap. ix, 30. By these corresponding texts, then, we learn, that the pronoun they, which our translators inserted, was meant for "Elias with Moses;" but the Greek verb for "appeared," as used by Mark, is singular, and agrees only with Elias. "[Greek: Kai ophthæ autois Aelias sun Mosei, kai hæsan syllalountes to Iæsoy.]"--"Et apparuit illis Elias cum Mose, et erant colloquentes Jesu."--Montanus. "Et visus est eis Elias cum Mose, qui colloquebantur cum Jesu."--Beza. This is as discrepant as our version, though not so ambiguous. The French Bible avoids the incongruity: "Et iis virent paroître Moyse et Elie, qui s'entretenoient avec Jésus." That is, "And there appeared to them Moses and Elias, who were talking with Jesus." Perhaps the closest and best version of the Greek would be, "And there appeared to them Elias, with Moses;[397] and these two were talking with Jesus." There is, in our Bible, an other instance of the construction now in question; but it has no support from the Septuagint, the Vulgate, or the French: to wit, "The second [lot came forth] to Gedaliah, who with his brethren and sons were twelve."--1 Chron., xxv, 9. Better: "and he, his brethren, and his sons, were twelve."

OBS. 20.--Cobbett, who, though he wrote several grammars, was but a very superficial grammarian, seems never to have doubted the propriety of putting with for and; and yet he was confessedly not a little puzzled to find out when to use a singular, and when a plural verb, after a nominative with such "a sort of addition made to it." The 246th paragraph of his English Grammar is a long and fruitless attempt to fix a rule for the guidance of the learner in this matter. After dashing off a culpable example, "Sidmouth, with Oliver the spye, have brought Brandreth to the block;" or, as his late editions have it, "The Tyrant, with the Spy, have brought Peter to the block." He adds: "We hesitate which to employ, the singular or the plural verb; that is to say, has or have. The meaning must be our guide. If we mean, that the act has been done by the Tyrant himself, and that the spy has been a mere involuntary agent, then we ought to use the singular; but if we believe that the spy has been a co-operator, an associate, an accomplice, then we must use the plural verb." Ay, truly; but must we not also, in the latter case, use and, and not with? After some further illustrations, he says: "When with means along with, together with, in Company with, and the like, it is nearly the same as and; and then the plural verb must be used: [as,] 'He, with his brothers, are able to do much.' Not, 'is able to do much.' If the pronoun be used instead of brothers, it will be in the objective case: 'He, with them, are able to do much.' But this is no impediment to the including of the noun (represented by them) in the nominative." I wonder what would be an impediment to the absurdities of such a dogmatist! The following is his last example: "'Zeal, with discretion, do much;' and not 'does much;' for we mean, on the contrary, that it does nothing. It is the meaning that must determine which of the numbers we ought to employ." This author's examples are all fictions of his own, and such of them as here have a plural verb, are wrong. His rule is also wrong, and contrary to the best authority. St. Paul says to Timothy, "Godliness with contentment is great gain:"--1 Tim., vi, 6. This text is right; but Cobbett's principle would go to prove it erroneous. Is he the only man who has ever had a right notion of its meaning? or is he not rather at fault in his interpretations?

OBS. 21.--There is one other apparent exception to Rule 16th, (or perhaps a real one,) in which there is either an ellipsis of the preposition with, or else the verb is made singular because the first noun only is its true subject, and the others are explanatory nominatives to which the same verb must be understood in the plural number; as, "A torch, snuff and all, goes out in a moment, when dipped in the vapour."--ADDISON: in Johnson's Dict., w. All. "Down comes the tree, nest, eagles, and all."--See All, ibidem. Here goes and comes are necessarily made singular, the former agreeing with torch and the latter with tree; and, if the other nouns, which are like an explanatory parenthesis, are nominatives, as they appear to me to be, they must be subjects of go and come understood. Cobbett teaches us to say, "The bag, with the guineas and dollars in it, were stolen," and not, was stolen. "For," says he, "if we say was stolen, it is possible for us to mean, that the bag only was stolen,"--English Gram., ¶ 246. And I suppose he would say, "The bag, guineas, dollars, and all, were stolen," and not, "was stolen;" for here a rule of syntax might be urged, in addition to his false argument from the sense. But the meaning of the former sentence is, "The bag was stolen, with the guineas and dollars in it;" and the meaning of the latter is, "The bag was stolen, guineas, dollars, and all." Nor can there be any doubt about the meaning, place the words which way you will; and whatever, in either case, may be the true construction of the words in the parenthetical or explanatory phrase, they should not, I think, prevent the verb from agreeing with the first noun only. But if the other nouns intervene without affecting this concord, and without a preposition to govern them, it may be well to distinguish them in the punctuation; as, "The bag, (guineas, dollars, and all,) was stolen."


NOTES TO RULE XVI.

NOTE I.--When the conjunction and between two nominatives appears to require a plural verb, but such form of the verb is not agreeable, it is better to reject or change the connective, that the verb may stand correctly in the singular number; as, "There is a peculiar force and beauty in this figure."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 224. Better: "There is a peculiar force, as well as a peculiar beauty, in this figure." "What means this restless stir and commotion of mind?"--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 242. Better: "What means this restless stir, this commotion of mind?"

NOTE II.--When two subjects or antecedents are connected, one of which is taken affirmatively, and the other negatively, they belong to different propositions; and the verb or pronoun must agree with the affirmative subject, and be understood to the other: as "Diligent industry, and not mean savings, produces honourable competence."--"Not a loud voice but strong proofs bring conviction."--"My poverty, but not my will, consents."--Shakespeare.

NOTE III.--When two subjects or antecedents are connected by as well as, but, or save, they belong to different propositions; and, (unless one of them is preceded by the adverb not,) the verb and pronoun must agree with the former and be understood to the latter: as, "Veracity, as well as justice, is to be our rule of life."--Butler's Analogy, p. 283. "The lowest mechanic, as well as the richest citizen, may boast that thousands of his fellow-creatures are employed for him."--Percival's Tales, ii, 177. "These principles, as well as every just rule of criticism, are founded upon the sensitive part of our nature."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. xxvi. "Nothing but wailings was heard."--"None but thou can aid us."--"No mortal man, save he," &c., "had e'er survived to say he saw."--Sir W. Scott.

NOTE IV.--When two or more subjects or antecedents are preceded by the adjective each, every, or no, they are taken separately; and, (except no be followed by a plural noun,) they require the verb and pronoun to be in the singular number: as, "No rank, no honour, no fortune, no condition in life, makes the guilty mind happy."--"Every phrase and every figure which he uses, tends to render the picture more lively and complete."--Blair's Rhet., p. 179.

  "And every sense, and every heart, is joy."--Thomson.
   "Each beast, each insect, happy in its own."--Pope.

NOTE V.--When any words or terms are to be taken conjointly as subjects or antecedents, the conjunction and, (in preference to with, or, nor, or any thing else,) must connect them. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate; with should be and; or else were should be was: "One of them, [the] wife of Thomas Cole, with her husband, were shot down, the others escaped."--Hutchinson's Hist., Vol. ii, p. 86. So, in the following couplet, or should be and, or else engines should be engine:

  "What if the head, the eye, or ear repined,
   To serve mere engines to the ruling mind?"--Pope.

NOTE VI.--Improper omissions must be supplied; but when there occurs a true ellipsis in the construction of joint nominatives or joint antecedents, the verb or pronoun must agree with them in the plural, just as if all the words were expressed: as, "The second and the third Epistle of John are each but one short chapter."--"The metaphorical and the literal meaning are improperly mixed."--Murray's Gram., p. 339. "The Doctrine of Words, separately consider'd, and in a Sentence, are Things distinct enough."--Brightland's Gram., Pref., p. iv. Better perhaps: "The doctrine of words separately considered, and that of words in a sentence, are things distinct enough."

  "The Curii's and the Camilli's little field,
   To vast extended territories yield."--Rowe's Lucan, B. i, l. 320.

NOTE VII.--Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by and, require a plural verb, and generally a plural noun too, if a nominative follow the verb; as, "To be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the opinion of the world, and to be wise in the sight of our Creator, are three things so very different, as rarely to coincide."--Blair. "This picture of my friend,' and This picture of my friend's,' suggest very different ideas."--Priestley's Gram., p. 71; Murray's, i, 178.

  "Read of this burgess--on the stone appear,
   How worthy he! how virtuous! and how dear!"--Crabbe.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XVI.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE VERB AFTER JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"So much ability and merit is seldom found."--Murray's Key, 12mo, p. 18; Merchant's School Gram., p. 190.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb is is in the singular number, and does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, ability and merit, which are connected by and, and taken conjointly. But, according to Rule 16th, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together." Therefore, is should be are; thus, "So much ability and merit are seldom found." Or: "So much ability and so much merit are seldom found."]

"The syntax and etymology of the language is thus spread before the learner."--Bullions's English Gram., 2d Edition, Rec., p. iii. "Dr. Johnson tells us, that in English poetry the accent and the quantity of syllables is the same thing."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., ii, 213. "Their general scope and tendency, having never been clearly apprehended, is not remembered at all."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 126. "The soil and sovereignty was not purchased of the natives."--Knapp's Lect. on Amer. Lit., p. 55. "The boldness, freedom, and variety of our blank verse, is infinitely more favourable than rhyme, to all kinds of sublime poetry."--Blair's Rhet., p. 40. "The vivacity and sensibility of the Greeks seems to have been much greater than ours."--Ib., p. 253. "For sometimes the Mood and Tense is signified by the Verb, sometimes they are signified of the Verb by something else.'"--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 254. "The Verb and the Noun making a complete Sense, which the Participle and the Noun does not."--Ib., p. 255. "The growth and decay of passions and emotions, traced through all their mazes, is a subject too extensive for an undertaking like the present."--Kames El. of Crit., i, 108. "The true meaning and etymology of some of his words was lost."--Knight, on the Greek Alph., p. 37. "When the force and direction of personal satire is no longer understood."--Junius, p. 5. "The frame and condition of man admits of no other principle."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 54. "Some considerable time and care was necessary."--Ib., ii 150. "In consequence of this idea, much ridicule and censure has been thrown upon Milton."--Blair's Rhet., p. 428. "With rational beings, nature and reason is the same thing."--Collier's Antoninus, p. 111. "And the flax and the barley was smitten."--Exod., ix, 31. "The colon, and semicolon, divides a period, this with, and that without a connective."--J. Ware's Gram., p. 27. "Consequently wherever space and time is found, there God must also be."--Sir Isaac Newton. "As the past tense and perfect participle of love ends in ed, it is regular."--Chandler's Gram., p. 40; New Edition, p. 66. "But the usual arrangement and nomenclature prevents this from being readily seen."--Butler's Practical Gram., p. 3. "Do and did simply implies opposition or emphasis."--Alex. Murray's Gram., p. 41. "I and another make we, plural: Thou and another is as much as ye: He, she, or it and another make they"--Ib., p. 124. "I and another, is as much as (we) the first Person Plural; Thou and another, is as much as (ye) the second Person Plural; He, she, or it, and another, is as much as (they) the third Person Plural."--British Gram., p. 193; Buchanan's Syntax, p. 76. "God and thou art two, and thou and thy neighbour are two."--The Love Conquest, p. 25. "Just as an and a has arisen out of the numeral one."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo. 1850, §200. "The tone and style of each of them, particularly the first and the last, is very different."--Blair's Rhet., p. 246. "Even as the roebuck and the hart is eaten."--Deut., xiii, 22. "Then I may conclude that two and three makes not five."--Barclay's Works, iii, 354. "Which at sundry times thou and thy brethren hast received from us."--Ib., i, 165. "Two and two is four, and one is five."--POPE: Lives of the Poets, p. 490. "Humility and knowledge with poor apparel, excels pride and ignorance under costly array."--Day's Gram., Parsing Lesson, p. 100. "A page and a half has been added to the section on composition."--Bullions's E. Gram., 5th Ed., Pref., p. vii. "Accuracy and expertness in this exercise is an important acquisition."--Ib., p. 71.

  "Woods and groves are of thy dressing,
   Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing."--Milton's Poems, p. 139.


UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE VERB BEFORE JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"There is a good and a bad, a right and a wrong in taste, as in other things."--Blair's Rhet., p. 21. "Whence has arisen much stiffness and affectation."--Ib., p. 133. "To this error is owing, in a great measure, that intricacy and harshness, in his figurative language, which I before remarked."--Ib., p. 150; Jamieson's Rhet., 157. "Hence, in his Night Thoughts, there prevails an obscurity and hardness in his style."--Blair's Rhet., p. 150. "There is, however, in that work much good sense, and excellent criticism."--Ib., p. 401. "There is too much low wit and scurrility in Plautus."--Ib., p. 481. "There is too much reasoning and refinement; too much pomp and studied beauty in them."--Ib., p. 468. "Hence arises the structure and characteristic expression of exclamation."--Rush on the Voice, p. 229. "And such pilots is he and his brethren, according to their own confession."--Barclay's Works, iii, 314. "Of whom is Hymeneus and Philetus: who concerning the truth have erred."--2 Tim., ii, 17. "Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan."--1 Tim., i, 20. "And so was James and John, the sons of Zebedee."--Luke, v, 10. "Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing."--James, iii, 10. "Out of the mouth of the Most High proceedeth not evil and good."--Lam., iii, 38. "In which there is most plainly a right and a wrong."--Butler's Analogy, p. 215. "In this sentence there is both an actor and an object."--Smith's Inductive Gram., p. 14. "In the breast-plate was placed the mysterious Urim and Thummim."--Milman's Jews, i, 88. "What is the gender, number, and person of those in the first?"--Smith's Productive Gram., p. 19. "There seems to be a familiarity and want of dignity in it."--Priestley's Gram., p. 150. "It has been often asked, what is Latin and Greek?"--Literary Convention, p. 209. "For where does beauty and high wit But in your constellation meet?"--Hudibras, p. 134. "Thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus."--Paradise Lost, B. ix, l. 81. "On these foundations seems to rest the midnight riot and dissipation of modern assemblies."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 46. "But what has disease, deformity, and filth, upon which the thoughts can be allured to dwell?"--Johnson's Life of Swift, p. 492. "How is the gender and number of the relative known?"--Bullions, Practical Lessons, p. 32.

  "High rides the sun, thick rolls the dust,
   And feebler speeds the blow and thrust."--Sir W. Scott.


UNDER NOTE I.--CHANGE THE CONNECTIVE.

"In every language there prevails a certain structure and analogy of parts, which is understood to give foundation to the most reputable usage."--Blair's Rhet., p. 90. "There runs through his whole manner, a stiffness and affectation, which renders him very unfit to be considered a general model."--Ib., p. 102. "But where declamation and improvement in speech is the sole aim"--Ib., p. 257. "For it is by these chiefly, that the train of thought, the course of reasoning, and the whole progress of the mind, in continued discourse of all kinds, is laid open."--Lowth's Gram., p. 103. "In all writing and discourse, the proper composition and structure of sentnences is of the highest importance."--Blair's Rhet., p. 101. "Here the wishful look and expectation of the beggar naturally leads to a vivid conception of that which was the object of his thoughts."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 386. "Who say, that the outward naming of Christ, and signing of the cross, puts away devils."--Barclay's Works, i, 146. "By which an oath and penalty was to be imposed upon the members."--Junius, p. 6. "Light and knowledge, in what manner soever afforded us, is equally from God."--Butler's Analogy, p. 264. "For instance, sickness and untimely death is the consequence of intemperance."--Ib., p. 78. "When grief, and blood ill-tempered vexeth him."--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 256. "Does continuity and connexion create sympathy and relation in the parts of the body?"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 111. "His greatest concern, and highest enjoyment, was to be approved in the sight of his Creator."--Murray's Key, p. 224. "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?"--2 Sam, iii, 38. "What is vice and wickedness? No rarity, you may depend on it."--Collier's Antoninus, p. 107. "There is also the fear and apprehension of it."--Butler's Analogy, p. 87. "The apostrophe and s, ('s,) is an abbreviation for is, the termination of the old English genitive."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 17. "Ti, ce, and ci, when followed by a vowel, usually has the sound of sh; as in partial, special, ocean."--Weld's Gram., p. 15.

  "Bitter constraint and sad occasion dear
   Compels me to disturb your season due."--Milton's Lycidas.
   "Debauches and excess, though with less noise,
   As great a portion of mankind destroys."--Waller, p. 55.


UNDER NOTE II.--AFFIRMATION WITH NEGATION.

"Wisdom, and not wealth, procure esteem."--Brown's Inst., p. 156. "Prudence, and not pomp, are the basis of his fame."--Ib. "Not fear, but labour have overcome him."--Ib. "The decency, and not the abstinence, make the difference."--Ib. "Not her beauty, but her talents attracts attention."--Ib. "It is her talents, and not her beauty, that attracts attention."--Ib. "It is her beauty, and not her talents that attract attention."--Ib.

  "His belly, not his brains, this impulse give:
   He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live."--Young, to Pope.


UNDER NOTE III.--AS WELL AS, BUT, OR SAVE.

"Common sense as well as piety tell us these are proper."--Family Commentary, p. 64. "For without it the critic, as well as the undertaker, ignorant of any rule, have nothing left but to abandon themselves to chance."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 42. "And accordingly hatred as well as love are extinguished by long absence."--Ib., i, 113. "But at every turn the richest melody as well as the sublimest sentiments are conspicuous."--Ib., ii, 121. "But it, as well as the lines immediately subsequent, defy all translation."--Coleridge's Introduction, p. 96. "But their religion, as well as their customs, and manners, were strangely misrepresented."--BOLINGBROKE, ON HISTORY, p. 123; Priestley's Gram., p. 192; Murray's Exercises, p. 47. "But his jealous policy, as well as the fatal antipathy of Fonseca, were conspicuous."--Robertson's America, i, 191. "When their extent as well as their value were unknown."--Ib., ii, 138. "The Etymology, as well as the Syntax, of the more difficult parts of speech are reserved for his attention [at a later period]."--Parker and Fox's E. Gram., Part i, p. 3. "What I myself owe to him, no one but myself know."--See Wright's Athens, p. 96. "None, but thou, O mighty prince! canst avert the blow."--Inst., p. 156. "Nothing, but frivolous amusements, please the indolent."--Ib.

  "Nought, save the gurglings of the rill, were heard."--G. B.
   "All songsters, save the hooting owl, was mute."--G. B.


UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, EVERY, OR NO.

"Give every word, and every member, their due weight and force."--Blair's Rhet., p. 110. "And to one of these belong every noun, and every third person of every verb."--Wilson's Essay on Gram., p. 74. "No law, no restraint, no regulation, are required to keep him in bounds."--Literary Convention, p. 260. "By that time, every window and every door in the street were full of heads."--N. Y. Observer, No. 503. "Every system of religion, and every school of philosophy, stand back from this field, and leave Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example"--The Corner Stone, p. 17. "Each day, and each hour, bring their portion of duty."--Inst., p. 156. "And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him."--1 Sam., xxii, 2. "Every private Christian and member of the church ought to read and peruse the Scriptures, that they may know their faith and belief founded upon them."--Barclay's Works, i, 340. "And every mountain and island were moved out of their places."--Rev., vi, 14.

  "No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
   No cavern'd hermit rest self-satisfied."


UNDER NOTE V.--WITH, OR, &c. FOR AND.

"The side A, with the sides B and C, compose the triangle."--Tobitt's Gram., p. 48; Felch's, 69; Ware's, 12. "The stream, the rock, or the tree, must each of them stand forth, so as to make a figure in the imagination."--Blair's Rhet., p. 390. "While this, with euphony, constitute, finally, the whole."--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 293. "The bag, with the guineas and dollars in it, were stolen."--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶246. "Sobriety, with great industry and talent, enable a man to perform great deeds."--Ib., ¶245. "The it, together with the verb to be, express states of being."--Ib., ¶190. "Where Leonidas the Spartan king, with his chosen band, fighting for their country, were cut off to the last man."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 203. "And Leah also, with her children, came near and bowed themselves."--Gen., xxxiii, 7. "The First or Second will, either of them, by themselves coalesce with the Third, but not with each other."--Harris's Hermes, p. 74. "The whole must centre in the query, whether Tragedy or Comedy are hurtful and dangerous representations?"--Formey's Belles-Lettres, p. 215. "Grief as well as joy are infectious: the emotions they raise in the spectator resemble them perfectly."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 157. "But in all other words the Qu are both sounded."--Ensell's Gram., p. 16. "Qu (which are always together) have the sound of ku or k, as in queen, opaque."-- Goodenow's Gram., p. 45. "In this selection the ai form distinct syllables."--Walker's Key, p. 290. "And a considerable village, with gardens, fields, &c., extend around on each side of the square."-- Liberator, Vol. ix, p. 140. "Affection, or interest, guide our notions and behaviour in the affairs of life; imagination and passion affect the sentiments that we entertain in matters of taste."--Jamieson's Rhet., p. 171. "She heard none of those intimations of her defects, which envy, petulance, or anger, produce among children."--Rambler, No. 189. "The King, with the Lords and Commons, constitute an excellent form of government."--Crombie's Treatise, p. 242. "If we say, 'I am the man, who commands you,' the relative clause, with the antecedent man, form the predicate."--Ib., p. 266.

  "The spacious firmament on high,
   With all the blue ethereal sky,
   And spangled heav'ns, a shining frame,
   Their great Original proclaim."
       --ADDISON. Murray's Key, p. 174; Day's Gram., p. 92;
          Farnum's, 106.


UNDER NOTE VI.--ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTIONS.

"There is a reputable and a disreputable practice."--Adams's Rhet., Vol. i, p. 350. "This and this man was born in her."--Milton's Psalms, lxxxvii. "This and that man was born in her."--Psal. lxxxvii, 5. "This and that man was born there."--Hendrick's Gram., p. 94. "Thus le in l~ego and l~egi seem to be sounded equally long."--Adam's Gram., p. 253; Gould's, 243. "A distinct and an accurate articulation forms the groundwork of good delivery."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 25. "How is vocal and written language understood?"--C. W. Sanders, Spelling-Book, p. 7. "The good, the wise, and the learned man is an ornament to human society."--Bartlett's Reader. "On some points, the expression of song and speech is identical."--Rush, on the Voice, p. 425. "To every room there was an open and secret passage."--Johnson's Rasselas, p. 13. "There iz such a thing az tru and false taste, and the latter az often directs fashion, az the former."--Webster's Essays, p. 401. "There is such a thing as a prudent and imprudent institution of life, with regard to our health and our affairs"--Butler's Analogy, p. 210. "The lot of the outcasts of Israel and the dispersed of Judah, however different in one respect, have in another corresponded with wonderful exactness."--Hope of Israel, p. 301. "On these final syllables the radical and vanishing movement is performed."--Rush, on the Voice, p. 64. "To be young or old, good, just, or the contrary, are physical or moral events."--SPURZHEIM: Felch's Comp. Gram., p. 29. "The eloquence of George Whitfield and of John Wesley was of a very different character each from the other."--Dr. Sharp. "The affinity of m for the series b, and of n for the series t, give occasion for other Euphonic changes."--Fowler's E. Gram., §77.

  "Pylades' soul and mad Orestes', was
   In these, if we believe Pythagoras"--Cowley's Poems, p. 3.


UNDER NOTE VII.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To be moderate in our views, and to proceed temperately in the pursuit of them, is the best way to ensure success."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 206. "To be of any species, and to have a right to the name of that species, is all one."--Locke's Essay, p. 300. "With whom to will and to do is the same."--Jamieson's Sacred History, Vol. ii, p. 22. "To profess, and to possess, is very different things."--Inst., p. 156. "To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with God, is duties of universal obligation."--Ib. "To be round or square, to be solid or fluid, to be large or small, and to be moved swiftly or slowly, is all equally alien from the nature of thought."--Ib. "The resolving of a sentence into its elements or parts of speech and stating the Accidents which belong to these, is called PARSING."--Bullion's Pract. Lessons, p. 9. "To spin and to weave, to knit and to sew, was once a girl's employment; but now to dress and catch a beau, is all she calls enjoyment."--Lynn News, Vol. 8, No. 1.


RULE XVII.--FINITE VERBS.

When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together: as, "Fear or jealousy affects him."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 133. "Nor eye, nor listening ear, an object finds: creation sleeps."--Young. "Neither character nor dialogue was yet understood."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 151.

  "The wife, where danger or dishonour lurks,
   Safest and seemliest by her husband stays."--Milton, P. L., ix, 267.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XVII.

OBS. 1.--To this rule, so far as its application is practicable, there are properly no exceptions; for, or and nor being disjunctive conjunctions, the nominatives are of course to assume the verb separately, and as agreeing with each. Such agreement seems to be positively required by the alternativeness of the expression. Yet the ancient grammarians seldom, if at all, insisted on it. In Latin and Greek, a plural verb is often employed with singular nominatives thus connected; as,

  "Tunc nec mens mini, nec color
   Certa sede manent."--HORACE. See W. Allen's Gram., p. 133.

[Greek: "Ean de adelphos æ adelphæ lumnoi huparchosi, kai leipomenoi osi tæs ephæmerou trophæs."]--James, ii. 15. And the best scholars have sometimes improperly imitated this construction in English; as, "Neither Virgil nor Homer were deficient in any of the former beauties."--DRYDEN'S PREFACE: Brit. Poets, Vol. iii, p. 168. "Neither Saxon nor Roman have availed to add any idea to his [Plato's] categories."--R. W. EMERSON: Liberator, No. 996.

  "He comes--nor want nor cold his course delay:
   Hide, blushing Glory! hide Pultowa's day."--Dr. Johnson.
   "No monstrous height, or breadth, or length, appear;
   The whole at once is bold and regular."--Pope, on Crit., l. 250.

OBS. 2.--When two collective nouns of the singular form are connected by or or nor, the verb may agree with them in the plural number, because such agreement is adapted to each of them, according to Rule 15th; as, "Why mankind, or such a part of mankind, are placed in this condition."--Butler's Analogy, p. 213. "But neither the Board of Control nor the Court of Directors have any scruples about sanctioning the abuses of which I have spoken."--Glory and Shame of England, Vol. ii, p. 70.

OBS. 3.--When a verb has nominatives of different persons or numbers, connected by or or nor, an explicit concord with each is impossible; because the verb cannot be of different persons or numbers at the same time; nor is it so, even when its form is made the same in all the persons and numbers: thus, "I, thou, [or] he, may affirm; we, ye, or they, may affirm."--Beattie's Moral Science, p. 36. Respecting the proper management of the verb when its nominatives thus disagree, the views of our grammarians are not exactly coincident. Few however are ignorant enough, or rash enough, to deny that there may be an implicit or implied concord in such cases,--a zeugma of the verb in English, as well as of the verb or of the adjective in Latin or Greek. Of this, the following is a brief example: "But he nor I feel more."--Dr. Young, Night iii, p. 35. And I shall by-and-by add others--enough, I hope, to confute those false critics who condemn all such phraseology.

OBS. 4.--W. Allen's rule is this: "If the nominatives are of different numbers or persons, the verb agrees with the last; as, he or his brothers were there; neither you nor I am concerned."--English Gram., p. 133. Lindley Murray, and others, say: (1.) "When singular pronouns, or a noun and pronoun, of different persons, are disjunctively connected, the verb must agree with that person which is placed nearest to it: as, 'I or thou art to blame;' 'Thou or I am in fault;' 'I, or thou, or he, is the author of it;' 'George or I am the person.' But it would be better to say; 'Either I am to blame, or thou art,' &c. (2.) When a disjunctive occurs between a singular noun, or pronoun, and a plural one, the verb is made to agree with the plural noun and pronoun: as, 'Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him;' 'I or they were offended by it.' But in this case, the plural noun or pronoun, when it can conveniently be done, should be placed next to the verb."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 151; Smith's New Gram., 128; Alger's Gram., 54; Comly's, 78 and 79; Merchant's, 86; Picket's, 175; and many more. There are other grammarians who teach, that the verb must agree with the nominative which is placed next to it, whether this be singular or plural; as, "Neither the servants nor the master is respected;"--"Neither the master nor the servants are respected."--Alexander Murray's Gram., p. 65. "But if neither the writings nor the author is in existence, the Imperfect should be used."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 107.

OBS. 5.--On this point, a new author has just given us the following precept and criticism: "Never connect by or, or nor, two or more names or substitutes that have the same asserter [i.e. verb] depending on them for sense, if when taken separately, they require different forms of the asserters. Examples. 'Neither you nor I am concerned. Either he or thou wast there. Either they or he is faulty.' These examples are as erroneous as it would be to say, 'Neither you am concerned, nor am I.' 'Either he wast there, or thou wast.' 'Either they is faulty, or he is.' The sentences should stand thus--'Neither of us is concerned,' or, 'neither are you concerned, nor am I.' 'Either he was there, or thou wast.' 'Either they are faulty, or he is. They are, however, in all their impropriety, writen [sic--KTH] according to the principles of Goold Brown's grammar! and the theories of most of the former writers."--Oliver B. Peirce's Gram., p. 252. We shall see by-and-by who is right.

OBS. 6.--Cobbett also--while he approves of such English as, "He, with them, are able to do much," for, "He and they are able to do much"--condemns expressly every possible example in which the verb has not a full and explicit concord with each of its nominatives, if they are connected by or or nor. His doctrine is this: "If nominatives of different numbers present themselves, we must not give them a verb which disagrees with either the one or the other. We must not say: 'Neither the halter nor the bayonets are sufficient to prevent us from obtaining our rights.' We must avoid this bad grammar by using a different form of words: as, 'We are to be prevented from obtaining our rights by neither the halter nor the bayonets.' And, why should we wish to write bad grammar, if we can express our meaning in good grammar?"--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 242. This question would have more force, if the correction here offered did not convey a meaning widely different from that of the sentence corrected. But he goes on: "We cannot say, 'They or I am in fault; I, or they, or he, is the author of it; George or I am the person.' Mr. Lindley Murray says, that we may use these phrases; and that we have only to take care that the verb agree with that person which is placed nearest to it; but, he says also, that it would be better to avoid such phrases by giving a different turn to our words. I do not like to leave any thing to chance or to discretion, when we have a clear principle for our guide."--Ib., ¶ 243. This author's "clear principle" is merely his own confident assumption, that every form of figurative or implied agreement, every thing which the old grammarians denominated zeugma, is at once to be condemned as a solecism. He is however supported by an other late writer of much greater merit. See Churchill's New Gram., pp. 142 and 312.

OBS. 7.--If, in lieu of their fictitious examples, our grammarians would give us actual quotations from reputable authors, their instructions would doubtless gain something in accuracy, and still more in authority. "I or they were offended by it," and, "I, or thou, or he, is the author of it," are expressions that I shall not defend. They imply an egotistical speaker, who either does not know, or will not tell, whether he is offended or not,--whether he is the author or not! Again, there are expressions that are unobjectionable, and yet not conformable to any of the rules just quoted. That nominatives may be correctly connected by or or nor without an express agreement of the verb with each of them, is a point which can be proved to as full certainty as almost any other in grammar; Churchill, Cobbett, and Peirce to the contrary notwithstanding. But with which of the nominatives the verb shall expressly agree, or to which of them it may most properly be understood, is a matter not easy to be settled by any sure general rule. Nor is the lack of such a rule a very important defect, though the inculcation of a false or imperfect one may be. So judged at least the ancient grammarians, who noticed and named almost every possible form of the zeugma, without censuring any as being ungrammatical. In the Institutes of English Grammar, I noted first the usual form of this concord, and then the allowable exceptions; but a few late writers, we see, denounce every form of it, exceptions and all: and, standing alone in their notions of the figure, value their own authority more than that of all other critics together.

OBS. 8.--In English, as in other languages, when a verb has discordant nominatives connected disjunctively, it most commonly agrees expressly with that which is nearest, and only by implication, with the more remote; as, "When some word or words are dependent on the attribute."--Webster's Philos. Gram., p. 153. "To the first of these qualities, dulness or refinements are dangerous enemies."--Brown's Estimate, Vol. ii, p. 15. "He hazards his own life with that of his enemy, and one or both are very honorably murdered."--Webster's Essays, p. 235. "The consequence is, that they frown upon everyone whose faults or negligence interrupts or retards their lessons."--W. C. Woodbridge: Lit. Conv., p. 114. "Good intentions, or at least sincerity of purpose, was never denied her."--West's Letters, p. 43. "Yet this proves not that either he or we judge them to be the rule."--Barclay's Works, i, 157. "First clear yourselves of popery before you or thou dost throw it upon us."--Ib., i, 169. "Is the gospel or glad tidings of this salvation brought nigh unto all?"--Ib., i, 362. "Being persuaded, that either they, or their cause, is naught."--Ib., i, 504. "And the reader may judge whether he or I do most fully acknowledge man's fall."--Ib., iii, 332. "To do justice to the Ministry, they have not yet pretended that any one, or any two, of the three Estates, have power to make a new law, without the concurrence of the third."--Junius, Letter xvii. "The forest, or hunting-grounds, are deemed the property of the tribe."--Robertson's America, i, 313. "Birth or titles confer no preëminence."--Ib., ii, 184. "Neither tobacco nor hides were imported from Caraccas into Spain."--Ib., ii, 507. "The keys or seed-vessel of the maple has two large side-wings."--The Friend, vii, 97. "An example or two are sufficient to illustrate the general observation."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., i, 58.

  "Not thou, nor those thy factious arts engage,
   Shall reap that harvest of rebellious rage."--Dryden, p. 60.

OBS. 9.--But when the remoter nominative is the principal word, and the nearer one is expressed parenthetically, the verb agrees literally with the former, and only by implication, with the latter; as, "One example, (or ten,) says nothing against it."--Leigh Hunt. "And we, (or future ages,) may possibly have a proof of it."--Bp. Butler. So, when the alternative is merely in the words, not in the thought, the former term is sometimes considered the principal one, and is therefore allowed to control the verb; but there is always a harshness in this mixture of different numbers, and, to render such a construction tolerable, it is necessary to read the latter term like a parenthesis, and make the former emphatic: as, "A parenthesis, or brackets, consists of two angular strokes, or hooks, enclosing one or more words."--Whiting's Reader, p. 28. "To show us that our own schemes, or prudence, have no share in our advancements."--Addison. "The Mexican figures, or picture-writing, represent things, not words; they exhibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding."--Murray's Gram., p. 243; English Reader, p. xiii. "At Travancore, Koprah, or dried cocoa-nut kernels, is monopolized by government."--Maunder's Gram., p. 12. "The Scriptures, or Bible, are the only authentic source."--Bp. Tomline's Evidences.

  "Nor foes nor fortune take this power away;
   And is my Abelard less kind than they?"--Pope, p. 334.

OBS. 10.--The English adjective being indeclinable, we have no examples of some of the forms of zeugma which occur in Latin and Greek. But adjectives differing in number, are sometimes connected without a repetition of the noun; and, in the agreement of the verb, the noun which is understood, is less apt to be regarded than that which is expressed, though the latter be more remote; as, "There are one or two small irregularities to be noted."--Lowth's Gram., p. 63. "There are one or two persons, and but one or two."--Hazlitt's Lectures. "There are one or two others."--Crombie's Treatise, p. 206. "There are one or two."--Blair's Rhet., p. 319. "There are one or more seminaries in every province."--H. E. Dwight: Lit. Conv., p. 133. "Whether one or more of the clauses are to be considered the nominative case."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 150. "So that, I believe, there is not more than one genuine example extant."--Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 10. "There is, properly, no more than one pause or rest in the sentence."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 329; Blair's Rhet., p. 125. "Sometimes a small letter or two is added to the capital."--Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 223; Gould's, 283. Among the examples in the seventh paragraph above, there is one like this last, but with a plural verb; and if either is objectionable, is should here be are. The preceding example, too, is such as I would not imitate. To L. Murray, the following sentence seemed false syntax, because one does not agree with persons: "He saw one or more persons enter the garden."--Murray's Exercises, Rule 8th, p. 54. In his Key, he has it thus: "He saw one person, or more than one, enter the garden."--Oct. Gram., Vol. ii, p. 189. To me, this stiff correction, which many later grammarians have copied, seems worse than none. And the effect of the principle may be noticed in Murray's style elsewhere; as, "When a semicolon, or more than one, have preceded."--Octavo Gram., i, p. 277; Ingersoll's Gram., p. 288. Here a ready writer would be very apt to prefer one of the following phrases: "When a semicolon or two have preceded,"--"When one or two semicolons have preceded,"--"When one or more semicolons have preceded." It is better to write by guess, than to become systematically awkward in expression.

OBS. 11.--In Greek and Latin, the pronoun of the first person, according to our critics, is generally[398] placed first; as, "[Greek: Ego kai su ta dikaia poiæsomen]. Xen."--Milnes's Gr. Gram., p. 120. That is, "Ego et tu justa faciemus." Again: "Ego et Cicero valemus. Cic."--Buchanan's Pref., p. x; Adam's Gram., 206; Gould's, 203. "I and Cicero are well."--Ib. But, in English, a modest speaker usually gives to others the precedence, and mentions himself last; as, "He, or thou, or I, must go."--"Thou and I will do what is right."--"Cicero and I are well."--Dr. Adam.[399] Yet, in speaking of himself and his dependants, a person most commonly takes rank before them; as, "Your inestimable letters supported myself, my wife, and children, in adversity."--Lucien Bonaparte, Charlemagne, p. v. "And I shall be destroyed, I and my house."--Gen., xxxiv, 30. And in acknowledging a fault, misfortune, or censure, any speaker may assume the first place; as, "Both I and thou are in the fault."--Adam's Gram., p. 207. "Both I and you are in fault."--Buchanan's Syntax, p. ix. "Trusty did not do it; I and Robert did it."--Edgeworth's Stories.

  "With critic scales, weighs out the partial wit,
   What I, or you, or he, or no one writ."
       --Lloyd's Poems, p. 162.

OBS. 12.--According to the theory of this work, verbs themselves are not unfrequently connected, one to an other, by and, or, or nor; so that two or more of them, being properly in the same construction, may be parsed as agreeing with the same nominative: as, "So that the blind and dumb [man] both spake and saw."--Matt., xii, 22. "That no one might buy or sell."--Rev., xiii, 17. "Which see not, nor hear, nor know."--Dan., v, 23. We have certainly very many examples like these, in which it is neither convenient nor necessary to suppose an ellipsis of the nominative before the latter verb, or before all but the first, as most of our grammarians do, whenever they find two or more finite verbs connected in this manner. It is true, the nominative may, in most instances, be repeated without injury to the sense; but this fact is no proof of such an ellipsis; because many a sentence which is not incomplete, may possibly take additional words without change of meaning. But these authors, (as I have already suggested under the head of conjunctions,) have not been very careful of their own consistency. If they teach, that, "Every finite verb has its own separate nominative, either expressed or implied," which idea Murray and others seem to have gathered from Lowth; or if they say, that, "Conjunctions really unite sentences, when they appear to unite only words," which notion they may have acquired from Harris; what room is there for that common assertion, that, "Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses of verbs," which is a part of Murray's eighteenth rule, and found in most of our grammars? For no agreement is usually required between verbs that have separate nominatives; and if we supply a nominative wherever we do not find one for each verb, then in fact no two verbs will ever be connected by any conjunction.

OBS. 13.--What agreement there must be, between verbs that are in the same construction, it is not easy to determine with certainty. Some of the Latin grammarians tell us, that certain conjunctions connect "sometimes similar moods and tenses, and sometimes similar moods but different tenses." See Prat's Grammatica Latina, Octavo, Part ii, p. 95. Ruddiman, Adam, and Grant, omit the concord of tenses, and enumerate certain conjunctions which "couple like cases and moods." But all of them acknowledge some exceptions to their rules. The instructions of Lindley Murray and others, on this point, may be summed up in the following canon: "When verbs are connected by a conjunction, they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or have separate nominatives expressed." This rule, (with a considerable exception to it, which other authors had not noticed.) was adopted by myself in the Institutes of English Grammar, and also retained in the Brief Abstract of that work, entitled, The First Lines of English Grammar. It there stands as the thirteenth in the series of principal rules; but, as there is no occasion to refer to it in the exercise of parsing, I now think, a less prominent place may suit it as well or better. The principle may be considered as being less certain and less important than most of the usual rules of syntax: I shall therefore both modify the expression of it, and place it among the notes of the present code. See Notes 5th and 6th below.

OBS. 14.--By the agreement of verbs with each other in form, it is meant, that the simple form and the compound, the familiar form and the solemn, the affirmative form and the negative, or the active form and the passive, are not to be connected without a repetition of the nominative. With respect to our language, this part of the rule is doubtless as important, and as true, as any other. A thorough agreement, then, in mood, tense, and form, is generally required, when verbs are connected by and, or, or nor; and, under each part of this concord, there may be cited certain errors which ought to be avoided, as will by-and-by be shown. But, at the same time, there seem to be many allowable violations of the rule, some or other of which may perhaps form exceptions to every part of it. For example, the tense may be varied, as it often is in Latin; thus, "As the general state of religion has been, is, or shall be, affected by them."--Butlers Analogy, p. 241. "Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shall be, because thou hast judged thus."--Rev., xvi, 5. In the former of these examples, a repetition of the nominative would not be agreeable; in the latter, it would perhaps be an improvement: as, "who art, and who wast, and who shalt be." (I here change the pronoun, because the relative which is not now applied as above.) "This dedication may serve for almost any book, that has been, or shall be published."--Campbell's Rhet. p. 207; Murray's Gram., p. 222. "It ought to be, 'has been, is, or shall be, published.'"--Crombie's Treatise, p. 383. "Truth and good sense are firm, and will establish themselves."--Blair's Rhet. p. 286. "Whereas Milton followed a different plan, and has given a tragic conclusion to a poem otherwise epic in its form."--Ib., p. 428. "I am certain, that such are not, nor ever were, the tenets of the church of England."--West's Letters, p. 148. "They deserve, and will meet with, no regard."--Blair's Rhet., p. 109.

  "Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,
   Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be."
       --Pope, on Crit.

OBS. 15.--So verbs differing in mood or form may sometimes agree with the same nominative, if the simplest verb be placed first--rarely, I think, if the words stand in any other order: as, "One may be free from affectation and not have merit"--Blair's Rhet., p. 189. "There is, and can be, no other person."--Murray's Key. 8vo. p. 224. "To see what is, and is allowed to be, the plain natural rule."--Butler's Analogy, p. 284. "This great experiment has worked, and is working, well, every way well"--BRADBURN: Liberator, ix. 162. "This edition of Mr. Murray's works on English Grammar, deserves a place in Libraries, and will not fail to obtain it."--BRITISH CRITIC: Murray's Gram., 8vo, ii, 299.

  "What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy."--Pope.
   "Some are, and must be, greater than the rest."--Id.

OBS. 16.--Since most of the tenses of an English verb are composed of two or more words, to prevent a needless or disagreeable repetition of auxiliaries, participles, and principal verbs, those parts which are common to two or more verbs in the same sentence, are generally expressed to the first, and understood to the rest; or reserved, and put last, as the common supplement of each; as, "To which they do or can extend."--Butler's Analogy, p. 77. "He may, as any one may, if he will, incur an infamous execution from the hands of civil justice."--Ib., p. 82. "All that has usurped the name of virtue, and [has] deceived us by its semblance, must be a mockery and a delusion."--Dr. Chalmers. "Human praise, and human eloquence, may acknowledge it, but the Discerner of the heart never will" [acknowledge it].--Id. "We use thee not so hardly, as prouder livers do" [use thee].--Shak. "Which they might have foreseen and [might have] avoided."--Butler. "Every sincere endeavour to amend, shall be assisted, [shall be] accepted, and [shall be] rewarded."--Carter. "Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, and [will] stand and [will] call on the name of the Lord his God, and [will] strike his hand over the place, and [will] recover the leper."--2 Kings, v, 11. "They mean to, and will, hear patiently."--Salem Register. That is, "They mean to hear patiently, and they will hear patiently." "He can create, and he destroy."--Bible. That is,--"and he can destroy."

  "Virtue may be assail'd, but never hurt,
   Surpris'd by unjust force, but not inthrall'd."--Milton.
   "Mortals whose pleasures are their only care,
   First wish to be imposed on, and then are."--Cowper.

OBS. 17.--From the foregoing examples, it may be seen, that the complex and divisible structure of the English moods and tenses, produces, when verbs are connected together, a striking peculiarity of construction in our language, as compared with the nearest corresponding construction in Latin or Greek. For we can connect different auxiliaries, participles, or principal verbs, without repeating, and apparently without connecting, the other parts of the mood or tense. And although it is commonly supposed that these parts are necessarily understood wherever they are not repeated, there are sentences, and those not a few, in which we cannot express them, without inserting also an additional nominative, and producing distinct clauses; as, "Should it not be taken up and pursued?"--Dr. Chalmers. "Where thieves do not break through nor steal."--Matt., vi, 20. "None present could either read or explain the writing-."--Wood's Dict., Vol. i, p. 159. Thus we sometimes make a single auxiliary an index to the mood and tense of more than one verb.

OBS. 18.--The verb do, which is sometimes an auxiliary and sometimes a principal verb, is thought by some grammarians to be also fitly made a substitute for other verbs, as a pronoun is for nouns; but this doctrine has not been taught with accuracy, and the practice under it will in many instances be found to involve a solecism. In this kind of substitution, there must either be a true ellipsis of the principal verb, so that do is only an auxiliary; or else the verb do, with its object or adverb, if it need one, must exactly correspond to an action described before; so that to speak of doing this or thus, is merely the shortest way of repeating the idea: as, "He loves not plays, as thou dost. Antony."--Shak. That is, "as thou dost love plays." "This fellow is wise enough to play the fool; and, to do that well, craves a kind of wit."--Id. Here, "to do that," is, "to play the fool." "I will not do it, if I find thirty there."--Gen., xviii, 30. Do what? Destroy the city, as had been threatened. Where do is an auxiliary, there is no real substitution; and, in the other instances, it is not properly the verb do, that is the substitute, but rather the word that follows it--or perhaps, both. For, since every action consists in doing something or in doing somehow, this general verb do, with this, that, it, thus, or so, to identify the action, may assume the import of many a longer phrase. But care must be taken not to substitute this verb for any term to which it is not equivalent; as, "The a is certainly to be sounded as the English do."--Walker's Dict., w. A. Say, "as the English sound it;" for do is here absurd, and grossly solecistical. "The duke had not behaved with that loyalty with which he ought to have done."--Lowth's Gram., p. 111; Murray's, i, 212; Churchill's, 355; Fisk's, 137; Ingersoll's, 269. Say, "with which he ought to have behaved;" for, to have done with loyalty is not what was meant--far from it. Clarendon wrote the text thus: "The Duke had not behaved with that loyalty, as he ought to have done." This should have been corrected, not by changing "as" to "with which", but by saying--"with that loyalty which he ought to have observed;" or, "which would have become him".

OBS. 19.--It is little to the credit of our grammarians, to find so many of them thus concurring in the same obvious error, and even making bad English worse. The very examples which have hitherto been given to prove that do may be a substitute for other verbs, are none of them in point, and all of them have been constantly and shamefully misinterpreted. Thus: "They [do and did] sometimes also supply the place of another verb, and make the repetition of it, in the same or a subsequent sentence, unnecessary: as, 'You attend not to your studies as he does;' (i. e. as he attends, &c.) 'I shall come if I can; but if I do not, please to excuse me;' (i. e. if I come not.)"--L. Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 88; R. C. Smith's, 88; Ingersoll's, 135; Fisk's, 78; A. Flint's, 41; Hiley's, 30. This remark, but not the examples, was taken from Lowths Gram., p. 41. Churchill varies it thus, and retains Lowth's example: "It [i. e., do] is used also, to supply the place of another verb, in order to avoid the repetition of it: as, 'He loves not plays, As thou dost, Antony.' SHAKS."--New Gram., p. 96. Greenleaf says, "To prevent the repetition of one or more verbs, in the same, or [a] following sentence, we frequently make use of do AND did; as, 'Jack learns the English language as fast as Henry does;' that is, 'as fast as Henry learns.' 'I shall come if I can; but if I do not, please to excuse me;' that is, 'if I come not.'"--Gram. Simplified, p. 27. Sanborn says, "Do is also used instead of another verb, and not unfrequently instead of both the verb and its object; as, 'he loves work as well as you do;' that is, as well as you love work."--Analyt. Gram., p. 112. Now all these interpretations are wrong; the word do, dost, or does, being simply an auxiliary, after which the principal verb (with its object where it has one) is understood. But the first example is bad English, and its explanation is still worse. For, "As he attends, &c.," means, "As he attends to your studies!" And what good sense is there in this? The sentence ought to have been, "You do not attend to your studies, as he does to his." That is--"as he does attend to his studies." This plainly shows that there is, in the text, no real substitution of does for attends. So of all other examples exhibited in our grammars, under this head: there is nothing to the purpose, in any of them; the common principle of ellipsis resolves them all. Yet, strange to say, in the latest and most learned of this sort of text-books, we find the same sham example, fictitious and solecistical as it is, still blindly repeated, to show that "does" is not in its own place, as an auxiliary, but "supplies the place of another verb."--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo. 1850. p. 265.


NOTES TO RULE XVII.

NOTE I.--When a verb has nominatives of different persons or numbers,[400] connected by or or nor, it must agree with the nearest, (unless an other be the principal term,) and must be understood to the rest, in the person and number required; as, "Neither you nor I am concerned."--W. Allen. "That neither they nor ye also die."--Numb., xviii, 3.

  "But neither god, nor shrine, nor mystic rite,
   Their city, nor her walls, his soul delight."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. x, l. 26.

NOTE II.--But, since all nominatives that require different forms of the verb, virtually produce separate clauses or propositions, it is better to complete the concord whenever we conveniently can, by expressing the verb or its auxiliary in connexion with each of them; as, "Either thou art to blame, or I am."--Comly's Gram., p. 78. "Neither were their numbers, nor was their destination, known."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 134. So in clauses connected by and: as, "But declamation is idle, and murmurs fruitless."--Webster's Essays, p. 82. Say,--"and murmurs are fruitless."

NOTE III.--In English, the speaker should always mention himself last; unless his own superior dignity, or the confessional nature of the expression, warrant him in taking the precedence: as, "Thou or I must go."--"He then addressed his discourse to my father and me."--"Ellen and I will seek, apart, the refuge of some forest cell."--Scott. See Obs. 11th above.

NOTE IV.--Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by or or nor, require a singular verb; and, if a nominative come after the verb, that must be singular also: as, "That a drunkard should be poor, or that a fop should be ignorant, is not strange."--"To give an affront, or to take one tamely, is no mark of a great mind." So, when the phrases are unconnected: as, "To spread suspicion, to invent calumnies, to propagate scandal, requires neither labour nor courage."--Rambler, No. 183.

NOTE V.--In general, when verbs are connected by and, or, or nor, they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or the simplest in form must be placed first; as, "So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh."--Isaiah, xxxvii, 37. "For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die."--Acts, xxv, 11.

NOTE VI.--In stead of conjoining discordant verbs, it is in general better to repeat the nominative or insert a new one; as, "He was greatly heated, and [he] drank with avidity."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 201. "A person may be great or rich by chance; but cannot be wise or good, without taking pains for it."--Ib., p. 200. Say,--"but no one can be wise or good, without taking pains for it."

NOTE VII.--A mixture of the forms of the solemn style and the familiar, is inelegant, whether the verbs refer to the same nominative or have different ones expressed; as, "What appears tottering and in hazard of tumbling, produceth in the spectator the painful emotion of fear."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 356. "And the milkmaid singeth blithe, And the mower whets his sithe."--Milton's Allegro, l. 65 and 66.

NOTE VIII.--To use different moods under precisely the same circumstances, is improper, even if the verbs have separate nominatives; as, "Bating that one speak and an other answers, it is quite the same."--Blair's Rhet., p. 368. Say,--"that one speaks;" for both the speaking and the answering are assumed as facts.

NOTE IX.--When two terms are connected, which involve different forms of the same verb, such parts of the compound tenses as are not common to both forms, should be inserted in full: except sometimes after the auxiliary do; as, "And then he falls, as I do."--Shak. That is, "as I do fall." The following sentences are therefore faulty: "I think myself highly obliged to make his fortune, as he has mine."--Spect., No. 474. Say,--"as he has made mine." "Every attempt to remove them, has, and likely will prove unsuccessful."--Gay's Prosodical Gram., p. 4. Say,--"has proved, and likely will prove, unsuccessful."

NOTE X.--The verb do must never be substituted for any term to which its own meaning is not adapted; nor is there any use in putting it for a preceding verb that is equally short: as, "When we see how confidently men rest on groundless surmises in reference to their own souls, we cannot wonder that they do it in reference to others."--Simeon. Better:--"that they so rest in reference to the souls of others;" for this repeats the idea with more exactness. NOTE XI.--The preterit should not be employed to form the compound tenses of the verb; nor should the perfect participle be used for the preterit or confounded with the present. Thus: say, "To have gone," not, "To have went;" and, "I did so," not, "I done so;" or, "He saw them," not, "He seen them." Again: say not, "It was lift or hoist up;" but, "It was lifted or hoisted up."

NOTE XII.--Care should be taken, to give every verb or participle its appropriate form, and not to confound those which resemble each other; as, to flee and to fly, to lay and to lie, to sit and to set, to fall and to fell, &c. Thus: say, "He lay by the fire;" not, "He laid by the fire;"--"He has become rich;" not, "He is become rich;"--"I would rather stay;" not, "I had rather stay."

NOTE XIII.--In the syntax of words that express time, whether they be verbs, adverbs, or nouns, the order and fitness of time should be observed, that the tenses may be used according to their import. Thus: in stead of, "I have seen him last week;" say, "I saw him last week;"--and, in stead of, "I saw him this week;" say, "I have seen him this week." So, in stead of, "I told you already;" or, "I have told you before;" say, "I have told you already;"--"I told you before."

NOTE XIV.--Verbs of commanding, desiring, expecting, hoping, intending, permitting, and some others, in all their tenses, refer to actions or events, relatively present or future: one should therefore say, "I hoped you would come;" not, "I hoped you would have come;"--and, "I intended to do it;" not, "I intended to have done it;"--&c.

NOTE XV.--Propositions that are as true now as they ever were or will be, should generally be expressed in the present tense: as, "He seemed hardly to know, that two and two make four;" not, "made."--Blair's Gram., p. 65. "He will tell you, that whatever is, is right." Sometimes the present tense is improper with the conjunction that, though it would be quite proper without it; as, "Others said, That it is Elias. And others said, That it is a prophet."--Mark, vi, 15. Here That should be omitted, or else is should be was. The capital T is also improper.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XVII.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY OR.

"We do not know in what either reason or instinct consist."--Rambler, No. 41.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb consist is of the plural number, and does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, reason and instinct, which are connected by or, and taken disjunctively. But, according to Rule 17th, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together." Therefore, consist should be consists; thus, "We do not know in what either reason or instinct consists."]

"A noun or a pronoun joined with a participle, constitute a nominative case absolute."--Bicknell's Gram., Part ii, p. 50. "The relative will be of that case, which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going before, use to govern."--Dr. Adam's Gram., p. 203. "Which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going before, usually govern."--Gould's Adam's Gram., p. 200.[401] "In the different modes of pronunciation which habit or caprice give rise to."--Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 14. "By which he, or his deputy, were authorized to cut down any trees in Whittlebury forest."--Junius, p. 251. "Wherever objects were to be named, in which sound, noise, or motion were concerned, the imitation by words was abundantly obvious."--Blair's Rhet., p. 55. "The pleasure or pain resulting from a train of perceptions in different circumstances, are a beautiful contrivance of nature for valuable purposes."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 262. "Because their foolish vanity or their criminal ambition represent the principles by which they are influenced, as absolutely perfect."--Life of Madame De Stael, p. 2. "Hence naturally arise indifference or aversion between the parties."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 37. "A penitent unbeliever, or an impenitent believer, are characters no where to be found."--Tract, No. 183. "Copying whatever is peculiar in the talk of all those whose birth or fortune entitle them to imitation."--Rambler, No. 194. "Where love, hatred, fear, or contempt, are often of decisive influence."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 119. "A lucky anecdote, or an enlivening tale relieve the folio page."--D'Israeli's Curiosities, Vol. i, p. 15. "For outward matter or event, fashion not the character within."--Book of Thoughts, p. 37. "Yet sometimes we have seen that wine, or chance, have warmed cold brains."--Dryden's Poems, p. 76. "Motion is a Genus; Flight, a Species; this Flight or that Flight are Individuals."--Harris's Hermes, p. 38. "When et, aut, vel, sine, or nec, are joined to different members of the same sentence."--Adam's Lat. and Eng. Gram., p. 206; Gould's Lat. Gram., 203; Grant's, 266. "Wisdom or folly govern us."--Fisk's English Gram., 84. "A or an are styled indefinite articles."--Folker's Gram., p. 4. "A rusty nail, or a crooked pin, shoot up into prodigies."--Spectator, No. 7. "Are either the subject or the predicate in the second sentence modified?"--Fowler's E. Gram., 8vo, 1850, p. 578, §589.

  "Praise from a friend, or censure from a foe,
   Are lost on hearers that our merits know."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. x, l. 293.


UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY NOR.

"Neither he nor she have spoken to him."--Perrin's Gram., p. 237. "For want of a process of events, neither knowledge nor elegance preserve the reader from weariness."--JOHNSON: in Crabb's Syn., p. 511. "Neither history nor tradition furnish such information."--Robertson's Amer., Vol. i, p. 2. "Neither the form nor power of the liquids have varied materially."--Knight, on the Greek Alph., p. 16. "Where neither noise nor motion are concerned."--Blair's Rhet., p. 55. "Neither Charles nor his brother were qualified to support such a system."--Junius, p. 250. "When, therefore, neither the liveliness of representation, nor the warmth of passion, serve, as it were, to cover the trespass, it is not safe to leave the beaten track."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 381. "In many countries called Christian, neither Christianity, nor its evidence, are fairly laid before men."--Butler's Analogy, p. 269. "Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven."--Abbott's Teacher, p. 20. "Throughout this hymn, neither Apollo nor Diana are in any way connected with the Sun or Moon."--Coleridge's Introd., p. 199. "Of which, neither he, nor this Grammar, take any notice."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 346. "Neither their solicitude nor their foresight extend so far."--Robertson's Amer., Vol. i, p. 287. "Neither Gomara, nor Oviedo, nor Herrera, consider Ojeda, or his companion Vespucci, as the first discoverers of the continent of America."--Ib., Vol. i, p. 471. "Neither the general situation of our colonies, nor that particular distress which forced the inhabitants of Boston to take up arms, have been thought worthy of a moment's consideration."--Junius, p. 174.

  "Nor War nor Wisdom yield our Jews delight,
   They will not study, and they dare not fight."
       --Crabbe's Borough, p. 50.
   "Nor time nor chance breed such confusions yet,
   Nor are the mean so rais'd, nor sunk the great."
       --Rowe's Lucan, B. iii, l. 213.


UNDER NOTE I.--NOMINATIVES THAT DISAGREE.

"The definite article the, designates what particular thing or things is meant."--Merchant's School Gram., p. 23 and p. 33. "Sometimes a word or words necessary to complete the grammatical construction of a sentence, is not expressed, but omitted by ellipsis."--Burr's Gram., p. 26. "Ellipsis, or abbreviations, is the wheels of language."--Maunder's Gram., p. 12. "The conditions or tenor of none of them appear at this day."--Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass., Vol. i, p. 16. "Neither men nor money were wanting for the service."--Ib., Vol. i, p. 279. "Either our own feelings, or the representation of those of others, require frequent emphatic distinction."--Barber's Exercises, p. 13. "Either Atoms and Chance, or Nature are uppermost: now I am for the latter part of the disjunction,"--Collier's Antoninus, p. 181. "Their riches or poverty are generally proportioned to their activity or indolence."--Ross Cox's Narrative. "Concerning the other part of him, neither you nor he seem to have entertained an idea."--Bp. Horne. "Whose earnings or income are so small."--N. E. Discipline, p. 130. "Neither riches nor fame render a man happy."--Day's Gram., p. 71. "The references to the pages, always point to the first volume, unless the Exercises or Key are mentioned."--Murray's Gram., Vol. ii, p. 283.


UNDER NOTE II.--COMPLETE THE CONCORD.

"My lord, you wrong my father; nor he nor I are capable of harbouring a thought against your peace."--Walpole. "There was no division of acts; no pauses or interval between them; but the stage was continually full; occupied either by the actors, or the chorus."--Blair's Rhet., p. 463. "Every word ending in B, P, F, as also many in V, are of this order."--Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang., i, 73. "As proud as we are of human reason, nothing can be more absurd than the general system of human life and human knowledge."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 347. "By which the body of sin and death is done away, and we cleansed."--Barclay's Works, i, 165. "And those were already converted, and regeneration begun in them."--Ib., iii, 433. "For I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years."--Luke, i, 18. "Who is my mother, or my brethren?"--Mark, iii, 33. "Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering."--Isaiah, xl, 16. "Information has been obtained, and some trials made."--Society in America, i, 308. "It is as obvious, and its causes more easily understood."--Webster's Essays, p. 84. "All languages furnish examples of this kind, and the English as many as any other."--Priestley's Gram., p. 157. "The winters are long, and the cold intense."--Morse's Geog., p. 39. "How have I hated instruction, and my heart despised reproof!"--Prov., v, 12. "The vestals were abolished by Theodosius the Great, and the fire of Vesta extinguished."--Lempriere, w. Vestales. "Riches beget pride; pride, impatience."--Bullions's Practical Lessons, p. 89. "Grammar is not reasoning, any more than organization is thought, or letters sounds."--Enclytica, p. 90. "Words are implements, and grammar a machine."--Ib., p. 91.


UNDER NOTE III.--PLACE OF THE FIRST PERSON.

"I or thou art the person who must undertake the business proposed."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 184. "I and he were there."--Dr. Ash's Gram., p. 51. "And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he."--Gen., xli, 11. "If my views remain the same as mine and his were in 1833."--GOODELL: Liberator, ix, 148. "I and my father were riding out."--Inst., p. 158. "The premiums were given to me and George."--Ib. "I and Jane are invited."--Ib. "They ought to invite me and my sister."--Ib. "I and you intend going."--Guy's Gram., p. 55. "I and John are going to Town."--British Gram., p. 193. "I, and he are sick. I, and thou are well."--James Brown's American Gram., Boston Edition of 1841, p. 123. "I, and he is. I, and thou art. I, and he writes."--Ib., p. 126. "I, and they are well. I, thou, and she were walking."--Ib., p. 127.


UNDER NOTE IV.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To practise tale-bearing, or even to countenance it, are great injustice."--Brown's Inst., p. 159. "To reveal secrets, or to betray one's friends, are contemptible perfidy."--Ib. "To write all substantives with capital letters, or to exclude them from adjectives derived from proper names, may perhaps be thought offences too small for animadversion; but the evil of innovation is always something."--Dr. Barrow's Essays, p. 88. "To live in such families, or to have such servants, are blessings from God."--Family Commentary, p. 64. "How they portioned out the country, what revolutions they experienced, or what wars they maintained, are utterly unknown."--Goldsmith's Greece, Vol. i, p. 4. "To speak or to write perspicuously and agreeably, are attainments of the utmost consequence to all who purpose, either by speech or writing, to address the public."--Blair's Rhet., p. 11.


UNDER NOTE V.--MAKE THE VERBS AGREE.

"Doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?"--Matt., xviii, 12. "Did he not fear the Lord, and besought the Lord, and the Lord repented him of the evil which he had pronounced?"--Jer., xxvi, 19. "And dost thou open thine eyes upon such an one, and bringest me into judgement with thee?"--Job, xiv, 3. "If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain."--James, i, 26. "If thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buyest aught of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one an other."--Leviticus, xxv, 14. "And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee, shall have become poor, and be sold to thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond servant."--WEBSTER'S BIBLE: Lev., xxv, 39. "If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee," &c.--Matt., v, 23. "Anthea was content to call a coach, and crossed the brook."--Rambler, No. 34. "It is either totally suppressed, or appears in its lowest and most imperfect form."--Blair's Rhet., p. 23. "But if any man be a worshiper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth."--John, ix, 31. "Whereby his righteousness and obedience, death and sufferings without, become profitable unto us, and is made ours."--Barclay's Works, i, 164. "Who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had aught against me."--Acts, xxiv, 19.

  "Yes! thy proud lords, unpitied land, shall see
   That man hath yet a soul, and dare be free."--Campbell.


UNDER NOTE VI.--USE SEPARATE NOMINATIVES.

"H is only an aspiration or breathing; and sometimes at the beginning of a word is not sounded at all."--Lowth's Gram., p. 4. "Man was made for society, and ought to extend his good will to all men."--Ib., p. 12; Murray's, i, 170. "There is, and must be, a supreme being, of infinite goodness, power, and wisdom, who created and supports them."--Beattie's Moral Science, p. 201. "Were you not affrighted, and mistook a spirit for a body?"--Watson's Apology, p. 122. "The latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction than or as, but agrees with the verb, or is governed by the verb or the preposition, expressed or understood."-- Murray's Gram., p. 214; Russell's, 103; Bacon's, 51; Alger's, 71; R. C. Smith's, 179. "He had mistaken his true interests, and found himself forsaken."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 201. "The amputation was exceedingly well performed, and saved the patient's life."--Ib., p. 191. "The intentions of some of these philosophers, nay, of many [,] might have been, and probably were good."--Ib., p. 216. "This may be true, and yet will not justify the practice."--Webster's Essays, p. 33. "From the practice of those who have had a liberal education, and are therefore presumed to be best acquainted with men and things."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 161. "For those energies and bounties which created and preserve the universe."--J. Q. Adams's Rhet., i, 327. "I shall make it once for all and hope it will be afterwards remembered."--Blair's Lect., p. 45. "This consequence is drawn too abruptly, and needed more explanation."--Ib., p. 229. "They must be used with more caution, and require more preparation."-- Ib., p. 153. "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an i, which was formerly inserted, and made an addition of a syllable to the word."-- Priestley's Gram., p. 67. "The succession may be rendered more various or more uniform, but in one shape or an other is unavoidable."--Kames, El. of Crit., i. 253. "It excites neither terror nor compassion, nor is agreeable in any respect."--Ib., ii, 277.

  "Cheap vulgar arts, whose narrowness affords
   No flight for thoughts, but poorly stick at words."--Denham.


UNDER NOTE VII.--MIXTURE OF DIFFERENT STYLES.

"Let us read the living page, whose every character delighteth and instructs us."--Maunder's Gram., p. 5. "For if it be in any degree obscure, it puzzles, and doth not please."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 357. "When a speaker addresseth himself to the understanding, he proposes the instruction of his hearers."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 13. "As the wine which strengthens and refresheth the heart."--H. Adams's View, p. 221. "This truth he wrappeth in an allegory, and feigns that one of the goddesses had taken up her abode with the other."--Pope's Works, iii, 46. "God searcheth and understands the heart."--Thomas à Kempis. "The grace of God, that brings salvation hath appeared to all men."--Barclays Works, i, 366. "Also we speak not in the words, which man's wisdom teaches; but which the Holy Ghost teacheth."--Ib., i, 388. "But he hath an objection, which he urgeth, and by which he thinks to overturn all."--Ib., iii, 327. "In that it gives them not that comfort and joy which it giveth unto them who love it."--Ib., i, 142. "Thou here misunderstood the place and misappliedst it."--Ib., iii, 38. "Like the barren heath in the desert, which knoweth not when good comes."--Friends' Extracts, p. 128; N. E. Discip., p. 75. "It speaketh of the time past, but shews that something was then doing, but not quite finished."--E. Devis's Gram., p. 42. "It subsists in spite of them; it advanceth unobserved."--PASCAL: Addison's Evidences, p. 17.

  "But where is he, the Pilgrim of my song?--
   Methinks he cometh late and tarries long."--Byron, Cant. iv, St. 164.


UNDER NOTE VII.--CONFUSION OF MOODS.

"If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them is gone astray, &c."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 227 with 197. "As a speaker advances in his discourse, especially if it be somewhat impassioned, and increases in energy and earnestness, a higher and louder tone will naturally steal upon him."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 68. "If one man esteem a day above another, and another esteemeth every day alike; let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind."--Barclay's Works, i, 439. "If there be but one body of legislators, it is no better than a tyranny; if there are only two, there will want a casting voice."--Addison, Spect., No. 287. "Should you come up this way, and I am still here, you need not be assured how glad I shall be to see you."--Ld. Byron. "If he repent and becomes holy, let him enjoy God and heaven."--Brownson's Elwood, p. 248. "If thy fellow approach thee, naked and destitute, and thou shouldst say unto him, 'Depart in peace; be you warmed and filled;' and yet shouldst give him not those things that are needful to him, what benevolence is there in thy conduct?"--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 108.

  "Get on your nightgown, lost occasion calls us.
   And show us to be watchers."
       --Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 278.
   "But if it climb, with your assisting hands,
   The Trojan walls, and in the city stands."
       --Dryden's Virgil, ii, 145.
   --------------------------"Though Heaven's king
   Ride on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers,
   Us'd to the yoke, draw'st his triumphant wheels."
       --Milton, P. L., iv, l. 973.
   "Us'd to the yoke, draw'dst his triumphant wheels."
       --Lowth's Gram., p. 106.


UNDER NOTE IX.--IMPROPER ELLIPSES.

"Indeed we have seriously wondered that Murray should leave some things as he has."--Education Reporter. "Which they neither have nor can do."--Barclay's Works, iii, 73. "The Lord hath, and doth, and will reveal his will to his people, and hath and doth raise up members of his body," &c.--Ib., i, 484. "We see then, that the Lord hath, and doth give such."--Ib., i, 484. "Towards those that have or do declare themselves members."--Ib., i, 494. "For which we can, and have given our sufficient reasons."--Ib., i, 507. "When we mention the several properties of the different words in sentences, in the same manner as we have those of William's, above, what is the exercise called?"--Smith's New Gram., p. 12. "It is, however to be doubted whether this peculiarity of the Greek idiom, ever has or will obtain extensively in the English."--Nutting's Gram., p. 47. "Why did not the Greeks and Romans abound in auxiliary words as much as we?"--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 111. "Who delivers his sentiments in earnest, as they ought to be in order to move and persuade."--Kirkham's Elocution, p. 151.


UNDER NOTE X.--DO, USED AS A SUBSTITUTE.

"And I would avoid it altogether, if it could be done."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 36. "Such a sentiment from a man expiring of his wounds, is truly heroic, and must elevate the mind to the greatest height that can be done by a single expression."--Ib., i, 204. "Successive images making thus deeper and deeper impressions, must elevate more than any single image can do."--Ib., i, 205. "Besides making a deeper impression than can be done by cool reasoning."--Ib., ii, 273. "Yet a poet, by the force of genius alone, can rise higher than a public speaker can do."--Blair's Rhet., p. 338. "And the very same reason that has induced several grammarians to go so far as they have done, should have induced them to go farther."--Priestley's Gram., Pref., p. vii. "The pupil should commit the first section perfectly, before he does the second part of grammar."-- Bradley's Gram., p. 77. "The Greek ch was pronounced hard, as we now do in chord."--Booth's Introd. to Dict., p. 61. "They pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what they do at other times."-- Murray's Eng. Reader, p. xi. "And give him the formal cool reception that Simon had done."--Dr. Scott, on Luke, vii. "I do not say, as some have done."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 271. "If he suppose the first, he may do the last."--Barclay's Works, ii, 406. "Who are now despising Christ in his inward appearance, as the Jews of old did him in his outward."--Ib., i, 506. "That text of Revelations must not be understood, as he doth it."-- Ib., iii, 309. "Till the mode of parsing the noun is so familiar to him, that he can do it readily."--Smith's New Gram., p. 13. "Perhaps it is running the same course which Rome had done before."--Middleton's Life of Cicero. "It ought even on this ground to be avoided; which may easily be done by a different construction."--Churchill's Gram., p. 312. "These two languages are now pronounced in England as no other nation in Europe does besides."--Creighton's Dict., p. xi. "Germany ran the same risk that Italy had done."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 211: see Priestley's Gram., p. 196.


UNDER NOTE XI.--PRETERITS AND PARTICIPLES.

"The Beggars themselves will be broke in a trice."--Swift's Poems, p. 347. "The hoop is hoist above his nose."--Ib., p. 404. "My heart was lift up in the ways of the Lord. 2 CHRON."--Joh. Dict., w. Lift. "Who sin so oft have mourned, Yet to temptation ran."--Burns. "Who would not have let them appeared."--Steele. "He would have had you sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality."--Pilgrim's Progress, p. 31. "From me his madding mind is start, And wooes the widow's daughter of the glen."--SPENSER: Joh. Dict., w. Glen. "The man has spoke, and still speaks."--Ash's Gram., p. 54. "For you have but mistook me all this while."--Beauties of Shak., p. 114. "And will you rent our ancient love asunder."--Ib., p. 52. "Mr. Birney has plead the inexpediency of passing such resolutions."-- Liberator, Vol. xiii, p. 194. "Who have wore out their years in such most painful Labours."--Littleton's Dict., Pref. "And in the conclusion you were chose probationer."--Spectator, No. 32.

  "How she was lost, took captive, made a slave;
   And how against him set that should her save."--Bunyan.


UNDER NOTE XII.--VERBS CONFOUNDED.

"But Moses preferred to wile away his time."--Parker's English Composition, p. 15. "His face shown with the rays of the sun."--Calvin's Inst., 4to, p. 76. "Whom they had sat at defiance so lately."-- Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 320. "And when he was set, his disciples came unto him."--Matt., v, 1. "When he was set down on the judgement-seat."-- Ib., xxvii, 19. "And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them."--Luke, xxii, 55. "So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?"--John, xiii, 12. "Even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne."--Rev., iii, 21. "We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens."-- Heb., viii, 1. "And is set down at the right hand of the throne of God."--Ib., xii, 2.[402] "He sat on foot a furious persecution."-- Payne's Geog., ii, 418. "There layeth an obligation upon the saints, to help such."--Barclay's Works, i, 389. "There let him lay."--Byron's Pilgrimage, C. iv, st. 180. "Nothing but moss, and shrubs, and stinted trees, can grow upon it."--Morse's Geog., p. 43. "Who had lain out considerable sums purely to distinguish themselves."--Goldsmith's Greece, i, 132. "Whereunto the righteous fly and are safe."--Barclay's Works, i, 146. "He raiseth from supper, and laid aside his garments."--Ib., i, 438. "Whither--Oh! whither shall I fly?"--Murray's English Reader, p. 123. "Flying from an adopted murderer."--Ib., p. 122. "To you I fly for refuge."--Ib., p. 124. "The sign that should warn his disciples to fly from approaching ruin."--Keith's Evidences, p. 62. "In one she sets as a prototype for exact imitation."--Rush, on the Voice, p. xxiii. "In which some only bleat, bark, mew, winnow, and bray, a little better than others."--Ib., p. 90. "Who represented to him the unreasonableness of being effected with such unmanly fears."--Rollin's Hist., ii, 106. "Thou sawedst every action."--Guy's School Gram., p. 46. "I taught, thou taughtedst, he or she taught."--Coar's Gram., p. 79. "Valerian is taken by Sapor and flead alive, A. D. 260."--Lempriere's Chron. Table, Dict., p. xix. "What a fine vehicle is it now become for all conceptions of the mind!"--Blair's Rhet., p. 139. "What are become of so many productions?" --Volney's Ruins, p. 8. "What are become of those ages of abundance and of life?"--Keith's Evidences, p. 107. "The Spartan admiral was sailed to the Hellespont."--Goldsmiths Greece, i, 150. "As soon as he was landed, the multitude thronged about him."--Ib., i, 160. "Cyrus was arrived at Sardis."--Ib., i, 161. "Whose year was expired."--Ib., i, 162. "It had better have been, 'that faction which.'"--Priestley's Gram., p. 97. "This people is become a great nation."--Murray's Gram., p. 153; Ingersoll's, 249. "And here we are got into the region of ornament."--Blair's Rhet., p. 181. "The ungraceful parenthesis which follows, had far better have been avoided."--Ib., p. 215. "Who forced him under water, and there held him until drounded."--Indian Wars, p. 55.

  "I had much rather be myself the slave,
   And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him."--Cowper.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--WORDS THAT EXPRESS TIME.

"I had finished my letter before my brother arrived."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 139. "I had written before I received his letter."--Blair's Rhet., p. 82. "From what has been formerly delivered."--Ib., p. 182. "Arts were of late introduced among them."--Ib., p. 245. "I am not of opinion that such rules can be of much use, unless persons saw them exemplified."--Ib., p. 336. "If we use the noun itself, we should say, 'This composition is John's.' "--Murray's Gram., p. 174. "But if the assertion referred to something, that is not always the same, or supposed to be so, the past tense must be applied."--Ib., p. 191. "They told him, that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by."--Luke, xviii, 37. "There is no particular intimation but that I continued to work, even to the present moment."--R. W. Green's Gram., p. 39. "Generally, as was observed already, it is but hinted in a single word or phrase."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 36. "The wittiness of the passage was already illustrated."--Ib., p. 36. "As was observed already."--Ib., p. 56. "It was said already in general."--Ib., p. 95. "As I hinted already."--Ib., p. 134. "What I believe was hinted once already."--Ib., p. 148. "It is obvious, as hath been hinted formerly, that this is but an artificial and arbitrary connexion."--Ib., p. 282. "They have done anciently a great deal of hurt."--Bolingbroke, on Hist., p. 109. "Then said Paul, I knew not, brethren, that he is the High Priest."--Dr. Webster's Bible: Acts, xxiii, 5. "Most prepositions originally denote the relation of place, and have been thence transferred to denote by similitude other relations."--Lowth's Gram., p. 65; Churchill's, 116. "His gift was but a poor offering, when we consider his estate."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 194. "If he should succeed, and should obtain his end, he will not be the happier for it."--Murray's Gram., i, p. 207. "These are torrents that swell to-day, and have spent themselves by to-morrow."--Blair's Rhet., p. 286. "Who have called that wheat to-day, which they have called tares to-morrow."--Barclay's Works, iii. 168. "He thought it had been one of his tenants."--Ib., i, 11. "But if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent."--Luke, xvi, 30. "Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."--Ib., verse 31. "But it is while men slept that the archenemy has always sown his tares."--The Friend, x, 351. "Crescens would not fail to have exposed him."--Addison's Evidences, p. 30.

  "Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound;
   Fierce as he mov'd, his silver shafts resound."
       --Pope, Iliad, B. i, l. 64.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--VERBS OF COMMANDING, &c.

"Had I commanded you to have done this, you would have thought hard of it."--G. B. "I found him better than I expected to have found him."--Priestley's Gram., p. 126. "There are several smaller faults, which I at first intended to have enumerated."--Webster's Essays, p. 246. "Antithesis, therefore, may, on many occasions, be employed to advantage, in order to strengthen the impression which we intend that any object should make."--Blair's Rhet., p. 168. "The girl said, if her master would but have let her had money, she might have been well long ago."--See Priestley's Gram., p. 127. "Nor is there the least ground to fear, that we should be cramped here within too narrow limits."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 163; Murray's Gram., i, 360. "The Romans, flushed with success, expected to have retaken it."--Hooke's Hist., p. 37. "I would not have let fallen an unseasonable pleasantry in the venerable presence of Misery, to be entitled to all the wit that ever Rabelais scattered."--STERNE: Enfield's Speaker, p. 54. "We expected that he would have arrived last night."--Inst. p. 192. "Our friends intended to have met us."--Ib. "We hoped to have seen you."--Ib. "He would not have been allowed to have entered."--Ib.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PERMANENT PROPOSITIONS.

"Cicero maintained that whatsoever was useful was good."--"I observed that love constituted the whole moral character of God."--Dwight. "Thinking that one gained nothing by being a good man."--Voltaire. "I have already told you that I was a gentleman."--Fontaine. "If I should ask, whether ice and water were two distinct species of things."--Locke. "A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this was verse."--Murray's Gram., 12mo, p. 260. "The doctor affirmed, that fever always produced thirst."--Inst., p. 192. "The ancients asserted, that virtue was its own reward."--Ib. "They should not have repeated the error, of insisting that the infinitive was a mere noun."--Diversions of Purley, Vol. i, p. 288. "It was observed in Chap. III. that the distinctive or had a double use."--Churchill's Gram., p. 154. "Two young gentlemen, who have made a discovery that there was no God."--Swift.


RULE XVIII.--INFINITIVES.

The Infinitive Mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which commonly connects it to a finite verb: as, "I desire TO learn."--Dr. Adam. "Of me the Roman people have many pledges, which I must strive, with my utmost endeavours, TO preserve, TO defend, TO confirm, and TO redeem."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 41.

  "What if the foot, ordain'd the dust TO tread,
   Or hand TO toil, aspir'd TO be the head?"--Pope.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XVIII.

OBS. 1.--No word is more variously explained by grammarians, than this word TO, which is put before the verb in the infinitive mood. Johnson, Walker, Scott, Todd, and some other lexicographers, call it an adverb; but, in explaining its use, they say it denotes certain relations, which it is not the office of an adverb to express. (See the word in Johnson's Quarto Dictionary.) D. St. Quentin, in his Rudiments of General Grammar, says, "To, before a verb, is an adverb;" and yet his "Adverbs are words that are joined to verbs or adjectives, and express some circumstance or quality." See pp. 33 and 39. Lowth, Priestley, Fisher, L. Murray, Webster, Wilson, S. W. Clark, Coar, Comly, Blair, Felch, Fisk, Greenleaf, Hart, Weld, Webber, and others, call it a preposition; and some of these ascribe to it the government of the verb, while others do not. Lowth says, "The preposition TO, placed before the verb, makes the infinitive mood."--Short Gram., p. 42. "Now this," says Horne Tooke, "is manifestly not so: for TO placed before the verb loveth, will not make the infinitive mood. He would have said more truly, that TO placed before some nouns, makes verbs."--Diversions of Purley, Vol. i, p. 287.

OBS. 2.--Skinner, in his Canones Etymologici, calls this TO "an equivocal article,"--Tooke, ib., i, 288. Nutting, a late American grammarian, says: "The sign TO is no other than the Greek article to; as, to agapan [, to love]; or, as some say, it is the Saxon do"--Practical Gram., p. 66. Thus, by suggesting two false and inconsistent derivations, though he uses not the name equivocal article, he first makes the word an article, and then equivocal--equivocal in etymology, and of course in meaning.[403] Nixon, in his English Parser, supposes it to be, unequivocally, the Greek article [Greek: to], the. See the work, p. 83. D. Booth says, "To is, by us, applied to Verbs; but it was the neuter Article (the) among the Greeks."--Introd. to Analyt. Dict., p. 60. According to Horne Tooke, "Minshew also distinguishes between the preposition TO, and the sign of the infinitive TO. Of the former he is silent, and of the latter he says: 'To, as to make, to walk, to do, a Græco articulo [Greek: to].' But Dr. Gregory Sharpe is persuaded, that our language has taken it from the Hebrew. And Vossius derives the correspondent Latin preposition AD from the same source."--Diversions of Purley, Vol. i, p. 293.

OBS. 3.--Tooke also says, "I observe, that Junius and Skinner and Johnson, have not chosen to give the slightest hint concerning the derivation of TO."--Ibid. But, certainly, of his adverb TO, Johnson gives this hint: "TO, Saxon; te, Dutch." And Webster, who calls it not an adverb, but a preposition, gives the same hint of the source from which it comes to us. This is as much as to say, it is etymologically the old Saxon preposition to--which, truly, it is--the very same word that, for a thousand years or more, has been used before nouns and pronouns to govern the objective case. Tooke himself does not deny this; but, conceiving that almost all particles, whether English or any other, can be traced back to ancient verbs or nouns, he hunts for the root of this, in a remoter region, where he pretends to find that to has the same origin as do; and though he detects the former in a Gothic noun, he scruples not to identify it with an auxiliary verb! Yet he elsewhere expressly denies, "that any words change their nature by use, so as to belong sometimes to one part of speech, and sometimes to another."--Div. of Pur., Vol. i, p. 68.

OBS 4.--From this, the fair inference is, that he will have both to and do to be "nouns substantive" still! "Do (the auxiliary verb, as it has been called) is derived from the same root, and is indeed the same word as TO."--Ib., Vol. i, p. 290. "Since FROM means commencement or beginning, TO must mean end or termination."--Ib., i, 283. "The preposition TO (in Dutch written TOE and TOT, a little nearer to the original) is the Gothic substantive [Gothic: taui] or [Gothic: tauhts], i. e. act, effect, result, consummation. Which Gothic substantive is indeed itself no other than the past participle of the verb [Gothic: taujan], agere. And what is done, is terminated, ended, finished."--Ib., i, 285. No wonder that Johnson, Skinner, and Junius, gave no hint of this derivation: it is not worth the ink it takes, if it cannot be made more sure. But in showing its bearing on the verb, the author not unjustly complains of our grammarians, that: "Of all the points which they endeavour to shuffle over, there is none in which they do it more grossly than in this of the infinitive."--Ib., i, 287.

OBS. 5.--Many are content to call the word TO a prefix, a particle, a little word, a sign of the infinitive, a part of the infinitive, a part of the verb, and the like, without telling us whence it comes, how it differs from the preposition to, or to what part of speech it belongs. It certainly is not what we usually call a prefix, because we never join it to the verb; yet there are three instances in which it becomes such, before a noun: viz., to-day, to-night, to-morrow. If it is a "particle," so is any other preposition, as well as every small and invariable word. If it is a "little word," the whole bigness of a preposition is unquestionably found in it; and no "word" is so small but that it must belong to some one of the ten classes called parts of speech. If it is a "sign of the infinitive," because it is used before no other mood; so is it a sign of the objective case, or of what in Latin is called the dative, because it precedes no other case. If we suppose it to be a "part of the infinitive," or a "part of the verb," it is certainly no necessary part of either; because there is no verb which may not, in several different ways, be properly used in the infinitive without it. But if it be a part of the infinitive, it must be a verb, and ought to be classed with the auxiliaries. Dr. Ash accordingly placed it among the auxiliaries; but he says, (inaccurately, however,) "The auxiliary sign seems to have the nature of adverbs."--Grammatical Institutes, p. 33. "The auxiliary [signs] are, to, do, did, have, had, shall, will, may, can, must, might," &c.--Ib., p. 31.

OBS. 6.--It is clear, as I have already shown, that the word to may be a sign of the infinitive, and yet not be a part of it. Dr. Ash supposes, it may even be a part of the mood, and yet not be a part of the verb. How this can be, I see not, unless the mood consists in something else than either the form or the parts of the verb. This grammarian says, "In parsing, every word should be considered as a distinct part of speech: for though two or more words may be united to form a mode, a tense, or a comparison; yet it seems quite improper to unite two or more words to make a noun, a verb, an adjective, &c."--Gram. Inst., p. 28. All the auxiliaries, therefore, and the particle to among them, he parses separately; but he follows not his own advice, to make them distinct parts of speech; for he calls them all signs only, and signs are not one of his ten parts of speech. And the participle too, which is one of the ten, and which he declares to be "no part of the verb," he parses separately; calling it a verb, and not a participle, as often as it accompanies any of his auxiliary signs. This is certainly a greater impropriety than there can be in supposing an auxiliary and a participle to constitute a verb; for the mood and tense are the properties of the compound, and ought not to be ascribed to the principal term only. Not so with the preposition to before the infinitive, any more than with the conjunction if before the subjunctive. These may well be parsed as separate parts of speech; for these moods are sometimes formed, and are completely distinguished in each of their tenses, without the adding of these signs.

OBS. 7.--After a careful examination of what others have taught respecting this disputed point in grammar, I have given, in the preceding rule, that explanation which I consider to be the most correct and the most simple, and also as well authorized as any. Who first parsed the infinitive in this manner, I know not; probably those who first called the to a preposition; among whom were Lowth and the author of the old British Grammar. The doctrine did not originate with me, or with Comly, or with any American author. In Coar's English Grammar, published in London in 1796. the phrase to trample is parsed thus: "To--A preposition, serving for a sign of the infinitive mood to the verb Trample--A verb neuter, infinitive mood, present tense, governed by the preposition TO before it. RULE. The preposition to before a verb, is the sign of the infinitive mood." See the work, p. 263. This was written by a gentleman who speaks of his "long habit of teaching the Latin Tongue," and who was certainly partial enough to the principles of Latin grammar, since he adopts in English the whole detail of Latin cases.

OBS 8.--In Fisher's English Grammar, London, 1800, (of which there had been many earlier editions,) we find the following rule of syntax: "When two principal Verbs come together, the latter of them expresses an unlimited Sense, with the Preposition to before it; as he loved to learn; I chose to dance: and is called the infinitive Verb, which may also follow a Name or Quality; as, a Time to sing; a Book delightful to read." That this author supposed the infinitive to be governed by to, and not by the preceding verb, noun, or adjective, is plain from the following note, which he gives in his margin: "The Scholar will best understand this, by being told that infinite or invariable Verbs, having neither Number, Person, nor Nominative Word belonging to them, are known or governed by the Preposition TO coming before them. The Sign to is often understood; as, Bid Robert and his company (to) tarry."--Fisher's New Gram., p. 95.

OBS. 9.--The forms of parsing, and also the rules, which are given in the early English grammars, are so very defective, that it is often impossible to say positively, what their authors did, or did not, intend to teach. Dr. Lowth's specimen of "grammatical resolution" contains four infinitives. In his explanation of the first, the preposition and the verb are parsed separately, as above; except that he says nothing about government. In his account of the other three, the two words are taken together, and called a "verb, in the infinitive mode." But as he elsewhere calls the particle to a preposition, and nowhere speaks of any thing else as governing the infinitive, it seems fair to infer, that he conceived the verb to be the regimen of this preposition.[404] If such was his idea, we have the learned Doctor's authority in opposition to that of his professed admirers and copyists. Of these, Lindley Murray is doubtless the most famous. But Murray's twelfth rule of syntax, while it expressly calls to before the infinitive a preposition, absurdly takes away from it this regimen, and leaves us a preposition that governs nothing, and has apparently nothing to do with the relation of the terms between which it occurs.

OBS. 10.--Many later grammarians, perceiving the absurdity of calling to before the infinitive a preposition without supposing it to govern the verb, have studiously avoided this name; and have either made the "little word" a supernumerary part of speech, or treated it as no part of speech at all. Among these, if I mistake not, are Allen, Lennie, Bullions, Alger, Guy, Churchill, Hiley, Nutting, Mulligan, Spencer, and Wells. Except Comly, the numerous modifiers of Murray's Grammar are none of them more consistent, on this point, than was Murray himself. Such of them as do not follow him literally, either deny, or forbear to affirm, that to before a verb is a preposition; and consequently either tell us not what it is, or tell us falsely; some calling it "a part of the verb," while they neither join it to the verb as a prefix, nor include it among the auxiliaries. Thus Kirkham: "To is not a preposition when joined to a verb in this mood; thus, to ride, to rule; but it should be parsed with the verb, and as a part of it."--Gram. in Familiar Lect., p. 137. So R. C. Smith: "This little word to when used before verbs in this manner, is not a preposition, but forms a part of the verb, and, in parsing, should be so considered."--Productive Gram., p. 65. How can that be "a part of the verb," which is a word used before it? or how is to "joined to the verb," or made a part of it, in the phrase, "to ride?" But Smith does not abide by his own doctrine; for, in an other part of his book, he adopts the phraseology of Murray, and makes to a preposition: saying, "The preposition TO, though generally used before the latter verb, is sometimes properly omitted; as, 'I heard him say it;' instead of 'to say it.'"--Productive Gram., p. 156. See Murray's Rule 12th.

OBS. 11.--Most English grammarians have considered the word to as a part of the infinitive, a part of the verb; and, like the teachers of Latin, have referred the government of this mood to a preceding verb. But the rule which they give, is partial, and often inapplicable; and their exceptions to it, or the heterogeneous parts into which some of them divide it, are both numerous and puzzling. They teach that at least half of the ten different parts of speech "frequently govern the infinitive:" if so, there should be a distinct rule for each; for why should the government of one part of speech be made an exception to that of an other? and, if this be done, with respect to the infinitive, why not also with respect to the objective case? In all instances to which their rule is applicable, the rule which I have given, amounts to the same thing; and it obviates the necessity for their numerous exceptions, and the embarrassment arising from other constructions of the infinitive not noticed in them. Why then is the simplest solution imaginable still so frequently rejected for so much complexity and inconsistency? Or how can the more common rule in question be suitable for a child, if its applicability depends on a relation between the two verbs, which the preposition to sometimes expresses, and sometimes does not?

OBS. 12.--All authors admit that in some instances, the sign to is "superfluous and improper," the construction and government appearing complete without it; and the "Rev. Peter Bullions, D. D., Professor of Languages in the Albany Academy," has recently published a grammar, in which he adopts the common rule, "One verb governs another in the infinitive mood; as, I desire to learn;" and then remarks, "The infinitive after a verb is governed by it only when the attribute expressed by the infinitive is either the subject or [the] object of the other verb. In such expressions as I read to learn,' the infinitive is not governed by 'I read,' but depends on the phrase in order to understood."--Bullions's Prin. of E. Gram., p. 110. But, "I read 'in order to' to learn," is not English; though it might be, if either to were any thing else than a preposition: as, "Now set to to learn your lesson." This broad exception, therefore, which embraces well-nigh half the infinitives in the language, though it contains some obvious truth, is both carelessly stated, and badly resolved. The single particle to is quite sufficient, both to govern the infinitive, and to connect it to any antecedent term which can make sense with such an adjunct. But, in fact, the reverend author must have meant to use the "little word" but once; and also to deny that it is a preposition; for he elsewhere says expressly, though, beyond question, erroneously, "A preposition should never be used before the infinitive."--Ib., p. 92. And he also says, "The Infinitive mood expresses a thing in a general manner, without distinction of number, person, or time, and commonly has TO before it."--Ib., Second Edition, p. 35. Now if TO is "before" the mood, it is certainly not a part of it. And again, if this mood had no distinction of "time," our author's two tenses of it, and his own two special rules for their application, would be as absurd as is his notion of its government. See his Obs. 6 and 7, ib., p. 124.

OBS. 13.--Richard Hiley, too, a grammarian of perhaps more merit, is equally faulty in his explanation of the infinitive mood. In the first place, he absurdly says, "TO before the infinitive mood, is considered as forming part of the verb; but in every other situation it is a preposition."--Hiley's Gram., Third Edition, p. 28. To teach that a "part of the verb" stands "before the mood," is an absurdity manifestly greater, than the very opposite notion of Dr. Ash, that what is not a part of the verb, may yet be included in the mood. There is no need of either of these false suppositions; or of the suggestion, doubly false, that to "in every other situation, is a preposition." What does preposition mean? Is to a preposition when it is placed after a verb, and not a preposition when it is placed before it? For example: "I rise to shut to the door."--See Luke, xiii, 25.

OBS. 14.--In his syntax, this author further says, "When two verbs come together, the latter must be in the infinitive mood, when it denotes the object of the former; as, 'Study to improve.'" This is his Rule. Now look at his Notes. "1. When the latter verb does not express the object, but the end, or something remote, the word for, or the words in order to, are understood; as, 'I read to learn;' that is, 'I read for to learn,' or, 'in order [TO] to learn.' The word for, however, is never, in such instances, expressed in good language. 2. The infinitive is frequently governed by adjectives, substantives, and participles; but in this instance also, a preposition is understood, though never expressed; as, 'Eager to learn;' that is, 'eager for to learn;' or, for learning;' 'A desire to improve;' that is, for to improve.'"--Hiley's Gram., p. 89. Here we see the origin of some of Bullions's blunders. To is so small a word, it slips through the fingers of these gentlemen. Words utterly needless, and worse than needless, they foist into our language, in instances beyond number, to explain infinitives that occur at almost every breath. Their students must see that, "I read to learn," and, "I study to improve," with countless other examples of either sort, are very different constructions, and not to be parsed by the same rule! And here the only government of the infinitive which Hiley affirms, is immediately contradicted by the supposition of a needless for "understood."

OBS. 15.--In all such examples as, "I read to learn,"--"I strive to learn"--"Some eat to live,"--"Some live to eat,"--"She sings to cheer him,"--"I come to aid you,"--"I go to prepare a place for you,"--the action and its purpose are connected by the word to; and if, in the countless instances of this kind, the former verbs do not govern the latter, it is not because the phraseology is elliptical, or ever was elliptical,[405] but because in no case is there any such government, except in the construction of those verbs which take the infinitive after them without the preposition to. Professor Bullions will have the infinitive to be governed by a finite verb, "when the attribute expressed by the infinitive is the subject of the other verb." An infinitive may be made the subject of a finite verb; but this grammarian has mistaken the established meaning of subject, as well as of attribute, and therefore written nonsense. Dr. Johnson defines his adverb TO, "A particle coming between two verbs, and noting the second as the object of the first." But of all the words which, according to my opponents and their oracles, govern the infinitive, probably not more than a quarter are such verbs as usually have an object after them. Where then is the propriety of their notion of infinitive government? And what advantage has it, even where it is least objectionable?

OBS. 16.--Take for an example of this contrast the terms, "Strive to enter in--many will seek to enter in."--Luke, xiii, 24. Why should it be thought more eligible to say, that the verb strive or will seek governs the infinitive verb to enter; than to say, that to is a preposition, showing the relation between strive and enter, or between will seek and enter, and governing the latter verb? (See the exact and only needful form for parsing any such term, in the Twelfth Praxis of this work.) None, I presume, will deny, that in the Greek or the Latin of these phrases, the finite verbs govern the infinitive; or that, in the French, the infinitive entrer is governed first by one preposition, and then by an other. "Contendite intrare--multi quærent intrare."--Montanus. "Efforcez-vous dentrer--plusieurs chercheront à y entrer."--French Bible. In my opinion, to before a verb is as fairly a preposition as the French de or à; and it is the main design of these observations, while they candidly show the reader what others teach, to prove it so. The only construction which makes it any thing else, is that which puts it after a verb or a participle, in the sense of an adverbial supplement; as, "The infernal idol is bowed down to."--Herald of Freedom. "Going to and fro."--Bible. "At length he came to."--"Tell him to heave to."--"He was ready to set to." With singular absurdness of opinion, some grammarians call to a preposition, when it thus follows a verb and governs nothing, who resolutely deny it that name, when it precedes the verb, and requires it to be in the infinitive mood, as in the last two examples. Now, if this is not government, what is? And if to, without government, is not an adverb, what is? See Obs. 2d on the List of Prepositions.

OBS. 17.--The infinitive thus admits a simpler solution in English, than in most other languages; because we less frequently use it without a preposition, and seldom, if ever, allow any variety in this connecting and governing particle. And yet in no other language has its construction given rise to a tenth part of that variety of absurd opinions, which the defender of its true syntax must refute in ours. In French, the infinitive, though frequently placed in immediate dependence on an other verb, may also be governed by several different prepositions, (as, à, de, pour, sans, après,) according to the sense.[406] In Spanish and Italian, the construction is similar. In Latin and Greek, the infinitive is, for the most part, immediately dependent on an other verb. But, according to the grammars, it may stand for a noun, in all the six cases; and many have called it an indeclinable noun. See the Port-Royal Latin and Greek grammars; in which several peculiar constructions of the infinitive are referred to the government of a preposition--constructions that occur frequently in Greek, and sometimes even in Latin.

OBS. 18.--It is from an improper extension of the principles of these "learned languages" to ours, that much of the false teaching which has so greatly and so long embarrassed this part of English grammar, has been, and continues to be, derived. A late author, who supposes every infinitive to be virtually a noun, and who thinks he finds in ours all the cases of an English noun, not excepting the possessive, gives the following account of its origin and nature: "This mood, with almost all its properties and uses, has been adopted into our language from the ancient Greek and Latin tongues. * * * The definite article [Greek: tò] [,] the, which they [the Greeks] used before the infinitive, to mark, in an especial manner, its nature of a substantive, is evidently the same word that we use before our infinitive; thus, 'to write,' signifies the writing; that is, the action of writing;--and when a verb governs an infinitive, it only governs it as in the objective case."--Nixon's English Parser, p. 83. But who will believe, that our old Saxon ancestors borrowed from Greek or Latin what is now our construction of the very root of the English verb, when, in all likelihood, they could not read a word in either of those languages, or scarcely knew the letters in their own, and while it is plain that they took not thence even the inflection of a single branch of any verb whatever?

OBS. 19.--The particle to, being a very common preposition in the Saxon tongue, has been generally used before the English infinitive, ever since the English language, or any thing like it, existed. And it has always governed the verb, not indeed "as in the objective case," for no verb is ever declined by cases, but simply as the infinitive mood. In the Anglo-Saxon version of the Gospels, which was made as early as the eleventh century, the infinitive mood is sometimes expressed in this manner, and sometimes by the termination on without the preposition. Dr. Johnson's History of the English Language, prefixed to his large Dictionary, contains, of this version, and of Wickliffe's, the whole of the first chapter of Luke; except that the latter omits the first four verses, so that the numbers for reference do not correspond. Putting, for convenience, English characters for the Saxon, I shall cite here three examples from each; and these, if he will, the reader may compare with the 19th, the 77th, and the 79th verse, in our common Bible. SAXON: "And ic eom asend with the sprecan. and the this bodian."--Lucæ, i, 19. WICKLIFFE: "And Y am sent to thee to speke and to evangelise to thee these thingis."--Luk, i, 15. SAXON: "To syllene his folce hæle gewit on hyra synna forgyfnesse."--Lucæ, i, 77. WICKLIFFE: "To geve science of heelth to his puple into remissioun of her synnes."--Luk, i, 73. SAXON: "Onlyhtan tham the on thystrum and on deathes sceade sittath. ure fet to gereccenne on sibbe weg."--Lucæ, i, 79. WICKLIFFE: "To geve light to them that sitten in derknessis, and in schadowe of deeth, to dresse oure feet into the weye of pees."--Luk, i, 75. "In Anglo-Saxon," says Dr. Latham, "the dative of the infinitive verb ended in -nne, and was preceded by the preposition to: as, To lufienne = ad amandum [= to loving, or to love]; To bærnenne = ad urendum [= to burning, or to burn]; To syllanne = ad dandum [= to giving, or to give]."--Hand-Book, p. 205.

OBS. 20.--Such, then, has ever been the usual construction of the English infinitive mood; and a wilder interpretation than that which supposes to an article, and says, "to write signifies the writing," cannot possibly be put upon it. On this supposition, "I am going to write a letter," is a pure Grecism; meaning, "I am going the writing a letter," which is utter nonsense. And further, the infinitive in Greek and Latin, as well as in Saxon and English, is always in fact governed as a mood, rather than as a case, notwithstanding that the Greek article in any of its four different cases may, in some instances, be put before it; for even with an article before it, the Greek infinitive usually retains its regimen as a verb, and is therefore not "a substantive," or noun. I am well aware that some learned critics, conceiving that the essence of the verb consists in predication, have plainly denied that the infinitive is a verb; and, because it may be made the subject of a finite verb, or may be governed by a verb or a preposition, have chosen to call it "a mere noun substantive." Among these is the erudite Richard Johnson, who, with so much ability and lost labour, exposed, in his Commentaries, the errors and defects of Lily's Grammar and others. This author adduces several reasons for his opinion; one of which is the following: "Thirdly, it is found to have a Preposition set before it, an other sure sign of a Substantive; as, Ille nihil præter loqui, et ipsum maledicè et malignè, didicit.' Liv. l. 45, p. 888. [That is, "He learned nothing but to speak, and that slanderously and maliciously."] At si quis sibi beneficium dat, nihil interest inter dare et accipere.' Seneca, de Ben. l. 5, c. 10." [That is, "If any one bestows a benefit on himself, there is no difference between give and take;" [407]--or, "between bestowing and receiving."]--See Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 342. But I deny that a preposition is a "sure sign of a substantive." (See Obs. 2d on the Prepositions, and also Obs. 1st on the List of Prepositions, in the tenth chapter of Etymology.) And if we appeal to philological authorities, to determine whether infinitives are nouns or verbs, there will certainly be found more for the latter name, than the former; that is, more in number, if not in weight; though it must be confessed, that many of the old Latin grammarians did, as Priscian tells us, consider the infinitive a noun, calling it Nomen Verbi, the Name of the Verb.[408] If we appeal to reasons, there are more also of these;--or at least as many, and most of them better: as, 1. That the infinitive is often transitive; 2. That it has tenses; 3. That it is qualified by adverbs, rather than by adjectives; 4. That it is never declined like a noun; 5. That the action or state expressed by it, is not commonly abstract, though it may be so sometimes; 6. That in some languages it is the root from which all other parts of the verb are derived, as it is in English.

OBS. 21.--So far as I know, it has not yet been denied, that to before a participle is a preposition, or that a preposition before a participle governs it; though there are not a few who erroneously suppose that participles, by virtue of such government, are necessarily converted into nouns. Against this latter idea, there are many sufficient reasons; but let them now pass, because they belong not here. I am only going to prove, in this place, that to before the infinitive is just such a word as it is before the participle; and this can be done, call either of them what you will. It is plain, that if the infinitive and the participle are ever equivalent to each other, the same word to before them both must needs be equivalent to itself. Now I imagine there are some examples of each equivalence; as, "When we are habituated to doing [or to do] any thing wrong, we become blinded by it."--Young Christian, p. 326. "The lyre, or harp, was best adapted to accompanying [or to accompany] their declamations."--Music of Nature, p. 336. "The new beginner should be accustomed to giving [or to give] all the reasons for each part of speech."--Nutting's Gram., p. 88. "Which, from infecting our religion and morals, fell to corrupt [say, to corrupting] our language."--SWIFT: Blair's Rhet., p. 108. Besides these instances of sameness in the particle, there are some cases of constructional ambiguity, the noun and the verb having the same form, and the to not determining which is meant: as, "He was inclined to sleep."--"It must be a bitter experience, to be more accustomed to hate than to love." Here are double doubts for the discriminators: their "sign of the infinitive" fails, or becomes uncertain; because they do not know it from a preposition. Cannot my opponents see in these examples an argument against the distinction which they attempt to draw between to and to? An other argument as good, is also afforded by the fact, that our ancestors often used the participle after to, in the very same texts in which we have since adopted the infinitive in its stead; as, "And if yee wolen resceyue, he is Elie that is to comynge."--Matt., xi, 14. "Ihesu that delyueride us fro wraththe to comynge."--1 Thes., i, 10. These, and seventeen other examples of the same kind, may be seen in Tooke's Diversions of Purley, Vol. ii. pp. 457 and 458.

OBS. 22.--Dr. James P. Wilson, speaking of the English infinitive, says:--"But if the appellation of mode be denied it, it is then a verbal noun. This is indeed its truest character, because its idea ever represents an object of approach. To supplies the defect of a termination characteristic of the infinitive, precedes it, and marks it either as that, towards which the preceding verb is directed;[409] or it signifies act, and shows the word to import an action. When the infinitive is the expression of an immediate action, which it must be, after the verbs, bid, can, dare, do, feel, hear, let, make, may, must, need, see, shall, and will, the preposition TO is omitted."--Essay on Grammar, p. 129. That the truest character of the infinitive is that of a verbal noun, is not to be conceded, in weak abandonment of all the reasons for a contrary opinion, until it can be shown that the action or being expressed by it, must needs assume a substantive character, in order to be "that towards which the preceding verb is directed." But this character is manifestly not supposable of any of those infinitives which, according to the foregoing quotation, must follow other verbs without the intervention of the preposition to: as, "Bid him come;"--"He can walk." And I see no reason to suppose it, where the relation of the infinitive to an other word is not "immediate" but marked by the preposition, as above described. For example: "And he laboured till the going-down of the sun TO deliver him."--Dan., vi, 14. Here deliver is governed by to, and connected by it to the finite verb laboured; but to tell us, it is to be understood substantively rather than actively, is an assumption as false, as it is needless.

OBS. 23.--To deny to the infinitive the appellation of mood, no more makes it a verbal noun, than does the Doctor's solecism about what "ITS IDEA ever represents." "The infinitive therefore," as Horne Tooke observes, "appears plainly to be what the Stoics called it, the very verb itself, pure and uncompounded."--Diversions of Purley, Vol. i, p. 286. Not indeed as including the particle to, or as it stands in the English perfect tense, but as it occurs in the simple root. But I cited Dr. Wilson, as above, not so much with a design of animadverting again on this point, as with reference to the import of the particle to; of which he furnishes a twofold explanation, leaving the reader to take which part he will of the contradiction. He at first conceives it to convey in general the idea of "towards," and to mark the infinitive as a term "towards which" something else "is directed." If this interpretation is the true one, it is plain that to before a verb is no other than the common preposition to; and this idea is confirmed by its ancient usage, and by all that is certainly known of its derivation. But if we take the second solution, and say, "it signifies act," we make it not a preposition, but either a noun or a verb; and then the question arises, Which of these is it? Besides, what sense can there be, in supposing to go to mean act go, or to be equivalent to do go.[410]

OBS. 24.--Though the infinitive is commonly made an adjunct to some finite verb, yet it may be connected to almost all the other parts of speech, or even to an other infinitive. The preposition to being its only and almost universal index, we seldom find any other preposition put before this; unless the word about, in such a situation, is a preposition, as I incline to think it is.[411] Anciently, the infinitive was sometimes preceded by for as well as to; as, "I went up to Jerusalem for to worship."--Acts, xxiv, 11. "What went ye out for to see?"--Luke, vii, 26. "And stood up for to read."--Luke, iv, 16. Here modern usage rejects the former preposition: the idiom is left to the uneducated. But it seems practicable to subjoin the infinitive to every one of the ten parts of speech, except the article: as,

1. To a noun; as, "If there is any precept to obtain felicity."--Hawkesworth. "It is high time to awake out of sleep."--Rom., xiii, 11. "To flee from the wrath to come."--Matt., iii, 7.

2. To an adjective; as, "He seemed desirous to speak, yet unwilling to offend."--Hawkesworth. "He who is the slowest to promise, is the quickest to perform."--Art of Thinking, p. 35.

3. To a pronoun; as, "I discovered him to be a scholar."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 166. "Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Cæsar?"--Luke, xx, 22. "Let me desire you to reflect impartially."--BLAIR: Murray's Eng. Reader, p. 77. "Whom hast thou then or what t' accuse?"--Milton, P. L., iv, 67.

4. To a finite verb; as, "Then Peter began to rebuke him."--Matt., xvi, 22. "The Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."--Luke, xix, 10.

5. To an other infinitive; as, "To go to enter into Egypt."--Jer., xli, 17. "We are not often willing to wait to consider."--J. Abbott. "For what had he to do to chide at me?"--Shak.

6. To a participle; as, "Still threatening to devour me."--Milton. "Or as a thief bent to unhoard the cash of some rich burgher."--Id.

7. To an adverb; as, "She is old enough to go to school."--"I know not how to act."--Nutting's Gram., p. 106. "Tell me when to come, and where to meet you."--"He hath not where to lay his head."

8. To a conjunction; as, "He knows better than to trust you."--"It was so hot as to melt these ornaments."--"Many who praise virtue, do no more than praise it."--Dr. Johnson.

9. To a preposition; as, "I was about to write."--Rev., x, 4. "Not for to hide it in a hedge."--Burns's Poems, p. 42. "Amatum iri, To be about to be loved."--Adam's Gram., p. 95.[412]

10. To an interjection; as, "O to forget her!"--Young's Night Thoughts.

OBS. 25.--The infinitive is the mere verb, without affirmation, without person or number, and therefore without the agreement peculiar to a finite verb. (See Obs. 8th on Rule 2d.) But, in most instances, it is not without limitation of the being, action, or passion, to some particular person or persons, thing or things, that are said, supposed, or denied, to be, to act, or to be acted upon. Whenever it is not thus limited, it is taken abstractly, and has some resemblance to a noun: because it then suggests the being, action, or passion alone: though, even then, the active infinitive may still govern the objective case; and it may also be easy to imagine to whom or to what the being, action, or passion, naturally pertains. The uses of the infinitive are so many and various, that it is no easy matter to classify them accurately. The following are unquestionably the chief of the things for which it may stand:

1. For the supplement to an other verb, to complete the sense; as, "Loose him, and let him go."--John, xi, 44. "They that go to seek mixed wine."--Prov., xxiii, 30. "His hands refuse to labour."--Ib., xxi, 25. "If you choose to have those terms."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 374. "How our old translators first struggled to express this."--Ib., ii, 456. "To any one who will please to examine our language."--Ib., ii, 444. "They are forced to give up at last."--Ib., ii, 375. "Which ought to be done."--Ib., ii, 451. "Which came to pass."--Acts, xi, 28. "I dare engage to make it out."--Swift.

2. For the purpose, or end, of that to which it is added; as, "Each has employed his time and pains to establish a criterion."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 374. "I shall not stop now, to assist in their elucidation."--Ib., ii, 75. "Our purposes are not endowed with words to make them known."--Ib., ii, 74. [A] "TOOL is some instrument taken up to work with."--Ib., ii, 145. "Labour not to be rich."--Prov., xxiii, 4. "I flee unto thee to hide me."--Ps., cxliii, 9. "Evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him."--Ib., cxl, 11.

3. For the object of an affection or passion; as, "He loves to ride."--"I desire to hear her speak again."--Shale. "If we wish to avoid important error."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 3. "Who rejoice to do evil."--Prov., ii, 14. "All agreeing in earnestness to see him."--Shak. "Our curiosity is raised to know what lies beyond."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 335.

4. For the cause of an affection or passion; as, "I rejoice to hear it."--"By which I hope to have laid a foundation," &c.--Blair's Rhet., p. 34. "For he made me mad, to see him shine so brisk, and smell so sweet."--Beauties of Shak., p. 118. "Thou didst eat strange flesh, which some did die to look on."--Ib., p. 182. "They grieved to see their best allies at variance."--Rev. W. Allen's Gram., p. 165.

5. For the subject of a proposition, or the chief term in such subject; as, "To steal is sinful."--"To do justice and judgement, is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice."--Prov., xxi, 3. "To do RIGHT, is, to do that which is ordered to be done."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 7. "To go to law to plague a neighbour, has in it more of malice, than of love to justice."--Seattle's Mor. Sci., i, 177.

6. For the predicate of a proposition, or the chief term in such predicate; as, "To enjoy is to obey."--Pope. "The property of rain is to wet, and fire, to burn."--Beauties of Shak., p. 15. "To die is to be banished from myself."--Ib., p. 82. "The best way is, to slander Valentine."--Ib., p. 83. "The highway of the upright is to depart from evil."--Prov., xvi, 17.

7. For a coming event, or what will be; as, "A mutilated structure soon to fall."--Cowper. "He being dead, and I speedily to follow him."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 111. "She shall rejoice in time to come."--Prov., xxxi, 25. "Things present, or things to come."--1 Cor., iii, 22.

8. For a necessary event, or what ought to be; as, "It is to be remembered."--"It is never to be forgotten."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 2. "An oversight much to be deplored."--Ib., ii, 460. "The sign is not to be used by itself, or to stand alone; but is to be joined to some other term."--Ib., ii, 372. "The Lord's name is to be praised."--Ps., cxiii, 3.

9. For what is previously suggested by another word; as, "I have faith to believe."--"The glossarist did well here not to yield to his inclination."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 329. "It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord."--Ps., xcii, 1. "It is as sport to a fool to do mischief."--Prov., x, 23. "They have the gift to know it."--Shak. "We have no remaining occupation but to take care of the public."--Art of Thinking, p. 52.

10. For a term of comparison or measure; as, "He was so much affected as to weep."--"Who could do no less than furnish him."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 408. "I shall venture no farther than to explain the nature and convenience of these abbreviations."--Ib., ii, 439. "I have already said enough to show what sort of operation that is."--Ib., ii, 358.

OBS. 26.--After dismissing all the examples which may fairly be referred to one or other of the ten heads above enumerated, an observant reader may yet find other uses of the infinitive, and those so dissimilar that they can hardly be reduced to any one head or rule; except that all are governed by the preposition to, which points towards or to the verb; as, "A great altar to see to."--Joshua, xxii, 10. "[Greek: Bomon megan tou idein]."--Septuagint. That is, "An altar great to behold." "Altare infinitæ magnitudinis."--Vulgate. "Un fort grand autel."--French Bible. "Easy to be entreated."--Jos., iii, 17. "There was none to help."--Ps., cvii, 12. "He had rained down manna upon them to eat."--Ps., lxxviii, 24. "Remember his commandments to do them."--Ps., viii, 18. "Preserve thou those that are appointed to die."--Ps., lxxix, 11. "As coals to burning coals, and as wood to fire; so is a contentious man to kindle strife."--Prov., xxvi, 21. "These are far beyond the reach and power of any kings to do away."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 126. "I know not indeed what to do with those words."--Ib., ii, 441. "They will be as little able to justify their innovation."--Ib., ii, 448. "I leave you to compare them."--Ib., ii, 458. "There is no occasion to attribute it."--Ib., ii, 375. "There is no day for me to look upon."--Beauties of Shak., p. 82. "Having no external thing to lose."--Ib., p. 100. "I'll never be a gosling to obey instinct."--Ib., p. 200. "Whereto serves mercy, but to confront the visage of offence?"--Ib., p. 233. "If things do not go to suit him."--Liberator, ix, 182. "And, to be plain, I think there is not half a kiss to choose, who loves an other best."--Shak., p. 91. "But to return to R. Johnson's instance of good man."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 370. Our common Bibles have this text: "And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all to break his skull."--Judges, ix, 53. Perhaps the interpretation of this may be, "and so as completely to break his skull." The octavo edition stereotyped by "the Bible Association of Friends in America," has it, "and all-to brake his skull." This, most probably, was supposed by the editors to mean, "and completely broke his skull;" but all-to is no proper compound word, and therefore the change is a perversion. The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the common French version, all accord with the simple indicative construction, "and broke his skull."

OBS. 27.--According to Lindley Murray, "The infinitive mood is often made absolute, or used independently on [say of] the rest of the sentence, supplying the place of the conjunction that with the potential mood: as, To confess the truth, I was in fault;' To begin with the first;' To proceed;' 'To conclude;' that is, 'That I may confess,' &c."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 184; Ingersoll's Gram., p. 244. Some other compilers have adopted the same doctrine. But on what ground the substitution of one mood for the other is imagined, I see not. The reader will observe that this potential mood is here just as much "made absolute," as is the infinitive; for there is nothing expressed to which the conjunction that connects the one phrase, or the preposition to the other. But possibly, in either case, there may be an ellipsis of some antecedent term; and surely, if we imagine the construction to be complete without any such term, we make the conjunction the more anomalous word of the two. Confession of the truth, is here the aim of speaking, but not of what is spoken. The whole sentence may be, "In order to confess the truth, I admit that I was in fault." Or, "In order that I may confess the truth, I admit that I was in fault." I do not deny, that the infinitive, or a phrase of which the infinitive is a part, is sometimes put absolute; for, if it is not so in any of the foregoing examples, it appears to be so in the following: "For every object has several faces, so to speak, by which it may be presented to us."--Blair's Rhet., p. 41. "To declare a thing shall be, long before it is in being, and then to bring about the accomplishment of that very thing, according to the same declaration; this, or nothing, is the work of God."--Justin Martyr.

  "To be, or not to be;--that is the question."--Shakspeare.
  "To die;--to sleep;--To sleep! perchance, to dream!"--Id., Hamlet.

OBS. 28.--The infinitive usually follows the word on which it depends, or to which the particle to connects it; but this order is sometimes reversed: as, "To beg I am ashamed."--Luke, xvi, 3. "To keep them no longer in suspense, [I say plainly,] Sir Roger de Coverly is dead."--Addison. "To suffer, as to do, Our strength is equal."--Milton.

  "To catch your vivid scenes, too gross her hand."--Thomson.

OBS. 29.--Though, in respect to its syntax, the infinitive is oftener connected with a verb, a participle, or an adjective, than with a noun or a pronoun, it should never be so placed that the reader will be liable to mistake the person to whom, or the thing to which, the being, action, or passion, pertains. Examples of error: "This system will require a long time to be executed as it should be."--Journal of N. Y. Lit. Convention, 1830, p. 91. It is not the time, that is to be executed; therefore say, "This system, to be executed as it should be, will require a long time." "He spoke in a manner distinct enough to be heard by the whole assembly."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 192. This implies that the orator's manner was heard! But the grammarian interprets his own meaning, by the following alternative: "Or--He spoke distinctly enough to be heard by the whole assembly."--Ibid. This suggests that the man himself was heard. "When they hit upon a figure that pleases them, they are loth to part with it, and frequently continue it so long, as to become tedious and intricate."--Murray's Gram., p. 341. Is it the authors, or their figure, that becomes tedious and intricate? If the latter, strike out, "so long, as to become," and say, "till it becomes." "Facts are always of the greatest consequence to be remembered during the course of the pleading."--Blair's Rhet., p. 272. The rhetorician here meant: "The facts stated in an argument, are always those parts of it, which it is most important that the hearers should be made to remember."

OBS. 30.--According to some grammarians, "The Infinitive of the verb to be, is often understood; as, 'I considered it [to be] necessary to send the dispatches.'"--W. Allen's Gram., p. 166. In this example, as in thousands more, of various forms, the verb to be may be inserted without affecting the sense; but I doubt the necessity of supposing an ellipsis in such sentences. The adjective or participle that follows, always relates to the preceding objective; and if a noun is used, it is but an other objective in apposition with the former: as, "I considered it an imposition." The verb to be, with the perfect participle, forms the passive infinitive; and the supposition of such an ellipsis, extensively affects one's mode of parsing. Thus, "He considered himself insulted," "I will suppose the work accomplished," and many similar sentences, might be supposed to contain passive infinitives. Allen says, "In the following construction, the words in italics are (elliptically) passive infinitives; I saw the bird caught, and the hare killed; we heard the letters read."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 168. Dr. Priestley observes, "There is a remarkable ambiguity in the use of the participle preterite, as the same word may express a thing either doing, or done; as, I went to see the child dressed."--Priestley's Gram., p. 125. If the Doctor's participle is ambiguous, I imagine that Allen's infinitives are just as much so. "The participle which we denominate past, often means an action whilst performing: thus, I saw the battle fought, and the standard lowered."--Wilson's Essay, p. 158. Sometimes, especially in familiar conversation, an infinitive verb is suppressed, and the sign of it retained; as, "They might have aided us; they ought to" [have aided us].--Herald of Freedom. "We have tried to like it, but it's hard to."--Lynn News.

OBS. 31.--After the verb make, some writers insert the verb be, and suppress the preposition to; as, "He must make every syllable, and even every letter, in the word which he pronounces, be heard distinctly."--Blair's Rhet., p. 329; Murray's E. Reader, p. 9. "You must make yourself be heard with pleasure and attention."--Duncan's Cicero, p. 84. "To make himself be heard by all."--Blair's Rhet., p. 328. "To make ourselves be heard by one."--Ibid. "Clear enough to make me be understood."--Locke, on Ed., p. 198. In my opinion, it would be better, either to insert the to, or to use the participle only; as, "The information which he possessed, made his company to be courted."--Dr. M'Rie. "Which will both show the importance of this rule, and make the application of it to be understood."--Blair's Rhet., p. 103. Or, as in these brief forms: "To make himself heard by all."--"Clear enough to make me understood."

OBS. 32.--In those languages in which the infinitive is distinguished as such by its termination, this part of the verb may be used alone as the subject of a finite verb; but in English it is always necessary to retain the sign to before an abstract infinitive, because there is nothing else to distinguish the verb from a noun. Here we may see a difference between our language and the French, although it has been shown, that in their government of the infinitive they are in some degree analogous:--"HAÏR est un tourment; AIMER est un besoin de l'âme."--M. de Ségur. "To hate is a torment; to love is a requisite of the soul." If from this any will argue that to is not here a preposition, the same argument will be as good, to prove that for is not a preposition when it governs the objective case; because that also may be used without any antecedent term of relation: as, "They are by no means points of equal importance, for me to be deprived of your affections, and for him to be defeated in his prosecution."--Anon., in W. Allen's Gram., p. 166. I said, the sign to must always be put before an abstract infinitive: but possibly a repetition of this sign may not always be necessary, when several such infinitives occur in the same construction: as, "But, to fill a heart with joy, restore content to the afflicted, or relieve the necessitous, these fall not within the reach of their five senses."--Art of Thinking, p. 66. It may be too much to affirm, that this is positively ungrammatical; yet it would be as well or better, to express it thus: "But to relieve the necessitous, to restore content to the afflicted, and to fill a heart with joy, these full not within the reach of their five senses."

OBS. 33.--In the use of the English infinitive, as well as of the participle in ing, the distinction of voice is often disregarded; the active form being used in what, with respect to the noun before it, is a passive sense: as, "There's no time to waste."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 82. "You are to blame."--Ib. "The humming-bird is delightful to look upon."--Ib. "What pain it was to drown."--Shak. "The thing's to do."--Id. "When deed of danger was to do."--Scott. "The evil I bring upon myself, is the hardest to bear."--Home's Art of Thinking, p. 27. "Pride is worse to bear than cruelty."--Ib., p. 37. These are in fact active verbs, and not passive. We may suggest agents for them, if we please; as, "There is no time for us to waste." That the simple participle in ing may be used passively, has been proved elsewhere. It seems sometimes to have no distinction of voice; as, "What is worth doing, is worth doing well."--Com. Maxim. This is certainly much more agreeable, than to say, "What is worth being done, is worth being done well." In respect to the voice of the infinitive, and of this participle, many of our grammarians are obviously hypercritical. For example: "The active voice should not be used for the passive; as, I have work to do: a house to sell, to let, instead of to be done, to be sold, to be let."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 220. "Active verbs are often used improperly with a passive signification, as, 'the house is building, lodgings to let, he has a house to sell, nothing is wanting;' in stead of 'the house is being built, lodgings to be lett, he has a house to be sold, nothing is wanted.'"--Blair's Gram., p. 64. In punctuation, orthography, and the use of capitals, here are more errors than it is worth while to particularize. With regard to such phraseology as, "The house is being built," see, in Part II, sundry Observations on the Compound Form of Conjugation. To say, "I have work to do,"--"He has a house to sell,"--or, "We have lodgings to let," is just as good English, as to say, "I have meat to eat."--John, iv, 32. And who, but some sciolist in grammar, would, in all such instances, prefer the passive voice?


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XVIII.

INFINITIVES DEMANDING THE PARTICLE TO.

"William, please hand me that pencil."--R. C. Smith's New Gram., p. 12.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the infinitive verb hand is not preceded by the preposition to. But, according to Rule 18th, "The preposition to governs the infinitive mood, and commonly connects it to a finite verb." Therefore, to should be here inserted; thus, "William, please to hand me that pencil."]

"Please insert points so as to make sense."--Davis's Gram., p. 123. "I have known Lords abbreviate almost the half of their words."--Cobbett's English Gram., ¶ 153. "We shall find the practice perfectly accord with the theory."--Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 23. "But it would tend to obscure, rather than elucidate the subject."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 95. "Please divide it for them as it should be."--Willett's Arith., p. 193. "So as neither to embarrass, nor weaken the sentence."--Blair's Rhet., p. 116; Murray's Gram., 322. "Carry her to his table, to view his poor fare,[413] and hear his heavenly discourse."--SHERLOCK: Blair's Rhet., p. 157; Murray's Gram., 347. "That we need not be surprised to find this hold in eloquence."--Blair's Rhet., p. 174. "Where he has no occasion either to divide or explain."--Ib., p. 305. "And they will find their pupils improve by hasty and pleasant steps."--Russell's Gram., Pref., p. 4. "The teacher however will please observe," &c.--Infant School Gram., p. 8. "Please attend to a few rules in what is called syntax."--Ib., p. 128. "They may dispense with the laws to favor their friends, or secure their office."--Webster's Essays, p. 39. "To take back a gift, or break a contract, is a wanton abuse."--Ib., p. 41. "The legislature has nothing to do, but let it bear its own price."--Ib., p. 315. "He is not to form, but copy characters."--Rambler, No. 122. "I have known a woman make use of a shoeing-horn."--Spect., No. 536. "Finding this experiment answer, in every respect, their wishes."--Sandford and Merton, p. 51. "In fine let him cause his argument conclude in the term of the question."--Barclay's Works, Vol. iii, p. 443.

  "That he permitted not the winds of heaven
   Visit her face too roughly."--Shakspeare, Hamlet.


RULE XIX.--INFINITIVES. The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the Infinitive after them without the preposition to: as, "If he bade thee depart, how darest thou stay?"--"I dare not let my mind be idle as I walk in the streets."--Cotton Mather.

  "Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,
   Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep."
       --Pope's Homer.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XIX.

OBS. 1.--Respecting the syntax of the infinitive mood when the particle to is not expressed before it, our grammarians are almost as much at variance, as I have shown them to be, when they find the particle employed. Concerning verbs governed by verbs, Lindley Murray, and some others, are the most clear and positive, where their doctrine is the most obviously wrong; and, where they might have affirmed with truth, that the former verb governs the latter, they only tell us that "the preposition TO is sometimes properly omitted,"--or that such and such verbs "have commonly other verbs following them without the sign TO."--Murray's Gram., p. 183; Alger's, 63; W. Allen's, 167, and others. If these authors meant, that the preposition to is omitted by ellipsis, they ought to have said so. Then the many admirers and remodellers of Murray's Grammar might at least have understood him alike. Then, too, any proper definition of ellipsis must have proved both them and him to be clearly wrong about this construction also. If the word to is really "understood," whenever it is omitted after bid, dare, feel, &c., as some authors, affirm, then is it here the governing word, if anywhere; and this nineteenth rule, however common, is useless to the parser.[414] Then, too, does no English verb ever govern the infinitive without governing also a preposition, "expressed or understood." Whatever is omitted by ellipsis, and truly "understood," really belongs to the grammatical construction; and therefore, if inserted, it cannot be actually improper, though it may be unnecessary. But all our grammarians admit, that to before the infinitive is sometimes "superfluous and improper."--Murray's Gram., p. 183. I imagine, there cannot be any proper ellipsis of to before the infinitive, except in some forms of comparison; because, wherever else it is necessary, either to the sense or to the construction, it ought to be inserted. And wherever the to is rightly used, it is properly the governing word; but where it cannot be inserted without impropriety, it is absurd to say, that it is "understood." The infinitive that is put after such a verb or participle as excludes the preposition to, is governed by this verb or participle, if it is governed by any thing: as,

  "To make them do, undo, eat, drink, stand, move,
   Talk, think, and feel, exactly as he chose."--Pollok, p. 69.

OBS. 2.--Ingersoll, who converted Murray's Grammar into "Conversations," says, "I will just remark to you that the verbs in the infinitive mood, that follow make, need, see, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, and their participles, are always GOVERNED by them."--Conv. on Eng. Gram., p. 120. Kirkham, who pretended to turn the same book into "Familiar Lectures," says, "To, the sign of the infinitive mood, is often understood before the verb; as, 'Let me proceed;' that is, Let me to proceed."--Gram. in Fam. Lect., p. 137. The lecturer, however, does not suppose the infinitive to be here governed by the preposition to, or the verb let, but rather by the pronoun me. For, in an other place, he avers, that the infinitive may be governed by a noun or a pronoun; as, "Let him do it."--Ib., p. 187. Now if the government of the infinitive is to be referred to the objective noun or pronoun that intervenes, none of those verbs that take the infinitive after them without the preposition, will usually be found to govern it, except dare and need; and if need, in such a case, is an auxiliary, no government pertains to that. R. C. Smith, an other modifier of Murray, having the same false notion of ellipsis, says, "To, the usual sign of this mood, is sometimes understood; as, 'Let me go,' instead of, 'Let me to go.'"--Smith's New Gram., p. 65. According to Murray, whom these men profess to follow, let, in all these examples, is an auxiliary, and the verb that follows it, is not in the infinitive mood, but in the imperative. So they severally contradict their oracle, and all are wrong, both he and they! The disciples pretend to correct their master, by supposing "Let me to go," and "Let me to proceed," good English!

OBS. 3.--It is often impossible to say by what the infinitive is governed, according to the instructions of Murray, or according to any author who does not parse it as I do. Nutting says, "The infinitive mode sometimes follows the comparative conjunctions, as, than, and how, WITHOUT GOVERNMENT."--Practical Gram., p. 106. Murray's uncertainty[415] may have led to some part of this notion, but the idea that how is a "comparative conjunction," is a blunder entirely new. Kirkham is so puzzled by "the language of that eminent philologist," that he bolts outright from the course of his guide, and runs he knows not whither; feigning that other able writers have well contended, "that this mood IS NOT GOVERNED by any particular word." Accordingly he leaves his pupils at liberty to "reject the idea of government, as applied to the verb in this mood;" and even frames a rule which refers it always "To some noun or pronoun, as its subject or actor."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 188. Murray teaches that the object of the active verb sometimes governs the infinitive that follows it: as, "They have a desire to improve."--Octavo Gram., p. 184. To what extent, in practice, he would carry this doctrine, nobody can tell; probably to every sentence in which this object is the antecedent term to the preposition to, and perhaps further: as, "I have a house to sell"--Nutting's Gram., p. 106. "I feel a desire to excel." "I felt my heart within me die."--Merrick.

OBS. 4.--Nutting supposes that the objective case before the infinitive always governs it wherever it denotes the agent of the infinitive action; as, "He commands me to write a letter."--Practical Gram., p. 96. Nixon, on the contrary, contends, that the finite verb, in such a sentence, can govern only one object, and that this object is the infinitive. "The objective case preceding it," he says, "is the subject or agent of that infinitive, and not governed by the preceding verb." His example is, "Let them go."--English Parser, p. 97. "In the examples, 'He is endeavouring to persuade them to learn,'--'It is pleasant to see the sun,'--the pronoun them, the adjective pleasant, and the participle endeavouring, I consider as governing the following verb in the infinitive mode."--Cooper's Plain and Pract. Gram., p. 144. "Some erroneously say that pronouns govern the infinitive mode in such examples as this: 'I expected him to be present.' We will change the expression: 'He was expected to be present.' All will admit that to be is governed by was expected. The same verb that governs it in the passive voice, governs it in the active."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 144. So do our professed grammarians differ about the government of the infinitive, even in the most common constructions of it! Often, however, it makes but little difference in regard to the sense, which of the two words is considered the governing or antecedent term; but where the preposition is excluded, the construction seems to imply some immediate influence of the finite verb upon the infinitive.

OBS. 5.--The extent of this influence, or of such government, has never yet been clearly determined. "This irregularity," says Murray, "extends only to active or neuter verbs: ['active and neuter verbs,' says Fisk:] for all the verbs above mentioned, when made passive, require the preposition to before the following verb: as, 'He was seen to go;' 'He was heard to speak;' 'They were bidden to be upon their guard.'"--Murray's Gram., p. 183. Fisk adds with no great accuracy "In the past and future tenses of the active voice also, these verbs generally require the sign to, to be prefixed to the following verbs; as, 'You have dared to proceed without authority;' 'They will not dare to attack you.'"--Gram. Simplified, p. 125. What these gentlemen here call "neuter verbs," are only the two words dare and need, which are, in most cases, active, though not always transitive; unless the infinitive itself can make them so--an inconsistent doctrine of theirs which I have elsewhere refuted. (See Obs. 3rd on Rule 5th.) These two verbs take the infinitive after them without the preposition, only when they are intransitive; while all the rest seem to have this power, only when they are transitive. If there are any exceptions, they shall presently be considered. A more particular examination of the construction proper for the infinitive after each of these eight verbs, seems necessary for a right understanding of the rule.

OBS. 6.--Of the verb BID. This verb, in any of its tenses, when it commands an action, usually governs an object and also an infinitive, which come together; as, "Thou bidst the world adore."--Thomson. "If the prophet had bid thee do some great thing."--2 Kings, v, 13. But when it means, to promise or offer, the infinitive that follows, must be introduced by the preposition to; as, "He bids fair to excel them all"--"Perhaps no person under heaven bids more unlikely to be saved."--Brown's Divinity, p. vii. "And each bade high to win him."--GRANVILLE: Joh. Dict. After the compound forbid, the preposition is also necessary; as, "Where honeysuckles forbid the sun to enter."--Beauties of Shak.. p. 57. In poetry, if the measure happens to require it, the word to is sometimes allowed after the simple verb bid, denoting a command; as,

  "Bid me to strike my dearest brother dead,
   To bring my aged father's hoary head."--Rowe's Lucan, B. i, l. 677.

OBS. 7.--Of the verb DARE. This verb, when used intransitively, and its irregular preterit durst, which is never transitive, usually take the infinitive after them without to; as, "I dare do all that may become a man: Who dares do more, is none."--Shakspeare. "If he durst steal any thing adventurously."--Id. "Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms."--Milton. "Like one who durst his destiny control."--Dryden. In these examples, the former verbs have some resemblance to auxiliaries, and the insertion of the preposition to would be improper. But when we take away this resemblance, by giving dare or dared, an objective case, the preposition is requisite before the infinitive; as, "Time! I dare thee to discover Such a youth or such a lover."--Dryden. "He dares me to enter the lists."--Fisk's Gram., p. 125. So when dare itself is in the infinitive mood, or is put after an auxiliary, the preposition is not improper; as, "And let a private man dare to say that it will."--Brown's Estimate, ii, 147. "Would its compiler dare to affront the Deity?"--West's Letters, p. 151. "What power so great, to dare to disobey?"--Pope's Homer. "Some would even dare to die."--Bible. "What would dare to molest him?"--Dr. Johnson. "Do you dare to prosecute such a creature as Vaughan?"--Junius, Let. xxxiii. Perhaps these examples might be considered good English, either with or without the to; but the last one would be still better thus: "Dare you prosecute such a creature as Vaughan?" Dr. Priestley thinks the following sentence would have been better with the preposition inserted: "Who have dared defy the worst."--HARRIS: Priestley's Gram., p. 132. To is sometimes used after the simple verb, in the present tense; as, "Those whose words no one dares to repeat."--Opie, on Lying, p. 147.

  "Dare I to leave of humble prose the shore?"
       --Young, p. 377.
  "Against heaven's endless mercies pour'd, how dar'st thou to rebel?"
       --Id., p. 380.
  "The man who dares to be a wretch, deserves still greater pain."
       --Id., p. 381.

OBS. 8.--Of the verb FEEL. This verb, in any of its tenses, may govern the infinitive without the sign to; but it does this, only when it is used transitively, and that in regard to a bodily perception: as, "I feel it move."--"I felt something sting me." If we speak of feeling any mental affection, or if we use the verb intransitively, the infinitive that follows, requires the preposition; as, "I feel it to be my duty."--"I felt ashamed to ask."--"I feel afraid to go alone."--"I felt about, to find the door." One may say of what is painful to the body, "I feel it to be severe."

OBS. 9.--Of the verb HEAR. This verb is often intransitive, but it is usually followed by an objective case when it governs the infinitive; as. "To hear a bird sing."--Webster. "You have never heard me say so." For this reason, I am inclined to think that those sentences in which it appears to govern the infinitive alone, are elliptical; as, "I have heard tell of such things."--"And I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it."--Gen, xli, 15. Such examples may be the same as. "I have heard people tell,"--"I have heard men say," &c.

OBS. 10.--Of the verb LET. By many grammarians this verb has been erroneously called an auxiliary of the optative mood; or, as Dr. Johnson terms it, "a sign of the optative mood:" though none deny, that it is sometimes also a principal verb. It is, in fact, always a principal verb; because, as we now apply it, it is always transitive. It commonly governs an objective noun or pronoun, and also an infinitive without the sign to; as, "Rise up, let us go."--Mark. "Thou shalt let it rest."--Exodus. But sometimes the infinitive coalesces with it more nearly than the objective, so that the latter is placed after both verbs; as, "The solution lets go the mercury."--Newton. "One lets slip out of his account a good part of that duration."--Locke. "Back! on your lives; let be, said he, my prey."--Dryden. The phrase, let go, is sometimes spoken for, let go your hold; and let be, for let him be, let it be, &c. In such instances, therefore, the verb let is not really intransitive. This verb, even in the passive form, may have the infinitive after it without the preposition to; as, "Nothing is let slip."--Walker's English Particles, p. 165. "They were let go in peace."--Acts, xv, 33. "The stage was never empty, nor the curtain let fall."--Blair's Rhet., p. 459. "The pye's question was wisely let fall without a reply."--L'Estrange. With respect to other passives, Murray and Fisk appear to be right; and sometimes the preposition is used after this one: as, "There's a letter for you, sir, if your name be Horatio, as I am let to know it is."--Shakspeare. Let, when used intransitively, required the preposition to before the following infinitive; as, "He would not let [i. e. forbear] to counsel the king."--Bacon. But this use of let is now obsolete.

OBS. 11.--Of the verb MAKE. This verb, like most of the others, never immediately governs an infinitive, unless it also governs a noun or a pronoun which is the immediate subject of such infinitive; as, "You make me blush."--"This only made the youngster laugh"--Webster's Spelling-Book. "Which soon made the young chap hasten down."--Ib. But in very many instances it is quite proper to insert the preposition where this verb is transitive; as, "He maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak."--Mark, vii, 37. "He makes the excellency of a sentence to consist in four things."--Blair's Rhet., p. 122; Jamieson's, 124. "It is this that makes the observance of the dramatic unities to be of consequence."--Blair's Rhet., p. 464. "In making some tenses of the English verb to consist of principal and auxiliary."--Murray's Gram., p. 76. "When make is intransitive, it has some qualifying word after it, besides the sign of the infinitive; as,--I think he will make out to pay his debts." Formerly, the preposition to was almost always inserted to govern the infinitive after make or made; as, "Lest I make my brother to offend."--1 Cor., viii, 13. "He made many to fall."--Jer., xlvi, 16. Yet, in the following text, it is omitted, even where the verb is meant to be passive: "And it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man."--Dan., vii, 4. This construction is improper, and not free from ambiguity; because stand may be a noun, and made, an active verb governing it. There may also be uncertainty in the meaning, where the insertion of the preposition leaves none in the construction; for made may signify either created or compelled, and the infinitive after it, may denote either the purpose of creation, or the effect of any temporary compulsion: as, "We are made to be serviceable to others."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 167. "Man was made to mourn."--Burns. "Taste was never made to cater for vanity."--Blair. The primitive word make seldom, if ever, produces a construction that is thus equivocal. The infinitive following it without to, always denotes the effect of the making, and not the purpose of the maker; as, "He made his son Skjöld be received there as king."--North. Antiq., p. 81. But the same meaning may be conveyed when the to is used; as,

  "The fear of God is freedom, joy, and peace;
   And makes all ills that vex us here to cease."--Waller, p. 56.

OBS. 12.--Of the verb NEED. I incline to think, that the word need, whenever it is rightly followed by the infinitive without to, is, in reality an auxiliary of the potential mood; and that, like may, can, and must, it may properly be used, in both the present and the perfect tense, without personal inflection: as, "He need not go, He need not have gone;" where, if need is a principal verb, and governs the infinitive without to, the expressions must be, "He needs not go, He needed not go, or, He has not needed go." But none of these three forms is agreeable; and the last two are never used. Wherefore, in stead of placing in my code of false syntax the numerous examples of the former kind, with which the style of our grammarians and critics has furnished me, I have exhibited many of them, in contrast with others, in the eighth and ninth observations on the Conjugation of Verbs; in which observations, the reader may see what reasons there are for supposing the word need to be sometimes an auxiliary and sometimes a principal verb. Because no other author has yet intentionally recognized the propriety of this distinction, I have gone no farther than to show on what grounds, and with what authority from usage, it might be acknowledged. If we adopt this distinction, perhaps it will be found that the regular or principal verb need always requires, or, at least, always admits, the preposition to before the following infinitive; as, "They need not to be specially indicated."--Adams's Rhet., i, 302. "We need only to remark."--Ib., ii, 224. "A young man needed only to ask himself," &c.--Ib., i, 117. "Nor is it conceivable to me, that the lightning of a Demosthenes could need to be sped upon the wings of a semiquaver."--Ib., ii, 226. "But these people need to be informed."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 220. "No man needed less to be informed."--Ib., p. 175. "We need only to mention the difficulty that arises."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 362. "Can there need to be argument to prove so plain a point?"--Graham's Lect. "Moral instruction needs to have a more prominent place."--Dr. Weeks. "Pride, ambition, and selfishness, need to be restrained."--Id. "Articles are sometimes omitted, where they need to be used."--Sanborn's Gram., p. 197. "Whose power needs not to be dreaded."--Wilson's Hebrew Gram., p. 93. "A workman that needeth not to be ashamed."--2 Tim., ii, 15. "The small boys may have needed to be managed according to the school system."--T. D. Woolsey. "The difficulty of making variety consistent, needs not to disturb him."--Rambler, No. 122. "A more cogent proof needs not to be introduced."--Wright's Gram., p. 66. "No person needs to be informed, that you is used in addressing a single person."--Wilcox's Gram., p. 19. "I hope I need not to advise you further."--Shak., All's Well.

  "Nor me, nor other god, thou needst to fear,
   For thou to all the heavenly host art dear."--Congreve.

OBS. 13.--If need is ever an auxiliary, the essential difference between an auxiliary and a principal verb, will very well account for the otherwise puzzling fact, that good writers sometimes inflect this verb, and sometimes do not; and that they sometimes use to after it, and sometimes do not. Nor do I see in what other way a grammarian can treat it, without condemning as bad English a great number of very common phrases which he cannot change for the better. On this principle, such examples as, "He need not proceed," and "He needs not to proceed," may be perfectly right in either form; though Murray, Crombie,[416] Fisk, Ingersoll, Smith, C. Adams, and many others, pronounce both these forms to be wrong; and unanimously, (though contrary to what is perhaps the best usage,) prefer, "He needs not proceed."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 180.

OBS. 14.--On questions of grammar, the practice of authors ought to be of more weight, than the dogmatism of grammarians; but it is often difficult to decide well by either; because errors and contradictions abound in both. For example: Dr. Blair says, (in speaking of the persons represented by I and thou,) "Their sex needs not be marked."--Rhet., p. 79. Jamieson abridges the work, and says, "needs not to be marked."--Gram. of Rhet., p. 28. Dr. Lowth also says, "needs not be marked."--Gram., p. 21. Churchill enlarges the work, and says, "needs not to be marked."--New Gram., p. 72. Lindley Murray copies Lowth, and says, "needs not be marked."--Gram., 12mo, 2d Ed., p. 39; 23d Ed., p. 51; and perhaps all other editions. He afterwards enlarges his own work, and says, "needs not to be marked."--Octavo Gram., p. 51. But, according to Greenleaf they all express the idea ungrammatically; the only true form being, "Their sex need not be marked." See Gram. Simplified, p. 48. In the two places in which the etymology and the syntax of this verb are examined, I have cited from proper sources more than twenty examples in which to is used after it, and more than twenty others in which the verb is not inflected in the third person singular. In the latter, need is treated as an auxiliary; in the former, it is a principal verb, of the regular construction. If the principal verb need can also govern the infinitive without to, as all our grammarians have supposed, then there is a third form which is unobjectionable, and my pupils may take their choice of the three. But still there is a fourth form which nobody approves, though the hands of some great men have furnished us with examples of it: as, "A figure of thought need not to detort the words from their literal sense."--J. Q. Adams's Lectures, Vol. ii, p. 254. "Which a man need only to appeal to his own feelings immediately to evince."--Clarkson's Prize-Essay on Slavery, p. 106.

OBS. 15.--Webster and Greenleaf seem inclined to justify the use of dare, as well as of need, for the third person singular. Their doctrine is this: "In popular practice it is used in the third person, without the personal termination. Thus, instead of saying, 'He dares not do it;' WE generally say, 'He dare not do it.' In like manner, need, when an active verb, is regular in its inflections; as, 'A man needs more prudence.' But when intransitive, it drops the personal terminations in the present tense, and is followed by a verb without the prefix to; as, 'A man need not be uneasy.'"--Greenleaf s Grammar Simplified, p. 38; Webster's Philosophical Gram., p. 178; Improved Gram., 127. Each part of this explanation appears to me erroneous. In popular practice, one shall oftener hear, "He dares n't do it," or even, "You dares n't do it," than, "He dare not do it." But it is only in the trained practice of the schools, that he shall ever hear, "He needs n't do it," or, "He needs not do it." If need is sometimes used without inflection, this peculiarity, or the disuse of to before the subsequent infinitive, is not a necessary result of its "intransitive" character. And as to their latent nominative, "whereof there is no account," or, "whereof there needs no account;" their fact, of which "there is no evidence," or of which "there needs no evidence;" I judge it a remarkable phenomenon, that authors of so high pretensions, could find, in these transpositions, a nominative to "is," but none to "needs!" See a marginal note under Rule 14th, at p. 570.

OBS. 16.--Of the verb SEE. This verb, whenever it governs the infinitive without to, governs also an objective noun or pronoun; as, "See me do it."--"I saw him do it."--Murray. Whenever it is intransitive, the following infinitive must be governed by to; as, "I will see to have it done."--Comly's Gram., p. 98; Greenleaf's, 38. "How could he see to do them?"--Beauties of Shak., p. 43. In the following text, see is transitive, and governs the infinitive; but the two verbs are put so far apart, that it requires some skill in the reader to make their relation apparent: "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place," &c.--Matt., xxiv, 15. An other scripturist uses the participle, and says--"standing where it ought not," &c.--Mark, xiii, 14. The Greek word is the same in both; it is a participle, agreeing with the noun for abomination. Sometimes the preposition to seems to be admitted on purpose to protract the expression: as,

  "Tranio, I saw her coral lips to move,
   And with her breath she did perfume the air."--Shak.

OBS 17.--A few other verbs, besides the eight which are mentioned in the foregoing rule and remarks, sometimes have the infinitive after them without to. W. Allen teaches, that, "The sign to is generally omitted," not only after these eight, but also after eight others; namely, "find, have, help, mark, observe, perceive, watch, and the old preterit gan, for began; and sometimes after behold and know."--Elements of Gram., p. 167. Perhaps he may have found some instances of the omission of the preposition after all these, but in my opinion his rule gives a very unwarrantable extension to this "irregularity," as Murray calls it. The usage belongs only to particular verbs, and to them not in all their applications. Other verbs of the same import do not in general admit the same idiom. But, by a license for the most part peculiar to the poets, the preposition to is occasionally omitted, especially after verbs equivalent to those which exclude it; as, "And force them sit."--Cowper's Task, p. 46. That is, "And make them sit." According to Churchill, "To use ought or cause in this manner, is a Scotticism: [as,] 'Won't you cause them remove the hares?'--'You ought not walk.' SHAK."--New Gram., p. 317. The verbs, behold, view, observe, mark, watch, and spy, are only other words for see; as, "There might you behold one joy crown an other."--Shak. "There I sat, viewing the silver stream glide silently towards the tempestuous sea."--Walton. "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven."--Luke, x, 18.

  "Thy drowsy nurse hath sworn she did them spy
   Come tripping to the room where thou didst lie."--Milton.
   ------"Nor with less dread the loud
   Ethereal trumpet from on high 'gan blow."--Id., P. L., vi, 60.

OBS. 18.--After have, help, and find, the infinitive sometimes occurs without the preposition to, but much oftener with it; as, "When enumerating objects which we wish to have appear distinct."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 222. "Certainly, it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in Providence, and turn upon the poles of truth."--Ld. Bacon. "What wilt thou have me to do?"--Acts, ix, 6. "He will have us to acknowledge him."--Scougal, p. 102. "I had to walk all the way."--Lennie's Gram., p. 85. "Would you have them let go then? No."--Walker's Particles, p. 248. According to Allen's rule, this question is ambiguous; but the learned author explains it in Latin thus: "Placet igitur eos dimitti? Minimé." That is, "Would you have them dismissed then? No." Had he meant, "Would you have them to let go then?" he would doubtless have said so. Kirkham, by adding help to Murray's list, enumerates nine verbs which he will have to exclude the sign of the infinitive; as, "Help me do it."--Gram., p. 188. But good writers sometimes use the particle to after this verb; as, "And Danby's matchless impudence helped to support the knave."--DRYDEN: Joh. Dict., w. Help. Dr. Priestley says, "It must, I suppose, be according to the Scotch idiom that Mrs. Macaulay omits it after the verb help: 'To help carry on the new measures of the court.' History, Vol. iv, p. 150."--Priestley's Gram., p. 133. "You will find the difficulty disappear in a short time."--Cobbett's English Gram., ¶ 16. "We shall always find this distinction obtain."--Blair's Rhet., p. 245. Here the preposition to might have been inserted with propriety. Without it, a plural noun will render the construction equivocal. The sentence, "You will find the difficulties disappear in a short time," will probably be understood to mean, "You will find that the difficulties disappear in a short time." "I do not find him reject his authority."--Johnson's Gram. Com., p. 167. Here too the preposition might as well have been inserted. But, as this use of the infinitive is a sort of Latinism, some critics would choose to say, "I do not find that he rejects his authority." "Cyrus was extremely glad to find them have such sentiments of religion."--Rollin, ii, 117. Here the infinitive may be varied either by the participle or by the indicative; as, "to find them having," or, "to find they had." Of the three expressions, the last, I think, is rather the best.

OBS. 19.--When two or more infinitives are connected in the same construction, one preposition sometimes governs them both or all; a repetition of the particle not being always necessary, unless we mean to make the terms severally emphatical. This fact is one evidence that to is not a necessary part of each infinitive verb, as some will have it to be. Examples: "Lord, suffer me first TO go and bury my father."--Matt., viii, 21. "To shut the door, means, TO throw or cast the door to."--Tooke's D. P., ii, 105. "Most authors expect the printer TO spell, point, and digest their copy, that it may be intelligible to the reader."--Printer's Grammar.

  "I'll not be made a soft and dull-eyed fool,
   To shake the head, relent, and sigh, and yield."--Shak.

OBS. 20.--An infinitive that explains an other, may sometimes be introduced without the preposition to; because, the former having it, the construction of the latter is made the same by this kind of apposition: as, "The most accomplished way of using books at present is, TO serve them as some do lords; learn their titles, and, then brag of their acquaintance."--SWIFT: Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 166.

OBS. 21.--After than or as, the sign of the infinitive is sometimes required, and sometimes excluded; and in some instances we can either insert it or not, as we please. The latter term of a comparison is almost always more or less elliptical; and as the nature of its ellipsis depends on the structure of the former term, so does the necessity of inserting or of omitting the sign of the infinitive. Examples: "No desire is more universal than [is the desire] to be exalted and honoured."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 197. "The difficulty is not so great to die for a friend, as [is the difficulty] to find a friend worth dying for."--Id., Art of Thinking, p. 42. "It is no more in one's power to love or not to love, than [it is in one's power] to be in health or out of order."--Ib., p. 45. "Men are more likely to be praised into virtue, than [they are likely] to be railed out of vice."--Ib., p. 48. "It is more tolerable to be always alone, than [it is tolerable] never to be so."--Ib., p. 26. "Nothing [is] more easy than to do mischief [is easy]: nothing [is] more difficult than to suffer without complaining" [is difficult].--Ib., p. 46. Or: "than [it is easy] to do mischief:" &c., "than [it is difficult] to suffer," &c. "It is more agreeable to the nature of most men to follow than [it is agreeable to their nature] to lead."--Ib., p. 55. In all these examples, the preposition to is very properly inserted; but what excludes it from the former term of a comparison, will exclude it from the latter, if such governing verb be understood there: as, "You no more heard me say those words, than [you heard me] talk Greek." It may be equally proper to say, "We choose rather to lead than follow," or, "We choose rather to lead than to follow."--Art of Thinking, p. 37. The meaning in either case is, "We choose to lead rather than we choose to follow." In the following example, there is perhaps an ellipsis of to before cite: "I need do nothing more than simply cite the explicit declarations," &c.--Gurney's Peculiarities, p. 4. So in these: "Nature did no more than furnish the power and means."--Sheridan's Elocution, p. 147.

  "To beg, than work, he better understands;
   Or we perhaps might take him off thy hands."
       --Pope's Odyssey, xvii, 260.

OBS. 22.--It has been stated, in Obs. 16th on Rule 17th, that good writers are apt to shun a repetition of any part common to two or more verbs in the same sentence; and among the examples there cited is this: "They mean to, and will, hear patiently."--Salem Register. So one might say, "Can a man arrive at excellence, who has no desire to?"--"I do not wish to go, nor expect to."--"Open the door, if you are going to." Answer: "We want to, and try to, but can't." Such ellipses of the infinitive after to, are by no means uncommon, especially in conversation; nor do they appear to me to be always reprehensible, since they prevent repetition, and may contribute to brevity without obscurity. But Dr. Bullions has lately thought proper to condemn them; for such is presumed to have been the design of the following note: "To, the sign of the infinitive, should never be used for the infinitive itself. Thus, 'I have not written, and I do not intend to,' is a colloquial vulgarism for, 'I have not written, and I do not intend to write.'"--Bullions's Analyt. and Pract. Gram., p. 179. His "Exercises to be corrected," here, are these: "Be sure to write yourself and tell him to. And live as God designed me to."--Ib., 1st Ed., p. 180. It being manifest, that to cannot "be used for"--(that is, in place of--)what is implied after it, this is certainly a very awkward way of hinting "there should never be an ellipsis of the infinitive after to." But, from the false syntax furnished, this appears to have been the meaning intended. The examples are severally faulty, but not for the reason suggested--not because "to" is used for "write" or "live"--not, indeed, for any one reason common to the three--but because, in the first, "to write" and "have not written," have nothing in common which we can omit; in the second, the mood of "tell" is doubtful, and, without a comma after "yourself," we cannot precisely know the meaning; in the third, the mood, the person, and the number of "live," are all unknown. See Note 9th to Rule 17th, above; and Note 2d to the General Rule, below.

OBS. 23.--Of some infinitives, it is hard to say whether they are transitive or intransitive; as, "Well, then, let us proceed; we have other forced marches to make; other enemies to subdue; more laurels to acquire; and more injuries to avenge."--BONAPARTE: Columbian Orator, p. 136. These, without ellipsis, are intransitive; but relatives may be inserted.


IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XIX.

INFINITIVES AFTER BID, DARE, FEEL, HEAR, LET, &c.

"I dare not to proceed so hastily, lest I should give offence."--Murray's Exercises, p. 63.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the preposition to is inserted before proceed, which follows the active verb dare. But, according to Rule 19th, "The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the infinitive after them without the preposition to;" and this is an instance in which the finite verb should immediately govern the infinitive. Therefore, the to should be omitted; thus, "I dare not proceed so hastily," &c.]

"Their character is formed, and made appear."--Butler's Analogy, p. 115.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the preposition to is not inserted between made and appear, the verb is made being passive. But, according to Obs. 5th and 10th on Rule 19th, those verbs which in the active form govern the infinitive without to, do not so govern it when they are made passive, except the verb let. Therefore, to should be here inserted; thus, "Their character is formed, and made to appear."]

"Let there be but matter and opportunity offered, and you shall see them quickly to revive again."--Wisdom of the Ancients, p. 53. "It has been made appear, that there is no presumption against a revelation."--Butler's Analogy, p. 252. "MANIFEST, v. t. To reveal; to make to appear; to show plainly."--Webster's American Dict. "Let him to reign like unto good Aurelius, or let him to bleed like unto Socrates."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 169. "To sing I could not; to complain I durst not."--S. Fothergill. "If T. M. be not so frequently heard pray by them."--Barclay's Works, iii, 132. "How many of your own church members were never heard pray?"--Ib., iii, 133. "Yea, we are bidden pray one for another."--Ib., iii, 145. "He was made believe that neither the king's death, nor imprisonment would help him."--Sheffield's Works, ii, 281. "I felt a chilling sensation to creep over me."--Inst., p. 188. "I dare to say he has not got home yet."--Ib. "We sometimes see bad men to be honoured."--Ib. "I saw him to move."--Felch's Comprehensive Gram., p. 62. "For see thou, ah! see thou a hostile world to raise its terrours."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 167. "But that he make him to rehearse so."--Lily's Gram., p. xv. "Let us to rise."--Fowle's True Eng. Gram., p. 41.

  "Scripture, you know, exhorts us to it;
   Bids us to 'seek peace, and ensue it.'"--Swift's Poems, p. 336.
   "Who bade the mud from Dives' wheel
   To spurn the rags of Lazarus?
   Come, brother, in that dust we'll kneel,
   Confessing Heaven that ruled it thus."--Christmas Book.



CHAPTER VII--PARTICIPLES.


The true or regular syntax of the English Participle, as a part of speech distinct from the verb, and not converted into a noun or an adjective, is twofold; being sometimes that of simple relation to a noun or a pronoun that precedes it, and sometimes that of government, or the state of being governed by a preposition. In the former construction, the participle resembles an adjective; in the latter, it is more like a noun, or like the infinitive mood: for the participle after a preposition is governed as a participle, and not as a case.[417] To these two constructions, some add three others less regular, using the participle sometimes as the subject of a finite verb, sometimes as the object of a transitive verb, and sometimes as a nominative after a neuter verb. Of these five constructions, the first two, are the legitimate uses of this part of speech; the others are occasional, modern, and of doubtful propriety.


RULE XX.--PARTICIPLES.

Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions: as, "Elizabeth's tutor, at one time paying her a visit, found her employed in reading Plato."--Hume. "I have no more pleasure in hearing a man attempting wit and failing, than in seeing a man trying to leap over a ditch and tumbling into it."--Dr. Johnson.

  "Now, rais'd on Tyre's sad ruins, Pharaoh's pride
   Soar'd high, his legions threat'ning far and wide."--Dryden.

EXCEPTION FIRST.

A participle sometimes relates to a preceding phrase or sentence, of which it forms no part; as, "I then quit the society; to withdraw and leave them to themselves, APPEARING to me a duty."--"It is almost exclusively on the ground we have mentioned, that we have heard his being continued in office DEFENDED."--Professors' Reasons, p. 23. (Better, "his continuance in office," or, "the continuing of him in office." See Obs. 18th on Rule 4th.)

  "But ever to do ill our sole delight,
   As being the contrary to his high will."--Milton.

EXCEPTION SECOND.

With an infinitive denoting being or action in the abstract, a participle is sometimes also taken abstractly; (that is, without reference to any particular noun, pronoun, or other subject;) as, "To seem compelled, is disagreeable."--"To keep always praying aloud, is plainly impossible."--"It must be disagreeable to be left pausing[418] on a word which does not, by itself, produce any idea."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 323.

  "To praise him is to serve him, and fulfill,
   Doing and suffering, his unquestion'd will."
       --Cowper, Vol. i, p. 88.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

The participle is often used irregularly in English, as a substitute for the infinitive mood, to which it is sometimes equivalent without irregularity; as, "I saw him enter, or entering"--Grant's Lat. Gram., p. 230. "He is afraid of trying, or to try."--Ibid. Examples irregular: "Sir, said I, if the case stands thus, 'tis dangerous drinking:" i.e., to drink.--Collier's Tablet of Cebes. "It will be but ill venturing thy soul upon that:" i.e., to venture.--Bunyan's Law and Grace, p. 27. "Describing a past event as present, has a fine effect in language:" i.e., to describe.--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 93. "In English likewise it deserves remarking:" i.e., to be remarked.--Harris's Hermes, p. 232. "Bishop Atterbury deserves being particularly mentioned:" i.e., to be particularly mentioned.--Blair's Rhet., p. 291. "This, however, is in effect no more than enjoying the sweet that predominates:" i.e., to enjoy.--Campbell's Rhet., p. 43.

  "Habits are soon assum'd; but when we strive
   To strip them off, 'tis being flay'd alive."--Cowper, Vol. i, p. 44

EXCEPTION FOURTH.

An other frequent irregularity in the construction of participles, is the practice of treating them essentially as nouns, without taking from them the regimen and adjuncts of participles; as, "Your having been well educated will be a great recommendation."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 171. (Better: "Your excellent education"--or, "That you have been well educated, will be," &c.) "It arises from sublimity's expressing grandeur in its highest degree."--Blair's Rhet., p. 29. "Concerning the separating by a circumstance, words intimately connected."--Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. ii, p. 104. "As long as there is any hope of their keeping pace with them."--Literary Convention, p. 114. "Which could only arise from his knowing the secrets of all hearts."--West's Letters to a Young Lady, p. 180. "But this again is talking quite at random."--Butler's Analogy, p. 146.

  "My being here it is, that holds thee hence."--Shak.
   "Such, but by foils, the clearest lustre see,
   And deem aspersing others, praising thee."--Savage, to Walpole.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XX.

OBS. 1.--To this rule, I incline to think, there are properly no other exceptions than the first two above; or, at least, that we ought to avoid, when we can, any additional anomalies. Yet, not to condemn with unbecoming positiveness what others receive for good English, I have subjoined two items more, which include certain other irregularities now very common, that, when examples of a like form occur, the reader may parse them as exceptions, if he does not choose to censure them as errors. The mixed construction in which participles are made to govern the possessive case, has already been largely considered in the observations on Rule 4th. Murray, Allen, Churchill, and many other grammarians, great and small, admit that participles may be made the subjects or the objects of verbs, while they retain the nature, government, and adjuncts, of participles; as, "Not attending to this rule, is the cause of a very common error."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 200; Comly's Gram., 188; Weld's Gram., 2d Ed., 170. "Polite is employed to signify their being highly civilized.'"--Blair's Rhet., p. 219. "One abhors being in debt."--Ib., p. 98; Jamieson's Rhet., 71; Murray's Gram., 144. "Who affected being a fine gentleman so unmercifully."--Spect., No. 496. "The minister's being attached to the project, prolonged their debate."--Nixon's Parser, p. 78. "It finds [i.e., the mind finds,] that acting thus would gratify one passion; not acting, or acting otherwise, would gratify another."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 109. "But further, cavilling and objecting upon any subject is much easier than clearing up difficulties."--Bp. Butler's Charge to the Clergy of Durham, 1751.

OBS. 2.--W. Allen observes, "The use of the participle as a nominative, is one of the peculiarities of our language."--Elements of Gram., p. 171. He might have added, that the use of the participle as an objective governed by a verb, as a nominative after a verb neuter, or as a word governing the possessive, is also one of the peculiarities of our language, or at least an idiom adopted by no few of its recent writers. But whether any one of these four modern departures from General Grammar ought to be countenanced by us, as an idiom that is either elegant or advantageous, I very much doubt. They are all however sufficiently common in the style of reputable authors; and, however questionable their character, some of our grammarians seem mightily attached to them all. It becomes me therefore to object with submission. These mixed and irregular constructions of the participle, ought, in my opinion, to be generally condemned as false syntax; and for this simple reason, that the ideas conveyed by them may generally, if not always, be expressed more briefly, and more elegantly, by other phraseology that is in no respect anomalous. Thus, for the examples above: "Inattention to this rule, is the cause of a very common error."--"Polite is employed to signify a high degree of civilization;" or, "that they are highly civilized."--"One abhors debt."--"Who affected the fine gentleman so unmercifully."--"The minister's partiality to the project, prolonged their debate."--"It finds [i.e., the mind finds,] that to act thus, would gratify one passion; and that not to act, or to act otherwise, would gratify another."--"But further, to cavil and object, upon any subject, is much easier than to clear up difficulties." Are not these expressions much better English than the foregoing quotations? And if so, have we not reason to conclude that the adoption of participles in such instances is erroneous and ungrammatical?

OBS. 3.--In Obs. 17th on Rule 4th, it was suggested, that in English the participle, without governing the possessive case, is turned to a greater number and variety of uses, than in any other language. This remark applies mainly to the participle in ing. Whether it is expedient to make so much of one sort of derivative, and endeavour to justify every possible use of it which can be plausibly defended, is a question well worthy of consideration. We have already converted this participle to such a multiplicity of purposes, and into so many different parts of speech, that one can well-nigh write a chapter in it, without any other words. This practice may have added something to the copiousness and flexibility of the language, but it certainly has a tendency to impair its strength and clearness. Not every use of participles is good, for which there may be found precedents in good authors. One may run to great excess in the adoption of such derivatives, without becoming absolutely unintelligible, and without violating any rule of our common grammars. For example, I may say of somebody, "This very superficial grammatist, supposing empty criticism about the adoption of proper phraseology to be a show of extraordinary erudition, was displaying, in spite of ridicule, a very boastful turgid argument concerning the correction of false syntax, and about the detection of false logic in debate." Now, in what other language than ours, can a string of words anything like the following, come so near to a fair and literal translation of this long sentence? "This exceeding trifling witling, considering ranting criticising concerning adopting fitting wording being exhibiting transcending learning, was displaying, notwithstanding ridiculing, surpassing boasting swelling reasoning, respecting correcting erring writing, and touching detecting deceiving arguing during debating." Here are not all the uses to which our writers apply the participle in ing, but there would seem to be enough, without adding others that are less proper.

OBS. 4.--The active participles, admitting, allowing, considering, granting, speaking, supposing, and the like, are frequently used in discourse so independently, that they either relate to nothing, or to the pronoun I or we understood; as, "Granting this to be true, what is to be inferred from it?"--Murray's Gram., p. 195. This may be supposed to mean, "I, granting this to be true, ask what is to be inferred from it?" "The very chin was, modestly speaking, as long as my whole face."--Addison. Here the meaning may be, "I, modestly speaking, say." So of the following examples: "Properly speaking, there is no such thing as chance."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 172. "Because, generally speaking, the figurative sense of a word is derived from its proper sense."--Kames, El. of Crit., i, 190. "But, admitting that two or thre