The Handbook of Palestine/5

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The Handbook of Palestine by Royal Asiatic Society
Government and Government Activities

PART V. GOVERNMENT AND GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES.[edit]

§ I. System of Administration.[edit]

High Commissioner. — Under the Palestine Order in Council, His Majesty may, by a Commission under his Sign Manual and Signet, appoint a fit person to administer the Government of Palestine under the designation of High Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief.

Chief Secretary. — The Chief Secretary is the High Com- missioner's principal adviser on administrative matters, and is the usual channel of communication between the High Commissioner and other officials. He normally administers the Government during the absence from Palestine of the High Commissioner.

Appointment of OfRcers. — The High Commissioner may, subject to the direction of the Secretary of State, appoint or authorize the appointment of such public ofiicers of the Government of Palestine under such designations as he may think fit, and may prescribe their duties ; and all such public officers, unless otherwise provided by law, shall hold their ofiices during the pleasure of the High Commissioner.

Attorney- General.— The Attorney-General is the legal adviser of the Government. He drafts all Government bills and gives the necessary instructions to the Solicitor- General in all criminal cases tried on information.

133


134 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE



Autonomous Sanjaq of Jerusalem


Treasurer. — The Treasurer is the chief accounting officer of the Government, whose financial and accounting operations are under his general management and super- vision.

Districts. — At the end of the period of Turkish rule Palestine lay, administratively speaking, partly in the autonomous ^ Sanjaq (Liwa, Mutesarriflik) of Jerusalem, partly in the Vilayet of Beirut. Its administrative divisions were as follows :

Qazas.

Jerusalem. Jaffa. Hebron. Gaza. I^Beersheba.

Acre.

Sanjaq of Acre (in Vilayet of c^ . .' T^ . ,. ^ { Safed.

^™*) Nazareth.^

VTiberias.

Sanjaq of Nablus (in Vilayet of t •

B t^ 1 J®^^"-

' [Tulkeram.

Each Qaza was administered by a Qaimaqam, who was responsible to the Mutesarrif. The Qazas were sub-divided into Nahiehs, under officials known as Mudirs ; and the smallest unit in this symmetrical administrative organi- zation was the village, ruled by its Mukhtar (headman) and his Azas (elders).

From 1920 to 1922 the country was divided into the seven Districts of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Phoenicia, Galilee, Samaria, Gaza and Beersheba, each of which, with the exception of Beersheba, was farther divided into sub-Districts. On the ist July, 1922, there was effected an amalgamation

' I.e. not a part of any Vilayet, but subject immediately to Constantinople.

^ From 1906 to 1908 the Qaza of Nazareth was included in the Sanjaq of Jerusalem.


SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION


135


of Districts into four Pro^ divisions are now as follows

Province.


Jerusalem and Jaffa


vinces, and the


administrative


Districts.


Sub-Districts.

'Jerusalem. Ramallah.


f Jerusalem.


Bethlehem.


[jaffa.


Jericho. Jaffa. .Ramleh.



Haifa.



Acre.


J Phoenicia, loalilee.


Zummarin.


Nazareth.



Tiberias.



.Safed.



Nablus.


_


Jenin.



Tulkeram.



Beisan.



Gaza.


rOaza.

\ Beersheba.


Mejdel. Beersheba.



Hebron.


Northern Province


Samaria -


Southern Province -


Governors. — The Governor is for most purposes the head of all executive departments in his Province. The cele- bration of marriages of British subjects in Palestine is conducted under the Foreign Marriages Act, the Governor being the Marriage Officer within his Province.

Mukhtars. — Under the Governors and District Officers are the Mukhtars, or headmen of villages. Their powers and duties have not yet been codified, but included among them are :

(a) to keep the peace within the village ;

(b) to send information to the nearest Police Station of any

serious offence or accident occurring in the village ;

(c) to assist Government Officers in the collection of

revenue :


136 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


(d) to publish in the village any Public Notices or Pro-

clamations sent to them by the Governors ;

(e) to keep a register of all births and deaths within the

village, and to send a copy to the Principal Medical Officer once a quarter. , Principal Departments. — The principal Departments of the Government of Palestine, besides those already men- tioned, are the Departments of : Agriculture and Fisheries (including Veterinary and Forests) ; Antiquities ; Customs (including Ports and Lights) ; Commerce and Industry (including Stores) ; Education ; Public Health ; Land Regis- tration ; Public Security (including Gendarmerie) ; Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones ; Public Works ; and Railways. Executive Council. — There will be, for the purpose of assisting the High Commissioner, an Executive Council consisting of the Chief Secretary, the Attorney-General and the Treasurer, who shall be styled ex officio members, and such other persons holding offices in the public service of Palestine as the High Commissioner may appoint. Whenever upon any special occasion the High Commis- sioner desires to obtain the advice of any persons within Palestine, they may be summoned for such special occasions. Legislative Council. — There will be a Legislative Council consisting of 22 members in addition to the High Commis- sioner, of whom 10 shall be official and 12 unofficial.

The unofficial members will be elected in accordance with such Order in Council, Ordinance or other legislative enact- ment as may from time to time provide for elections to the Council.

The Legislative Council will have full power and authority, without prejudice to the powers inherent in, or reserved by this Order to. His Majesty, and subject always to any conditions and limitations prescribed by any instructions under the Sign Manual and Signet, to establish such Ordinances as may be necessary for the peace, order and good government of Palestine, provided that no Ordi- nance shall be passed which shall restrict complete freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship,


SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION T37

save in so far as is required for the maintenance of public order and morals ; or which shall tend to discriminate in any way between the inhabitants of Palestine on the ground of race, religion or language.

§ 2. Administration of Justice.

Law. — The criminal, civil and administrative law of Palestine is Ottoman Law except in so far as it has been modified or altered by Ordinance of the Palestine Govern- ment.

Turkish Courts. — Under the Ottoman Government a Court of First Instance composed of three judges was established in each Qaza, and a Court of Appeal, composed of five or more members, in each Sanjaq. In Palestine there were thirteen Courts of First Instance and three Courts of Appeal. In addition single judges, or Justices of Peace, were appointed in the principal towns, their jurisdiction being laid down in a law passed in 191 3.

O.E.T.A. — The Administration of Justice during the two and a half years of Military Occupation was controlled by a British official known as the Senior Judicial Officer, who, on the one hand, took the place of the Ottoman Ministry of Justice, and exercised administrative control over all the Courts and Land Registries that had been established by the Military Authorities, and, on the other hand, acted as Legal Adviser to the Chief Administrator and the different Departments of the Administration.

Civil Administration. — The establishment of the Civil Administration in July, 1920, did not involve any large change in the administration of justice.

The Senior Judicial Officer of the Military Administration became the Legal Secretary of the Civil Administration, and continued his former functions of

(a) advising the Government on legal matters ;

{b) acting as a responsible Minister of Justice ; in addition he was entrusted with the general supervision of the Land Registries, cadastral surveys, and questions


138 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

concerning land. In July, 1922, the post of Legal Secretary was abolished and that of Attorney-General substituted.

Court of Appeal. — The Court of Appeal is presided over by the Chief Justice of Palestine, and includes a British Vice-President and four Palestinian members. Sitting as a Court of Appeal, the Court has jurisdiction, subject to the provisions of any Ordinance, to hear appeals from all judgments given by a District Court in First Instance or by the Court of Criminal Assize or by a Land Court. Sitting as a High Court of Justice, it has jurisdiction to hear and determine such matters as are not causes or trials, but petitions or applications not within the jurisdiction of any other Court.

In civil matters, when the amount of value in dispute exceeds ^E. 500, an appeal lies to the Privy Council.

District Courts. — There are four District Courts, namely : the Court of Jerusalem, serving the Jerusalem District ; the Court of Jaffa, serving the Districts of Jaffa and Gaza ; the Court of Phoenicia, sitting at Haifa and serving the District of Phoenicia ; and the Court of Samaria and Galilee. Each Court consists of a British Judge and two Palestinian members.

District Courts exercise jurisdiction

(i) as a Court of First Instance :

(a) in all Civil matters not within the jurisdiction of the Magistrates' Courts in and for that District ; (6) in all criminal matters which are not within the jurisdiction of the said Magistrates' Courts or the Court of Criminal Assize ;

(2) as an Appellate Court from the said Magistrates' Courts, subject to the provision of any Ordinances or Rules.

In commercial cases the President of a District Court may appoint two persons of commercial experience to sit with him in lieu of the other members of the Court. Such persons so appointed are judges of fact and not of law.


I


ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 139

Magistrates' Courts. — There are Magistrates' Courts in each Sub-District having competence in civil suits where the value of the subject-matter does not exceed £E. 100, and in criminal cases where the maximum penalty is one year's imprisonment.

Magisterial "Warrants. — Governors and certain District Officers are given magisterial powers, in virtue of which they can try minor offences under the Penal Code and con- traventions of the Ordinances issued by the Administration, and can pass sentences up to six months' imprisonment.

Capitulations. — The Capitulations are abolished as regards Palestine by Art. 8 of the Manda,te. Citizens of the United States have, however, the right to be tried in criminal cases before their Consul.

Tribal Courts. — The High Commissioner may establish Tribal Courts for the District of Beersheba and in such other tribal areas as he may think fit. Such Courts may apply tribal custom, so far as it is not repugnant to natural justice or morality. Accordingly, in the District of Beersheba, which is inhabited almost entirely by Beduin tribes, there is, besides a Civil Magistrate, a Court composed of the leading Sheikhs, which deals with minor offences and tribal disputes ; a British Judge from Jerusalem tries the more serious criminal cases when they occur, and hears appeals from the judgments of the Sheikhs' Tribunal and also from the Civil Magistrate.

Blood Feud Commissions. — In those parts of Palestine inhabited principally by Beduin, ancient local custom recognizes the authority of Blood Feud Commissions, com- posed of leading and trusted Sheikhs and Notables of the region in question, to settle the blood feud by the payment of blood-money {diyet), so that the feud may not develop into an ' interminable vendetta. The preliminary of the agreement is a truce {atwa), arranged between the families of the murdered and the murderer, the family of the mur- dered producing a guarantor {kafil), who pledges that it will not attack the family of the murderer during the time the atwa is in force.


I40 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

When the final arrangements for the peace-making {tiba) are made, the family of the murderer visit the injured family, pay the diyet, whereupon the murderer is produced and pardoned.

Languages of Pleadings. — Arabic is the normal language of pleading in the Magistrates' Courts. Summonses and other legal processes are issued in English and Hebrew according to the character of the person to whom they are addressed. In certain areas, called " tri-lirigual areas," official documents are written, and oral pleadings are con- ducted, in any of the three official languages. The tri-lingual areas, in which, Hebrew and English may be used, comprise the three principal towns of Palestine, namely : Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa, and also the District of Jaffa and the sub-districts of Tiberias and Safed.

Municipal Benches. — Honorary Municipal Magistrates have been appointed with power to deal with contraventions of Municipal by-laws and Government regulations, and with authority of imposing penalties not exceeding £^.5 or imprisonment not exceeding 15 days.

Land Courts. — Special Courts have been established for hearing actions concerning the ownership of land and also for settling the title to immovable property. The Ottoman restrictions against foreigners and corporations holding land have been repealed.

Moslem Religious Courts. — The Moslem Religious Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of personal status of Moslems and Moslem waqfs.

Under the Turkish Government there were Sharia Courts, each presided over by a Qadi, in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Hebron, Gaza, Beersheba, Ramleh, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkeram, Nazareth, Tiberias, Safed, Acre and Haifa. These Courts have been maintained. The Sharia Courts deal with matters of Moslem personal status (marriage, divorce, inheritance, intestacy, constitution of waqf and the like), and in addition to their contentious work deal with a large amount of non-contentious business.

There are Muftis (elective Moslem jurisconsults, whose


ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 141

duty it is to issue, in the form of a fetwa, canonical rulings on points of Moslem religious law) of the Hanafi rite in the above-mentioned fourteen towns, and a Mufti of the Shafi rite in Jerusalem.

There is an appeal from the Sharia Courts to the Moslem Religious Court of Appeal, sitting in Jerusalem and con- sisting of a President and two members. An Inspector visits the Sharia Courts of the country and reports upon their work.

Non-Moslem Religious Courts. — The non-Moslem Com- munities exercise jurisdiction in matters of marriage, divorce anci alimony, and inheritance over the members of their community, and the judgments given by their religious courts in these matters are executed through the Execution Office of the Civil Courts.

The Courts of Christian Communities have : (i) exclusive jurisdiction in matters of marriage and divorce, ahmony, execution and confirmation of wills of Palestinian members of the Community ; (ii) exclusive jurisdiction in any other matters of per- sonal status of such persons, where all the parties to the action consent to their jurisdiction ; (iii) exclusive jurisdiction over any case concerning the constitution or internal administration of a waqf constituted before the Religious Court according to the religious law of the community. A Rabbinical Council composed of two Chief Rabbis — one for the Sephardic and one for the Ashkenazic communities — and six Rabbinical members together with two lay Coun- cillors, was elected in February, 192 1. This Council, which constitutes a Court of Appeal from the Rabbinical Courts of the Jewish Communities in the towns and villages, is recognized by the Government as the sole Rabbinical authority.

The Rabbinical Courts have : (i) exclusive jurisdiction in matters of marriage and divorce, alimony, execution and confirmation of wills of Jewish Palestinian subjects ;


142 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

(ii) jurisdiction in any other matter of personal status of Jewish persons, where all the parties to the action consent to their jurisdiction ; (iii) exclusive jurisdiction over any case as to the con- stitution or internal administration of a waqf con- stituted before the Rabbinical Court according to Jewish Law. Under the Turkish regime the registration of marriages and divorces was carried out by the Census Office {Nufus). Under the British Administration the registration is carried out by the religious authority which celebrates the marriage, a copy of the certificate being sent to the Governor, who keeps a register of all marriages and divorces in his Province. For the Moslems mazuns (registrars) have been appointed in each District by the Qadis, who are alone qualified to celebrate and register marriages. For the Christians the Patriarchates and for the Jews the Rabbinical Council, are responsible.

Advocates. — The number of advocates admitted in Palestine at the beginning of 1922 was as follows : 52 licensed before the Civil Courts alone, 51 before both Civil and Sharia Courts, 29 before the Sharia Courts alone. Law Classes. — In response to a widespread desire for legal training, Law Classes were opened in Jerusalem in November, 1920, and are now attended by 150 students. Lectures are given in English, Arabic and Hebrew. The courses are of three years, at the end of which period a student who obtains a diploma in all subjects will be entitled to a licence as an advocate, after serving for a certain period with a qualified lawyer.

Registration of Companies, Co-operative Societies and Partnerships. — When the Civil Administration was estab- lished immediate measures were taken to encourage cor- porate enterprise, and two Ordinances were published A^ith :

(i) Co-operative Societies ; (2) Companies with limited liability.


ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 143

The first was based upon the Indian Law on the matter, the second on the British ConsoHdated Statute of 1907, with the introduction of considerable simphfications. The regis- tration is carried out by the Courts. During 192 1, 24 Hmited liabiHty Companies were incorporated in Palestine with an authorized capital of £K. 850,000. 14 foreign companies and 32 commercial partnerships were registered in Jerusalem alone and 14 co-operative societies were incorporated.

Eegistration of Trade Marks and Patents. — The regis- tration of Patents and Trade Marks is also carried out at the Courts.

Legislation. — Since the establishment of the Civil Admin- istration an abnormal amount of legislation has necessarily been called for, and Ordinances have been passed by the Advisory Council dealing with the following subjects : immigration ; advertisements ; passports ; immovable property ; land law ; land transfer ; forestry ; fisheries ; antiquities ; credit banks ; prevention of crimes ; town planning ; port dues ; police ; local councils ; land courts ; rents ; survey ; road transport ; pharmacists ; notaries public ; Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem ; tobacco taxation ; collective responsibility for crime ; etc.

Court Cases. — The following table shows the number of cases tried by the various Courts in Palestine in 1921 : Court of Appeal and District Courts : ^ Civil — First Instance - - - - 644

Criminal — First Instance - - - 698

Civil — Appeal ----- 1,038

Criminal — Appeal - - _ - g^^

Magistrates' Courts :

Civil ------- 18,197

Criminal - - - - - - 16,119

Moslem Religious Court of Appeal - 268

Sharia Courts 3, 811

Land Courts - - - - - 137

Municipal Courts - - _ - 389

The fees received by all Courts in Palestine in the year 192 1 amounted to £E. 55,380.



§ 3. Finance, Currency and Banking. ===

{a) FINANCE.

Taxation and Revenue. — The present Administration has maintained the Ottoman Government's system of taxation, in some cases modifying the taxes levied, in others abpHshing the more vexatious and oppressive. Ottoman taxation embraces a peculiarity which does not ^xist in other countries. A number of lucrative and important imposts are collected by the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt (O.P.D.A.), the receipts appearing in the State accounts but being retained by the Debt. Any balance, which may exist after the amounts due to the bondholders have been set aside, are distributed in varying proportions between the State and the O.P.D.A. Thus there are two revenue collecting agencies operating side by side, but the Revenue Department exercises a general supervision over the Debt Agencies, who look to their head- quarters in Constantinople for administrative orders.

The principal taxes and other sources of revenue in Palestine are :

1. Customs — including import duties, specific and ad valorem (for details and exemptions, see later).

2. Port Dues — {vide Port Dues Ordinance, 192 1). (i) Port Dues are payable at the following rates :

On the tonnage up to 500 tons, 5 milliemes per

registered ton ; Over 500 and up to 1000 tons, 3 milliemes ; and Over 1000 tons, 2 milliemes per registered ton. The maximum due payable on any vessel is £&. 20, but if a vessel has paid dues at one port in Palestine, half only of the dues, with a maximum of £R. 10, shall be payable at any other port in Palestine. In the case of a vessel arriving and leaving without taking or discharging cargo, or passengers, only one-half of the due shall be charged.

(ii) A fee of PT. 15 is charged for the measurement of a vessel.


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 145

(iii) The following vessels are exempt from the dues :

(a) Men of War ;

(/5) Vessels in distress or making use of the port as a port of refuge ;

(y) Vessels, tugs, lighters' pontoons and launches plying exclusively in any or between ports of Palestine, which pay the dues mentioned below ;

(S) Yachts belonging to recognized Yacht Clubs- and wholly in ballast.

(iv) All Port Dues are payable at the office of Ports and Lights, and a clearance certificate is obtainable at a fee of PT. 5.

(v) The following Palestinian vessels shall be registered and pay the following annual rates :

(a) Sailing, steam or motor vessels, steam or motor launches, and vessels of a similar nature _ _ _ _ ^E. 4 p. a.

(y(3) Steam or motor lighters - - - £'E. 2 p. a.

(y) Sailing or man-handled lighters - £R. i p. a.

(S) Boats - - - - - - .^E. I p.a.

(vi) Boatmen, fishermen, lightermen, stevedores, ship- chandlers, hotel representatives, etc., are licensed for a fee of 300 milliemes per annum, and any other person whose occupation or profession brings him within the enclosure of a Palestinian port pays a fee of 200 milliemes per a"nnum.

(vii) A fee of 15 milliemes is payable for each policeman placed on board a vessel for any period up to 12 hours.

Quarantine Dues. — For fees, see Regulations for Quaran- tine Services.

3. Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue not otherwise classified.—

(i) Tithe (Ushur). — The system of tithe dates from earliest times. Originally one- tenth of the crop was taken in kind. Ottoman legislation, through financial necessity, has in- creased this rate to one-eighth or 12^%, viz. i|% by Decree of 1302 (1886) and 1% by Decree of 13 13 (1897). Tithes were farmed out to contractors at the time of the British

L,P. K


146 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


Occupation, and were often a source of abuse and imposition upon the peasantry.

Since the Occupation the system of tithing has been con- tinued, but the contractor has been ehminated, and direct assessment and collection of tithes inaugurated. The tithe of one-eighth, formerly taken in kind, is now collected in money, and assessed in kilogrammes. The list of prices is fixed and a statement of assessment is posted in each village. Appeals against the redemption price are heard by a special committee, whose decision is final. Such appeals must be lodged within ten days from the publication of the redemp- tion price.

Redemption prices are fixed by the Department of Revenue after consultation with Governors, who, in turn, obtain the opinions of local councils, mukhtars, notables, big farmers, etc., fixing the redemption price slightly below the local market price.

Comparison of Redemption Prices :



1919


1920


1921



PT.


PT.


PT.


Wheat per kilo


2-2


2-25


1-4


Barley


1-2


1-3


07


Durra


1-2


1-2


075


Simsin ,,


- 4-8


5


3-2


Oranges per case -


- 12


10


14


Olive oil per kilo


- 12


9


7


The collection of the redemption price is not made from each individual cultivator, but from the mukhtar, who undertakes to collect the entire amount due from his village against a rebate of 2% of the amount collected. The amount may be settled in three monthly and equal instal- ments. Arrears due after this period are subject to 9% interest.

Tithe is taken on cereals, fruits, and vegetables. The produce of mulk lands, which are of the freehold category, is exempted when enclosed to the extent of less than one donum. Other mulk lands in the vicinity of towns also


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 147

enjoy immunity from tithe, but they are subject to a higher rate for land tax, i.e. 10 per mille, with additions amounting to 56% of the original tax.

Seasonal variations in crops necessitate two separate annual assessments, the first, during the months of April, May and June, known as the " Winter Tithe," and the second, during July and August, known as the " Summer Tithe." Separate estimations are carried out on fruits and vegetables.

An estimating commission is composed of two Government representatives, a clerk and a village elder, the two former being salaried officials of the Government. Control is exercised by special control commissions, which are again further controlled by officials of the District Adminis- tration.

The estimation of crops is carried out in some instances by assessing the standing crops ; in others, crops are assessed on the thrashing floor, the choice of either method being left to the Governors' discretion.

The assessment for tithe amounted in 1919 to ^E. 273,000, in 1920 to £E. 488,600, and in 1921 to £E. 292,000.

The above figures include tithes which are assigned to Moslem religious endowments [awqaf).

The Government continues to carry out the provisions of the Ottoman Tithe Laws of 1889 and 1891, which in so far as the theory of tithing is concerned are adequate. Vine- yards planted with American stock are exempted from tithes for a period of ten years from the date of planting (Public Notice of the 25th September, 1920).

Cotton is exempted from the payment of tithe for a period of two years (Public Notice of the 15th February, 1921). Lands which are leased by or through the Department of Agriculture for crop experimentation are immune from the payment of tithe.

(ii) Animal Tax {aghnam). — During the months of February and March the following animals are enumerated by tax-collectors, and are taxed per head : Sheep, PT. 48; Goats, 4-8 ; Camels, 12 ; Buffaloes, 12 ; Pigs, 9.


148 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Camels used solely for the purpose of ploughing are exempted from this tax by a decision of the High Com- missioner, dated the 4th March, 192 1.

(iii) Immovable Property Tax {Werko). — All property, whether built upon or otherwise, is subject to a tax varying according to the nature of the property of from 4 per mille to 10 per mille of the capital value as ascertained by assess- ment commissions. The valuation of property in Palestine was carried out some 25 years ago, and is, therefore, an obsolete assessment. It is grossly inaccurate and under- valued. The Ottoman authorities, aware of the annual loss in revenue through this cause, endeavoured to remedy it by increasing the rates of taxation by arbitrary additions, which at the outbreak of war were 56% in the case of land, and 51% in the case of building property. These additions are maintained, but the increase in the value of property since the war makes a new valuation of all immovable property a matter of necessity in the near future. This especially applies to building property in the towns of Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa, where the annual value has increased in some cases by 300% On properties being transferred or conveyed new assessments are made and inserted in the registers.

(iv) Wine and Spirit Licences and Excise Duties. — The licence for the sale of wines and spirits is applicable to hotels, clubs, shops, restaurants, cafes or any places where alcoholic beverages are sold in open measure. The licensing fee is calculated upon the rental value of the space utilized for sale or drinking purposes, and varies from 8-^% to 25% according to the class of the establishment. The excise duty is leviable on all producers. Elaborate regulations are laid down by the Ottoman Laws of the 14th August, 1881, and 13th August, 1912, which fix the duty at 30% on the prices of all alcoholic beverages, excepting wine and beers, which pay 15% and a tax of PT. i 875 on each kilo of pure alcohol.

Imported wines and spirits are subject to an ad valorem import duty of 11% only. Upon wine exported abroad a


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 149

rebate of one-half of the excise duties paid is granted upon presentation of a certificate of arrival from the country of destination, (v) Licences :

(a) Advocates : Every person applying to be examined by the Legal Board pays a fee of £E. 2 ; for a licence to practise PT. 50, but new scales are proposed. (^) Boat and Boatmen (see Port Dues). (y) Fisheries : The taxes upon the fishing industry were two, i.e. a. licence and a tax upon the catch. The licensing fee is PT. 10 per annum and is leviable upon all persons fishing on seas, lakes or rivers. The tax of 20% of the auction price of the fish was abolished by Public Notice dated the 31st August, 1920. {S) Game : PT. 50 for a licence to carry firearms, and

PT. 20 for shooting game or birds. (e) Hawkers : A registration fee of PT. 5 to PT. 25 per mensem. The Department of Public Health also charges a fee of PT. 5 per annum. (^) British Marriages :

For receiving notice of an intended £ s. d. Marriage - - - - - -0100

For receiving notice of a caveat - -100 For every Marriage solemnized by or in the presence of a Marriage Officer, and registered by him - - - -100

For Certificate by Marriage Officer of

notice having been given and posted up o 5 o For registration by Consular Officer of a Marriage solemnized in accordance with the local law in addition to the fee for attendance - - - - - -100

{rj) Medical Practitioners : Licence for

{a) Physicians, Surgeons or Dentists to practise,

^E.2.

[b) Pharmacists or Druggists, £E. 1. {c) Midwives, PT. 25.


I50 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

{0) Tobacco : The sale of tobacco in the Turkish Empire was a monopoly ceded to the O.P.D.A., who, in turn, farmed out its rights and privileges to a company known as the " Regie Co-interessee des Tabacs de 1' Empire Ottoman." This company, established in 1883, was given a concession for thirty years, which was renewed in 19 13 for a farther fifteen years.

Their rights and privileges were declared to be suspended in Palestine as from the ist March, 1921, by Ordinance dated the 7th April, 1921. By this Ordinance the monopoly was abolished, and the cultivation and sale of tobacco products were declared free. The following duty has been imposed :

A tax upon all tobacco and tombac (a Persian tobacco smoked in narghiles) grown in Palestine as follows : £E. 2 per donum of land sown with tobacco or with tombac, with a minimum payment of PT. 50 in each case. (f) Tombac : A licence of PT. 100 is payable by vendors selling tombac in District capitals ; elsewhere PT. 50. The sale of tombac grown in the Ottoman Empire is unrestricted.

4. Fees of Court. — The following fees are levied in all Courts in Palestine :

(i) Fees due on actions :

(a) A fee of 2% of the value of the subject-matter of a claim or appeal payable in advance by the plaintiff and i % in certain other cases ; (^) 1% in possessory actions ; (y) The fee levied is not less than PT. 10 or more than

PT. 2,000 ; {S) If the subject-matter of the claim cannot be assessed in terms of money, a fixed fee of PT. 50 in Magistrates' Courts and of PT. 150 in other Courts is levied.


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 151

(ii) Fees due on judgments :

1% on the value of the subject-matter of the judgment on delivery of the first copy, provided the sum so levied shall not be less than PT. 10 ; but if the fee paid on the claim exceeds 2%, only such amount shall be payable as shall make the total fee 3^% of the value of the subject- matter of the judgment.

1% of the value of the land awarded on judgments in possessory actions, provided the total fee levied shall not exceed 1%.

(iii) Fees due on copies of judgments, decisions, etc. :

PT. 10 in the Magistrates' Courts and PT. 40 in other Courts on any copy of judgment or a decision other than the first copy, and on every page of copies of other docu- ments.

(iv) Fees due on deposits :

^% oi the value of the sum or article deposited payable in advance by the depositor and |% for every fraction of a year.

(v) Fees due in District Courts and Court of Appeal :

PT, 5 on every statement, etc., presented for registration to the District Courts or Court of Appeal, on every state- ment to be transmitted to the Moslem Religious Courts or other Departments, and on every document presented to the Public Prosecutors.

(vi) Fees on notification :

PT. 10 for serving or drawing or copying a legal document.

(vii) Fees due on proceedings in bankruptcy :

PT. 50 on a demand for the declaration or annullation of bankruptcy, etc. 3^% on the first £'E. 100, and i^% on any amount in excess in respect of the judgment levied upon the assets of the bankruptcy.

(viii) Fees due on execution proceedings :

PT. 10 on notification of judgments.

PT. 20 on a demand for seizure.

PT. 20 in advance on any notice inserted in a news- paper.


152 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

(ix) Fees due in Magistrates' Courts : The following are the fees due on judgments in criminal matters in Magistrates' Courts :

For judgments of fine up to PT. loo or imprisonment up to 7 days, PT. lo.

For judgments of fine up to PT. 100-200 or imprisonment from 7-15 days, PT. 20.

For judgments of fine of PT. 200-500 or imprisonment from 15-30 days, PT. 40.

For judgments of fine of PT. 500-1000 or imprisonment from 1-2 months, PT. 50.

For judgments of fine of PT. 1000 or imprisonment from 2-3 months, PT. 60.

For judgments of imprisonment from 3-6 months PT. 70. ,, ,, ,, ^-i year - PT. 80.

,, ,, ,, 1-2 years - PT. 90.

,, ,, ,, 2-3 years - PT. 100.

(x) Fees due in other Courts :

The following fees shall be levied in other Courts : PT. 20 on every commital order. PT. 20 on every report of proceedings of the trial. PT. 100 or PT. 150 on a judgment of the District Court or Court of Appeal, (xi) Fees in Moslem Religious Courts : ^

In Moslem Religious Courts, subject to certain provisions, fees are levied according to the Ottoman Law of Court Fees now in force. 5. Land Registries. — (i) Sale :

3% on the market value of the property trans- ferred, (ii) Exchange :

3% on one-half of the aggregate market value of the properties exchanged, (iii) Gifts :

(a) 2% on the market value of the property, if the gift is to a descendant or ascendant or wife or husband.


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 153

(i8) 3% on the market value of the property, if the gift is to any other person." (iv) Lease :

(a) 5% on the rent for one year when the lease is for a term of more than 3 years and less than 10 years. {/S) 10% on the rent for one year where the lease

is for a term of 10 years and over. The Municipal registration fee of 1% of the amount of the rent shall be payable in addition on leases of property within a Municipal area.

(v) Mortgage :

1% on the amount of loan.

(vi) Further Charge :

1% on the increased amount secured.

(vii) Transfer of Mortgage :

1% on the amount of the secured loan trans- ferred . (viii) Sale of mortgaged properties at the request of Mortgagees :

on the purchase price realized on sale

by auction — Registration fee. on the purchase price realized on sale

by auction — Execution fee. on the purchase price realized on sale by auction — Auctioneer's fee i%.

(a) 1^% on the market value of the shares trans- ferred by way of succession to de- scendants or ascendants or wife or husband.

(/3) 3% on the market value of the shares trans- ferred by way of succession to brothers, sisters and their descen- dants, (y) 5% on the market value of the shares trans- ferred to any other heirs.



(a)


3%



(/3)


^r/o



(y)


1%


(ix)


Succession


154 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


(x) Bequest :

(a) io% on the market value of the property transferred by way of bequest if the legatees are not legal heirs of the testator. {j3) if the legatees are legal heirs of the

testator, the fees payable are as set out in Section 9. (xi) Partition :

1% on the market value* of the property the subject of the partition, (xii) Issue of Certificate of Registration when property does not appear on the register : 5% on the market value of the property in respect of which a certificate is applied for. (xiii) Fees on transfer of Waqf Land :

2^% fees payable on the constitution of land as zvaqf, of the market value of the land up to the value of £E. 200. 1% on the value of the land in excess of £E. 200. One-half of the fees levied in respect of the con-

  • stitution of waqf or the transfer of waqf shall

be paid to the Waqf Administration and one- half to the Treasury, (xiv) Search :

5 PT. for every property in respect of which search is made, (xv) Extracts from the Registers and Documents : 4 PT. for every one hundred words. 2 PT. for every one hundred words certifying any copy to be a true copy.

In addition to the fees payable for preparing the copy, the search fee of 5 PT. shall be payable in respect of every property included in the copy supplied, (xvi) Printed Forms :

I or 2 PT. for every printed Land Registry Form.


n


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 155

(xvii) Correction of the Register :

25 PT. for every property in respect of which correction is required.

6. Post Oflace.— (See § 14.)

7. Revenue of State Domains. — The receipt from State Domains comprise revenues from

(i) Crown lands ceded to the Ottoman Treasury by the Civil List, following the proclamation of the Constitution in 1908. These Imperial Domains were originally the private estates of the Sultans acquired through feudal means or by purchase from their subjects. It is customary for such lands to be rented to individual cultivators or tribal communities on the payment of 10% of the produce. The Revenue Department includes these lands within its assessment for tithe, the rate being 22^% or 12^% tithe plus 10% rent.

(ii) Lands which have been acquired by the State through escheat or failure of heirs, or through lapses of cultivation.

(iii) Building property constructed upon sites belonging to the State, such as the town of Beisan in Galilee and the village of Mukarraka in Gaza.

8. Stamp Fees. — There are two sources from which this kind of revenue is drawn :

{a) The Ottoman Stamp Law of 1906 replacing earlier

legislation relating to Stamp Fees. {b) The " Timbre du Hejaz."

The law of 1906 establishes a multiplicity of fees ^upon documents of every conceivable kind, constituting an irksome and vexatious impost falling mostly upon the non-rural inhabitants, but its incidence cannot be said to be oppressive since townspeople escaped the payment of tithes and are in general lightly taxed.

By the decree of Muharram, 1881, the revenues accruing from this source form a portion of the revenues of the O.P.D.A. The law is divided into two sections, one dealing


156 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

with the timbre ancien, and the other known as the timbre a surcharge. Great confusion exists in the minds of the pubhc as to the terms of the law and the fees imposed.

Certain items of the law have been cancelled and others modified ; thus, the fees imposed upon passports, visas and laissez-passer, railway tickets, land transfers, mortgages and sales of lands have been cancelled or amalgamated into a new scale of duties.

The " Timbre du Hejaz " was created to provide funds for the construction of the Hejaz Railway. It is, for the most part, a surtax upon documents already taxable under the law of 1906. The receipts do not form a portion of the revenues of the Ottoman Public Debt.

The revision and amalgamation of stamp duties is now under consideration.

9. The Ottoman Public Debt Administration. — The Decree of Muharram, i88t, instituted the Council of the Administration of the Public Debt. This body was charged with the collection of the revenues assigned to meet the obligations due by the Turkish Government to the foreign bondholders. The revenues ceded to it included among others " the five revenues " receivable from salt, stamp duties, wine and spirit licences and excise dues, fisheries and silk ; the proceeds of the sale of and tithe upon tobacco ; and the surtax of 3% upon the ad valorem customs import duties ; licences for shooting game and selling tombac.

By the Treaty of Sevres the Mandatory Powers of Occu- pied Territories are responsible for the payment of an annual sum which is to be fixed by an international financial commission sitting in Constantinople. The revenues ceded to the Public Debt then became a portion of the ordinary revenues of the mandatory State. Though the Treaty is still unratified, the arrangements advocated have been partly adopted. The collection of the ceded revenues is still in the hands of the Public Debt agents, but the net receipts are credited to the Government of Palestine.


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 157

Ottoman Taxes not enforced. — The following vexatious Ottoman taxes have been abolished : (i) temettu (Professional tax) ; (ii) Fees collected in lieu of military service {badl

askariya) ; (iii) Tax in lieu of forced road labour [badl sukhra) ; (iv) Certain small licensing fees.

Revenue and Expenditure. — The following statements show the total revenue and expenditure under the various heads for the financial year 1921-22 :

Revenue. £E.

(i) Customs ------- 623,273

(ii) Port Dues ------- 10,705

(iii) Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue - 758,107

(iv) Fees of Court and Office Receipts for Specific

Services and Reimbursements - - 150,496

(v) Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones - - 141,287

(vi) Railways ------- 557,334

(vii) Revenue from Government Property - - 32,289

(viii) Agricultural Department - - - - 2,637

(ix) Royalties and Concessions - - - - —

(x) Interest ------- 20,428

(xi) Miscellaneous - - - - - - 34,562

(xii) Land Sales - - - - - - 1,153


Total - - - ^E. 2, 332, 271


158 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Expenditure. £E.

(i) Pensions - - 16,645

(ii) Public Debt and Loan Charges - - 6,516

(iii) His Excellency the High Commissioner - 12,809

(iv) Secretariat - - - - - - 32,358

(v) District Administration - - - - 78,608

(vi) Legal Department 75,542

(vii) Land Department and Land Registry - 19,443

(viii) Survey Department _ _ _ _ 1,834

(ix) Financial Secretary ----- 4,868

(x) Treasury - - - - - - - 29,322

(xi) Audit Department ----- —

(xii) Department of Customs Revenue and Ports 104,034 (xiii) Department of Cornmerce and Industry

(including Stores and Labour) - - 15,409

(xiv) Department of Health - - - - 142,931

(xv) Education Department - - - - 88,158

(xvi) Department of Agriculture and Fisheries - 45,179

(xvii) Public Security and Prisons - - - 320,806

(xviii) Defence ------- 7,995

(xix) Department of Immigration and Travel - 13,304

(xx) Department of Antiquities _ _ - 6,649

(xxi) Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones - - 103,121

(xxii) Railways ------ 527,657

(xxiii) Public Works Department _ _ _ 38,200

(xxiv) Public Works, Recurrent - - - - 63,539

(xxv) Public Works, Extraordinary - - - —

(xxvi) Miscellaneous 141,471


Total


^E.i,896,398


{b) CURRENCY.

Currency. — There is no Palestinian currency. Legal Tender consists of Notes of the National Bank of Egypt,


FINANCE, CURRENCY AND BANKING 159

Egyptian silver and nickel coins, and the English gold sovereign, which is reckoned at PT. 97-50.

Notes : PT. 5, 10, 25, 50 ; £E. i, 5, 10, 50, 100.

Silver : PT. i, 2, 5, 10, 20.

Nickel : Milliemes i, 2, 5, 10.

10 milliemes =1 PT. (piastre tariff) =2^d. 1000 milliemes ---£E,. i.

(c) BANKING.

1. Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Ltd. Established 1864. Head Office, 27 Clement's Lane, London, E.C. 4 (associated with Barclays Bank, Ltd., London).

Capital ;^ 1 , 800, 000, of which ;^6oo, 000 is paid up . Reserve Fund ;^720,ooo.

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — (with an Agency at Ramallah) Manager, A. P. S. Clark (also Manager of the Palestine Branches) ; Jaffa ; Haifa ; Nazareth.

Banking hours 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. (Sundays excepted).

2. Imperial Ottoman Bank. Established 1863. Head Offices : Constantinople, London and Paris.

Capital ^10,000,000 — divided into 500,000 shares of ;^20 each. The shares are all issued, but ;^io only is paid up. Reserve Fund (1920), ;/^i, 250,000.

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — (with sub- branch at Ramallah) Manager, E. E. Wiles (also Manager of the Palestine Branches) ; Jaffa ; Haifa.

Banking hours : 9-12 and 2-4 daily (Sundays excepted) ; on Saturdays from 9-12 only.

3. Banco di Roma. Established 1880. Head Office : Rome.

Capital (fully paid up) 150,000,000 Italian Lire. Reserve Fund 11,714,265 Italian Lire.

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — Manager, G. Spagnolo ; Jaffa ; Haifa.

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 3 to 4 p.m. (Sundays excepted) .

4. Anglo-Palestine Company, Ltd. Established 1902.


i6o THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Head Office : Brook House, Walbrook, London, E.G. 4. Head Office for the Orient : Jaffa, Palestine.

Capital (fully paid up) ;^300,029. Reserve Fund £'j,oi'j.

Branches in Palestine : Jerusalem, Haifa, Hebron, Safed, and Tiberias. General Managers : D. Levontin and S. Hoofien.

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 3 to 5 p.ifl.

5. Credit Lyonnais (Societe Anonyme). Established 1863. Head Office : 19 Boulevard des Italiens, Paris.

Capital (fully paid up) 250,000,000 Francs. Reserve Fund 200,000,000 Francs.

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem and Jaffa ; Manager, M. Gerassimos.

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12,30 p.m. (Sundays excepted).


§ 4. Customs.

' Customs Stations. — There are customs stations at the following towns : Jerusalem.

/with sub-stations at Ludd and ^ \ Tulkeram.

„ r with sub-stations at Beersheba and

Gaza - - I T^i, AA •

I Khan Yunis.

^^ .- f with sub-stations at Tantura, Acre

Haifa - - { , r^ , ,

[ and Semakh.

Accommodation for Goods. — Customs warehouses exist in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Ludd, Gaza, Haifa, Acre and Semakh. The free period during which goods may be stored is seven days, except at Jerusalem, where the period is five days. Bonded warehouses exist in Jaffa and Haifa, and arrange- ments have been made for larger premises ; but bonded warehouses do not perform any work which is properly the duty of the Customs Department.

Under the provision of the Treaty of Sevres the port of Haifa is declared a free zone. The underlying principle regarding " free zones " is that equality of treatment shall


CUSTOMS 1 61

be accorded by the Territorial or Mandatory Power con- cerned to the subjects of all States without discrimination in cases where a port serves more than one country. Haifa, which in the past served only Turkish territory, now handles traffic destined for, or originating in, the territories under British and French influence respectively.

Frontiers. — The geographical situation of the frontiers of Palestine makes the provision of an adequate customs con- trol a matter of some difficulty. The frontier on three sides is open, while on the fourth the Mediterranean Sea forms a barrier, extending from Rafa in the south to Ras al-Nakura in the north, having few inlets, but for the most part accessible to the smaller sea craft which are numerous along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. On the eastern side the Jordan Valley, extending to the south of the Dead Sea, forms the eastern frontier separating Palestine from Trans-jordania. In the south the boundary between Egypt and Palestine demarcated before the War runs from Rafa south-east to the Gulf of Akaba. From the earliest ages in history the people inhabiting Palestine have acted as the middlemen of the East. They have been the carriers between East and West, they stand between the nomadic tribes of the Arabian Desert and the civilization of the West, and they act to-day, as they have done for ages in the past, as the bridgehead for the products of a hinterland stretching to the confines of Mesopotamia. Innumerable camel tracks cross the frontiers from Trans-jordania or the Sinai Desert into Palestine, and in the north the great trunk road from Damascus leads into Galilee across the bridge of Benat Yaqub. The northern frontier stretching from Lake Huleh to the sea at Ras al-Nakura possesses no geographical obstacles, and is crossed by mule tracks leadmg from the large towns of Syria to Acre and Haifa. Under the Turkish regime the problem of frontier control was not present, since the sea was the only boundary of any im- portance, and the numerous tracks radiating from al-Arish in the south towards Gaza, Hebron and Beersheba were ignored. A Customs frontier-guard patrols the Rafa-Beer-


1 62 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

sheba area, and at al-Arish the Egyptian Customs Adminis- tration collects the import and export duties on behalf of the Palestine Government.

Trans-jordania. — There is no customs barrier between Palestine and Trans-jordania. All import duties and formalities on articles consigned to Trans-jordania from abroad are collected and carried out at the customs station of arrival in Palestine. Jerusalem and Nablus are the dis- tributing centres for the East of the Jordan, the principal imports being manufactured goods, such as cotton and woollen articles, and tobacco. In return there is a con- siderable export trade from Trans-jordania into Palestine, and if markets are available, to Europe, in the shape of wheat. The Government of Palestine pays to Trans- jordania a proportion of the import 'and export duties calculated upon the estimated volume of foreign imports I into Trans-jordania. The principal trade routes are via the Dead Sea, the Allenby Bridge near Jericho, Jisr Damia j opposite Nablus, and Beisan. j

Syria. — The rich territory, of which Damascus is the centre, provides a lucrative field for foreign import trade. The railway linking Haifa, via Deraa, to Damascus provides a convenient mode of transit, while there is constant traffic! by road via the Benat Yaqub Bridge between Lakes Tiberias and Huleh. Before the advent of the railways this road was one of the great highways of the Near East. It is still used as a route for transporting wheat and other cereals from the agricultural district of the Hauran into Palestine.

On the establishment of the Military Administration of Palestine a Customs Station was opened at Haifa, where import duties were collected on articles either consigned in transit to Damascus or for local distribution. The Customs facilities offered at the port make it a convenient route for importers of foreign consignments, and coupled with advan- tages of a railway to Damascus, have led to the develop- ment of a considerable transit trade with the East. Under the Military Authorities the revenue accruing from the foreign import trade formed a portion of the receipts of


CUSTOMS 163

the Palestine Customs, but on the estabHshment of Civil Administrations in Palestine and Syria it was not possible to continue the collection of these charges at Haifa on con- signments destined for Syria, and a Customs agreement was accordingly signed by the High Commissioners for Palestine and Syria on the 25th August, 1921.

The Syrian-Palestine Customs Agreement. — The Agree- ment establishes the principle that articles manifested in transit to Syria pass through Haifa in bond and become dutiable at the country of destination.

The Customs officials of the country of destination pay from the dues collected one-half per cent, on the value of the goods to the country of transit to cover the cost of formalities.

For foreign articles, not in transit, but which may have broken bulk at Haifa and are subsequently exported to Syria, the exporter obtains a certificate from the Palestine Customs authorities stating the value of the articles and the amount of duty paid when first imported into Palestine. The goods are then allowed to proceed to Syria without additional duty being charged. The Customs officials at the place of importation register the particulars of such consignments, claiming from the Government of Palestine the amount of duty originally paid on the entry of the goods into Palestine. Similarly, for the export of foreign goods from Beirut or Damascus into Haifa or other places in Palestine, the Syrian Customs authorities refund to Palestine the amount of duty chargeable on the articles on their first importation into Syria. These arrangements ensure the greatest possible freedom in trade between the two territories.

Foreign articles which are manufactured in part from foreign raw material are regarded by both Governments as the hona-fide produce of the country of manufacture and, like all local produce, are admitted by either country free of duty and free of all restrictions.

No duties are chargeable upon goods exported from or imported to Syria, or vice versa, which are the local produce of the countries concerned. On the export of such goods


i64 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

by sea, a deposit of one per cent, ad valorem is taken and is refunded on a certificate being produced that the goods in question have reached their destination. The arrange- ment is reciprocal. No deposit is required on local produce exported by rail.

Rates of Duty. — The rates of duty throughout the Ottoman Empire were fixed, by treaties of commerce con- cluded in 1 86 1 and 1862 with the Powers, at 8% ad valorem for imports and 1% ad valorem for exports. The import duty was increased in 1907 from 8% to 11%. The increase of 3% formed a portion of the revenue of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt.

The Government of Palestine maintains the import duty oi 11% ad valorem and the 1% ad valorem on exports, except- ing in the case of Egypt and Turkey. The local produce and manufactures of these countries, whether such goods contain foreign raw material or otherwise, are imported into Palestine at an import duty of 8% ad valorem. Syria, as already mentioned, is excluded from the above.

Foreign Additional Import Duty. — A special duty, called the Foreign Additional Import Duty, is added to these import rates and is levied on behalf of Municipalities. An ad valorem duty of i % is collected on all foreign imports (except in the case of inflammable liquids, such as petrol, mineral oil, etc., and alcoholic drinks, including wines arid beers, on which the additional duty is 2% ad valorem). Tobacco products are subject to an additional duty of PT. 5 per kilogram only.

These duties replace the octroi of i % ad valorem formerly collected by the Municipalities of Palestine and abolished in 1 92 1 (see below under " Municipalities ").

Special Duties. — There are special rates of import duty upon the following articles :

[a) 3% ad valorem on live stock, as enumerated below, imported for agricultural or slaughtering purposes :

camels, horses, donkeys, cattle and sheep. The Foreign Additional Import Duty of 1% must also be paid.


38 per ki


log]


55 >.



60 ,,


,j


60 „


•^t


20 ,,


,,


TO ,,



CUSTOMS 165

{h) 3% «^ valorem on building material [e.g. timber, iron

and steel bars, hollow bricks and tiles, cement), (c) The Tobacco Taxation Ordinance, 1921, amended by the Tobacco Taxation Amending Ordinance, dated December, 1921, lays down the duties payable on imported tobacco products :

uncut tobacco - - - PT. manufactured tobacco and

cigarettes - - - ,, cigars and chewing tobacco snuff - , - tombac (Persian)

(other than Persian) Any person who re-exports from Palestine any of the above articles, and proves to the satisfaction of the Customs Department that such articles were manufactured from imported tobacco or tombac, is entitled to a drawback of 80% of the import duty originally paid. The Foreign Additional Import duty of PT. 5 per kilogram is also pay- able.

Exemption from Duty. —

(i) Imports. — The following articles are exempted from Import Duty :

{a) agricultural machinery, as specified below: grain, chaff, root and bean cutters ; crushers, grinding machines and bruising mills ; ploughing machinery ; mowers ; threshing machinery ; reapers ; straw elevators and threshing machines ; cultivators, harrows and hoes ; hand rollers ; winnowers ; grain graders ; hand seed drills and seed layers ; dairy machinery ; cream separators, milk filters, heaters, coolers, refrigerators, sterilizers and butter-making machines ; incubators ; fruit-drying machinery ; oil mills and crushers, with parts and accessories ; spraying machinery, and spray pumps ; fumigation machinery and fumigation tents ; tractors ; almond hullers ; poultry houses, chicken pens, brooders and foster mothers (complete or in


1 66 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


section) ; bee-hives, hive frames, honey extractors, centrifugal machines for honey extraction and liive foundations ; {b) recognized chemical manures and seeds for agri- cultural purposes up to a reasonable quantity ; (c) samples of no commercial value ; {d) printed matter as follows : books, reviews and other publications, bound or unbound ; manuscripts ; plans or other architectural designs ; maps, atlases and geographical diagrams, scientific pictures and diagrams of all kinds ; newspapers and magazines ; commercial catalogues, price lists and commercial announcements ; prints and photographs des- patched by parcel post ; {e) used personal and settler's effects, including used household effects, tools and instruments of the trade or occupation of the settler, (ii) Exports. — The following commodity may be ex- ported free of duty :

wine jnanufactured in Palestine. Prohibited Imports. —

(i) The importation of the following articles into Pales- tine is prohibited :

arms and ammunition, explosives (with the ex- ception of sporting guns and sporting gun ammunition) ; salt ; drawings, engravings and all printed and manuscript matter of an immoral or seditious character, whether as merchandise or wrappings ; hashish and raw opium ; shaving brushes exported from Japan, China, Manchuria and Korea.

(2) The following may be imported under special licence issued by the Director of Public Security :

blasting explosives and saltpetre.

(3) The importation of the following articles is permitted under permit from the District Governors (Public Notice No. 180, dated the ist September, 1920) :

sporting guns and sporting gun ammunition.


CUSTOMS 167

(4) The importation of the following articles is only per- mitted when the articles are accompanied by a certificate, signed by a competent agricnltnrist in the country of origin, certifying that they have been examined and found to be free from disease :

living plants of any description ; bees.

(5) The importation of the following articles into Palestine is only permitted under special certificates issued by the Director of Health, viz. :

{a) medicinal opium ;

{b) all preparations (official and non-official, including

the so-called anti-opium remedies) containing more

than 0-2 per cent, of morphine or more than o-i per

cent, of cocaine ;

(c) heroin, its salts and preparations containing more

than o-i per cent, of heroin ; {d) all derivatives of morphine, of cocaine, or of their respective salts, and every other alkaloid of opium, which may be shown by scientific research, generally recognized, to be liable to similar abuse and produc- tive of like ill-effects. Prohibited Exports. —

(i) The exportation of the following articles from Pales- tine is prohibited :

live stock (excluding camels in transit and goats) ; hashish and raw opium. (2) The exportation of antiquities is permitted only under special licence issued and signed by the Inspector of Anti- quities.

There is free and unrestricted movement of all com- modities within Palestine.

Goods entering Palestine manifested in transit to other destinations may be allowed to proceed, with the exception of the following :

{a) arms and ammunition, explosives (with the exception

of sporting guns and sporting gun ammunition) ; {b) drawings, engravings, and all printed and manuscript matter of an immoral or seditious character, whether as merchandise or wrappings ;


1 68


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


(c) hashish and raw opium ;

{d) blasting explosives and saltpetre (unless under special

licence issued by the Director of Public Security). Value of Imports and Exports. — The total value of imports and exports is as follows :


Year Ending



Imports. Exports.


Total.




£E. £E.


£E.


31st March, 1920 -


-


4,191,060 773.443


4,964,503


3Tst March, 1921 -


-


5,216,633 771,701


5.988,334


"3 1 St March, 1922 -


-


5.645.343 935.490


6,580,843


Principal Imports.


—The


principal imports for the period


1st April, 1921, to 31


st March, 1922, were :






Value.


cotton fabrics


-


14,083,876 metres £'E


= 572,016


sugar -


-


9,205 tons


= 289,548


flour - - -


-


8,607 ..


= 179,697


coal _ _ _


-


61,816 ,.


= 241,130


rice - - _


-


9,172 „


= 179,887


petroleum


-


692,944 tins ,,


= 206,759


clothing - - -


-


— value


= 219,610


iron and steel manuf


-



= 226,848


timber -


-



= 148,503


cigarettes


-


266 tons


= 297,893


machinery


-


— value


= 167,638


cotton yarn and sewing




cotton


-



= 90,829


cement -


-


20,747 tons


= 101,800


Principal Exports. -


-The


principal exports for the period


1st April, 192 1, to 31


st March, 1922, were :






Value.


soap - - -


-


3,316 tons £E


= 186,255


oranges -


-


1,234,252 cases


= 325.374


melons -


-


— value


= 59,757


apricot paste -


-


977 tons


= 32,356


wine - - _


-


1. 59 1. 500 litres


= 52,964


lentils -


-


3,195 tons


= 33,220


lupins - - -


-


2,967 ..


= 15,182


almonds


-


552 „


= 24,667


peas - _ _


-


1.508 „


= 14,669


CUSTOMS 169

The principal countries of import and export are :

(a) Import. — Great Britain ; Egypt ; France ; United States of America ; Italy ; India ; Germany ; Japan ; Belgium and Holland.

{b) Export. — Great Britain ; Egypt ; France ; United States of America ; Germany.

Trade with Egypt. — For the year ended the 31st March, 1922, the value of goods declared as of Egyptian origin imported to Palestine was £K. 724,734, showing an increase in value of £'E. 55,278 over the total for the previous year. The exports from Palestine to Egypt for the year ended the 31st March, 1922, were valued at £R. 527,579, being a decrease of £K. 6,716 from the previous year. The increase in the value of the Egyptian import trade is largely due to the removal of the prohibition on the importation of tobacco by the Tobacco Taxation Ordinance, 192 1. The Egyptian Government has removed the restrictions imposed upon the export of rice and Egyptian sugar, which, together with the abolition of the prohibition on the export of cereals from Palestine, has also provided an incentive to trade between the two countries.


§ 5. Commerce and Industry.

General. — A Department of Commerce and Industry advises the Administration on economic matters, and gives to the public information on commercial and industrial affairs. The Department purchases all Government stores, other than Railway Stores and certain technical stores used by the Department of Posts and Telegraphs.

Industry and Production. — Although industries in Palestine have no greater protection than that afforded by an ad valorem duty on imported merchandise, the year 192 1 has witnessed the beginning of an industrial movement of some importance, which is significant in having begun at a time when power is extremely expensive. Coal for commercial use averages more than £'E. 5 per ton in ports.

With the recrudescence of building activity to meet growing demands, the building industry has assumed an important place in the country's industries, and many brick, tile and cement block factories now exist at Jaffa. Soapmaking from olive oil, an old-established industry of Palestine, has its main centres at Nablus and Jaffa, but factories with more modern methods now exist at Haifa and contribute materially to what is an important Palestine article of export. Wine-growing is a very important industry, and Palestine wines constitute one of the main articles of the country's exports. The chief centres of production are Richon-le-Zion and Zichron Jacob.

The production of salt from the waters of the Medi- terranean at Athlit is a new Palestinian industry, which will in the near future not only meet the entire requirements of the country, but will add another article to the list of Palestine's exports.

There is a great need of Industrial and Mortgage Banks, who would be prepared to advance money to manufacturers on long terms at reasonable rates, and also to Import and Export Houses working on modern lines.

Chambers of Commerce exist in the principal towns. Traditional Industries. — The following are the traditional and long established industries of the country :

Weaving (carpets, mats, rugs, clothes, abayas, braid), manufacture of agals, purses, tassels, plaiting of belts, dyeing, needlework, embroidery, lacemaking ; masonry, carpentry, joinery, cabinet making, mud brick making, lime and cement making ; r blacksmiths, coppersmiths, tinsmiths, gold and silver smiths, making of peasant jewellery, cutlery and camel bells :


(i) Textile


(ii)


Building and Allied Trades


(iii) Metal Industries -


1


COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY


171


(iv) Eeatlier and Tanning -


(v)


Manufacture Agricultural Implements


of


(vi) Domestic Utensils


[handling and tanning of local \ skins, manufacture of boots, I shoes, and of water skins ; forging of ploughshares, sickles, etc., shaping of plough handles, manufac- ture of saddles, whips, fishing nets, manufacture of soap from local olive oil ; basket-making, manufacture of brooms, sieves, wooden spoons, bellows, pipes and pipe-tubes, glass-making, manufacture of musical instruments (lutes, aoudes and drums).

Orange Export Trade. — The following table gives the export figures and values of oranges exported from Jaffa since 1909. It will be noticed, from the decreased quan- tities exported, to what extent the gardens suffered during the war :

Cases. Value.

1908-9 - - - 744.463 I'P-- £^^5M5

1909-10 - - 853,767 235,605

1910-11 - - 869,850 217,500

1911-12 - - 1,418,000 283,600

1912-13 - - 1,608,570 297,700

1919-20 - - 647,063 162,409

1920-21 ■ - - 830,959 200,475

1921-22 - - 1,165,937 306,517

  • The quantities sent to Great Britain were 282,500 cases,

valued at £^. 64,409, in 1921, and 215,899 cases, valued at

£E. 56,839, in 1920.


§ 6. Inimi.^ration.


Immigration. — An Immigration Ordinance was promul- gated in September, 1920, stating the terms under which


172 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


immigrants might be allowed to enter Palestine ; at the same time the principle was laid down that immigration should be regulated according to the economic needs of the country.

The Zionist Organization, as the Jewish Agency recog- nized by the Administration, was authorized to introduce into the country a fixed number of immigrants (16,500) on condition that they accepted responsibihty for their main- tenance for one year.

Entry into Palestine was then authorized to the following categories :

{a) immigrants whose maintenance was guaranteed by

the Zionist Organization ; {b) persons of independent means or persons who could produce evidence that they would become self- supporting ; (c) persons of religious occupation who had means of

maintenance in Palestine ; {d) members of families at present residents in Palestine.

During the eight months ended the 30th April, 1921, 8030 immigrants entered Palestine (62% men, 22% women, 16% children) under the auspices of the Zionist Organiza- tion ; and 2031 (48% men, 31% women, 21% children) independently.

On the 4th May, 1921, immigration was suspended, and on the 3rd June the old categories were cancelled and the following were substituted for them :

{a) travellers, i.e., persons who do not intend to remain in Palestine for a period exceeding three months ;

(b) persons of independent means who intend to take up

permanent residence in Palestine ;

(c) members of professions who intend to follow their

calling ;

(d) wives, children and other persons wholly dependent

on residents in Palestine ;

(e) persons who have a definite prospect of employment

with specified employers or enterprises ;


he 1


IMMIGRATION 173

(/) persons of religious occupations, including the class of Jews who have come to Palestine in recent years from religious motives and who can show that they have means of maintenance here ; (g) returning residents.

The total number of immigrants who entered Palestine from the 3rd June, 192 1, when immigration was reopened, to the 31st December, 1921, was 4861, of whom 4784 were Jews.

The following table shows the percentage per country of immigrants that have come to Palestine during the period ist September, 1920, to 31st December, 192 1 :

Poland- 33 0/0

Russia 15%

Smaller East European States - - 11% Central Asia- - - - - - 10 %

Rumania _--___ 5%

Great Britain and Dominions - - 3i%

Other Countries - - - - - 22-|%

Tourists. — The tourist traffic, once a source of consider- able profit to Palestine, has begun, in 1922, to revive after an abeyance of eight years, due to the war.


§ 7. Education.

History and Organization. — Under the Ottoman Govern- ment the educational system in Palestine was mainly con- fined to education of a very elementary nature, although during the war Jemal Pasha attempted to introduce a rather better type of school. Christian education was conducted entirely by private religious bodies and individuals. Jewish education was catered for by Jewish religious bodies and by the European Communities, whose nationals were living in Palestine, assisted by the generous donations of wealthy private individuals.

Turkish was the official language in the schools as else- where in Palestine, and even Arabic was taught through


174 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


its medium. Arabic was, therefore, educationally speaking, a foreign language, and there were very few persons, and these mainly educated abroad, who were acquainted to any extent with the literature and history of their own language.

During the war the system became seriously disorganized ; and the reorganization of education in Palestine by the Occupying Power on the lines of the Ottoman regime, according to international law, presented an intricate and difficult problem.

In 191 7 the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration began the work of educational reconstruction. Arabic was made the medium of instruction, schools that had existed before were re-opened in as many districts as possible, and some of the older Sheikhs, who had not been taken for military service, gathered together the children in the mosque or the village school building, and began again to teach them the Qoran and Arabic reading and writing.

After the occupation of Jerusalem in 191 7 a more exten- sive system of education was planned, including the insti- tution of two Training Colleges.

In August, 19 1 8, a qualified English lady from Cairo was appointed to be headmistress of the Government Girls' School in Jerusalem, and also to help in the general organi- zation of female education.

In 1919 the Military Administration voted £E. 53,000 for the Education Budget. Elementary schools were opened in nearly all towns of Palestine, and a system was drawn up of grants-in-aid to villages, under which the Administration paid £E,. 30 a year on condition that the Community sup- plied another £E. 30. Fifty- two of these grant-in-aid schools were opened during 1919.

Later in the year Training Colleges, both for men and women, were opened in Jerusalem. Hostels for boarders were attached to them, and a teaching staff, composed of both Moslems and Christians, appointed.

In the financial year 1920-21 the sum of £R. 78,000 was voted for education, and more elementary schools were opened,-


EDUCATION 175

A programme of elementary education, which fore- shadowed the opening of 75 elementary schools a year for four years, was presented to the Advisory Council in November, 1920. The majority of these schools were to be in villages which up to then had possessed no educational facilities. It was hoped that, at the end of this period, every child in Palestine would have an opportunity of attending school, with the possible exception of some chil- dren of Beduin tribes in outlying districts, for whom special provision has been made by appointing peripatetic teachers, who live with the tribes and teach the children in tribal groups.

In 192 1 seventy-five of these schools were opened, and the grant-in-aid schools formerly organized by the Depart- ment were also taken over as Government schools.

For the financial year 1921-22 £E. 103,000 was voted for the Education Budget and, in addition to this, the awqaf mundarisa, the revenues from which amounted to ^E. 4,800, were handed over to the Department of Education, on the understanding that the income was to be spent on Moslem education.

An extension of the Men's Training College, permitting an increase in the number of boarding students from 50 to 75, was effected in 1921, while the Women's Training College moved into a larger building.

The language of instruction in all Government Schools is Arabic ; English being taught only in the larger town schools, beginning in thp third year. Hebrew has not yet been introduced, as the number of Jewish children in Government schools is at present insignificant. In towns the Government supplies the building, pays the teachers and provides for the expenses of the school. In villages the community supplies the building, keeps it in repair and supplies the school furniture, while the Government pays the other expenses.

Teaching Staff. — Teachers' Examinations were held in 1919 and 1920, and a temporary certificate granted. In 192 1 Higher and Lower Examinations for Government


1/6 THE HANDBOOK" OF PALESTINE -

Schoolmasters were arranged, the standard of the former being not much below that of the London Matriculation. Great difficulty has been and is still being experienced in finding an efficient teaching staff, especially in the more" remote districts, largely owing to the lack of any proper system of training under the Turks, but the existing Train- ing Colleges and the system of teachers' examinations will, it is hoped, raise the teaching staff in a few years to the level of a European elementary standard.

Educational Committees. — Local educational committees have been formed in most Districts, consisting of some five or six notables of the community. The Governor of the District or his representative presides at meetings, and these committees have been helpful in rousing local interest and in giving advice.

In 1 92 1 a Central Education Committee was formed under the presidency of the Director of Education, for the purpose of maintaining a harmonious feeling between the com- munities in educational matters, and to facilitate inter- communication between the various^ educational bodies. The Committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Depart- ment of Education, but has no executive powers. It con- sists of eleven unofficial members (of whom three are ladies), selected from the three Communities, and of senior members of the Headquarters Staff.

Total Number of Government Schools. — The total number of Government schools now opened is 28 boys' and 23 girls' schools in the larger towns and 190 village schools for mainly boys. These schools are attended by about 14,000 boys and 2,800 girls.

Grants-in-aid. — In the budget of 1921-22 the sum of ^E. 6,125 was set aside for the assistance of non-Government schools, subject to Government inspection, and was dis- tributed on a per capita basis. As the majority of the non- Government school population are Jewish children, the bulk of this grant was given to Jewish schools, and a Jewish Inspector was engaged in January, 1921, with the special object of keeping the Department in touch with Jewish


EDUCATION 177

education. Though the percentage of the Jewish popula- tion in Palestine does not exceed 11% of the total, the number of Jewish children attending non-Government schools is slightly larger than that of the total number attending Government schools ; the reason being that, whereas the Zionist Organization and other Jewish bodies, such as the " Alliance Israelite " and the Anglo-Jewish Association, have been able to provide educational facilities for the majority of Jewish children, the onus of providing education for the Moslems mainly falls on the Government as it did during the Turkish regime. Up to the present, owing to lack of funds, the Department has not been able to cater for more than about one-seventh of the number of Moslem children of the country.

The Orthodox, Latin, Anglican and other Christian com- munities are in receipt of grants in proportion to the number of pupils attending their respective schools.

Secondary Schools. — There are at present no Govern- ment schools devoted entirely to secondary education. In Jerusalem, Nablus, Nazareth and Acre secondary classes have been opened : these are attached to the elementary schools, and are being developed as necessity arises. It is hoped to attach hostels for boarders to these schools. A number of non-Government secondary schools exist in Palestine, but none of these use Arabic as the medium of instruction, and almost all have primary classes attached to them.

Training Colleges. — 46 girls (17 Moslems and 29 Christians) are boarded at the Women's Training College. In addition to the English Principal, who also acts as Chief Inspectress of Girls* Schools, two English ladies have recently been appointed as Assistants in this institution in order to improve instruction in kindergarten work and domestic economy. The Men's Training College is developing rapidly ; tliere are 67 students in residence, of whom 53 are Moslems and 14 Christians.

Technical Education. — An attempt has been made to introduce elementary technical education into some of the


178 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


schools. All schools have gardens attached to them, and in some localities there have been opened workshops, where the boys are taught carpentry, iron work, saddlery, etc. Great importance is attached to the introduction of manual training in elementary schools, but there is a lack of com- petent instructors.

Such technical education as exists, in the true sense, is confined mainly to Jewish effort. In addition to the Bezalel Institution in Jerusalem, where craftsmanship in metal is the main feature, and a well-organized Technical School at Haifa, both under Jewish Administration, the Schneller Orphanage (a Protestant institution) in Jerusalem provides instruction in pottery, leather work, carpentry, etc.

The schools of ceramics and of weaving, both under the auspices of the Pro-Jerusalem Society, receive an annual grant from the Department with a special view to training apprentices. The numbers of apprentices are not very large (14 in ceramics and 11 in weaving), but the instruction is given by experts, and the results, so far, have been satisfactory.

Agricultural Schools. — Small Government Agricultural schools exist at Gaza and Tulkeram, and it is proposed, in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, to organize other schools in the near future.

The largest Agricultural school is that situated at Mikveh- Israel, under the auspices of the " Alliance Israelite." Here the language of instruction is Hebrew and all the students are Jewish,

Education of Girls. — There are at present approximately 2,800 girls attending Government schools. There are schools for girls conducted by Government or by private bodies in every town and in some of the villages. Some of the better Moslem families still prefer to send their daughters to the schools of the European Missionary Societies. Such Government schools for girls as existed under the Turkish regime were unsatisfactory, and it is not surprising that the e^fcellent moral training, which Jias


1

,nd i


EDUCATION 179

always been a characteristic feature of missionary institu- tions, should still attract the parents of Moslem girls.

Non-Government Schools. —

(a) Moslem : A few Moslem private schools exist, but these as a rule do not reach the standard attained by those of the other Communities. The best known of these is the Rawdat al-Ma'aref in Jerusalem. There is also a consider- able number of mosque-schools {kuttab), in which instruction is mainly confined to the Qoran.

{b) Christian : The majority of the Christian population in Palestine belong to the Orthodox Church. They have for many years had schools, conducted by the ecclesiastical authorities, in all parts of the country where members of that community are to be found. These schools have suffered severely owing to the financial difficulties of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, but are beginning to show signs of revival.

In Phoenicia and Galilee, where the Greek Uniate (Mel- chite) Church is largely represented, there exist schools of that denomination. The Roman Catholic community likewise conducts schools, mainly for children of its own faith, in many parts of the country.

To the Christian Missionary Schools, more especially to those conducted by Anglican and Presbyterian societies, Palestine owes a deep debt of gratitude. The English College in Jerusalem, which is under the direct auspices of the Anglican Bishop, is at present the only institution in the country which definitely prepares students up to English matriculation standard, and which will probably develop into a College of University type. The Presbyterian Boys' School, formerly at Tiberias, and recently re-opened at Safed, has an established reputation ; while S. George's and Bishop Gobat's Schools (Anglican), both in Jerusalem, and both with adequate accommodation for boarders, are well attended by Moslems as well as by Christians. Bishop Gobat's School was founded in 1853, and its certificate is accepted for entrance to the Freshmen Class in the American University of Beirut. English is the language of the school,


i8o THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1

his ^


but Arabic is equally well taught. Former scholars of this institution are now holding prominent positions in Palestine.

As regards female education, one of the best Girls' Schools in Palestine is the British High School in Jerusalem, conducted by Miss Warburton, M.B.E., and staffed by a competent body of English and Palestinian ladies. The Church Missionary Society has smaller schools for girls in various centres. More than one American Society has shown great educational activity, and one has done specially valuable work in the villages round Ramallah.

(c) Jewish : There are over 17,000 registered pupils in the Jewish Schools, of whom some 11,500 are in the schools of the Zionist Organization. These latter include 46 kinder- gartens on modern Froebelian lines, 62 elementary, 6 secondary and 10 technical and special schools. Evening courses are provided for the teaching of the Hebrew lan- guage and commercial training, and as continuation schools for youths engaged in some trade during the day. The non-Zionist schools are those of the " Alliance Israelite," the Evelina de Rothschild school for Girls under the Anglo- Jewish Association, one Training College and one Technical School, a number of Orthodox institutions mainly very elementary, and a few independent private schools chiefly of technical character.

The Zionist Schools are on the whole similar in pro- gramme and standard to corresponding schools in Europe, more especially those in Switzerland, the Hebrew language and Jewish literature and history taking the place of the national subjects taught in other countries. The same may be said of most of the non-Zionist schools other than the Orthodox, except that in some of them Hebrew is not the language of instruction. All schools in the colonies, and some in the cities, are mixed. In the secondary schools, Greek and Latin have been excluded from the syllabus, as not being intimately connected with the Jewish civilization. The syllabus of the Zionist Orthodox schools lays stress on religious subjects.

The budget of Jewish Schools is defrayed partly by the


EDUCATION i8i

various governing bodies, partly by tuition fees (over £K. 20,000 per annum) ; the bulk of it, however, over £E. 100,000, comes from the Zionist Organization. In 1920-21 £K. 3,550 was allotted to these schools by the Palestine Government from the funds available for grants- in-aid to non-Government schools. Law Schools. — See § 2 of this Part.

§ 8. Land Tenure.

' General. — The tenure of immovable property in Palestine is governed by the Ottoman Laws in force at the time of the occupation of the country by the British Army. Since that date these laws have been to a small extent amended by local legislation, but they still remain the guiding authority under which all matters relating to imjnovable property are ad j usted and administered by the Government and in the Courts. Special Land Courts have been con- stituted to deal exclusively with matters affecting owner- ship of land. Any immovable property can be acquired compulsorily for the purpose of public utility, for the needs of the Army or for the purpose of carrying into effect any scheme of town planning. Werko (Land Tax) is levied upon all real estate. Prior to the introduction of the Ottoman Land Code of 1274 a.h. (1858 a.d.) titles to mulk land and buildings were registered in the Sharia Court, but no form of registration of miri land existed ; since that time all titles have been granted by the State through the Land Registry Department, and no person can legally hold im- movable property which is not registered. Land Registry offices exist in all the Sub-Districts of Palestine. The registration is of deeds and not of title ; that is to say that the documents affecting any transaction in land must be filed in the Registry, but no guarantee of registered title is given. Owing to religious and political disabilities imposed by the Turkish Authorities on non-Moslem and non-Ottoman subjects most of the land in Palestine belonging to the big religious and charitable institutions is registered by nam


i82 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

musta'ar, i.e., in 'the name of a trustee who is an Ottoman subject. The trust has no legal sanction but is respected in practice ; and, under the Correction of the Land Register Ordinance, 1920, this land is now being registered in the name of the true owners, as corporate bodies and foreigners may now own land.

Categories of Land. — Immovable property in Palestine is divided into five main categories : [a) mulk ; {b) miri ; (c) waqf ; {d) metruqe ; {e) mewat.

{a) Mulk. — Mulk approximates very closely to the English form of freehold, the holder exercising complete rights of ownership and disposition, except devise by will, which, in accordance with Islamic doctrine, is limited to one-third of the testator's mulk property, the remaining two-thirds devolving on the heirs of the holder according to Sharia Law.

{h) Miri. — Miri is property over which the State has the right of ownership but over which the right of occupation or usufruct is enjoyed by private individuals. The holder has the right to use the property as he desires provided he cultivates it. He may sell, mortgage or lease, but cannot bequeath part of it by will, nor can it form the subject of a gift or be constituted waqf. If it remains uncultivated for three consecutive years without lawful excuse (as, for instance, the absence of the holder on military service), it reverts to the State. The possessor may, however, redeem it on payment. of badl misl, i.e., the unimproved capital value. On the death of the holder it devolves upon his heirs in accordance with the Law of Inheritance of 1331 a.h., and in the event of failure of heirs it reverts to the State. Most of the land in Palestine is of this class. In the majority of the villages the miri lands are held in masha'a, that is, in common undivided shares, and are registered in the name of four or five notables, while in reality the property of all the villagers, possibly numbering hundreds of persons. The villager does not hold the same plot of land con- tinuously ; at intervals varying from one to three years a fresh portion is allotted to him. This allocation gives


LAND TENURE 183

rise to much trouble among villagers, with the result that the cultivator has neither the energy nor the inclination to improve his temporary holding, and the productivity of the soil and the revenue of the country suffer. Inducements are now being offered by the Government to villagers to partition their masha'a lands.

{c) Waqf. — W^a^/ lands (see Part 11. , §5) are mortmain property, which lias been dedicated to some religious or charitable object and has been derived mainly from mulk and mm. Waqf oi mulk i^th.e only txixe waqf ; it is governed by the religious law and is not subject to the Land Code. It was previously administered by the IFa^/ Administration, but is now under the control of the Supreme Moslem Sharia Council, and is subject to the conditions laid down by the founder. Waqf oi miri (tahsisai) is State land, the proceeds of which have been dedicated to some special object either by the Sultan or by others with Imperial sanction. The Nizami (civil) land laws apply to this form of waqf, and the waqf Administration stands in the same relation to it as the State stands to miri. Waqf lands are governed partly by the Sharia Law and partly by the Nizami. They are complex and heterogeneous in tenure, and persons acquiring such lands should proceed with great caution and obtain sound legal advice before completing their transaction. Land cannot be dedicated as waqf without the sanction of the Director of Land Registries.

(d) Metruqe. — Metruqe comprises («) land left for or dedicated to the public, e.g., roads, etc. ; (^) land left and assigned to the inhabitants of a particular town or village as a body, e.g., communal pasture or forest lands, parks, places of worship, markets and similar public places. Land of this class cannot be held individually nor can it be bought, sold or inherited, and it cannot be used for any purpose other than that for which it has been dedicated or assigned ab antiquo.

{e) Mewat. — Mewat (lit. " dead " or " waste " land) is unowned land, which has not been left or assigned to the inhabitants of a town or village. It must also be so far


1 84 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


from a town or village that the loud voice of a person from the. nearest inhabited spot cannot be heard there. The Land Code further specifies that the distance between the unowned land and the nearest inhabited town or village must be about one and a half Turkish miles, a Turkish mile (the equivalent of an English league) being regarded as the distance covered at walking pace in an hour by a horse or donkey* Practically the whole of the unoccupied land in Palestine is of this class. It is governed by all the pro- visions of the Land Code applicable to miri. Under the Mewat Land Ordinance, 1920, it is forbidden for any person ^to occupy mewat land without first obtaining the permission of the Government. Applications to take up these lands must be made to the Department of Lands.

Approximate Values. — It is difficult to value even approximately the agricultural land in Palestine. It varies according to the nature, situation and productivity of the land. From figures available from transactions registered during the year 192 1, the average value of agricultural land may be taken at £E. 4 per donum. It is impossible to hazard an opinion as to the value of town land, because the transactions registered give no indication of the im- provements existing upon the land. Sales of unimproved building allotments in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem have, however, been effected at prices varying from £E. 2 to £E. 4 per square metre.

Transactions. — The procedure in dealing with real estate is inexpensive and, where the titles are in order, simple. In most cases, however, complications of titles render trans- actions involved and tedious. The fees are low (c/. § 3 above). Under the Transfer of Land Ordinance, 1920, the consent of the Administration is required to all dispositions of immovable property. This consent is given by the Director of Land Registries or by the District Registrar in any of the thirteeji towns in which registries are established . All dispositions are opened by petitions lodged at the Land Registry Office of the District within which the land is situated. The Registrar undertakes free of charge the


om 11


LAND TENURE 185

preparation and completion of all documents necessary to carry the transaction through. In cases in which survey is necessary the work is carried out by Government sur- veyors at a nominal cost. The parties to the transactions must appear in person before the registrar, or be repre- sented by an authorized agent. To avoid the fraud which might arise from secrecy, all transactions must be sup- ported by a certificate of the Mukhtars or notables of the village within which the land is situated.

Sales. — In the case of sales the existing title-deeds are cancelled, and a new qushan (certificate) is issued to the purchaser.

Mortgages. — Mortgages must comply with the Pro- visional Law of Mortgages of 1331 a.h. as amended by the Mortgage Law Amendment Ordinance, 1920, The rate of interest must not exceed 9%. In case of foreclosure of mortgage the mortgagee applies to the District Court for an order of sale. The Court has discretionary powers and may postpone the sale in cases in which it would appear that undue hardship would be imposed upon the debtor. If sale is approved, the property is submitted to public auction by the execution officer and is registered in the name of the highest bidder.

Succession. — On the death of the holder of any land, the Sharia Court is at present the only authority competent to issue a certificate of succession showing the heirs and the shares under which the property should devolve upon the surviving heirs. In mulk land the succession is in accord- ance with the Sharia Law, it being provided, however, that the deceased may bequeath one third by will. Other lands devolve according to the Law of Inheritance of 1331. Succession fees vary from i^% to 5% on the market value of the property according to the degree of heirship.

Partition. — Partition of land held in joint ownership may be effected by the consent of all the parties through the Land Registry Office. Where, however, the parties fail to agree as to the division, the matter is referred to the Magis- trate's Court.


1 86 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Lease. — ^AU leases for a period exceeding three years musi be registered in the Land Registry, and leases for a shortei period within a Municipal area with the Municipality. In cases in which leased land is being disposed of the Govern- ment may withhold its consent to the sale unless the tenant in possession has sufficient land elsewhere for the reasonable maintenance of himself and his family.

Attachments. — The Courts may order the attachment of any registered land and may charge it with payment of any sum due under the judgment of the Court. This attach- ment is registered, and the debt represented by it takes priority over all other unregistered debts and obligations of the judgment debtor.

Searches. — Intending purchasers, mortgage holders, judg- ment creditors or other persons having an interest in any land may apply for and obtain particulars of the registration of the land in which they are interested, and may, on payment, have copies of or extracts from all documents relating to that property.

§ 9. Agriculture and Forestry.

General. — Smaller than Belgium or Wales in habitable area, without visible coal, oil, timber or minerals of com- mercial value, Palestine at present depends to a large extent economically and fiscally upon its rural industries. For this purpose not more than two million hectares of land are available within its boundaries, and of this area only half a million are at present under perennial cultivation, as a result of heavy mortality among working cattle during the war and a subsequent collapse of agricultural credit. Primitive methods of farming and a very low standard of yields, coupled with a lack of crops of high intrinsic value, further limit agricultural revenue.

Department of Agriculture. — The GovernmerTt Agricul- tural Department was constituted as an administrative unit in April, 1920, the Ottoman provincial service having disappeared completely during the war, leaving neither


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 187

concrete nor docuihentary evidence of its official activities. The Department is responsible for the agricultural, veterin- ary, forestry, soil-survey and fisheries services. In addition to its normal duties, the agricultural field staff assists on demarcation commissions, tithe assessments, and inspec- tions of government loans ; while forest rangers act as tax collectors for several classes of revenue. The veterinary service provides treatment, drugs and farriery for all Govern- ment live stock, including gendarmerie and police animals, and inspects meat supplies, slaughter houses, markets and public stables.

The Department assumes responsibility for research and education, and, in the absence of text-books of local application and teachers of local origin, land has been secured in the neighbourhood of departmental headquarters in the hope that it will be possible to establish, in due course, a school, laboratories, experiment farm and veterin- ary hospital, where a junior staff may be afforded practical courses of training, which in turn they can pass on to the cultivators.

To each District are appointed agricultural assistants, veterinary inspectors and forest rangers, who continuously tour the villages. Agricultural shows and ploughing demonstrations are organized by the Department.

Preventive services also constitute an important part of the work of the field staff, which is responsible for animal quarantine on the borders and the isolation of infected stock in the interior ; inspection of plant imports and exports ; measures for the destruction of locusts, field-mice and rats ; and the demonstration of spraying and fumiga- tion methods.

Land Development. — It may be assumed for all practical purposes that the total exploitable land surface in Palestine does not exceed ^^ million acres or, say, 1,820,000 hectares, of which 50% may be written off as uncultivable. Of these, the rainless desert to the south of Beersheba is, in point of area, the most important. The rocky, barren plateaux of Judaea and, in lesser degree, the denuded limestone hills


1 88 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

of Samaria and Galilee, limit the productivity of the central districts ; while the coastal plain is margined on the sea- board by a regular alternation of sand-dune and swamp. The potential value of swamp areas and measures for their reclamation have been exhaustively examined, from the agricultural and medical standpoints, and effect has already been given to approved schemes. It is also hoped to afforest large expanses of sand-dunes on the coast. Considerable areas, amounting to some 300,000 hectares, of arable soil remain uncultivated.

A sparse population living in economic isolation and employing very primitive methods naturally adopts a farming system based on bare fallowing. Land is cropped without manure until exhausted and then abandoned until a measure of fertility has been recovered. Increasing pres- sure of population, and the upward trend in the values of agricultural holdings and produce, the partition of common lands, improved communications and the practical demon- strations of better methods by new settlers are, however, having their effect. Manuring and a rotation of crops for the maintenance of fertility are becoming recognized practices, and, based on a system of mixed farming, should solve the problem of closer settlement and financial stability.

The average returns for the country at large of wheat, barley, lentils and black vetch [kersaneh), were less than a third in each case of corresponding Egyptian figures for 1919-20. Thus, a hectare of wheat in Palestine produced on an average 593 kilos of grain, as compared with 1,793 kilos harvested in Egypt. The reasons are primitive ^ methods of cultivation, weed-growth as an aftermath of ; war, lack of manure and chemical fertilizers, poor seed and unproductive varieties. That there is response to better cultivation and manuring has already been determined by a few progressive farmers. The settlers of a colony near Ludd harvested wheat crops ranging from 1,200 to 1,400 kilos, and barley yielding from 1,800 to 2,700 kilos per hectare.


m


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 189

The climate is characterized over the northern and central regions by a winter rainfall of rather more than 600 mm. ; a rainless summer ameliorated by heavy dews and much humidity ; a relatively small range in mean temperature and an absence of killing frosts. The Jordan Valley enjoys a fairly regular rainfall of about 500 mm., the value of which is limited by an excessive mean summer temperature, lower humidity and smaller dew-fall. The south receives on an average between 400 and 300 mm. of rain, but suffers from prolonged periods of drought.

Field crops, with few exceptions, are still sown by hand and hand-cleaned, cut with the sickle and trodden out by cattle on the village threshing-floor.

The standard of dairy and beef cattle, woolled sheep, horses, mules and donkeys is not high. Protracted maturity and poor fattening qualities render the Arab steer an un- profitable subject for fattening and finishing. The sheep produce wool which is at present only fit for carpet making, and local horses and mules are few. Donkeys have had to be imported from Cyprus and Syria.

Forestry. — Centuries of neglect and failure to apply the most elementary principles of forest management, wholesale fellings during the war, and deforestation in favour of meagre cereal crops, have produced dire results ; and, with the exception of a few artificial plantations, the remains of the natural forests have been destroyed and the greater part of the hill-country is entirely bare.

As a consequence, measures have been taken to guard the forests against further destruction.

In 1920 was passed an Ordinance, under which the rights of villagers to the products of the neighbouring forests have been clearly recognized ; firewood, timber for houses and ploughs, and the right of grazing on open land, have been allowed free of charge. In return, the villagers must assist to prevent and extinguish fires in the forests, and keep their animals away from places where young trees have been, and are being planted, or new growth is springing up from the stumps.



iQo THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

At present it is forbidden to cut down oak and caroub trees ; and, where brushwood, Pistachia terebinthus , Rhus coriaria (sumac), etc., exists, it is being utihzed as fuel.

The work of afforestation in Palestine will necessitate an enormous amount of labour.

At Beit alrjemal, a village of Jerusalem, a large forest has been established on hills which have in the past been covered with the evergreen Kermes oak {Quercus coccifera). During the war these trees were cut down, but a second growth is now springing up from stool. A nursery for the propagation of trees has also been established at Beit al-Jemal. Measures are being taken to regenerate the forests in the Carmel mountains, as it has been observed that the oaks which compose these forests produce larger trees than the Kermes oak of the Hebron forests, and the timber is equal in quality to that of the Kermes oak. Many of the trees which have been cut down are producing new growth from the base, and, if the young shoots are pro- tected from goats, etc., the forest will soon re-establish itself.

Forest nurseries have been organized in Jerusalem, Hebron, Nablus, Acre and Nazareth. These places will be made the centres of distribution and forests established on the neighbouring hills. The nurseries will also serve for the propagation of fruit trees, such as olives, almonds, vines and other plants suited to the hill-country. In this con- nexion great importance is attached to the flood-bed of the Jordan River,

At Beersheba considerable numbers of eucalyptus have been planted and are growing well.

It is contemplated that in the future greater use will be made of Tamarix articulata, casuarina and wattles. Ar- rangements have already been made to plant wattles on the sand-dunes along the sea coast.

The distribution and extent in hectares of the hill forests is as follows :

Acre 25,000 ; Bethlehem 120 ; Haifa 6,450 ; Hebron 4.945 ." Jerusalem 880 ; Jenin 9,000 ; Nablus 1,000 ;


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 191

Nazareth 1,380 ; Ramallah 412 ; Safed 4,000 ; Tiberias 350 ; Zummarin 8,700 : total, 62,237.

Fruit Trees. —

Olives. — The most important fruit-tree in the hill-country is the olive. Apart, however, from the destruction of olive trees during the war, it is evident that the development of the olive industry has been at a standstill for many years. The number of young trees is very small and the creation of a source of supply of young plants is imperative.

Caroubs. — The caroub tree is not as extensively cultivated in Palestine as it might be.

Almonds. — Although there is not such a wide market for the produce of almond trees as for that of the olive, the demand for the former is sufficiently great to justify a large increase in the cultivation of the tree in Palestine. Ex- cellent almond plantations exist at Ramleh, and almond trees are found throughout the hill-country.

Grapes. — The cultivation of grapes for wine-making in the hinterland of Jaffa is carried on scientifically, and efforts are being encouraged for the cultivation of raisin grapes on the hillsides.

Figs. — Fig trees are cultivated everywhere in Palestine. There are many varieties, but the most important one is a dark-coloured drying fig which is sold commonly in the local markets, but which is considered too dark in colour for the European markets.

Oranges. — The farther development of the orange in- dustry depends upon the extension of irrigation facilities. The " Shamouti " orange is considered the best as an article of export. No other country produces this class of orange, so that there is no competition in European markets. The quality of this orange is good, and its thick skin enables it to travel without careful packing.

Apart from oranges, citrous fruits are not largely culti- vated in Palestine. Italian lemons arc fairly common. Mandarines, grape-fruit and limes are rare.

Apricots and Peaches. — The quality of the apricots grown in Palestine is good. The production of dried or otherwise


192 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1

iient. «|


preserved fruits or kernels is capable of development Peaches are not extensively cultivated.

Apples and Pears. — These fruits are found in gardens throughout the country, but the methods of cultivation call for great improvement. The produce is consumed locally, and it is not anticipated these fruits will assume any importance for exportation.

Walnuts. — Walnuts grow very well and produce abun- dantly in Palestine, especially at Jenin.

Chestnuts. — Chestnut trees are growing very slowly in Palestine on account of non-irrigation.

Date Palms. — Date palms are cultivated along the coast as far north as Haifa. There is also a considerable number of palms at Jenin. The fruit produced at these places appears to be of a very inferior quality and badly ripened. The Jaffa dates are better. Steps are being taken to plant? palm trees at Beersheba and in the Jordan Valley. \

Bananas. — Scattered clumps of bananas are met with everywhere in gardens, and at Jaffa there is a plantation of the Canary banana.

Vegetables. — The cultivation of vegetables in Palestine is carried on in a primitive manner, except at Beersheba and Gaza. Except as regards cabbages and cauliflowers, Pales- tine vegetables are of indifferent quality.

Forest Species. — Palestine is the meeting ground of three continents, and exhibits such variety of soil, rainfall, climate, and physical conformation, from the coastal range and sand-dunes to the deep chasm of the Jordan Valley, that the singular richness and interest of its flora is not sur- prising, j

The prevalent orders are Compositae, LeguminosaeA Gramineae, Lahiatae, Umhelliferae, Boragineae, Cruciferae. '■

(i) Species constituting high forest. — Quercus coccifera ; Quercus pseudococcifera ; Quercus aegilops ; Ceratonia siliqua ; Pistacia terebinthus ; Olea Europaea ; Pinus Halepensis ; Pinus pinea.

(ii) Species constituting undergrowth. — Pistacia lentis- cy-s ; Pistacia mutica ; Rhus coriaria ; Styrax officinale ; ,


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 193

Arbutus unedo ; Arbutus Andrachne ; Rhamnus Palaestina ; Crataegus azarolus ; Crataegus monogyna ; Phillyrea media ; Lycium barbarum ; Laurus nobilis ; Cercis siliquastrum ; Myrtus communis ; Clematis cirrhoda ; Clematis flammula ; Clematis vitalba ; Paliurus aculeatus ; Calycotome villosa ; Genista sphacelata ; Cistus villosus ; Cistus salviaefolius.

(iii) Tropical species found in the Jordan Valley. — Balanites Aegyptiaca ; Zizyphus vulgaris ; Zizyphus Spina- Christi ; Tamarix Jordanis ; Reaunuria Palaestina ; Populus Euphratica ; Populus alba; Salix Safsaf ; Salix alba ; Salix fragilis ; Salix triandra ; A cacia Seyal ; A cacia albida ; Osyris alba ; Prosopis spicigera ; Capparis spinosa ; Leptadenia pyrotechnica ; Glycyrrhiza echinata ; Calotropis procera ; Retama raetam ; Abutilon fruticosum ; A butilon muticum ; Periploca Graeca ; Cleome trinervia ; Cleome droserifolia ; A Ihagi Maurorum ; Lycium Euro- paeum ; A triplex Palaestinum ; A triplex leucocladum ; A triplex halimus ; Statice Thouini ; Statice limonium ; Statice spicata ; Zygophyllum dumosum ; Zygophyllum album ; Zygophyllum coccineum ; Boerhavia repens ; Cassia obovata ; lyidigojera argentea ; Moringa aptera ; Salvadora Persica ; Ephedra caynpylopoda ; Ephedra alte ; A nastatica hierochuntina.

(iv) Exotic species now sub-spontaneous. — Melia azedarach ; Acacia saligna ; Parkinsonia aculeata ; Robimia pseudoacacia ; Acacia Farnesiana ; Ailanthus glandulosa ; Cupressus sempervirens .

(v) Sand-dune plants. — Ammophila arenaria ; Saccharum A egyptiacum ; A rtemisia monosperme ; Imperata cylyndrica ; Ononis matrix ; Eriantus Ravennae ; Scirpus holoschaenus ; Pancum rigidum ; Tamarix tetragyna.

Collection of olives and extraction of oil. — The olive tree begins to blossom in April and the fruit to form in May. The olives are ripe and .collected in October and November. Children climb the trees, while the men beat the branches with heavy sticks and the women collect the fruit from the ground in bags or baskets.


194 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

In consequence of this practice, the branches of the trees are always broken down, and the yield is reduced in the following year. The Bethlehemites, however, prune their trees to within reach of the ground. The pruned branches are used for feeding sheep during the period of scarce pasturage. The olives are then taken to the houses for pressing. Those who crush their olives early obtain a yield of good oil, which is known as zeit itfah (virgin oil) ; others, who delay the process, get an inferior product, which is suitable for soap-making only. A short crop and irregular supplies are often the cause of delay in pressing.

The olives are brought down to the badd (press), which \ may or may not be in the same village. It is generally agreed to give the owner of the press about io% of the oil, as remuneration for the use of it.

In construction the olive press consists of a vertical wheel of stone 125 cms. in diameter by 40 to 50 cms. in width, worked by a horse or mule. The olives are poured in, and the oil escapes at a point of exit for collection. The residue of the olives is put into baskets for crushing in an iron or oakwood twin-screw press till the bulk of the remaining oil has been extracted. The oil is stored in jars, and the olive waste, commonly known as jift, is used for fuel in bake- houses.

Stock. — The following is a census of animals in Palestine for 1920-21 :

milch cows ----- 24,681

ploughing oxen - - - _ 57,785

calves ------ 26,034

horses - - - - - - 6,548

mules ------ 3,934

donkeys - - - _ _ 32,689

sheep ------ 205,967

goats ------ 325,512

buffaloes - " - - - - 615

camels- - - - _ _ 8,846


I


'^S


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 195

The number of animals imported into Palestine through the different Quarantine Stations in 1921 was :

horses ------ 2,636

mules ------ 5,943

donkeys ----- 26,629

sheep ------ 26,211

goats ------ 13,954

cattle - - - - - - 2,916

pigs ------ 278

camels 10,886

The number of animals slaughtered in Palestine during 192 1 was :

bulls and bullocks - - - 5,603

cows ------ 2,352

buffaloes ----- 63 '

calves ------ 482

sheep ------ 65,013

goats ------ 34,613

pigs ------ 259

camels- - _ _ _ _ 152

§ 10. Public Works and Harbours.

The Department of Public Works is organized into five branches : constructional, electrical and mechanical, archi- tectural, stores, accounts. An Engineer is appointed to each Province.

Boads. — Limestone of varying hardness is in general the only material available for road stone, except in parts of the Galilee District, where basalt is obtainable, but the high cost of carriage prevents its use in other parts of Palestine. Roads in the alluvial maritime plain are much more ex- pensive to construct and maintain than in the highlands owing to the cost of carriage of road metal. For a list of the principal roads cf. Part IV., § 3 [c).

Bridges. — Few bridges of any length exist in Palestine. The largest bridge crossing the Jordan is the AUenby Bridge


196 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

{cf. Part L, § 7) on the road from Jerusalem to al-Salt, an " Inglis Rectangular " girder bridge in three spans, 240 feet long. Masonry arch bridges exist at Jisr al-Damieh, Jisr Sheikh Husein, Jisr al-Mejamieh, Jisr Benat Yaqub, at al-Gajir across the Jordan and at Jisr Saghir across the Yarmuk.

Water-supply. — There is in process of materialization a water-supply scheme for Jerusalem which will bring into use for storage purposes the disused " Pools of Solomon," a few kilometres south of Bethlehem, whence water will be pumped via the existing gravity main to the existing gravity storage reservoirs in Jerusalem. This will double the piped water-supply of the city. The pumping machinery is that formerly installed at Romani for pumping water across the Sinai Peninsula in the Kantara-Palestine Pipe Line, and has been purchased from the Disposals Commission.

The Government advances loans in aid of Village Water Supplies up to £E. 400, and the work is executed by the Public Works Department.

Ports and Lights. — The coast of Palestine is a coast without harbours ; on the 140 miles of coast-line there are only three ports of any size, and all three are open road- steads.

Jaffa (Lat. 32° 3' N. ; t^ong. 34° 47' E.) is situated between a sea-wall on the N.E. side of the town and a fringe of low rocks. The entrance of the port is N. of these rocks, and there is also a passage between the rocks about 2 1 cables from their northern end. The port consists of a Customs House and a jetty, and southward of the Customs House is a short wharf, where lighters land their cargoes in smooth water. In winter, owing to the absence of any protection, communication with the shore is often stopped for several consecutive days.

The light at Jaffa consists of an alternating red and white light with a visibility of 30 miles, and is exhibited in the S.W. part of the town, 69 ft. above high water. A signal station exists at Jaffa, and signals are received and sent by day and night.


PUBLIC WORKS AND HARBOURS 197

Haifa (Lat. 32° 49' 8" N. ; Long. 35° o' o" E.) is a safe anchorage in summer in about 36 ft. of water with the end of the railway pier bearing 207° true. The pier is 425 yards long and runs in a N.E. direction from the town. The Customs House is situated at the shore end of this jetty. One 25-ton crane and another of 5 tons are provided by the Palestine Railways for working cargo. The Railways also provide electric light when necessary for night working.

The Haifa town light is a red flash light every 3 seconds. It has a visibility of 6 miles, and is exhibited from a white mast surmounting a tower of the old castle.

A temporary fixed white light with a range of 10 miles is exhibited on Mt. Carmel at 490 ft. above high water from a white stone tower a cable N.N.W. of the Carmelite Con- vent. There is a signal station at Haifa.

Acre (Lat. 32° 55'.27N. ; Long. 35° 4' 16" E.) is an ancient port with a small mole on the eastern side of the town. The harbour is shallow and gives shelter to small coasting craft only.

There is an anchorage in 9-10 fathoms of water about one mile S.W. of the lighthouse and of Talbot reef, with the end of the west mole bearing 50° W.

The Acre light is a fixed red light visible at 10 miles, and is shown from a white tower 33 ft. high on the rampart of Acre town at 51 ft. above high water.

Gaza (Lat. 31° 30' o" N. ; Long. 34° 28' o" E.) is a small harbour, through which is exported wheat, barley and daH seed. There is a 7-fathom anchorage with sandy bottom, which is fairly safe between May and October. During other months, when westerly winds prevail, anchorage is not safe. The best months are August, September and the first twenty days in October. Anchorage bearings are two white domes of al-Nesleh about 118 true, i| miles distant.

In 1921, 422 steamers, of a total tonnage of 628,450, visited Jaffa ; of these 156 were British of 185,052 registered tonnage. 401 steamers, with a tonnage of 518,331, of whom 163 were British, of 194,698 registered tonnage, visited Haifa.


198 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Lesser Ports include al-Haram, al-Burj and Abu Zabura, which are approximately lo, 20 and 30 miles N. of Jaffa, are only used for the export of melons and wine, and during July and August are very busy. No protection exists at al-Haram and al-Burj, but Abu Zabura affords a fair shelter for small craft during bad weather.

Caesarea (Lat. 32° 30' N. ; Long. 34° 53' E.), Tantura (Lat. 32° 26' 30 N. ; Long. 34° 54' 50" E.) and Athlit (Lat. 32° 42' N. ; Long. 34° 53' 30" E.) are ancient seaports whose ruins still exist. The first has a summer anchorage in about 10 fathoms of water half a mile off the shore. There is a Customs officer at Tantura, and grain and melons pass through this port. These three ports have a small fishing industry.

Inland Waterways. — The inland waterways consist of Lake Huleh and Lake Tiberias in the north, and the Dead Sea in the south, all connected by the River Jordan {cf. Part I., § 2).

There are 6 fishing boats on Lake Huleh, and 3 motor- boats and 37 sailing craft on Lake Tiberias. The motor- boats operate between Tiberias, Semakh and Tabgha. One steamer, 3 motor- boats and 14 sailing boats at present ply on the Dead Sea.


§ II. Palestine Railways.

Lines in operation. — In July, 1920, the Palestine Rail- way system was divided into 'three groups :

(i) the standard gauge (4' SY) lines laid by the British Army and extending from Kantara on the Suez Canal across the Sinai Peninsula to the Palestine frontier at Rafa, and on to Haifa via Ludd ;

(2) the Jerusalem- Jaffa Railway, belonging originally to a French Company {Chemin de fer de la Palestine), formerly of 3' 6" gauge, and converted to standard gauge by the British Army, with the exception of the line between Ludd and Jaffa, which had been


PALESTINE RAILWAYS i99

torn up by the Turks and was relaid (by the Army)

with 60 centimetre track ; ^

(3) the captured enemy lines consisting of those portions

of the Hejaz Railway (3' 6") lying within Palestine.

On the ist October, 1920, the railways within Palestine

were transferred to the Civil Administration. The section

Kantara-Rafa remained the property of the British Army,

but an agreement was made whereby the Palestine Railways

should act as agents for the War Office and control the line,

sharing profits and losses equally. This Railway is called

the Sinai Military Railway {cf. also Part IV.).

The sections of line at present (1922) in operation by the Palestine Railways are :

(i) Standard gauge (4' 8|") Kilometres.

Kan tara-Ludd -Haifa - - - 415

Rafa-Beersheba - - - - 60

Jaffa-Jerusalem - - - - 88

Ras al-Ain-Petach Tikvah - - 6^

(ii) Narrow gauge (3' 6") —

Haifa-Semakh - - - - 87

Haifa-Acre - - " - - - 22^

Afule-Nablus - - - - 78

Mesudieh-Tulkeram - - - . 20

Nasib-Ma'an (Hejaz Railway) - 323

Total - 1,100

The section of the Hejaz Railway between Nasib and Ma'an in Trans- jordania was re-opened by the Palestine Railways on the 15th June, 1921, since when two trains have run weekly between Haifa and Amman. The opening of this service entailed an agreement with the French authorities in respect of the section of the Hejaz Railway under trench control, viz. between al-Hammeh (beyond Semakh) and Nasib.

  • During August and September, 192 1, the section between Ludd and Jaffa was

relaid with standard gauge by the Military Authorities at the request of the Civil Administration.


200 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Construction work. — During the period of military con- trol little expenditure had been incurred on upkeep, except that which was absolutely necessary to keep the line open and moderately safe for traffic.

Station buildings and staff accommodation at outlying stations were scanty and improvised. Much new work, therefore, has been carried out since the transfer. This includes 38 new bridges, constructed of steel girders with masonry abutments and piers ; 160 kilometres of track between Rafa and Haifa have been ballasted with about 250,000 cubic metres of ballast, and drains have been cleaned, cuts widened, and banks and ditches repaired ; eight new stations have been opened and a new platform and station building have been erected at Ludd.

The approximate number of bridges of over 2 metres span is 129 ; of 2 metres span and under, 120 ; culverts, 140.

The standard gauge line is equipped throughout with the electric staff instruments, and 36 instruments are being installed on the narrow gauge lines.

The locomotive shops at Kantara are being dismantled for removal to Haifa, and the stores are being moved there also.

Experiments have been made on the Rehoboth road with loco-tractors", and new branch lines laid to Beit Nabala quarry and Sarafend cantonments.

Boiling stock. — A great deal of reconstruction was necessary for the rolling stock handed over by the Military authorities, and now, together with new purchases, the stock of standard gauge consists of six new 2-8-4 loco- motives of special type, capable of hauling 250 tons on the steep Ludd-Jerusalem line ; 50 American and 36 old English locomotives ; 58 passenger coaches and 1,880 wagons, together with 200 steel box-covered wagons, vacuum fitted. On the narrow gauge lines there are 31 locomotives, 24 passenger vehicles and 135 wagons.

Passenger Traffic. — The number of passengers carried in 192 1 was 553,832 below the figure for 1920. This can be attributed, among other causes, to the large decrease in


PALESTINE RAILWAYS 201

military traffic, the raising of the fares in November, 1920, and the large number of motors plying for hire. Below are given the figures for the two years :


1920. Passengers.

ist class -


37.918


1921.

Passengers.

ist cla^


35>57i


2nd class -


147,518


2nd class


42.313


3rd class -


1,077,828


3rd class


631,548


Total - 1,263,264 Total - 709,432

The passenger fares in force at present are approximately 100% over pre-war rates and are calculated throughout the system on the following basis :

ist class - 12 milliemes per passenger per kilo. 2nd class - 8 „ 3rd class - 5 The 3rd class fare is approximately twopence per mile. Goods Traffic. — The comparative figures for goods traffic are :

1920. 1921.

Merchandise 551,372 tons Merchandise 502,453 tons Live stock - 64,447 head Live stock - 39,211 head The rates are approximately 150% over pre-war rates, but are subject to tariff minima, and are classified under seven heads, as on English railways. It may be noted, however, that cereals, which form the bulk of the traffic, and oranges are carried at pre-war rates.

There are special rates for wine, returned empties, animals by goods train, perishables by passenger train, melons and grapes.

With two exceptions best Welsh steam coal has been used, the consumption pe» mile beijig 52-33 lbs. on the narrow gauge, and 63-33 lbs. on the standard gauge.

During 192 1 the approximate coal consumption was : Narrow gauge - - - 7,048 tons

Standard gauge - - 22,454 Prices fluctuated considerably during 192 1, reaching the highest point of ;^E, 7,429 per ton in January, 1921, and the


202 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

lowest, £E. 4,088, in December, 192 1. Coal is off-loaded at Haifa.

Organization. — The Palestine Railways maintain their own ttdiveWmg ghaffir force, and a higher standard of security against thefts is now. being maintained.

Schools for apprentices in all mechanical trades and traffic staff have been opened in Haifa. The Traffic Station staff wear uniform.

A Provisioning Department supplies, by means of travel- ling vans, food for the staffs working on all sections of the railway, and buffets for the travelling public have been opened at Semakh, Jerusalem, and Ludd under the same management. Railway headquarters are at Haifa.

§ 12. Public Security.

The Department of Public Security is divided into four branches : Police, Criminal Investigation, Gendarmerie and Prisons, under the supervision of the Director of Public Security.

{a) POLICE.

The Palestine Police were first raised in January, 191 8, and consisted of one British officer and 340 other ranks. As the British Army advanced the strength of the Police in- creased, and at the conclusion of hostilities it consisted of about 45 Palestinian officers and 1,048 other ranks, of which 480 were mounted.

In 1920 a separate cadre of British officers was sanctioned, and at present the force consists of 16 British and 55 Pales- tinian officers, and 1,144 other ranks, of whom 395 are mounted.

Arms and Training. — The Police ai^ armed throughout with 191 4 Lee-Enfield pattern rifles.

A Training School was opened for both Officers and Constables in February, 1921, and as many recruits as possible undergo a course of three months' duration. There are separate classes for officers, and for men recommended for promotion.


PUBLIC SECURITY 203

Duties. — The Police, besides fulfilling the ordinary duties of a constabulary, such as the preservation of law and order and the detection and prevention of crime, act, as far as their numbers will allow, as escorts for the protection of tax-collectors, serve summonses issued by the judicial authorities, distribute Government notices, and escort Governrnent treasure throughout the country.

Police Stations. —

Jerusalern District : Jerusalem — Ramallah — Bethlehem — Hebron — Jericho.

Jaffa District : Jaffa — Ramleh — Tulkeram.

Beersheba District : Beersheba.

Gaza District : Gaza — Mejdel.

Samaria District : Nablus — Jenin — Selfit.

Phoenicia District : Haifa — Acre — Zichron Jacob.

Galilee District : Nazareth — Tiberias — Safed — Beisan.

{b) GENDARMERIE.

Britisli Gendarmerie. — A force of British gendarmerie for service in Palestine was recruited in March, 1922, chiefly from among constabulary and auxiliaries who have served in Ireland. This force is entirely composed of infantry, and its strength is 49 officers and 701 other ranks. Its headquarters are at Bir Salem.

Palestine Gendarmerie. — The Palestine Gendarmerie, which consists of cavalry, camelry and infantry units, was formed on the ist July, 1921.

The enlistment of recruits is regulated so as to maintain a certain proportion amongst the various sects and religious creeds, which comprises Arabs, Jews, Circassians and Druses.

The present strength of the Palestine Gendarmerie is as follows : 234 Arabs, 157 Jews, 72 Circassians and 27 Druses, of whom 250 are mounted on horses and 50 on camels, the remainder consisting of infantry.

(c) PRISONS.

The Central Prison, Jerusalem, is at present housed in one of the hospices for Russian pilgrims, and has a holding


204 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

capacity of 250. The Acre prison, when completed, will accommodate 350 convicts. There is a local prison at Jaffa for no prisoners.

Two gaol labour companies are employed on making roads and railway cuttings. The following trades are taught to prisoners undergoing penal servitude : rug-weaving, boot- making, carpentry, tailoring, blacksmith's and tinsmith's work.

{d) CRIMINAL SECTION.

The Criminal Investigation Branch is divided into four sections : records, special investigation, identification, and statistical.


i


§ 13. Medical and Meteorological.[edit]

(a) MEDICAL.

Organization. — The Department of Health consists of the directorate (Jerusalem), divided into the following sections : (a) epidemic and health, {b) medical, (c) quarantine, relief and lunacy, (d) laboratory, {e) medical stores, (/) sanitary engineering.

The District organization under Principal Medical Officers comprises : Medical Officers of Health in each District and Sub-District, Medical Officers of hospital, education, epi- demic, quarantine, and railway services, with a staff of pharmacists, nurses, quarantine and sanitary Sub- Inspectors, disinfectors, medical orderlies and guards.

An ophthalmic and special surgical service controls a travelling ophthalmic hospital,, ophthalmic clinics, school ophthalmic treatment, and special surgical instruction in Government Hospitals.

Government Hospitals. — Government hospitals for general patients, with infectious annexes, are established in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Ramleh, Acre, Nablus, Tulkeram, Ramallah and Beersheba, and Government epidemic and casualty posts at Hebron, Gaza, Jenin, Nazareth, Tiberias, Safed, Beersheba, Mejdel and Jericho.


MEDICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL


205


Jewish.


A special children's chnic is held daily at the Jerusalem Hospital Annex. Railway employes' clinics are conducted at Haifa and Ludd.

Voluntary Hospitals. — Palestine is richly endowed with voluntary hospitals, which are situated as follows :

Jerusalem - British Ophthalmic Hospital (English Order of S. John of Jerusalem). S. Louis (French) Hospital. - Italian Hospital. Rothschild Hospital (A.Z.M.U. or

Hadassa) . English Mission Hospital (London Jews'

Society) . Shaare Zedek, \

Mizghab Ladach, Becur Cholim,

Jewish Ophthalmic Hospital, Leper Hospital (International Moravian Society) . Bethlehem - French Hospital. Tantur Hospital. Hebron - United Free Church of Scotland. Jaffa - English Hospital (Church Missionary

Society) . French Hospital. A.Z.M.U. Hospital. German Hospital. Gaza - - Church Missionary Society. Haifa - S. Luke's Hospital (Jerusalem and the

East Mission). Italian Surgical Hospital. Nablus - Church Missionary Society. Nazareth - British Hospital (Edinburgh Mission). French Hospital (Sceurs de la Charite). Austrian Hospital. Tiberias - Scottish Mission Hospital.

A.Z.M.U. Hospital. Safed - A.Z.M.U. Hospital.


2o6 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Attendances. — The total number of daily attendances for 1921 at Government dispensaries and clinics was 155,523, ■ of whom 4-4 were Jews, 1 48 Christians and 806 Moslems.

Burials. — The time and conduct of interments are regu- lated by Public Health Ordinance No. i of 1918. Except in the case of death of a Jew after 4 p.m. on Sabbath eve, no burial may take place after sunset. For regulations of re-interment of dead bodies, see Public Health Ordinance No. 2.

Public Establishments and Unhealthy Trades. — The Department controls by means of licences unhealthy trades • and industries {cf. Public Notice in Official Gazette No. 23), ^ and, in particular, those concerned with the preparation and • sale of food products, beverages and milk.

Slaughter-houses are also subject to a licence. \

Disinfection. — On outbreaks of infectious diseases, dis- ;i infection is carried out gratuitously by the Department of I Health. Means of disinfection by steam exist in each District. Neglect to notify infectious diseases is punish- ; able [vide Public Health Ordinance No. i).

Notifiable diseases are the following : anthrax, cerebro- j spinal meningitis, chicken-pox, cholera, dengue, diphtheria, dysentery, enteric fever (including paratyphoid fever), German measles, glanders, hydrophobia, leprosy, Malta fever, measles, mumps, plague, puerperal fever, relapsing ' fever, scarlet fever or scarlatina, small-pox, tubercle of lung, i typhus, whooping cough, diarrhoea, erysipelas, pneumonia, 1 influenza, and malaria (including blackwater fever) . I

Rabies. — Owing to the considerable incidence of rabies j amongst dogs, jackals and wolves throughout Palestine, | poisoning of dogs is carried out on a large scale. Free | anti-rabic treatment is granted at Government expense to the poor at the Pasteur Institute in Jerusalem, and a system of treatment by carbolized emulsions is being instituted in : the Districts.

The number of animals killed in anti-rabic measures during 1921 was 2,818.

Vaccination and Inoculation. — Vaccination of infants


MEDICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL 207

against small-pox is compulsory within three months of birth ; failure to be vaccinated entails penalties under Public Health Ordinance No. i.

Anti- malarial Measures. — The Department conducts a vigorous anti-malarial campaign by means of destruction of mosquitoes, inhibition of mosquito breeding, medical treat- ment of infected persons, drainage and reclamation of swamp areas, etc.

Quinine for prophylactic use is on sale at all Post Offices, in Palestine, and in the villages quinine solution is dis- tributed by the Department free of charge.

Training in First Aid — Courses in first aid are con- ducted by Medical Officers ; they are officially recognized by the S. John's Ambulance Association. Successful can- didates are awarded the certificate and badge of the Association.

School Medical Service. — A special School Medical Service is organized to train school teachers in hygiene, to vaccinate pupils, to treat children affected with the eye disease, malaria, and vermin, to advise parents on child welfare, and to control infectious disease in schools. This ■ service operates special clinics for the treatment of trachoma in the larger schools.

School for Midwives. — A School for Mid wives is estab- lished in the Government Children's Hospital, Jerusalem.

Laboratory Section. — The Laboratory Section of the Department comprises bacteriological, entomological and chemical branches ; while smaller clinical laboratories are attached to the larger hospitals for simple routine bacterio- logical examinations, and milk and water tests.

Quarantine. — The Quarantine Service of Palestine las been established in accordance with the International Sanitary Convention of Paris, 1920. Medical observation of travellers arriving in the country by sea or land (Kantara) is carried out for a period of five days after their arrival, in general at their destinations, but where circumstances demand travellers may be detained and isolated in a Quar- antine lazaret for the period of observation.


2o8 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Travellers, whose isolation and detention is not necessary, are required to report the state of their health on the ist, 3rd and 5th days after their arrival. Failure to report is punishable by imprisonment or a fine.

There are Quarantine offices at Jaffa, Haifa, Acre, and Gaza, and Quarantine lazarets in Haifa and Jaffa.

The Department undertakes each year the arrange'ments for the Pilgrimage to Mecca. All Palestinian pilgrims leave and return to the country as one party, and a Medical Officer of Health accompanies them on their journey.

Relief. — Two orphanages are supported by Government funds, and only children who are under 12 years of age and who have lost both parents are considered as candidates for admission. In addition the Government places at the disposal of Governors a sum of money for cases of urgent distress which are brought to their notice.

Registration of Medical Practitioners, etc. — The De- partment conducts the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, midwives and chemists, and grants licences for practising in Palestine.

Registration of Births and Deaths. — The Department, through its District offices, carries out the registration of births and deaths, and issues certificates on payment of a -small fee {cf. Public Health Ordinance No. 3).

{b) METEOROLOGICAL,

Climate. — The climate of Palestine is healthy and is characterized not only by the extreme annual range of the thermometer, but also by considerable variations of tem- perature within the limits of a single day, amounting in Jerusalem to 23° in summer, 14-5° in winter. On the hills east of the Jordan, in the winter months the thermometer sometimes falls below 32° in the night, rising again to 77° Fahr.

In Jerusalem snow is not an infrequent sight in winter, although it melts quickly. In February, 1920, there was the heaviest recorded fall of snow for 50 years, and the city was cut off for some days.


MEDICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL


209


Jerusalem and the hills are very cold in December, January, February and March, owing to the somewhat heavy rainfall accompanied by cold winds ; the maritime plain is considerably warmer.

The summer heat of the maritime plain is higher than that of the mountains, but is tempered by the cool sea- breezes, which also bring daily relief to Jerusalem.

In the winter months clothes suitable for a cold English winter — tweeds, thick overcoats, etc. — are required ; in the summer, white ducks and helmets are desirable, but warmer clothing should be worn in the hills at sun-down.

Meteorological. — The following tables give the mean tem- perature of Jerusalem throughout the year :



Mean


Rainy



Temperature.


Days.


January _ _ _


46° Fahr.


120


February _ _ _


49° ,



IO-5


March - - - -


51° .



8-9


April - - - -


60° ,



5-1


May - - - -


65° .



1-6


June - - - -


71° >



01


July - - - -


74° ,



o-


August - - - -


74° ,



o-


September _ _ -


71° ,



o-


October -


66° ,



1-6


November _ _ _


56° ,



6-4


December _ _ _


48° ,



9-8


The highest observed temperature is 112° in August, 1881, and the lowest 25° in March, 1920.

Rainfall. — Palestine has practically two seasons only, a dry hot summer and a rainy winter. There are three dis- tinct climatic zones : the maritime plain, the central range of mountains, and the tropical Jordan valley. The spring lasts from the beginning of March to the end of May, when the hot season commences. From the middle of May to

L.P. O


2IO


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


the end of October the sky is almost uninterruptedly cloudless.

The average yearly rainfall is 26 inches.

Winds. — The prevailing winds are as follows :


January February March - April - May - June - July - August September October November December


sou th-sou th- wes t .


westerly.


north-north-west.


southerly, westerly.


The khamsin (scirocco), from the south-east, usually sets in in May before the hot season, and sometimes blows for several days without intermission, the thermometer rising rapidly to 104° Fahr.


§ 14. Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones.

{a) POSTAL SERVICES.

Turkish Organization. — Prior to the British Occupation of Palestine, Posts and Telegraphs were administered by two separate Departments.

The postal service was, however, so unreliable that certain of the European Powers maintained their own services between Europe and various towns in Palestine. All foreign mails were landed at and despatched from Jaffa, but the Turkish Post Office was the only one allowed to use the railway to Jerusalem, and the mails of other nationalities had to be conveyed by road.

There was no public telephone service during the Turkish regime.


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 211

Present Organization. — Posts, Telegraphs and Telephoner, are now under one Department, the organization of which is based on that of the British Post Ofhce.

Postal Services. —

(a) Inland : Despatches are exchanged daily, in some cases twice daily, between all the principal towns.

(/3) Foreign : Despatches are exchanged daily (Sundays excepted) between Palestine and Egypt, and thrice weekly by rail, supplemented by steamer when available, between Palestine and Syria. Despatches for the United Kingdom are forwarded by the weekly P. and O. mail steamer from Port-Said and by all intermediate steamers leaving Port- Said or Alexandria. There are at least two, generally more, despatches per week between Palestine and Europe.

A travelling Post Office, fully equipped with sorting accommodation, etc., runs daily (Sundays excepted), in each direction between Kantara and Haifa.


212


THE HANDBOOK OE PALESTINE


Rates of Postage and Limits of Size and Weight. -

(i) Inland :



Postage miiriemes


Limits of size.


Limits of weight.


Letters, not exceed-





ing 20 gms.


5


60 cm. in length


2 kilos.


Each additional





20 gms. or




m


part thereof -


3


30 cm. in width or depth.


1


Post Cards (single) -


4


Minimum 10 cm. in length, 7 cm. in width. Maximum 14 cm. in length, 9 cm. in width.


1


Newspapers, per





copy


I


Same as letters


I kilo.


Printed papers, each





50 gms. or part





thereof -


2


Same as letters


I kilo.


Commercial papers.





each 50 gms. or





part thereof -


2


Same as letters


I kilo.


Samples, each 50




m


gms. or part




m


thereof -


2


Same as letters


2 kilos.


Blind literature,





each 500 gms. -


2


Same as letters


3 kilos.


Parcels, not ex-



Greatest length



ceeding I kilo -


20'



I metre.



Exceeding i kilo






but not ex-




Greatest length


5 kilos.


ceeding 3 kilos


40


-


and girth com-



Exceeding 3 kilos




bined — 2



but not ex-




metres.



ceeding 5 kilos


60^





i


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 213


(2) Foreign :

(All countries except Trans- jordania.)



Postage milliemes.


' Liniiis of size.


Limits of weight.


Letters, not ex- ceeding 20 gms. Each additional


13


British Empire Countries, 60


2 kilos.


20 gms. or part thereof -


7


cm. in length by 45 cm. in width or depth. Other Coun- tries — 45 cm. in any direc- tion. Letters in form of a roll — 75 cm. X 10 cm. in diameter.



Post Cards (single) -

Newspapers and

other printed

matter, each 50


8


Same as Inland.



gms. or part thereof -


3


Same as for letters


2 kilos. 1


Commercial papers : Not exceeding

250 gms. Each additional


13


do.


2 kilos.


50 gms. or part thereof -


3




Samples :

Not exceeding 100 gms.


6


British Empire


2 kilos.


^Exceptionally, printtd volumes for any destination sent singly may weigh as much as 3 kilo?.


214 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

(2) Foreign — continued.



Postage milHemes.


Limits of size.


Limits of weight.


Each additional



Countries and



50 gms. or part



Non - Union



thereof -


3


Countries 60 cm. in length, 30 cm. in width ordepth.





Other Coun-


500




tries 30 cm.


grammes.




in length, 20





cm. in width.





10 cm. in


^




depth, unless


i




in form of a


.1




roll, for which


1




limits are 30


i




and 15 cm.


1


Literature for the



Same [as for


3 kilos.


Blind



printed papers.


,_


Each 500 grammes




1


or part thereof


2



1


Not excee


ding



1


Ik. 3k.


5 k.



1


PT. PT


PT.



1


Parcels :





Egypt 10 10


10 ^




Sudan 12 12


12




India 18 18


18




United


.


Same as Inland


Same as


Kingdom 12^ 17 United


21



Inland.


States of



1



America i8| 283


36J^




POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 215

(3) Trans-jordania :


Limits of size.


Limits of weight.


Letters and other postal

matter except parcels : Parcels : Not exceeding

I k. 3 k. 5 k.

PT. PT. PT.

468


Same as Inland rates.


Postage rates and conditions of accept^ce of parcels for other countries can be obtained on application at any Post Office.

(4) Air Mail Service — Fortnightly : Mesopotamia (Mraq) only.

Postal matter of all kinds, except parcels, is accepted. Postage rate is the usual foreign rate for the class of matter despatched, plus a special fee of 25 milliemes for every 20 grammes or part of 20 grammes.

Correspondence should be clearly addressed in bold Latin characters and endorsed " By Air Mail " in the upper left-hand corner.

Dates of departure can be ascertained at any Post Office. Money and Postal Orders. — Inland and Foreign money orders are issued and paid at all Post Offices.

The maximum amount of any one order is £E,. 40, but for some foreign countries it is less. Particulars can be obtained on application at any Post Office. The rates of commission charged are as follows : Inland Orders :

Not exceeding _ _ _ Exceeding £E,. i but not ex- ceeding - - - _ Exceeding £E. 5 but not ex- ceeding - - - _ For each additional £liL. 10

up to - - - - ;/;E. 14 - 2 PT


£^-


I -


2PT.


£^-


5 ■


- 3PT.


£^-


10 -


- 4PT.


2i6 tHE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Foreign Orders :

One per cent, of the amount of the order, fractions of a pound being reckoned as a pound.

Telegraph Money Orders {Inland Service only) : "

Money may be transmitted by telegraph from any Post Office which is a despatching office for telegrams, arid may be made payable at any Post Office in Palestine which effects the delivery of telegrams.

An advice of payment of any Money Order may be obtained on payment of an additional fee of 13 milliemes.

British Postal Orders : These are issued and paid at all post offices in Pafestine. The denominations available are of 6d., I/-, 1/6, 2/-, 2/6, 3/-, 3/6, 4/-. 4/6, 5/-, 6/-. 7/-, 8/-, 9/-, 10/-, 12/6, 15/-, 17/6, 20/.

Palestine Postal Orders : Palestine Postal Orders pay- able in Palestine only, are issued in all multiples of 5 piastres from 5 PT. to 100 PT.

Registration. — All kinds of correspondence and parcels may be registered for the Inland Service, and all, except parcels, for the Foreign Service.

The fee for registration is 13 milliemes ; an acknowledg- ment of receipt may be obtained on payment of an addi- tional fee of 13 milliemes.

Insurance of Letters and Parcels (Inland Service only). — Letters and parcels posted in Palestine for addresses in Palestine can be insured, subject to the regulations, which may be seen on application at any Post Office.

The sums payable for insurance, including registration but not postage, are as follows :

Insurance Fee. Limit of Compensation.

PT. £K.

2 10

3 20

4 30

5 40

List of Post Offices. — Acre, Beersheba, Ber Yacob, Bethlehem, Gaza, Haifa, Hebron, Hedera, Jaffa, Jaffa (Ajami) B.O., Jenin, Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Mea Shearim)


d


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 217

B.O., Ludd Junction, Ludd village, Mejdel, Nablus, Naza- reth, Petach Tikvah, Ramallah, Ramleh, Rehoboth, Rishon-le-Zion, Roshpinah, Safed, Sarafend, Semakh, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Tulkeram, Zichron Jacob.

In general the hours of public business at sub-offices are from 8 a.m. to i p.m. and 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. from Monday to Friday, and from 8 a.m. to i p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. Hedera, Mea Shearim, Petach Tikvah, Rehoboth, Rishon-le- Zion, Tel Aviv and Zichron Jacob are closed on Saturdays. All the above offices issue and pay Money Orders and accept and deliver telegrams, with the exception that telegrams are not accepted or delivered at Mea Shearim and Ludd village.

At Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem the following special facilities exist :

Haifa and Jaffa - Letters registered up to. 6 p.m. Monday to Friday, and i p.m. on Saturday and . Sunday. Postage stamps sold, Poste Restante correspondence delivered, and telegrams accepted and delivered 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. daily. Jerusalem - Letters registered up to 6 p.m. Monday

to Friday, and i p.m. on Saturday and Sunday. Postage stamps sold and Poste Restante correspondence de- livered 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. daily ; tele- grams delivered up to 9 p.m. and accepted at all hours of the day and night. Postage Stamps. — The following postage stamps are issued by the Palestine Post Office :

I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 13 milliemes, and i, 2, 5, 9, 10 and 20 piastres.

{b) POSTAGE STAMPS OF PALESTINE AND TRANS-JORDANIA, 1918-I922.

First Issue. — At an early date during the Military occu- pation of Southern Palestine permission was granted to the


2l8


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


civilian population for the transmission of postal matter through the Army post of&ces.

A special series of stamps was designed and executed by the Typographic Department of the Survey of Egypt, Cairo. The paper was the same as the contemporary stamps of Great Britain, being watermarked with the Crown and Royal Cipher in horizontal rows.

The design consists of an upright rectangle of solid colour, in the centre of which are the words " Postage Paid," enclosed in two white tablets above and below an Arabic inscription of the same meaning. The initials E.E.F. (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) were placed across the head and foot of the stamp, and the value in English and Arabic on either side.

The printing was done by the modern typographic pro- cess. As no perforating machine was available a rouletting apparatus was used. This issue of stamps was not placed on sale in the ordinary manner ; the stamps were affixed by the postal authorities themselves. This postal service was carried on by 15 post offices.


Error. In the 5 millieme surcharge in the earlier sheet issued on the loth stamp of the first row th6 word

MILLIEMES is Spelt MILLILMES.


loth Feb., igi8 -


I piastre


dark indigo rouletted.


Control No. ]




ungummed


A. 18




Number issued


21,000


i6th Feb., 1918 -


5 mills, on


blue rouletted.




I piastre


ungummed


B. 18 A. ,




Number issued


6,000


5th March, 191 8 -


5 mills, on


blue rouletted.




I piastre


gummed


C. 18 B.




Number issued


55.600


5th March, 19 18 -


I piastre


blue rouletted.





gummed


C. 18




Number issued


338,000


13th May, 1918 -


5 mills.


blue gummed


D. 18.C.




Number issued


54.120


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 219


Second Issue. — On the i6th July, 191 8, a second series of values was issued. The stamps were of the same design as before and were printed by Messrs. Harrison & Sons, in England, and perforated 15 x 14, the watermark being the Crown and Royal Cipher.

Date of issue.

1 millieme

2 mills. -

3 mills. -

4 mills. -

5 mills. -

1 piastre

2 piastres 5 piastres 9 piastres

10 piastres 20 piastres


i6th July, 1918

17th Dec, 1918 i6th July, 1918 25th Sept., 191 8 9th Nov., 1918 i6th July, 1918

17th Dec., 1918


27th Dec, 1918


brown.

green.

reddish brown.

red.

orange.

blue black.

olive.

lilac red.

bistre.

light blue.

gray.


Shades : All values can be found in varying degrees of shade, notably tne one, two and three milliemes.

Errors and plate varieties :


One millieme


Two milliemes


No. 124 : no stop after second " E" at foot ;

b) No. 3 : dot on final " E" in

millieme ;

c) No. 91 : two dots over first Arabic

letter in centre.

a) Nos. 34 and 130 : TWQ ;

b) No. 214 : spider's web variety in

Arabic centre ;

c) No. 3 : comma for first stop in

upper panel ;

d) Nos. 118 and 191 : AI joined in

PAID ;

e) Nos. 49 and 145 : stroke through

" E" in lower panel.


220


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


One piastre


Four milliemes - {a) Nos. iii and 207: Arabic "O"

added in upper right corner ;

b) No. 229 : no dot after second " E " in upper label ;

c) No. 68 : no dot after first " E " in upper label ;

d) No. 8 : broken " A " at upper corner.

a) No. 215 : large Arabic " i " in upper corner ;

b) No. 229 : no dot after first " E " in lower label ;

c) No. 121 : no dot after first " E " in upper label ;

d) No. 122 : no dot after second " E " in upper label ;

e) Nos. 230 and 231 : no dot after second " E " in lower label.

No. 200 : last Arabic character " U " for " O " ;

b) No. 54 : no stop after second " E " at foot ;

c) Nos. 56, 65, 90, 91, 92 : - no stop after first " E " at foot ;

d) No. 66 : no stop after first and second " E " at foot ;

e) No. 41 : heel to Arabic character in centre.

stroke over Arabic character in centre ; b) short upper limb of letter " F." missing " o " of 10 in lower value. No. 2 : two dots over the first " E " in lower panel.

I piastre shows an inverted watermark. 1920. — The current issue was over- printed in Arabic, English and Hebrew at the commence-


Two piastres


Five piastres


Ten piastres Twenty piastres -

Watermark error 1st September,


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 221

ment of the Civil Administration. The Orthodox Patri- archate Press in Jerusalem obtained the contract, and the lower values, up to i piastre, were affixed by the Post Office officials so as to restrict the sale in large numbers. Towards the end of September, 1920, this order was withdrawn.

The trilingual overprint was in three lines, Arabic above, English in the centre and Hebrew below the Arabic ; the overprint measures 8 mms. A silver powder was used for the I piastre overprint.

Perforation 15 x 14 - - all values.

Perforation 14x14 - - 2 mills., 3 mills., 5 mills.

This perforation was done at Somerset House owing to the breakdown of the 15 x 14 machine. During the first three weeks of September most of the local letters in Jeru- salem, Haifa and Jaffa were franked by a circular hand- stamp only with the name of town and value inscribed, printed in a reddish ink.

The error in the series is 3 mills, inverted. The overprint errors and varieties are principally :

(a) overprinted inverted three milliemes (only one sheet

known) ; {b) two lines only, Arabic and English ; (c) four lines ; {(l) various degrees of heavy and light printing.

December, 1920. — A new overprint block was made, the Arabic overprint measuring 10 mm. and the English and Arabic letters being more clearly printed.

Perforation 15 x 14 - all values.

Perforation 14x14 - 1,2,4,5, i piastre, 5 piastres.

There are two settings of this overprint, the second setting being made in January, 1921, and differing from the first by the spacing between the Hebrew and English being longer. Only the three and five milliemes have so far been found.

20th September, 1921. — The overprinting was trans- ferred to Messrs. Harrison & Sons, England, and a different


222 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

type of letters adopted, the essential differences being the sans-serf English printing in the centre line and the small Arabic overprint. The whole printing is much clearer than previously.

The colour of the i piastre stamp is changed from a dark blue to an " electric blue " colour, so as to avoid using the silver overprint as before.

All values have appeared with this London overprint.

August, 1922.—

Denomination. Colour.

1 millieme - - - - brown.

2 milliemes - - - - pale yellow.

3 ,, - _ - - blue green.

4 ,, - - - - pink.

5 ,, - - - - orange.

6 ,, - - - - light green.

7 ,, - - - - light chocolate.

8 „ - - - - red.

13 ,, - - - - dark blue.

1 piastre - - - - slate gray.

2 piastres - - - - olive. 5 „ - - - - purple.

9 ,, - - - - bistre. 10 ,, - - - - cobalt blue. 20 ,, - - - - mauve.

Trans-jordania. — In October, 1920, the current issue of Palestine stamps was overprinted in Arabic in one line across the centre of the stamp with the words " Shark al-'Urdan," signifying ' East of Jordan.'

Perforations : 15 x 14 - i mill., 2 mills., 3 mills.,

4 mills., 5 mills., 2 piastres,

5 piastres. Perforations : 14 x 14 - all values to 20 piastres.

(c) TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES.

The telegraphs and telephones of Palestine are operated by the Government. The length of the main route wires


POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES 223

is 11,179 kilometres ; of local route wires, 1,656 kilometres. There is telegraphic communication between all the larger towns, an'd direct circuits exist between Jerusalem, Cairo and Beirut.

Wireless communication with the United Kingdom and ships at sea is provided via Egypt.

Palestine has an extensive telephone service (for rates of installation, see the Telephone Directory), and the number of instruments in use exceeds 1300.

Telegraph Rates. —

(a) Inland : 5 PT. for the first ten words and i PT. for each additional two words or part thereof.

(6) Foreign : Egypt and Syria - 8 PT. for the first eight words ; '2 PT. for each additional two words or part thereof. United Kingdom (by Ordinary — 53 milliemes per word ; cable from Egypt) Deferred — 27 milliemes per word.

Urgent — triple ordinary rates. United Kingdom (by Ordinary — 41 milliemes per word ; wireless from Egypt) Deferred — 21 milliemes per word. Other Countries - Rates may be had on application at any Telegraph Office. Government Telegrams are accepted at half the ordinary rate. De- ferred rate tel-egrams must be in plain language.

(c) Radio-telegrams to ships, etc. : Rates may be had on application at any Telegram Office.

Telephones. — Trunk lines connect all the principal towns and villages of Palestine, and public call offices exist at all post offices and at Jericho.

The scale of trunk call charges can be seen at any post office.

No person is entitled to use a trunk line continuously for more than six minutes.


224 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


§15. Municipalities.


« 


There are twenty-two municipalities in Palestine, namely. Acre, Beersheba, Beisan, Beit-Jala, Bethlehem, Gaza, Haifa, Hebron, Jerusalem, Jaffa, Jenin, Khan Yunis, Ludd, Mejdel, Nazareth, Nablus, Ramallah, Ramleh, Safed, Shefa 'Amr, Tiberias and Tulkeram.

The municipal councils possess extensive powers as regards local taxation, but, as with the State system of taxation, there is a multiplicity of small and often oppressive taxes and fees, which in the aggregate yield a small return. A Commission sat from November, 1920, to review the sources of municipal revenue and the methods of collection, and to report what changes were desirable. The Commission's recommendations are being introduced gradually as circum- stances appear desirable.

The municipalities are entirely responsible for their own finances, subject to the approval of their budget by the Governor of the District. They cannot levy any new con- tribution without legislative sanction.

Ottoman Municipal Tax Law of 1915. — Under the provisions of the Ottoman Municipal Tax Law of 1915, Municipalities may impost taxes on

(i) immovable property, including an addition to the State werko tax on buildings ; on the ground space of new buildings leviable once only ; on premises utilized for dis- pensing alcoholic beverages, at the rate of 5% of the rental value ; on places of entertainment, etc. ; and

(ii) on movable property, including a tax of 2^% on auction sales ; a fixed tax per kilogram on inflammable liquids ; an ad valorem tax of 2|% on all animal sales ; a tax on road transport ; a kantar tax, and various fees, such as fees for slaughtering and on advertisements, etc.

Other Ottoman decrees authorize the collection of a fee on leases registered at the office of the Municipality ; a tax on betterment values, etc.

Changes introduced by the Military Administra- tion. — The British Military Administration introduced two ^


MUNICIPALITIES 225

important innovations, which were based upon the provisions of the Ottoman Law of 1915, namely, a general house rate to replace the additional percentage made to the State werko tax, and an octroi duty. The house rate is levied upon the rental value of all building property, including the value of the site. It replaces the percentage added to the werko tax, and certain rates separately levied for street watering, lighting and scavenging. The maximum rate at which the tax can be levied is 'j\% of the rental value.

The institution of an octroi duty was intended primarily to find means of revenue for the increasing financial needs of municipalities.

Side by side with the octroi duty, which was levied on all the articles, foreign or otherwise, at the rate of 1% ad valorem, there existed a kantar tax, which is an Ottoman tax on articles and produce, imposed generally on cereals, levied on the basis of weight. On the recommendation of the Municipal Tax Commission, octroi duty, kantar tax and the tax on inflammable liquids were abolished, and were replaced by the Foreign Additional Imports Duty {cf. Part v., §4).

Road Transport Ordinance, 1921. — The Commission on Municipalities recommended that the law in regard to the licensing and regulation of road transport should be revised and an amended scale of taxation introduced, and State and Municipal Taxes be amalgamated as the position was com- plicated and confused by a number of different enactments. 75% of the receipts collected witt^n Municipal areas are allocated to Municipalities.

Licensing of Sea Craft. — The Ottoman Municipal Tax Law included a licensing fee chargeable upon all vessels plying between Turkish ports, or on inland seas, lakes and rivers.

The Port Dues Ordinance, 1921, provides that this and other port duties shall be collected by the Government, and that half the receipts accruing from the registration of Palestinian vessels shall be credited to the municipalities in whose area the fees are collected.

L.P. p


226


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


Municipal Receipts and Expenditure. — The receipts and expenditure of the principal municipaHties in 1920-21 were as follows :


Municipality.


Receipts


Expenditure


Acre -


_ ' _


3.185


2,782


Bethlehem


-


2,937


2,837


Gaza


_


6,025


4.647


Haifa


_


22,851


22,519


Hebron


1


3,652


3,122


Jerusalem -


-


40.332


40,000


Jaffa


-


29.318


28,621


Jenin


-


6,559


6,554


Ludd


.


4.382


2,075


Mejdel


.


3,068


1,856


Nazareth -


. _


2,285


2.253


Nablus -


_


9,654


9,158


Safed


-


3,84'


3,752


Tiberias -


.


6,396


6,282


Tulkeram -


, -


4,859


4.556


Local Councils. — The Local Councils Ordinance, 1921, enables the High Commissioner on the recommendation of the Governor to grant to villages the power of forming a local council, which will be able to impose certain taxes and exercise some of the rights of local government. As regards quarters and suburbs within a municipal area, the Ordinance provides for the constitution of a local council which will be subordinate to the Municipality.


§ 16. Parliamentary Papers.

The following is a list of Parliamentary Papers relating to Palestine :

1921. Cmd. 1 176. Draft Mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine.


PARLIAIVIENTARY PAPERS 227

1 92 1. Cmd. 1 1 95. Franco- British Convention of De-

cember 23, 1920, on certain points connected with the Man- dates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia.

Cmd. 1499. Interim Report on the Civil Ad- ministration of Palestine, ist July, i92o-3oth June, 1921.

Cmd. 1500. Final Drafts of the Mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine.

Cmd. 1540. Reports of the Commission of Inquiry with correspondence relating to the disturbances in Palestine in May, 1921.

1922. Cmd. 1700. Correspondence with the Palestine

Arab Delegation and the Zionist Organization, ,, Cmd. 1708. Mandate for Palestine : Letter to the Secretary-General of the League of Nations.

§ 17. Trans- j or dania.

Thd territory of Trans-j ordania, which is included in the area of the Palestine Mandate and is administratively linked with Palestine through the High Commissioner, is bounded on the north by the French sphere of Syria, on the west by the Jordan and the Dead Sea, on the south by the territory of the Hejaz ; its eastern boundary is undefined. Its population is approximately 350,000, Moslem and Christian, consisting partly of settled townspeople and agriculturists, partly of semi-nomadic and nomadic Beduin. Its capital is Amman, and other principal towns are al-Salt, Kerak, Madaba, Irbid and Jerash.

When Palestine was occupied by the British military administration, 'Trans-jordania was included within the sphere of the Arab administration of Damascus, then under the Emir Feisal, now King of 'Iraq. After the withdrawal


228 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

of the latter from Damascus in July, 1920, the High Com- missioner for Palestine proceeded, in August of that year, to al-Salt and announced to an assembly of notables and sheikhs that His Majesty's Government favoured the estab- lishment of a system of local self-government, assisted by a few British officers as advisers.

Local councils, independent of one another, were accord- ingly formed, and British officers were appointed to advise the councils and to assist in the organization of a gendar- merie. Owing, however, to the lack of cohesion between the several districts of Trans-jordania, and to the limited authority which the local councils enjoyed, this administra- tion was not entirely successful, and was unable satisfactorily to cope with all its difficulties.

In November, 1920, the Emir 'Abdallah, second son of King Husein and brother of King Feisal, arrived from the Hejaz at Ma'an, whence in March, 1921, he moved to Amman, In the same month a conference took place in Jerusalem between the Secretary of State for the Colonies, who was then in Palestine, the High Commissioner and the Emir 'Abdallah, at which an arrangement was made whereby the Emir 'Abdallah undertook temporarily to assume the administration of Trans-jordania, under the general direction of the High Commissioner for Palestine as representing the Mandatory Power. He was to be assisted by a small number of British officers. Order and public security were to be maintained, and there were to be no attacks against Syria. In July, 192 1, Parliament voted a grant-in-aid of

^i8o,ooo for the assistance of Trans-jordania. Since then

considerable improvement has been shown both in public security and general administration. A Gendarmerie has been raised ; more than 300 kilometres of the previously derelict Hejaz railway within Trans-jordanian territory have been repaired and are being worked by the Palestine Railway administration ; and a system of telegraphs is slowly being put into operation.


PART VI.

GEOLOGY, MINING AND NATURAL HISTORY.

§ I. Geology.^

Succession of Rocks. — The succession of rocks in descend - . ing order hitherto recognized in Palestine is as follows : V. Quaternary : Post-Glacial and Pleistocene ; IV. Cainozoic : Pliocene, probably Miocene, Eocene ;

{Upper : Senonian, Tiir- onian, Cenomanian ; Lower ; (i) Jurassic ; II. Palaeozoic : Cambrian probably (Hull considered it Carboniferous) ; I. Pre-Cambrian.

I. Pre-Cambrian Rocks : These oldest rocks are found in the east side of the Ghor, from the Lisan Peninsula, near the south end of the Dead Sea, southward.

They consist of crystalline schists, gneiss and granite. Grey granite may be seen forming a dark rugged foothill in the east wall of the Ghor just north of Wadi Hesi at the south end of the Dead Sea.

The above rocks are cut by red and pink granite and- felsites. In addition to the felsite, which is an old volcanic rock, there are occasional masses of volcanic agglomerate,

  • This section is based on the sketch of the geology of Palestine by Major R. W.

Brock, R.E., in vol. iii. of the Palestine Pocket Guide Books.

229


230 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

containing, besides blocks of felsite, some of granite. Such a mass occurs at the base of Jebel Labrush near al-Salieh.

These ancient rocks formed the floor of an old continent that suffered heavy erosion before being submerged in a later pre-Cambrian and Cambrian sea. As its waters en- croached on the old land, boulders accumulated on the shore, over which, as the waters deepened, sands were deposited. This has given rise to the formation of con- glomerate and sandstone, which may be seen on Wadi Hesi. Shoulders of rock protruding through the terrace deposits, that join the Lisan peninsula to the east, are also of con- glomerate.

II, Cambrian : As depth increased, beds of lime car- bonate, the remains of the animal life of the sea, were laid down ; and these have been preserved as a dark dolomite which overlies the sandstone of Wadi Hesi. From the fossil remains found in it, it is considered to be of Cambrian age. :

For succeeding geological ages the district as a whole would appear to have been land since, except for s'ome - Jurassic limestone on Mount Hermon and in the Lebanon ; ^ no rock formations are met with until we come to the Cretaceous, and the first of these is a shallow water formation. ;

III. The Mesozoic series :

{a) LOWER CRETACEOUS.

Along the east coast of the Dead Sea is a uniform sand- stone, to whose variegated hues much of the admired colour effects of the " Mountains of Moab " are due. It extends southward above the old rocks almost to the Gulf of Akaba. On the west side of the Ghor it does not appear until the Gulf of Akaba is approached (except perhaps under Jebel Usdum). This great sandstone formation is spoken of as the Nubian sandstone, as it is supposed to be the same as this Egyptian rock,

{b) UPPER CRETACEOUS.

Following the deposition of the sandstone, this country, in common with a large part of eastern Asia, northern Africa


GEOLOGY 231

and southern and middle Europe, was more deeply sub- merged, and there was deposited the great thickness of limestones which form the grea»ter part of Palestine, namely, the plateau country east of the Ghor and the hill-country of western Palestine.

These rocks may be subdivided, in descending order, as follows :

Senonian : About 800 feet of soft white limestone and chalk with numerous flint bands. A few beds show incipient crystallization ; one bed has limestone concretions up to six feet in diameter,

Turonian : About 700 feet of hard limestone and dolomite with flint at certain horizons ; some bands of oolitic limestone and marl ; the hard bands are crystallized in places to marble : the upper beds weather reddish or somewhat variegated.

Cenomanian : About 1 100 feet of hard yellowish limestone and dolomite with bands of soft marl and chalk.

While from a little distance these subdivisions may usually be broadly distinguished, especially the soft, white Senonian, on the spot the line of demarcation is often difficult to pick out without the aid of fossils, and fossils are not plentiful except in certain -beds, and even here the forms are often obscure. In the environs of Jerusalem fossils may be obtained. At the base of the Senonian about Nebi Musa and Mar Saba is a highly fossiliferous horizon. Below it at Nebi Musa and on the new Jericho road near by is the well-known black bituminous limestone, " Moses stone " or " Dead Sea " stone, or " stink-stone." It weathers light grey, but the fresh fracture is brown in the less bituminous and jet black in the highly bituminous beds. Below this bituminous limestone is a spotted brown one made up largely of fish remains and foraminifera.

The dark flint is characteristic, especially if the Senonian beds occur as nodules and bands. The latter are found between the beds of the formation and are continuous over long stretches. They sometimes attain a thickness of two


232 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

feet. As they resist weathering, they stand out con- spicuously from the soft limestones. The flint is formed by the solution and redeposition of silica from sponge and other animal remains in the rocks.

It is interesting to note that in Cretaceous times the conditions in Palestine and in England were similar. Both were deeply under water, in both immense deposits of lime carbonate were laid down, in both the latest beds are chalks characterized by richness in flints.

The distribution of these rocks is easily understood v/hen the structure is noted. The hill-country is formed by the folding of the rocks into an arch or anticline. Off the highest part of the arch the soft Senonian beds have been removed by denudation, uncovering the harder Turonian limestones and marbles. Thus, coming from the Coastal Plain, the first beds met are the Senonian chalks and lime- stones ; then, when the beds rise up in the limb of the arch, the Turonian is exposed, and these beds form the backbone of the hills. Beyond Jerusalem, on the gently dropping eastern slope, the white Senonian is again seen, in many places disturbed so that the flint bands are frilled, curled and crumpled ; the lower harder beds of the Turonian and Cenomanian form the rock terraces and wall of the Ghor (except just north of the Dead Sea, where the Senonian descends to the Jordan Valley), and the walls of the deeper wadis.

At a few points, as on Mount Carmel, basalt is found in the Turonian but not in the Senonian, suggesting some volcanic activity in the Cretaceous between these two periods.

IV. and V. Tertiary and Quaternary Series :

{a) EOCENE.

At a number of points in Samaria and northwards there occurs a limestone which, from its nummulitic fossils, is evidently of Eocene age. The most southerly occurrence is on the hills about Nablus. Fossils may be collected on Mount Gerizim.


GEOLOGY 233

(6) LATE TERTIARY AND RECENT.

It was probably soon after these Eocene limestones were formed that the land was upraised from the sea and began to take on its present aspect, for no widespread miocene or later marine deposits have been found. Before com- menting upon its recent history, which is somewhat com- plicated and not fully worked out, it will be well to mention the remaining rocks and other records upon which such a discussion must be based.

(c) MARINE.

Along the Coastal Plain, from below Gaza northward, there are at intervals exposures of a yellowish, reddish, or brownish weathering sandstone with a lime carbonate cement. It is sometimes fairly hard, but it is generally porous and soft. It is a comparatively recent formation though sufficiently consolidated to show jointing. Its exact age is as yet uncertain, but it is probably Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

Younger than this are the sands, gravels and shell-beds that mark an encroachment of the Mediterranean to an elevation of 220 feet above its present level. These sea- beds are well exposed between Jaffa and Ramleh. Near the latter they are represented by a calcareous conglomerate — the old beach. They are, no doubt, middle or late Pleistocene.

The recent alluvium and sand-dunes may hide other marine formations, just as they cover much of these just mentioned.

{d) LACUSTRINE AND FLUVIATILE.

The highest terraces of the Ghor, marking the extreme limits of the lake, consist of gravel or shingle, at an elevation a little above that of the Mediterranean. Such are the terraces about Safed, around Lake of Huleh, in the Araba valley, at Ain al-Weibeh, and on Samrat al-Fiddan.

The lowermost beds at the mouths of the larger wadis consist of boulders and sand, bearing evidence of the eroding


234 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE'

power of these streams when the dimate became moist enough to furnish water in excess of the loss by evaporation, and the Dead Sea began to rise and fill the Ghor.

The material that forms the main terraces of the Ghor, so well exhibited along the Jordan and along the coast of the Lisan peninsula, is quite different. While some clay beds occur near the bottom, it consists almost entirely of finely laminated marl, gypsum and salt. Over a consider- able thickness the laminae average no more than J in., and they are sometimes as fine as paper, but even the thinnest are continuous. They are the precipitates deposited after the climate had again become dry and the waters of the lake were being evaporated.

A pair of laminae of marl, gypsum and salt no doubt represent the deposits of one year, so that by counting these an accurate estimate of the length of time occupied in their formation could be obtained.

At several horizons in the Dead Sea formation large con- cretions of gypsum are forming, with long crystals of gypsum radiating from the centre. In these gypsum horizons nodules and also thin bands of light flour sulphur occur. Sulphur also forms coatings on the gypsum. One of these horizons is about forty feet above the Jordan, and a second about 1 20 feet above. The sulphur occurs in the same way and at similar horizons down to the south end of the Dead Sea.

Into the Dead Sea formation the Jordan has cut its channel. One of its flood plains is 20 feet above the summer level of the river and one 40 feet. Yellowish or reddi.sh weathering stratified clays, deposited by the Jordan, occa- sionally veneer the lowest terrace of Dead Sea formation, or cover lower levels of it to a height of 70 feet.

{e) VOLCANIC ROCKS.

Masses of basalt are found capping the plateau of Moab, and sending streams down the gorges and slopes toward the Dead Sea ; the dark lava showing up conspicuously against the light colours of the limestone or sandstone. It


J


GEOLOGY 235

may be observed near Wadi Mojeb (Arnon), the Plain of Zara, Wadi Zerka, and on the north-east corner of the Dead Sea, where it plunges beneath its waters.

Above Lake Tiberias the basaltic lavas occur on the west side of the Jordan ; the lake has basalt on all sides of it. The most important mass of basalt on the west is Jebel Safed. At Jebel Jish, 5 miles north-west of Safed, an extinct crater may be recognized.

In all these volcanic outpourings only basaltic rocks have been met with. It will be noted also that, except about Tiberias, volcanic activity has been confined to the east side of the Ghor.

Vulcanism extended over a considerable period and up to very recent, but not historical time (the nearest histori- cally active volcano is near Medina). That it extended over a considerable period is shown by the successive lava flows and the erosion of an older before the outpouring of a succeeding one. Th'at it continued until very recently is shown by the freshness of the cones, by the lava flows, constituting the most recent feature in the topography, and by the hot springs that are still active in these volcanic centres, while some of the springs in the Ghor may derive their comparatively low temperatures from the rock tem- perature at their source or from chemical change in the gypsum of other salts. The very hot springs are associated with the volcanic centres and undoubtedly are connected with vulcanism. They afford evidence that volcanic heat has not yet disappeared. In fact, volcanic activity might again be renewed. The great earthquake of 1837 which destroyed Tiberias, killing thousands, is a further reminder that the district has not yet settled down to quiet life.

The Ghor. — The Ghor is a great fault or dislocation in the earth's crust, along which the west side has relatively sunk. This fault may be seen in the Araba valley on its east side, where Cretaceous limestone is brought into con- tact with the old Pre-Cambrian rocks. At the south-east end of the Dead Sea these old rocks are still exposed. Along the east side of the Dead Sea the lower Cretaceous


236 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

sandstone forms the base of the exposed formations, while on the west the upper Cretaceous limestones occupy this position. This discrepancy in the level of the same horizon on the two sides of the Ghor amounts to 5000 feet at Mount Hor and about 1000 feet along the shore of the Dead Sea. The actual fissure is not visible from the Dead Sea north- wards, as it is covered by the sea or its deposits ; but the east wall of the Ghor is the fault scarp, for it cannot be the result of erosion, since there has been no glacier in this valley, neither has there been a river flowing into the sea, as is shown by the rock-bed in the Akaba Valley at the watershed 660 feet above sea-level or 1952 feet above the Dead Sea. Indeed, the scarp itself shows that it is not river-eroded, for there are no interlobes but a straight wall between the tributary streams. The evidence for this fissure is conclusive, but the simple fissure and the sinking of the west side do not suffice to explain the complete trough. For the deepest portion of the trough is not where such sinking has been greatest, but where it is only 1000 feet ; indeed, where it is greatest is the highest point in the trough. Nor is there any sign of warping. The full explanation would appear to be that this is one of the rare instances in which a trough has been formed by a sinking in of a strip of the earth's crust between two parallel faults (dislocations). The floor of the Ghor has dropped down. This would account for its deepest portion (over 2600 feet below sea-level) being in its centre. It would also answer the question as to what has become of the materials that once united the walls of the Ghor.

The formation of the Ghor commenced at the close of the Tertiary or beginning of the Pleistocene, and reached practically its present state before there set in the moist period, that produced glacial conditions in northern Europe. The climate must have been much the same as at present, for the old caiions of the Zerka and the Mojeb are very similar in size, shape and depth to their present ones. When the moist or Pluvial period came and the level of the old Dead Sea rose, they filled in their old caiions with gravel.


GEOLOGY 237

During this Pluvial period, which no doubt was con- temporaneous with the glacial period in Europe, the Dead Sea, as we have seen, rose to a height of about 1400 feet above its present level, forming a fresh-water lake from forty miles south of the Dead Sea to north of Lake Huleh, nearly 200 miles long. The beach deposits, rock terraces and cliffs show that it maintained this level for some time.

Following the Pluvial period came a period so dry that the waters of this great Jordan lake evaporated until only a remnant was left, a Dead Sea smaller than it is at present. During its desiccation various salts were precipitated, forming the thick deposits of marl, gypsum and salt that are now so marked a feature in the detailed topography of the Ghor. The long sloping terraces indicate even and continued lowering of the lake, the steep gradients pauses in the process of evaporation. A number of fresh- water shells, of which a considerable portion are existing species, are found in these deposits.

The salts in the water were derived from the salts released by the weathering of the rocks and brought in by the streams, or supplied by the thermal springs and volcanic emanations. The present water of the Dead Sea repre- sents the remaining " mother liquor " of Jordan lake, with such additional salts as have been brought in since it reached its present stage, less the salts (mostly common salt and gypsum) that have been and still are being pre- cipitated on the floor of the Dead Sea.

Since Kitchener's survey in 1883-4 ^^e sea has risen 18 or 20 feet. This is positive evidence that the climate has been growing moister, but it is of course possible that this may be of short duration or subject to periodic changes of moisture and drought.

The water of the lagoon south of the Lisan peninsula is only slightly over 30 feet deep, and the channel between the Lisan and the west shore only 29 feet deep. It is quite probable that within historical times the south end has been dry land, and physically possible that tradition is


238 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

correct when it fixes the sites of Sodom and Gomorrah beneath the oily waters of the Dead Sea.

The Ghor is still in a youthful condition. Its walls are still precipitous ; tributaries have succeeded in excavating only narrow canons, down which they plunge in waterfalls. Faulting of the Dead Sea deposits and the earthquakes which still occasionally disturb the district give warning that the Assuring and faulting and deepening of the Ghor may still be proceeding, and that its dark sides may once more glow with streams of molten lava and the green plateau of Damascus again be lighted up by a wide crescent of volcanic fire.

§ 2. Mineral Resources.

Sand. — The coast-line is bordered by dunes, much of the sand of which is suitable for glass making. Figures given by Dr. R. Sabath show that the total oxide of iron and alumina vary from -42 to 1-5% ; very pure limestones exist, and soda products may soon become available from utiliza- tion of Dead Sea salts. These sands also provide an un- limited supply for building purposes.

Limestone. — The limestone beds of Cenomanian and Turonian age furnish the principal building stones of Jerusalem and other towns.

They are known under the general names of mizzi, a hard limestone, and kakidi, a soft limestone.

The various divisions of the mizzi building stones appear to be somewhat confused by masons. They are

(i) mizzi ahmar — a red-flecked marble ;

mizzi yasini — well bedded red and grey limestone, (ii) mizzi Yahudi — ^thick bedded dark grey or yellow

limestone traversed by veinlets of calcite ; 'iii) meleki — a hippurite marble ; (iv) mizzi helu—a, white compact splintery limestone with

chalcedonic nodules of Turonian age ; (v) kakuU — a soft whitish limestone which quarries in slabs and is used for lintels, etc.


MINERAL RESOURCES 239

Higher up in the series occur phosphatic beds of Danian age, which form a hard but rather sombre building stone of a brown to black colour. In places the beds are entirely altered to apatite and provide beautiful green and red building stones, such as the mizzi akhdar of Beit Suhar. They are usually described as marbles, but are harder and more durable. In Galilee, where basalt is the prevalent rock, this is utilized both for road making and building purposes.

In the hilly parts of Samaria and Judaea as well as the southern part of Trans-jordania surface rocks are mostly limestone, which provides good material for burning to fat limes. Dolomite limestone and marl beds also occur, and, though the latter are often associated with gypsum, much of the material could probably be used for the manufacture of Portland Cement.

Thin bedded clays also occur in the Jordan valley and could be utilized for pottery, etc.

Phosphatic Deposits. — Immediately overlying the top flint beds of the Campanian division of the Senonian forma- tion are the beds containing bones, coprolites, etc., of phosphatic composition. These beds are very widespread both in Palestine and Trans-jordania. They have never been properly surveyed. Hence the information available only deals with a few scattered localities. Blanckenhorn examined samples from Nebi Musa and found 30% tri-calcic phosphate in beds 20 feet thick. It is, however, believed that much richer beds than these occur in Palestine. In Trans-jordania more careful examination has been made ; and at Abu Tara three beds 10 metres, 7 metres, 3 metres in thickness occur, carrying an average of 51% tri-calcium phosphate. At Khar bet Botin the plateau contains beds 3 metres thick with 54-6% tri-calcic phosphate. Most of these deposits are close to the surface, and could very easily be quarried.

Bitumen. — Above the bone-beds there occurs in many parts of Palestine a shaly or bedded bituminous limestone, containing 10 to 30% of oil and bitumen. The best known


240 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

localities are at Nebi Musa, al-Salt, Wadi al-Quneitra, Safed, the Yarmuk valley, Bethlehem, Wadi Mahawit, etc.

Some of the material is poor in quality, but much of it would make excellent material for road asphalt. Some deposits are shaly, but those which Blanckenhorn ex- amined contained less than 2% of argillaceous material. In composition some varieties resemble the Val de Travers asphalt, and could be similarly utilized. The richer qualities are often used as fuel ; the rock, once set on fire by means of brushwood, will continue to burn.

Several attempts have been made to utilize the material by distillation, the yield of oil being 8% or more, there being also a valuable proportion of combustible gas and bituminous tarry matter.

In addition to the bituminous limestone, bitumen sufficiently pure to mine occurs in various parts of the country.

Petroleum. — Besides the above occurrences of bitumen, which are examples of inspissated oil, there occur gas emanations and sepages of oil in several parts of the country, but more particularly in the southern part of the Dead Sea region. The dolomite at Ain-Gedi and Mas'ada drips oily bitumen, ^nd the sandstone on the east shore of the Dead Sea and at Jebel Usdum is bituminous.

The consensus of expert opinion is that oil occurs in southern Palestine, but that only drilling will decide as to what are the commercial aspects of the problem. It is generally agreed that sunken blocks of the Ghor are petroleum-bearing, and that oil will be obtained by drilling into the Senonian-Turonian beds. The greater prospects of oil occurring in large quantities in the anticlinal flexures to the west are at present the principal attraction.

The Standard Oil Company is now prospecting over the area granted by pre-war concessions around Kharnub, and is optimistic as to the final outcome of its efforts.

Dead Sea Salts. — One of the greatest mineral assets of Palestine is the salt of the Dead Sea {cf. § i above). The average percentage of salts in the strong brine is at least


MINERAL RESOURCES 241

25%, of which 34% is sodium chloride, 4% to 7% potassium chloride, and up to 1% or more magnesium bromide.

The volume of the Dead Sea is somewhere in the region of 120,000,000,000 cubic metres; hence the area contains roughly 30,000,000,000 tons of mixed salts, of which possibly 1,500,000,000 tons are potassium chloride. Palestine is thus the richest country in the world for potash resources. These also occur under the most favourable conditions. The salts occur as a strong brine, immediately ready for evaporation and crystallization for the production of pure salts by the natural heat of the sun.

With the advent of cheap transport and abundant sup- plies of electricity, other manufactures, such as electrolytic production of alkali, are possible. The salt deposits of Jebel Usdum also appear to be of considerable extent.

Metallic Minerals. — Palestine is not rich in metallic minerals, as the following notes indicate :

Copper : Copper ores were worked by the ancients in the older Palaeozoic rocks south of the Dead Sea in the neighbourhood of Fenan. The metal was also ex- tracted or smelted on the spot. The present state of deposits is unknown. Copper ores are also said to exist in the vicinity of Mt. Carmel. Iron Ores are known to occur in small quantities in many localities throughout Palestine, but there is no information of deposits of any considerable extent. Gold has been reported, "but the localities given seem unlikely, and authentic occurrences are yet to be discovered. The country has been so little prospected for metallic minerals, particularly in the south and north-east, that our present knowledge of the subject cannot be accepted as an indication of its resources ; and it is possible that farther exploration may reveal valuable deposits of ore.


I.. p.



242 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

§ 3. Mammalia.

Palestine exhibits a remarkable range of climate, eleva- tion and topography. Fauna and flora in consequence present a strange assembly of European, Asiatic and African types, of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate character. Few groups have as yet been exhaustively studied, and much material of recent collection awaits detailed examina- tion. In these circumstances, the present notes can only be offered as a preliminary outline of a very intriguing field of research.

The mammalian fauna of Palestine is remarkable for the number of larger animals which are on the verge, or have recently passed the verge, of extinction, a result due in part to modern firearms, in part to the destruction of the forests.

Among those which have become rare or extinct in the last few decades are the roe deer {Cervus capreolus), the fallow deer (C. dama), the leopard [Felis pardus), and the Syrian bear {Ursus syriacus). The gazelle {Gazella dorcas) and the Syrian ibex {Capra heden) are also much scarcer than formerly.

Several carnivorous mammals are still far from rare, such as the jungle cat {Felis chaus), the wild cat [F. bubastis Ehrenbg.),the striped hyaena {Hyaena striata) , the mongoose {Herpestes ichneumon), the wolf {Vulpes portali), the jackal {Canis aureus), and one or two races of fox.

Among the smaller animals, may be mentioned several species of hare, the porcupine {Acanthion leucurus), spiny mice {A corny s), the dwarf hamster {Cricetulus migratorius) , many gerbils and jerboas in the south of the country, a vole {Microtus syriacus : Brants), several species of dor- mouse and of shrews, a race of the European hedgehog and of the desert hedgehog Erinaceus auritus) , and a score of bats. The most interesting of the bats is Rousettus {Cynonycteris) aegyptiacus, a fruit-bat which is very destruc- tive to figs and other ripe fruit, and spends the day in caves,


MAMMALIA 243

The smaller animals of Palestine are still very imperfectly known. The full list would be a long one, because desert rodents and hedgehogs occur side by side with such northern forms as the voles, the European hedgehogs and the dwarf hamster.

The European house mouse {Mus musculus) and various races of the black rat {Rattus rattus) have been imported, and are abundant in the towns.

Among types recently described, Nesokia bacheri Nhrng, a big, rat-like rodent from the southern shore of the Dead Sea, is killed by the Beduin in large numbers. Procavia Schmitzi Matsch, a hyrax-like animal, is found in the moun- tains surrounding Lake Huleh. •


§ 4. Birds}-

The geographical position of Palestine accounts for the very large number of migratory birds which have been recorded. While the country can boast of only about one hundred resident species, at least two hundred migrants, some of which may breed locally in small numbers, have been described on indubitable authority.

(w.v, — winter visitor, s.v, — summer visitor.)

1. Turdus viscivorus. Missel thrush ; occasional w.v.

2. Turdus philomelus. Song thrush; very common w.v.

3. Turdus pilaris. Fieldfare ; occasional w.v.

4. Turdus merula. Blackbird ; common w.v. and locally common resident.

5. Monticola solitarius. Blue thrush ; common w.v. and locally common resident.

6. Monticola saxatilis. Rock thrush ; uncommon migrant, common in some years.

7. Oenanthe oenanthe. Common wheatear ; common migrant.

•For fuller notes on some of the birds of Palestine see Col, R. Meinertzhageii, Not^s on the Birds of Southern Palestine, in The Ibis for January, 1920


244 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


non 11


8. Oenanthe isabellina. Isabelline wheatear ; common

migrant and locally common resident.

_ ,7 , ■ , f Black-throated wheatear.

Q. Oenanthe hispamca. i -r^, , -, -, .

^Black-eared wheatear.

Very common s.v. in both forms ; the former is the more common.

ID. Oenanthe deserti. Desert wheatear ; uncommon resident.

11. Oenanthe fins chi. Arabian wheatear ; common w. v. and resident in the south.

12. Oenanthe pleschanka. Eastern pied wheatear ; once recorded from Rafa.

13. Oenunthe moesta. Tristram's wheatear : rare resident.

14. Oenanthe lugens. Pied wheatear ; locally common resident.

15. Oenanthe monacha. Hooded wheatear ; rare resident.

16. Oenanthe leucopyga. White rumped wheatear ; un- common resident near Dead Sea.

17. Cercomela melanura. Blackstart ; not uncommon near the Dead Sea.

18. Saxicola rubetra. Whinchat ; uncommon migrant.

19. Saxicola torquata. Stonechat ; common w.v.

20. Phoenicurus phoenicurus. Common redstart ; com- mon migrant.

21. Phoenicurus p. mesoleuca. Ehrenberg's redstart; common migrant.

22. Phoenicurus ochruros. Black redstart ; common w.v.

23. Luscinia luscinia. Sprosser nightingale ; migrant.

24. Luscinia megarhyncha. Nightingale ; migrant (Tris- tram states that it breeds in Palestine).

25. Luscinia s. suecica. Bluethroat ; fairly common w.v.

26. Luscinia s. volgae. White-spotted bluethroat ; w.v. less common than the last.

27. Erithacus rubecula. Robin ; common w.v.

28. Prunella modularis. Hedge sparrow ; fairly common w.v.

29. Sylvia communis. Whitethroat ; common migrant and s.v.


BIRDS 245

30. Sylvia curruca. Lesser whitethroat ; common migrant. (Perhaps breeds.)

31. Sylvia cantillahs. Subalpine warbler; uncommon migrant and s.v.

32. Sylvia conspicillata. Spectacled warbler ; fairly common resident.

33. Sylvia melanothorax . Palestine warbler (one pair obtained by Tristram near the Dead Sea).

34. Sylvia melanocephala. Sardinian warbler ; fairly common resident.

35. Sylvia melanocephala momus. Bowman's warbler ; common resident.

36. Sylvia hortensis. Orphean warbler ; common migrant and s.v.

37. Sylvia ruppelli. Ruppell's warbler ; uncommon migrant.

38. Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap ; common w.v. (a few remain to breed).

39. Sylvia borin. Garden warbler ; common migrant (Tristram states that it breeds in Palestine).

40. Sylvia nisoria. Barred warbler ; rare migrant.

41. Sylvia nana. Desert warbler; only recorded from south end of Dead Sea.

42. A gr abates galactotes. Rufous warbler ; very common s.v.

43. Scotocerca inquieta. Scrub warbler ; uncommon resident.

44. Prinia gracilis. Graceful warbler ; common resi- dent.

45. Cisticola cisticola. Fantailed warbler ; locally com- mon resident.

46. Phylloscopus superciliosus. Yellow-browed warbler (one obtained by Tristram at Jericho in 1864).

47. Phylloscopus collybita. Chifchaff ; common w.v.

48. Phylloscopus irochilus. Willow warbler ; common migrant.

49. Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Wood warbler ; common migrant in the plains.


246 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

50. Phylloscopus bonellii. Bonelli's warbler ; common migrant and uncommon s.v.

51. Hypolais olivetorum. Olivetree warbler; common migrant (a few remain to breed).

52. Hypolais languida. Upchir's warbler ; common s.v. in the hills.

53. Hypolais pallida. Olivaceous warbler ; common s.v. in the plains and Jordan valley.

54. Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Reed warbler ; common migrant.

55. Acrocephalus palustris. Marsh warbler ; migrant.

56. Acrocephalus arundinacea. Great reed warbler; common s.v.

57. Acrocephalus stentoreus. Clamorous reed warbler; common s.v. in Huleh marshes.

58. Acrocephalus schoenicola. Sedge warbler; uncom- mon migrant.

59. Lusciniola melanopogon. Moust ached warbler ; com- mon in Beisan marshes in winter ; possibly resident.

60. Locustella fluviatilis . River warbler ; uncommon s.v.

61. Locustella luscinioides . Savi's warbler ; scarce s.v.

62. Cettia cettii. Cetti's warbler ; possibly resident.

63. Crater opus squamiceps. Palestine bush babbler ; common near Jericho.

64. Parus major. Great tit ; common resident.

65. Troglodytes troglodytes. Wren ; rare w.v.

66. Motacilla alba. White wagtail ; common w.v. and rare resident.

67. Motacilla vidua. White-winged wagtail (obtained by Dr. Herschell in the Jordan valley).

68. Motacilla cinerea. Grey wagtail ; uncommon w.v.

69. Motacilla flava. Blueheaded yellow wagtail ; very common migrant in the plains.

70. Motacilla melanocephala. Blackheaded wagtail ; un- common migrant.

71. Anthus pratensis. Meadow pipit ; common w.v.

72. Anthus trivialis. Tree pipit ; common w.v.

73. Anthus cervinus. Redthroated pipit ; common w.v.


I


BIRDS 247

74. Anthus spinoletus . Water pipit ; uncommon w.v.

75. Anthus campestris. Tawny pipit ; common migrant and scarce resident.

76. Anthus sordidus. Brown rock pipit ; common s.v. in the hills ; said to winter in the plains and Jordan valley.

77. Pycnonotus xanthopygius. Palestine bulbul ; com- mon resident.

78. Oriolus galhula. Golden oriole ; common spring migrant.

79. Lanius excubitor elegans. Pallid shrike ; common resident round Gaza and southward.

80. Lanius e. aucheri. Finsch's shrike ; common resident in the Jordan valley.

81. Lanius minor. Lesser grey shrike ; irregular s.v. to the plains.

82. Lanius senator. Woodchat shrike ; common s.v.

83. Lanius nubicus. Masked shrike ; common s.v.

84. Lanius collurio. Red-backed shrike ; common mi- grant and locally common s.v.

85. Muscicapa striata. Spotted flycatcher ; common s.v.

86. Muscicapa hypoleuca. Pied flycatcher ; uncommon migrant.

87. Muscicapa albicollis. Collared flycatcher ; uncom- mon migrant.

88. Hirundo rustica. Common swallow ; common s.v.

89. Hirundo r. transitiva. Palestine swallow ; common resident.

90. Hirundo daurica. Red-rumped swallow; common s.v.

91. Delichonurbica. House martin; uncommon migrant.

92. Riparia riparia. Sand martin ; fairly common migrant (a few breed).

93. Riparia rupestris. Crag swallow ; fairly common resident.

94. Riparia obsoleta. Pale crag swallow ; resident in Dead Sea basin.

95. Cinnyris osea. Palestine sunbird ; common resident in the Jordan valley and spreads over the rest of the country in winter.


248 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

96. Carduelis carduelis. Goldfinch ; very common resi- dent.

97. Acanthis cannabina. Linnet; common resident.

98. Serinus canarius. Serin ; common w.v.

99. Spinus spinus. Siskin ; rare w.v.

100. Chloris chloris. Greenfinch ; common resident, loi. Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Hawfinch; occa- sional visitor.

102. Passer domesticus. Sparrow ; very common resi- dent.

103. Passer hispaniolensis . Spanish sparrow ; common resident and w.v.

104. Passer moabiticus. Dead Sea sparrow ; resident near Dead Sea.

105. Petronia petronia. Rock sparrow ; common s.v.

1 06. Fringilla coelebs. Chaffinch ; common w.v.

107. Carpodacus sinaiticus. Sinai rosenfinch ; rare resi- dent between Beersheba and the Dead Sea.

108. Erythrospiza githaginea. Desert bullfinch ; uncom- mon resident in the extreme south.

109. Rhodospiza obsoleta. Persian desert bullfinch ; un- common w.v.

no. Emberiza melanocephala. Blackheaded bunting; common s.v.

111. Emberiza calandra. Common bunting; common resident.

112. Emberiza hortulana. Ortolan bunting; common migrant.

113. Emberiza striolata. S.triped bunting; uncommon resident near the Dead Sea.

114. Emberiza cia. Meadow bunting; fairly common w.v.

115. Emberiza caesia. Cretzschmaer's bunting; com- mon s.v.

116. Sturnus vulgaris. Starling; common w.v.

117. Sturnus unicolor. Sardinian starling ; scarce w.v.

118. Pastor roseus. Ros6-coloured starling; irregular visitor, usually following locusts.


BIRDS 249

119. Amydrus iristrami. Tristram's grakle ; resident near Dead Sea.

120. Garrulus atricapillus. Syrian jay ; common resi- dent.

JE2I. Corvus monedula. Jackdaw; common w.v. and locally resident.

122. Corvus frugilegus. Rook; common w.v.

.123. Corvus comix. Hooded crow ; common resident.

124. Corvus affinis. Fantail raven ; resident near Dead Sea.

125. Corvus corax. Raven ; common resident.

126. Corvus c. umbrinus. Brown-necked raven ; com- mon resident in the south.

127. Alaemon alaudipes. Bifasciated lark ; resident in the southern desert.

128. Galerita cristata. Crested lark ; very common resident.

129,. Alauda arvensis . Skylark; very common w.v.

130. Lullula arbor ea. Woodlark ; common w.v., possibly breeds.

131. Ammomanes deserti. Desert lark ; common resident in desert parts of the country.

132. Calandrella brachydactyla. Short-toed lark ; fairly common s.v.

133. Calandrella minor. Lesser short- toed lark ; fairly common in deserts ; resident.

134. Melanocorypha calandra. Calandra lark ; common resident in northern Palestine.

135. Melanocorypha bimaculata. Eastern calandra lark ; common resident on the coastal plain.

136. Apus apus. Common swift ; common s.v.

137. Apus melba. Alpine swift ; common s.v.

138. Apus affinis. White-rumped swift ; locally com- mon s.v.

139. Caprimulgus europaeus. Common nightjar ; com- mon migrant.

140. Caprimulgus ruficollis. Red-necked nightjar ; once recorded from Jerusalem.


250 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

141. Caprimulgus tamaricis. Probably resident near Dead Sea.

142. Dry abates syriacus. Syrian woodpecker ; common resident.

143. Yunx torquilla. Wryneck ; common migrant and a few winter in the Jordan valley.

144. Alcedo arthis. Common kingfisher ; common w. v.

145. Ceryle rudis. Pied kingfisher ; common resident.

146. Halcyon smyrnensis. Smyrna kingfisher ; common resident.

147. Coracias garrula. Roller; common migrant and s. v.

148. Merops apiaster. Common bee-eater ; very com- mon s.v.

149. Merops persicus. Blue-checked bee-eater ; uncom- mon s.v.

150. Merops viridis. Green bee-eater ; possibly migrant.

151. Upupa epops. Hoopoe; common s.v.

152. Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo ; common migrant.

153. Clamator glandarius. Great spotted cuckoo ; com- mon migrant and scarce resident.

154. Tyto alba. Barn owl ; common resident.

155. Ketupa zeylonensis . Brown fish owl ; resident in a few wadis.

156. Asio otus. Longeared owl (Tristram found this bird in Galilee).

157. Asio flammens. Shorteared owl ; migrant.

158. Otus scops. Scops owl ; common s.v.

159. Bubo ascalaphus. Egyptian eagle owl ; resident in the southern desert.

160. Bubo ignavus. Eagle owl ; resident.

161. Athene glaux. Southern little owl; very common resident.

162. Gypaetus barbatus. Bearded vulture (found by Tristram near the Dead Sea).

163. Vultur monachus. Black vulture ; occasional.

164. Gyps fulvus. Griffon vulture; very common resident.

165. Neophron perenopterus. Egyptian vulture ; very common s.v.


BIRDS 251

166. Circus aeruginosus. Marsh harrier ; very common w.v. (a few are said to breed).

167. Circus pygargus. Montagu's harrier ; scarce mi- grant.

168. Circus cyaneus. Hen harrier ; fairly common resi- dent.

169. Circus macrourus. Pallid harrier ; common resi- dent.

170. Buteo vulgaris. Common buzzard ; commop mi- grant.

171. Buteo ferox. Longlegged buzzard ; common resi- dent.

172. Pernis apivorus. Honey buzzard ; migrant.

173. Aquila chrysaetus. Golden eagle ; w.v.

174. Aquila heliaca. Imperial eagle; fairly common resident.

175. Aqiiila clanga. Spotted eagle ; scarce resident,

176. Aquila rapax. Tawny eagle ; scarce resident.

177. Aquila fasciata. Bonelli's eagle ; common resident.

178. Hieraetus pennatus. Booted eagle ; uncommon migrant.

179. Circaetus gallicus. Short -toed eagle ; very common s.v.

180. Accipiter nisus. Sparrow hawk ; common w.v.

181. Milvus milvus. Red kite ; common w.v.

182. Milvus migrans. Black kite ; common resident.

183. Milvus m. aegypticus Egyptian kite ; occasional in the south.

1.84. Elanus coervileus. Black-shouldered kite ; occa- sional.

185. Falco peregrinus. Peregrine ; fairly common resi- dent.

186. Falco hiarmicus. Lanner falcon ; common migrant, locally resident.

187. Falco subbuteo. Hobby ; fairly common s.v. i88. Falco eleanorae. Eleanora falcon ; rare s.v,

189. Falco columbarius. Merlin ; common w.v.

190. Falco vespertinus. Red-footed falcon ; rare s.v.


252 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

191. Falco tinnunculus . Kestrel; very common resident .

192. Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel ; common s.v.

193. Pandion haliaetus. Osprey ; common w.v.

194. Phalacrocorax carbo. Cormorant ; common w.v.

195. Phalacrocorax pygmaeus. Little cormorant ; com- mon w.v. (perhaps breeds in Huleh marshes).

196. Pelecanus onocrotalus. Rosy pelican ; fairly com- mon w.v.

197. Pelecanus crispus. Dalmatian pelican ; fairly com- mon w.v.

198. Plotus levaillantii. African darter ; w.v., to Huleh.

199. Ardea cinerea. Grey heron ; very common migrant.

200. Ardea purpurea. Purple heron ; common resident.

201. Egretta alba. Great white heron ; rare w.v.

202. Egretta garzetta. Little egret ; uncommon resident.

203. Bubulcus ibis. Buff backed heron ; uncommon w.v.

204. Ardeola ralloides. Squacco heron ; common mi- grant (possibly breeds).

205. Nycticorax nycticorax. Night heron ; uncommon migrant.

206. Ixobrychus minutus. Little bittern ; common resi- dent.

207. Botaurus stellaris. Bittern ; common resident.

208. Ciconia ciconia. White stork ; very common migrant.

209. Ciconia nigra. Black stork ; uncommon migrant.

210. Platalea leucorodia. Spoonbill ; rare w.v.

211. Plegadis falcinellus. Glossy ibis ; occasional w.v.

212. Phoenicopterus ruber. Flamingo ; uncommon w.v.

213. Anser cinereus. Grey goose ; "1 occa-

214. Anser segetum. Bean goose ; ^ sional

215. Anser albifrons. White-fronted goose ; J w.v.

216. Branta leucopsis. Barnacle goose ; fairly common w.v.

217. Cygnus olor. Mute swan ; occasional w.v.

218. Cygnus musicus. Whooper swan ; occasional w.v.

219. Alopochen aegyptiaca. Egyptian goose ; occasional


BIRDS 253

220. Tadorna tadorna. Common shell-duck ; uncommon w.v.

221. Tadorna casarca. Ruddy shell-duck; uncommon resident.

222. Anas platyrhyncha. Mallard; common w.v.

223. Anas strepera. Gadwall ; common w.v.

224. Anas angustirostris. Marbled duck ; fairly common resident.

225. Anas acuta. Pintail duck ; common w.v.

226. Anas querquedula. Garganey ; fairly common mi- grant.

227. Anas crecca. Teal ; very common w.v.

228. Anas pmelope. Wigeon ; uncommon w.v.

229. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller ; fairly common w.v.

230. Nyroca ferina. Pochard ;, fairly common w.v.

231. Nyroca fuligula. Tufted duck ; very common w.v.

232. Nyroca nyroca. White-eyed duck ; common w.v.

233. Oedemia nigra. Scoter ; occasional w.v.

234. Erismatura leucocephala. White-headed duck ; said to be resident.

235. Mergus serrator. Merganser ; common w.v.

236. Mergus albellus. Simew (obtained by Tristram).'

237. Columhapalumhus. Wood pigeon; common migrant.

238. Columha oenas. Stock dove ; common w.v.

239. Columba livia. Rock dove ; common resident.

240. Streptopelia turtur. Turtle dove ; very common s.v.

241. Streptopelia decaocto. Collared turtle dove; com- mon resident in the Jordan valley.

242. Streptopelia senegalensis. Palm dove ; resident in Jerusalem.

243. Pterocles orientalis. Black-bellied sandgrouse ; resident in the southern desert.

244. Pterocles alchata. Pintailed sandgrouse ; common resident in the south.

245. Pterocles senegallus. Senegal sandgrouse ; very common resident in the south.

246. Pterocles exustus. Singed sandgrouse ; common resident in the south.


254 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

247. Alectoris graeca. Chucar ; common resident.

248. Ammoperdrix heyi. Hey's partridge ; common resident near Jericho.

249. Francolinus vulgaris. Francolin ; common resident in marshes.

250. Coturnix coturnix. Quail ; very common migrant.

251. Rallus aquaticus. Water-rail; uncommon resident.

252. Porzana porzana. Spotted crake ; common migrant

253. Crex crex. Landrail ; common migrant.

254. Porphyrio caeruleus. Purple gallinule ; occurs in Huleh marshes.

255. Gallinula chloropus. Moorhen ; common resident.

256. Fulica atra. Coot ; common w.v.

257. Megalornis grus. Crane ; fairly common w.v.

258. Anthropoides virgo. Demoiselle crane ; fairly com- mon w.v.

259. Otis tarda. Great bustard ; possibly migrant.

260. Otis tetrax. Little bustard ; possibly resident.

261. Burhinus oedicnemus. Stone -curlew; common resident.

262. Glareola pratincola. Pratincole ; common.s.v.

263. Cursorius gallicus. Courser ; common s.v. in the south.

264. Charadrius apricarius. Golden plover ; fairly com- mon w.v.

265. Charadrius helveticus. Grey plover ; not uncommon w.v. on the coast.

266. Charadrius geojfroyi. GeofEroy's plover ; common migrant.

267. Charadrius hiaticula. Ringed plover ; common w.v.

268. Charadrius curonica. Lesser ringed plover ; com- mon w.v. (perhaps breeds).

269. Charadrius alexandrinus. Kentish plover ; com- mon resident.

270. Charadrius morinellus. Dotterel ; common w.v.

271. Hoplopterus spinosus. Spur- winged plover; fairly common resident.

272. Vanellus vanellus. Lapwing ; very common w.v,


BIRDS 255

273. Recurvirosta avocetta. Avocet ; uncommon w.v.

274. Himaniopus himantopus. Stilt ; fairly common s.y.

275. Scolopax nisticola. Woodcock ; common w.v.

276. Gallinago gallinago. Snipe ; very common w.v.

277. Gallinago gallinula. Jack snipe; very common w.v.

278. Erolia alpina. Dunlin ; very common w.v.

279. Erolia ferruginea. Curlew sandpiper ; common migrant.

280. Erolia minuta. Little stint ; very common w.v.

281. Philomachus pugnax . RuflE ; common migrant.

282. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling ; fairly common w.v.

283. Limicola falcinellus. Broad-billed sandpiper ; un- common migrant.

284. Totanus hypoleucos. Common sandpiper ; common migrant (probably breeds).

285. Totanus ochropus. Green sandpiper ; common w.v.

286. Totanus stagnatalis. Marsh sandpiper ; fairly com- mon migrant.

287. • Totanus glareola. Wood sandpiper ; uncommon migrant.

288. Totanus calidris. Redshank ; common w.v.

289. Totanus fuscus. Spotted redshank ; rare migrant. "290. Totanus canescens. Greenshank ; uncommon mi- grant.

291. Limosa limosa. Black-tailed godwit ; uncommon w.v.

292. Numenius arquatus. Curlew ; fairly common w.v.

293. Numenius phaeopus. Whimbrel ; rare w.v.

294. Sterna fluviatilis. Common tern ; common s. v.

295. Sterna minuta. Little tern ; uncommon w.v.

296. Sterna media. Allied tern ;

297. Sterna anglica. Gull-billed tern ;

298. Sterna caspia. Caspian tern ;

299. Sterna bergii. Swift tern ;

300. Hydrochelidon hyhrida. Whiskered tern ; fairly common resident.

301. Hydrochelidon nigra. Black tern ; uncommon s,v,


rare w.v.s.


256 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


I


302. Hydrochelidon leucoptera. Whitewinged black tern ; fairly common migrant.

303. Larus ridibundus. Black-headed gull; common w.v.

304. Larus melanocephalus. Adriatic gull ; possible common w.v.

305. Larus ichthyaetus. Great black-headed gull ; com- mon w.v. on sea of Galilee.

306. Larus canus. Common gull ; fairly common w.v.

307. Larus gelastes. Slender-billed gull ; uncommon w.v.

308. Larus cachinans. Yellow-legged herring gull ; common w.v.

309. Larus argentatus. Herring giill ; uncommon w.v.

310. Larus fuscus. Lesser black-backed gull ; common w.v.

311. Puffinus anglorum. Manx shearwater; one speci- men found by Tristram.

312. Puffinus kuhlii. Mediterranean shearwater ; some- times seen near shore.

313. Podiceps cristatus. Great crested grebe ; very common w.v. (probably breeds on Huleh).

314. Podiceps nigricollis. Eared grebe ; common s.v.

315. Podiceps griseigena. Red-necked grebe ; rare w.v.

316. Podiceps fluviatilis. Little grebe ; common resident.


§ 5. Reptilia.

Venomous snakes are of comparatively rare occurrence in Palestine and the number of species is small. Viperine types are seldom found in densely populated areas, their habitat being characteristically the true desert or stony and unfrequented hills. In habit they are almost ex- clusively nocturnal and viviparous. A collector of standing states that, of hundreds of ophidia secured during a period of twenty-one years, he has only obtained in the Jaffa district four viperine specimens {Daboia xanthina and Viper a confluenta), apparently driven from the hills by


REPTILIA 257

military operations. He had similarly been unable to obtain a single viperine snake from the vicinity of Jerusalem.

On the other hand, the valuable services rendered by the colubrine snakes, as destroyers of field mice, locusts and other insect pests, have been repeatedly advanced in pleas for the protection of this group.

Ophidia.

1. Typhlops syriacus. Syrian blind snake; so-called from its rudimentary eyes. This snake is found everywhere in Palestine and feeds largely on insects.

2. Onychocephalus simoni. Onl}^ known to occur in the Jaffa and Haifa areas ; feeds on insects.

3. Micrelaps mulleri. Generally found in the hills, but also in the Jaffa area.

4. Rhyncocalamus melanocephalus . A small, black- headed snake of very general occurrence ; feeds on worms and insects.

5. Ablabes modestus. One variety {A. m. inornata : Jan.) is only recorded from Jerusalem. A. m. deceme- lineata, however, has been reported from Jerusalem, Plain of Sharon and Lake Huleh ; A.m. quadrilineata occurs throughout Galilee, Phoenicia and Jerusalem.

6. Lytorhynchus diadema. A brownish-yellow snake with darker rhomboidal spots on the back, only known to occur in the Jaffa district.

7. Periops parallelus. This colubrine snake is recog- nizable by the small scutella between the inferior edge of the eye and the superior labial scuta ; only found in the hills.

8. Zamenis caudaelineatus . In rocky hills.

9. Z. carhonarius. A black coluber which devoured enormous numbers of locusts during invasions of this insect pest.

10, Z. gemonensis var. Asiana. Of general occurrence. During the winter hundreds of specimens may be found rolled up together in a single burrow.


258 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1

rrenr.e. II


11. Z. dahlii. A grey-green snake of general occurrence. Black ' ocelli ' with white margins are found on the neck.

12. Z. ravergieri. A hill type characterized by a zigzag line following the length of the back, in which each sinus is marked by a prominent spot.

13. Tropidonotus tesselatus v. hydrus. Found in all rivers, pools and ponds. Destructive to fish.

14. T. natrix. A less common water-snake than the above, with similar habits.

15. Coelopeltis lacertina. A big coluber of general occur- rence which destroys large numbers of field mice.

16. Psammophis moniliger : v. hierosolymitana. From Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa.

17. Tarbophis vivax : v. syriaca. Of general occurrence. This species and Typhlops syriacus are the only colubrine snakes of nocturnal habit.

18. Eryx jaculus. Occurs in sandy areas on the plain of Sharon. Simulates a viperine type by the small size of the cephalic scutella, and the number of rows of escutcheons between eye and oral fissure.

19. Naja haje. Confined to the desert south of Beersheba and very rarely found.

20. Viper a euphratica. Found near Jericho.

21. Daboia xanthina. Commonly found near human habitations, and is responsible for some loss of live stock in stables ; fairly common in the south.

22. Vipera confluenta. Rarely found in the Jaffa area.

23. Cerastes hasselquistii. Occasionally found round the Dead Sea and in the Wadi Araba. In Syria it is of very common occurrence and is the only viper known to that country.

24. Echis arenicola. Occurs from the Wadi Fara'a to the Dead Sea in the Jordan valley.

Lacertidae.

25. Psammosaurus scincus. A huge lizard attaining a length of a metre. Of common occurrence in sandy places.


REPTILIA


259


Feeds on birds, smaller reptiles, gerboas, rats and locusts. Eaten by the Arabs and employed locally for medicinal purposes.

26. Lacerta viridis. This green lizard is only found among herbage on the hills.

27. L.judaica. Occurs in towns and frequents ruins and broken walls.

28. L. agilis. In the Jerusalem area and round the Dead Sea.

29. Ophiops elegans. Of general occurrence ; char- acterized by the absence of eyelids.

30. Acanthodactylis syriacus. Of general occurrence in sandy plains ; exhibits fringed toes.

31. Podarcus pardalis. A coastal type of general occur- rence.

32. Pseudopus apus. A gigantic lizard of general but rare occurrence ; distinguished by a deep neck and body fold.

33. Ablepharus panonicus. In the Haifa area.

34. Eumeces schneideri. Common in sandy plains.

35. Euprepes fellowsi. Of general occurrence.

36. Ophiomorus miliaris. Common in Galilee.

37. Gongylus ocellatus. Abundant everywhere ; dis- tinguished by regular, black and white, transverse bars.

38. Seps monodactylus . Abundant in marshes.

39. Sphenops capistratus . Found in the Jaffa area ; passes rapidly through sand at considerable depths below the surface.

40. Platyodactylus hasselquistii. Chiefly in towns. Of nocturnal habit, catching moths and insects attracted by artificial light ; utters a characteristic clicking sound.

41. Platydactylusmauritanicus. Occurs only in caves and rock crevices.

42. Stellio vulgaris . A spiny gecko of common occurrence on walls, ruins, etc. ; partial to locusts.

43. Chamaeleo vulgaris. Occurs everywhere ; attains an abnormal size at Jericho.


26o


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


§ 6. Fishes.

Varieties. — A large variety of edible fish occurs in the coastal and lacustrine waters of Palestine. Both the tunny and sardine, among other migratory types, visit the coast at regular seasons, and the question of developing a very primitive fishing industry is receiving attention. The following species figure in the catch brought to the local markets at Haifa, Jaffa and Gaza :

Arabic name. Scientific name.

Ataut. Lichia glauca, l>2ice-pede.

Buri. Mugil cephalus, Cuvier.

Bursh. Raja sp.

Dawakir. Epinephelus aeneus, Geoffroy.

Dhahaban. Mugil auratus, Risso.

Farriden. Pagellus erythrinus, L.

Geragh. Pristipoma Bennettii.

Intias.

Isfirna. Sphyraena vulgaris, L.

Kelb el Bahr. Phoca vitulina.

Lahat. Cirrhosa umhrina, L.

Lukus. S err anus sp.

Marmir. Pagellus mormyrus, L.

Muskar. Sciaena aquila, Cuvier.

Salbieh. Lichia vadigo, Risso.

Salfooh. RMnohatus cemiculus, Geoffroy.

Samak Musa. Solea vulgaris, Risso.

Saraghis. Sargus sp.

Sardyna. Clupea sardina, Cuvier.

Sultan Ibrahim. Mullus surmuletus, L.

Tarakhol. Caranx fusus, Geoff. S. Hillaire.

Tobara. Mugil capita, Cuvier.

Turgollos. Caranx rhonchus, Geoff. S. Hillaire.

Industry. — The fishing industry employs only 649 men and 117 boats, of which 115 men and 26 boats are found on the Lake of Tiberias. As no harbour exists on the whole coast-line, craft are limited to open rowing boats which


FISHES 261

can be launched from the beach, and these in no case exceed three tons in measurement. Faihng even slipways, the difficulties of landing prohibit fishing in any but the finest weather, while the size of boat places trawling out of the question. An Ottoman Public Debt tax of 20% ad valorem on the catch led to a deliberate policy of limiting production with a view to maintaining what were practically famine prices. This impost was consequently repealed by decree in August, 1920 ; while the common practice of dynamiting and poisoning were prohibited by the " Protection of Fisheries Ordinance " promulgated in the same year. The first requirement of the industry having been definitely established as safe harbourage for fishing craft, the coast- line was examined in detail, sites selected which lent them- selves to economic development, and plans prepared for works at Gaza, Jaffa and Haifa. An endeavour was then made to interest foreign capital in the manifest opening for profitable investment. All species of edible fish commonly brought to the market were collected and identified : a daily record of the varieties, size and weight of fish landed at the three principal ports permitted the construction of charts showing periodicity of migratory types, spawning and maturity seasons ; while the establishment of meteoro- logical stations at three points on the coast enables the fishery service to complete a review of the conditions in which any company attempting a development of fishing on modern commercial lines would be called upon to work. Consolidated and amended fishery regulations are being based upon the results of this investigation.

§ 7. Insects.

The following species represent a preliminary examination of insects of economic importance in Palestine, including forms of both noxious and beneficial character. The field of economic entomology is, as yet, almost untouched, with the exception of a detailed investigation of the scale insects by visiting entomologists from Egypt. Recent official


262


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


appointments, however, should result in an early addition to the present limited fund of information.


Lepidoptera.

Carcharodus altheae. Hb. Daphnis nerii. L. Euprepia oertzeni. Ld. Ocnogyna loewii. Z. Pericyma squalens. Led. Hydrilla muculifera. Stgr. Sesamia cretica. Led. Thalpochares ostrina. Hb. Dasycorsa modesta. Stgr. Ptychopoda calunetaria. Stgr. Mecyna polygonalis, Hb.,

var. gilvata. Fabr. Scythris temper atella. Ld. Lozopera mauritanica.

Wlgshm.

DiPTERA.

Mintho isis. Wied. Bibio hortulanus. L. Ceratitis capitata. Wied. Ophyra leucostoma. Lasioptera sp. nov. Culicoides newsteadi. Austen. Bombilius medius. L.

COLEOPTERA.

Sitodrepa panicea. L. Agabus nebulosus. Forsk. Agabus biguttatus. Oliv. Philhydrus quadripunctatus .

Hbst. Dry ops auriculatus. Geoffr. Crypticus maculosus. Fairm.


Sisyphus schaeferi. L. Onthophagus cruciatus.

Menetries. Aphodius fimetarius. L. Hydrophilus caraboides. L. Aulonogyrus concinnus. Kl. Cossyphus rugosulus . Peyron. Tenebrio obscurus. L. Anoxia orientalis. Cast. Aethiessa floralis. F. Oedemera virescens. L. Cyphosoma euphratica. Lap.

et Gory. Acmaeodera despecta. Bdi. Acmaeodera Goryi. BruUe. Dasytes delagrangei. Pic. Scobicia chevrieri. Villa. Ptirms latro. Fabr. Pholicodes conicollis. Desbr. Rhabdorrynchus anchusae.

Chevr. Lixus constrictus. Bohem. Hypera variabilis. Hbst. Tychius fuscolineatus . Luc. Larinus longirostris . Gyl-

lenh. Baris traegardhi. Auriv. Hypebaeus scitulus. Er, Malachius flabellatus. Friv. Stenodera puncticollis .

Chevr. Stenodera oculifera. Ab.

Caucasica. Erch. Teratolytta dives. BruUe. Lydus algiricus. L.


INSECTS


263


Lydus suturalis. Reiche. Halosimus luteus. Waltl. Mylahris lederevi, var.

onerata. Mylahris floralis . Pall . Exosoma thoracica. Redtnb. Chrysomela polita. L.

,, regalis. Oliv.

Cassida bella. Fald. Gynandrophthalma limbata.

Stev. Omophlus syriacus. Muls.,

var. versicolor. Kirsch. Phytoecia virgula. Charp. Agapanthia violacea. Fabr, Agapanthia cardui. L. Plagionotus hohelayei. Brulle. Niphona picticornis. Muls. Calathus fuscipes. Goeze. Cicindela lunulata. Fisch. Bembidium ^-guttatum. F.

Hymenoptera. Dielis collaris. F. Acroricnus syriacus. Mocs. Tricholabioides pedunculata .

Kl. Anthidium variegatum. F. Ceratina tibialis. Mor. parvula. Sur. Eucera grisea. F. Trichofoenus pyrenaicus.

Guerin. Sycofaga sycomori. L.

Hemiptera. Scantius aegyptius. L. Pasira hasiptera. Stal.


Geocoris lineola Ramb, var.

distincta. Fieb. Anisops producta. Fieb. Velia rivulorum F. v., ven-

tralis. Put. Prionotylus brevicornis. Muls. Enoplops cornutus. H.S. Stagonosomus bipunctatus,

var. consimilis. Costa. Amaurocoris curtus. Brulle. Cor anus angulatus. Stal. Sciocoris helferi. Fieb. Eurygaster integriceps. Put. Ploiaria domestica. Scop. Holotrichus luctuosus. Muls.

et Mayet. Nemausus simplex. Horv. Stenocephalus albipes. Fabr. Sehirus bicolor. L.- Patapius spinosus. Rossi. Plinthisus hungaricus. Horv. Sehirus dubius Scop. v.

melanoptera. H. S. Eremocoris verbasci. F. Notonecta glauca. L. Lethaeus nitidus. Dougl. et

Scott. Prostemma aeneicolle. Stein.

Orthoptera. Festella festai. G. Tos. Xiphidion fuscum. F. Platycleis tesselata. Chafp. Dociostaurus genei. Ocsk.

anaiolicus. Kr. Pyrgomorpha granosa. St. Platypterna pruinosa. Br.- Watt.


264 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

Morphaeris fasciata, ah. Degeeriella socialis. Giebel.

sulcata. Thnbg. ,, decipiens.

Nitzsch, idem. Colpocephalum subaequale.

PSEUDONEUROPTERA. BurHl.

Hemianax ephippiger. Burm. Philopterus ocellatus. Scop. Lestes barbarus. Fabr. Laemobothrion titian. P.

tinnunculi. Neuroptera. Linn.

Ascalaphus syriacus. Philopterus lari. O. Fabr,

M'Lach. philopleri. Menacanthus ovatus. Piag.


§ 8. Animal, Insect and Vegetable Pests.

The animal and insect pests of common occurrence in Palestine include field mice, locusts, scales, ticks, a group of borers and fruit flies. A plague of mice and rats, affect- ing all edible crops, waxes and wanes apparently in pro- portion to the activities of the rodents' natural enemies, of which a tick is the most important. The identity and life-history of the • latter interesting parasite is at the moment under examination. Attempts to initiate epidemic disease among field mice, by means of such preparations as the Liverpool Virus, have met locally with the same lack ] of success as in other countries. Various approved formulae for poison pastes are consequently being tested for possible • adoption in a poisoning campaign.

The migratory locust, which invades Palestine at lengthy intervals, has been referred to the species Acridium migra- torium, and apparently comes from the Nubian desert, reaching this territory during the months of March and April. No record of the local occurrence of a second spfecies, Calopterius staticus, which inflicts much damage in Anatolia, has been obtainable. The most recent in- vasion of locusts took place in 1915, with a resultant loss of practically the entire season's work. To obviate, if possible, a repetition of this disaster, a campaign has been organized, combining the various methods of control.


ANIMAL, INSECT AND VEGETABLE PESTS 265

such as trenching, poisoning and the use of flame projectors.

More insidious, but none the less real, is the danger of an uncontrolled spread of scale insects, which constitute a menace to an important orange industry. The black scale {Aspidiotus aonidum), which inflicts much damage in Egypt, only occurs locally in Phoenicia and Galilee. A fumigation campaign has consequently been undertaken in the hope of extirpating this species before it spreads to the Jaffa district where the bulk of orange groves occur. Local outbreaks of the Cottony cushion scale {Icerya Purchasi) are being successfully treated with colonies of the parasitic lady-bird {Chilocorus bipustulatis) , which has been arti- ficially propagated for the purpose.

One of the most serious pests of cereal crops in Palestine is found in a moth {Scythris temper atella) , the larva of which has destroyed large areas of growing wheat. Early planting and a full rotation of crops afford the only apparent means of control. Peach, olive and melon flies cause considerable damage, but in most cases are parasitized, and this fact gives promise of a useful weapon for employment against this group of pests.

A number of parasitic weeds, including several types of Dodder {Cuscuta monogyna), Broom rape {Orobanche lavan- dtdacea) and Trixago {T. apule), assume an economic im- portance. The primitive method of cultivation and thrashing still obtaining throughout the country foster the dissemination of such parasites, which can only be con- trolled by better agricultural practice.


§ 9. Game Preservation.

A Game Preservation Commission has recently recom- mended the amendment and consolidation of sections of the Ottoman Code with reference to the protection of game and the control of vermin.

Regulations recommended for proclamation under a draft empowering Ordinance will prohibit the destruction at all


266 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1


times of ibex, eagles, vultures, kestrels, owls, storks, cranes, hoopoes, bee-eaters and spur-wing plovers ; and will afford a close-season from the ist February to the 31st August for all species of partridge, francolin, sand-grouse, hares and gazelle.

The collection and sale of eggs of all game birds will be prohibited. Rewards would be offered for the destruction of vermin as scheduled in the regulations. Game licences would be issued by Governors to residents in the district approved by District Game Commissions, and sale licences to licensed and resident butchers. All " closed forest areas " will constitute game reserves or sanctuaries.

§ 10. Flora.

The wealth of the Palestinian flora is attributable to the same causes which have endowed the country with an extraordinary variety of bird and animal life. Geographical position, variety of soil and range of climate, rainfall and elevation account for the singular richness and interest of the vegetation.

The geographical characteristics of Palestine enable the flora of the country to be divided into three distinct groups. The coast-land belongs to the region of the Mediterranean flora, similar to the flora of Cyprus, Cilicia, Spain, Greece, Sicily and North Africa.

The hill-country produces a typical oriental vegetation of the steppes ; while in the depression of the Jordan valley with its intense heat, we find a sub-tropical flora resembling that of the Sudan and Abyssinia.

For the prevalent orders and for lists of the principal trees and shrubs of Palestine, see Part V., § 9.

The classical work of the plants of the country is Dr. G. Post's Flora of Syria and Palestine, published in Beirut.


PART VII.

MISCELLANEOUS.

§ I. Moslem, Orthodox and Jewish Kalendars.

Moslem Kalendar. — The Hejra, or flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina, is reckoned to have taken place on the night of the 20th June, 622 a.d. The Mohammedan era, instituted seventeen years later by the Khalif 'Omar, dates from the first day of the first lunar month, Muharram (Thursday, 15th July, 622 a.d.). The years are lunar, con- sisting of twelve lunar months, each commencing with the approximate new moon, without any intercalation to keep them to the same season with respect to the sun, so that they retrograde through all the seasons in about 32^ years. They are partitioned also into cycles of 30 years, 19 of which are common years of 354 days each, and the other 11 intercalary years, having an additional day added to the last month.

The Ottoman ' Financial [Malieh) Year,' an invention of the Turkish Government, is divided into solar months, and is now about three years behind the Mohammedan era.

To find the year of the Christian era corresponding to any Mohammedan (Hejra) date, deduct 3 per cent, from the Mohammedan year and add 621-54 to the result. Thus, take A.H. 1318 :

1318 1318 1278-46

3 39-54 621-54 .


39-54 1278-46 1900-00


268


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


Lunar Months {Shuhur Qamariyeh) :


Muharram

Safar _ _ _

Rabi' al-Awwal

Rabi' al-Thani

Jumada al-Awwal -

Jumada al-Thani -

Rajab _ - -

Sha'ban -

Ramadan

Shawwal

Zu (a)l-Qa'deh

Zu (a)l-Hejja -


- 30 days.

- 29 days.

- 30 days.

- 29 days.

- 30 days.

- 29 days.

- 30 days.

- 29 days.

- 30 days.

- 29 days.

- 30 days.

- 29 days (or, inter-

calary years, 30).


Solar Months [Shuhur Shamsiyeh)

Adar - - _ _

Nisan - - _ _

Ayar - _ _ _

Huzairan _ _ _

• Tammuz _ _ _

Ab- - -• -

Aylul - - - -

Teshrin al-Awwal - Teshrin al-Thani Kanun al-Awwal Kanun al-Thani

Shbat - - - -


The year 1341 a.h.


- March.

- April.

- May.

- June.

- . - J"iy.

- August.

- September.

- October.

- November.

- December.

- January.

- February.

began on the 25th August, 1922.


Moslem Prayers [Salat). — The hours of prayer are :

1. Salat al-Fajr, between dawn and sunrise.

2. Salat al-Duhr, when the sun has begun

decline.

3. Salat al-'Asr, midway between Nos. 2 and 4.

4. Salat al-Maghreb, a few minutes after sunset.

5. Salat al-'Esha, when the night has closed in.


to


MOSLEM KALENDAR


269


Moslem Festivals. — The principal Moslem festivals are :

Festival.


New Year -----

Yom 'Ashura (date of Noah leaving the Ark, and of the death of Husein at Kerbela)

Mauled al-Nebi (Mohammed's birth- day)

Lailat al-Raghaib (night of Moham- med's conception)

Lailat al-Me'raj (night of Moham- med's miraculous journey)

Lailat al-Baraat (" Night of De- crees," when the guardian angels receive from the Almighty tablets recording the fate of their charges in the coming year)

Ramadan -----

Lailat al-Qadr (" Night of Power," on which the requests of all wor- shippers are believed to be granted)

'Id al-Fetr (Sheker Bairam — 3 days)

'Id al-Adha (Qurban Bairam — 3 days)

^ Descent of Holy Banner (Sanjaq al-Sherif) from Jerusalem to Nebi Musa

1 Return of Banner from Nebi Musa


Date,

I Muharram.


10 Muharram.

12 Rabi' al-Awwal.

Eve of first Friday in Rajab.

27 Rajab.


15 Sha'ban.


1-30 Ramadan. 27 Ramadan.


1-3 Shawwal.

10-12 Zu al-Hejja.

Friday before Ortho- dox Good Friday.

Orthodox Maundy- Thursday.


Orthodox Kalendar. — The members of the Orthodox Eastern Church, in Palestine and elsewhere, still retain the Julian Kalendar (Old Style), and their reckoning is now thirteen days behind the rest of Europe.


1 Peculiar to Palestine; cf. Part IV., § 9.


270 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1


Orthodox Festivals. — The principal Orthodox festivals are :

Christmas Day, New Year's Day, Epiphany or Theo- phania. Purification, Annunciation, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter Day, S. George, Ascension, SS. Constantine and Helen, Whitsunday, SS. Peter and Paul, Transfigura- tion, Assumption, Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Exaltation of the Holy Cross, S. James, S. Nicolas.

Orthodox Services.— The principal services of the Orthodox Church are :

1. Matins {opOpo^), 6 a.m. to 7 a.m.

2. Eucharist (^ Oeia Xeirovpyla), 7 a.m. to 9 a.m.

3. Evensong {ea-Trepivo^), 4 V-^- to 4.30 p.m. (in

summer 5 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.).

Jewish Kalendar. — The Jewish year consists of 12 months, namely, Tishri (30), Heshvan (29), Kislev (30), Tevet (29), Shevat (30), Adar (29), Nisan (30), Eeyar (29), Sivan (30), Tamuz (29), Ab (30), Elul (29).

In enumerating the months it is usual to start with Nisan, following God's command to Moses (Exodus xii., 2).

In spite of the fact that the ordinary year is a lunar year, it is made to correspond with the solar year in the course of a cycle of 19 years by making seven years in one cycle leap-years. A leap-year is an ordinary year with Adar B (30) added. A cycle terminates with the years in the Jewish Kalendar (creation of the Universe) that are a multiple of 19. The following years in any one cycle are leap-years : Nos. i, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 17. The last cycle closed in 5671.

Thus 19 solar years (including 4-5 days in leap-years) = 6939- 40 days ; 19 Jewish years= 6936 days. The dif- ference of 3-4 days is made up by occasionally adding a day to Heshvan. The addition of this day incidentally serves another purpose. The Day of Atonement cannot fall either on a Friday or a Sunday, and, when it would normally fall on such a day, this additional Heshvan day puts it off until the following Saturday or Monday. When


JEWISH KALENDAR


271


more than 3-4 days have been added this way in the course of the cycle, and the same danger is in sight, a day is taken off Kislev when necessary and replaced by an additional day in Heshvan at a later date.

The year 5683 began on the 23rd September, 1922.

Jewish Festivals. — The Jewish festivals are divided into three categories : {a) days of rest ; {b) festivals on which work is permissible ; {c) fasts. The following is a complete list :


Date.


Category (a).


Category (b).


Category (c).


Tishri


1-2


Rosh Hash- ana- (New Year).




"


10 15


Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)

I St Day Ta- bernacles (Sukkot).



Yom Kippur.


>>


16-21

22


8th Day Suk- kot (Sim- hat Tora).


2nd-7th Day Sukkot.


^


Kislev


25 to



Hanuka



Tevet


2



(Macca- beans).




10




A'sara Be- tevet (Siege of Jeru- salem).


Shevat


15



Tu Bishevat (Tree New Year).



Adar


13




Ta'anit Esther (Fast of Esther).


272


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


Date.


Category {a).


Category (b).


Category (c).


Adar >>


14 15



Purim. Purim (in

Jerusalem

only) .


1


Nisan


15


ist Day Pass- over.



i


"


16-20



2nd-6th Pass- over.


1


Eeyar


21

18


7th Day Pass- over.


Lag Laomer (Outdoor Day).


^


Sivan Tamuz

Ab


6

• 9


Shavuot (Pentecost).



Shiva' Asar Betamuz (Capitula- tion of Jeru- salem) .

Tisha' Beav (Destruction of the Tem- ple).


§ 2. Official Holidays.

The official holidays are as follows :

1 . Common to all Communities : The King's Birthday

(3rd June).

2. Moslems [cf. § i ante) :

Return from Nebi Musa of the Sanjaq al- Sherif (Holy Banner) ; 'Id al-Fetr (Sheker Bairam), 3 days ; 'Id al-Adha (Qurban Bairam), 3 days ; Mauled al-Nebi.


y


I


OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS 273

3. Christians (observed according to Gregorian or

Julian Kalendar as the case may be) :

New Year's Day ; Epiphany ; Good Friday ; Easter Monday ; Ascension Day ; Whit Mon- day ; Christmas Day ; Boxing Day.

4. Jews :

Passover (2 days) ; Pentecost (i day) ; New Year (2 days) ; Atonement (i day) ; Taber- nacles (2 days).


• § 3. Transliteration.

The joint committee for Arabic and Hebrew translitera- tion appointed by the Government of Palestine to recom- mend a system for official use in the country has adopted the following principles :

^ {a) ARABIC.

Several recognized systems of transliteration were studied by the Committee, who, however, came to the conclusion that, having regard to the special needs of the Palestine Administration, there would have to be evolved a new system, which took into account the paramount importance of simplicity, the limitations of the typewriter, and, in general, the exigencies of administrative routine. It was felt that there was no room for the adoption of an exact and strict system involving the use of diacritical marks and conventional signs. At the same time, the Com- mittee wished so to frame their system as to ensure a standardized and uniform spelling of Arabic names in English.

The system outlined below aims, therefore, at standards of consistency and simplicity rather than of scholarly exacti- tude. It is not intended to be an ideally perfect system ; but it is believed that, in admitting a certain sacrifice of precision, it achieves a greater gain in convenience,

L.P. s


74 THE HANDBOOK OF


PALESTINE m


(i) The Alphabet :



1


[N.B. — All English vowels are pronounced as in Italian.)


Ua



^ = s


.^ = b



^ = d


o = t



L = t


^ = th



k = z


C=^



• ? = '


C=^



ji = gh


^=kh



^ = f


^ = d



j=q


i = z



d = k "


J = ^



J=l


J = ^



^ = m :


^ = s



^ = n .


J, = sh



j = u or w ij = ioyy


(ii) Vowel-sounds :




-^ (damma) = u




-^ (fatha) =a



}


— (kasra) =e




Examples :




J^ = 'Ali


^\5jl


= Awqaf


^^1 = Aqsa


^Jt^.


= Yarmuk


U^ = Haifa a1)1 j^ = 'Abdallah

^JX^ = Hamdi JJ^, = Khalil

j^U = Hamed jJU = Khaled


%


TRANSLITERATION 275

(6) HEBREW.

The vowels are deemed to be pronounced as in the ItaUan alphabet.


5< = a


5 = k


^ = ei


p=kh


^ = i


D, ^ = m


K.iX = o


^ = n


X = u


D=s


l = b


^ = apostrophe after the vowel


i=g


3 = P


l = d


V = ts


n=h


p-q


) = v


n=r


T = z


t:^ = sh


n=h


b^=:S


b=t


n=t


(consonant) ^ = y



Sheva na' is transliterated by the addition of the " e " to the consonant. Dagesh is indicated by doubling the consonant, except in the case of ' sh,' which is underlined

to indicate the dagesh ; e.g. 1^p7, " leqasher " (to bind).

Proper names, geographical or otherwise, that have a commonly accepted spelling and pronunciation, are main- tained as commonly spelt and pronounced in English, e.g. Tiberias, not Tiveria ; Jerusalem, not Yerushalayim ; Isaiah, not Yesha'ia.


rce

4


276 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

§ 4. Newspapers and Periodicals.

Official (periodical) publications are the Official Gazet of the Government of Palestine, published on the ist and 15th of each month in English, Arabic and Hebrew, and the Commercial Bulletin of the Department of Commerce and Industry, issued fortnightly.

The periodical publications include :

English : The Palestine Weekly.

Arabic: Al-Nafayes ; Lisan al-Arab ; Al-Sabah ; Beit

al-Maqdes ; Miraat al-Shark ; Rakib Sahyun ; ]

Falastin ; al-Akhbar ; Zaharat al-Jamil ; al-Karmel ; j

al-Nafir ; al-Salam. 1

Hebrew : Doar Hayom ; Haaretz ; Hattor ; Hashiloah ; | Hapoel Hazair.

The provisions of the Ottoman Press Law of 1327 apply to all publications, the most important being the necessity for registration with the local authorities of all relevant particulars of the publishers and responsible editors, and the deposit of a security for good conduct. The Law pre- scribes penalties for the usual forms of Press offences of conduct and context.


§ 5. War Cemeteries in Palestine.


The War Cemeteries in Palestine are situated at Beer- sheba, Gaza, Ramleh, Deir al-Belah, Jerusalem (Mt. of Olives) (General and Indian), Sarona, Wilhelma and Haifa, and are administered from Jaffa by representatives of the Imperial War Graves Commission.

There are some 10,000 dead buried in these cemeteries, whose welfare is the special care of a local organization, the Anglo-Palestine War Graves Committee.

The sites of all the war cemeteries have been presented to the Imperial War Graves Commission by the people of Palestine, in pursuance of a resolution spontaneously


of j

J

2er- of


WAR CEMETERIES IN PALESTINE


277


proposed by the non-official members of the Advisory Council in December, 1920. This act of generosity is commemor- ated in the inscription which it is proposed to set up at the entrance of each cemetery :

" The land on which this cemetery stands is a free gift of the people of Palestine for the perpetual resting- place of those of the Allied Armies who fell in the War of 19 1 4-1 8 and are honoured here." A Memorial Service for the fallen is conducted by the Bishop in Jerusalem at the War Cemetery on the Mount of Olives on the 15th April of each year, when offerings of flowers are laid upon the graves.


§ 6. Foreign Consuls in Palestine.

France : A Consul-General and Consul in Jerusalem ;

Vice-Consuls at Haifa and Jaffa ; Con- sular Agents at Nazareth, Safed and Tiberias. Greece : A Consul in Jerusalem.

Italy : A Consul-General in Jerusalem ; a Vice-

Consul at Haifa ; a Consular Agent at Jaffa. A Vice-Consul at Haifa. A Consul in Jerusalem. Vice-Consuls at Haifa and Jaffa ; Consular

Agents at Safed and Tiberias. A Consul in Jerusalem ; a Vice-Consul at Haifa.


Netherlands : Norway : Persia :

Spain :

Sweden :

United States


A Consul at Jaffa ; a Vice-Consul in Jeru- salem. A Consul and Vice-Consul in Jerusalem.


278 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


7. Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.


^BBI


Boy Scouts. — There are two organizations of Boy Scouts in Palestine :

{a) The Baden-Powell Boy Scouts were started in Pales- tine in April, 191 3, and now consist of thirty troops, each about forty strong, working in most of the chief centres in the country. The Baden- Powell Boy Scouts are members of the " Boy Scouts Association " founded by Sir Robert Baden- Powell, and are in direct connexion with the Imperial Headquarters in London. The Honorary Secretary in Palestine is the Rev. R. O'Ferrall, S. George's School, Jerusalem. {b) The Jewish Boy Scouts are a similar organization, but not directly dependent on London. They were founded after the war, and are grouped in Jeru- salem, Jaffa, and Haifa, and in the larger Jewish | Colonies, in connexion with the Jewish Schools. The Association contains a number of Girl Scout troops and a Sea Scout troop. The Honorary 1 Secretary in Palestine is Mr. J. L. Bloom, c/o the Department of Education, Jerusalem. Both organizations are recognized by the High Com- missioner, who is Chief Scout for Palestine ; and matters which affect the welfare of both are discussed by a joint Council, to which both send representatives.

Girl Guides. — In addition to the Girl Scout troops belong- ing to the Jewish Boy Scout Association, Girl Guides were started in Palestine in the year 1919 in direct connexion with the Girl Guide Association in England. At present there are three companies of Guides, all in Jerusalem, con- nected with the British High School for Girls and the Evelina de Rothschild School. A training camp for Guide Officers was held at Ramallah in 192 1. The Honorary Secretary in Palestine is Mrs. F. Rowlands, Jerusalem.


R.S.P.C.A. 279

§8. R.S.P.C.A.

A Jerusalem branch of the R.S.P.C.A. was founded in 1909, but ceased working in 191 5 on account of the war. Anti-cruelty work was carried out under Army auspices during the British Occupation. In 192 1 the Society was re-started under the presidency of the High Commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel.

The Veterinary Hospital situated in Mamilla Street, Jerusalem, has been taken over by the Society on lease from the Municipality, and is now entirely under the Society's own management. Only those animals are de- tained which are suffering from serious causes. A minimum charge for forage is made and treatment is provided free to animals whose owners cannot afford to pay. The Hospital is under the inspection of the veterinary officials of the Government, and is open to visitors at all times by arrange- ment with the Secretary.

The efforts of the Society are strictly limited by the amount of voluntary support that is forthcoming from the public.

The Honorary Treasurer is Mrs. K. L. Reynolds, S. George's School, Jerusalem.


\


APPENDIX

MANDATE FOR PALESTINE

The Council of the League of Nations :

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have agreed, for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, to entrust to a Mandatory selected by the said powers the administration of the territory of Palestine, which formerly belonged to the Turkish Empire, within such boundaries as may be fixed by them ; and

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November 2, 191 7, by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country ; and

Whereas recognition has thereby been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country ; and

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have selected His Britannic Majesty as the Mandatory for Palestine ; and

Whereas the mandate in respect of Palestine has been formulated in the following terms and submitted to the Council of the League for approval ; and

280


APPENDIX 281

Whereas His Britannic Majesty has accepted the mandate in respect of Palestine and undertaken to exercise it on behalf of the League of Nations in conformity with the following provisions ; and

Whereas by the aforementioned Article 22 (paragraph 8), it is provided that the degree of authority, control or administration, to be exercised by the Mandatory not having been previously agreed upon by the Members of the League shall be explicitly defined by the Council of the League of Nations ;

Confirming the said mandate, defines its terms as follows :

Article i. The Mandatory shall have full powers of legislation and of administration, save as they may be limited by the terms of this mandate;

Article 2. The Mandatory shall be responsible for placing the country under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabi- tants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion.

Article 3. The Mandatory shall, so far as circumstances permit, encourage local autonomy.

Article 4. An appropriate Jewish agency shall be recognised as a public body for the purpose of advising and co-operating with the Administration of Palestine in such economic, social and other matters as may affect the establishment of the Jewish national home and the interests of the Jewish population in Palestine and, subject always to the control


282 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

of the Administration, to assist and take part in the develop- ment of the country.

The Zionist organisation, so long as its organisation and constitution are in the opinion of the Mandatory appro- priate, shall be recognised as such agency. It shall take steps in consultation with His Britannic Majesty's Govern- ment to secure the co-operation of all Jews who are willing to assist in the establishment of the Jewish national home.

Article 5.

The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the control of the Government of any foreign Power.

Article 6.

The Administration of Palestine, while ensuring that the rights and position of other sections of the population are not prejudiced, shall facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions and shall encourage in co-operation with the Jewish agency referred to in Article 4 close settle- ment by Jews on the land, including State lands and waste lands not required for public purposes.

. Article 7. The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for enacting a nationality law. There shall be included in this law provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their per- manent residence in Palestine.

Article 8.

The privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection as formerly enjoyed by Capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, shall not be applicable to Palestine.

Unless the Powers whose nationals enjoyed the afore- mentioned privileges and immunities on August i, 1914,


APPENDIX 283

shall have previously renounced the right to their re- establishment, or shall have agreed to their non-application for a specified period, these privileges and immunities shall, at the expiration of the mandate, be immediately re- established in their entirety or with such modifications as may have been agreed upon between the Powers concerned.

Article 9.

The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that the judicial system established in Palestine shall assure to foreigners, as well as to natives, a complete guarantee of their rights.

Respect for the personal status of the various peoples and communities and for their religious interests shall be fully guaranteed. In particular, the control and adminis- tration of Waqfs shall be exercised in accordance with religious law and the dispositions of the founders.

Article 10.

Pending the making of special extradition agreements relating to Palestine, the extradition treaties in force between the Mandatory and other foreign Powers shall apply to Palestine.

Article ii.

The Administration of Palestine shall take all necessary measures to safeguard the interests of the community in connection with the development of the country, and, subject to any international obligations accepted by the Mandatory, shall have full power to provide for public ownership or control of any of the natural resources of the country or of the public works, services and utilities estab- lished or to be established therein. It shall introduce a land system appropriate to the needs of the country, having regard, among other things, to the desirability of promoting the close settlement and intensive cultivation of the land.

The Administration may arrange with the Jewish agency mentioned in Article 4 to construct or operate, upon fair


284 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

and equitable terms, any public works, services and utilities, and to develop any of the natural resources of the country, in so far as these matters are not directly undertaken by the Administration. Any such arrangements shall provide that no profits distributed by such agency, directly or indirectly, shall exceed a reasonable rate of interest on the capital, and any further profits shall be utilised by it for the benefit of the country in a manner approved by the Administration .

Article 12.

The Mandatory shall be entrusted with the control of the foreign relations of Palestine, and the right to issue exequaturs to consuls appointed by. foreign Powers. He shall also be entitled to afford diplomatic and consular protection to citizens of Palestine when outside its terri- torial limits.

Article 13.

All responsibility in connection with the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites in Palestine, including that of preserving existing rights and of securing free access to the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites and the free exercise of worship, while ensuring the requirements of public order and decorum, is assumed by the Mandatory, who shall be responsible solely to the League of Nations in all matters connected herewith, provided that nothing in this Article shall prevent the Mandatory from entering into such arrangements as he may deem reasonable with the Administration for the purposes of carrying the provisions of this Article into effect ; and provided also that nothing in this Mandate shall be constructed as conferring upon the Mandatory authority to interfere with the fabric or the management of purely Moslem sacred shrines, the immunities of which are guaranteed.

Article 14. A special Commission shall be appointed by the Mandatory to study, define and determine the rights and claims in


APPENDIX 285

connection with the Holy Places and the rights and claims relating to the different religious communities in Palestine. The method of nomination, the composition and the functions of this Commission shall be submitted to the Council of the League for its approval, and the Commission shall not be appointed or enter upon its functions without the approval of the Council.

Article 15.

The Mandatory shall see that complete freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, are ensured to all. No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants of Palestine on the ground of race, religion or language. No person shall be excluded from Palestine on the sole ground of his religious belief.

The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the Administration may impose, shall not be denied or impaired.

Article 16. The Mandatory shall be responsible for exercising such supervision over religious or eleemosynary bodies of all faiths in Palestine as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government. Subject to such supervision no measures shall be taken in Palestine to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of such bodies or to discriminate against any representative or member of them on the ground of his religion or nationality.

Article 17.

The Administration of Palestine may organise on a

voluntary basis the forces necessary for the preservation

of peace and order, and also for the defence of the country,

subject, however, to the supervision of the Mandatory, but


286 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE

shall not use them for purposes other than those above specified save with the consent of the Mandatory. Except for such purposes, no military, naval or air forces shall be raised or maintained by the Administration of Palestine.

Nothing in this article shall preclude the Administration of Palestine from contributing to the cost of the maintenance of the forces of the Mandatory in Palestine.

The Mandatory shall be entitled at all times to use the roads, railways and ports of Palestine for the movement of armed forces and the carriage of fuel and supplies.

Article i8.

The Mandatory shall see that there is no discrimination in Palestine against the nationals of any State Member of the League of Nations (including companies incorporated under its laws) as compared with those of the Mandatory or of any foreign State in matters concerning taxation, commerce or navigation, the exercise of industries or pro- fessions, or in the treatment of merchant vessels or civil aircraft. Similarly there shall be no discrimination in Palestine against goods originating in or destined for any of the said States, and there shall be freedom of transit under equitable conditions across the mandated area.

Subject as aforesaid and to the other provisions of this mandate, the Administration of Palestine may on the advice of the Mandatory impose such taxes and customs duties as it may consider necessary, and take such steps as it may think best to promote the development of the natural resources of the country and to safeguard the interests of the population. It may also, on the advice of the Mandatory, conclude a special customs agreement with any State, the territory of which in 1914 was wholly included in Asiatic Turkey or Arabia,

Article 19. The Mandatory shall adhere on behalf of the Adminis- tration to any general international conventions already existing, or which may be concluded hereafter with the


APPENDIX 287

approval of the Leagii-e of Nations, respecting the slave traffic, the traffic in arms and ammunition, or the traffic in drugs, or relating to commercial equality, freedom of transit and naviga'tion, aerial navigation and postal, telegraphic and wireless communication or literary, artistic or industrial property.

Article 20.

The Mandatory shall co-operate on behalf of the Adminis- tration of Palestine, so far as religious, social and other conditions may permit, in the execution of any common policy adopted by the League of Nations for preventing and combating disease, including diseases of plants and animals.

Article 21.

The Mandatory shall secure the enactment within twelve months from this date, and shall ensure the execution of a law of Antiquities based on the following rules. This law shall ensure equality of treatment in the matter of excavations and archaeological research to the nationals of all States, Members of the League of Nations.

I.

" Antiquity " means any construction or any product of human activity earlier than the year 1700 a.d.


The law for the protection of antiquities shall proceed by encouragement rather than by threat.

Any person who, having discovered an antiquity without being furnished with the authorisation referred to in paragraph 5, reports the same to an official of the competent Department, shall be rewarded according to the value of the discovery.

3-

No antiquity may be disposed of except to the competent Department, unless this Department renounces the acquisi- tion of any such antiquity.


288 THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1


Any person who maliciously or negligently destroys or damages an antiquity shall be liable to a penalty to be fixed.

5-

No clearing of ground or digging with the object of finding antiquities shall be permitted, under penalty of fine, except to persons authorised by the competent Depart- ment.

6.

Equitable terms shall be fixed for expropriation, temporary or permanent, of lands which might be of historical or archaeological interest.

7-

Authorisation to excavate shall only be granted to persons who show sufficient guarantees of archaeological experience. The Administration of Palestine shall not, in granting these authorisations, act in such a way as to exclude scholars of any nation without good grounds.

8.

The proceeds of excavations may be divided between the excavator and the competent Department in a proportion fixed by that Department. If division seems impossible for scientific reasons, the excavator shall receive a fair indemnity in lieu of a part of the find.

Article 22.

English, Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of Palestine. Any statement or inscription in Arabic on stamps or money in Palestine shall be repeated in Hebrew and any statement or inscription in Hebrew shall be repeated in Arabic.

Article 23.

The Administration of Palestine shall recognise the Holy days of the respective communities in Palestine as legal days of rest for the members of such communities.


APPENDIX 289

Article 24. The Mandatory shall make to the Council of the League of Nations an annual report to the satisfaction of the Council as to the measures taken during the year to carry out the provisions of the mandate. Copies of all laws and regulations promulgated or issued during the year shall be communicated with the report.

Article 25. In the territories lying between the Jordan and the eastern boundary of Palestine as ultimately determined, the Mandatory shall be entitled, with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations, to postpone or withhold application of such provisions of this mandate as he may consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions, and to make such provision for the administration of the terri- tories as he may consider suitable to those conditions, provided no action shall be taken which is inconsistent with the provisions of Article 15, 16, and 18.

Article 26.

The Mandatory agrees that if any dispute whatever should arise between the Mandatory and another Member of the League of Nations relating to the interpretation or the application of the provisions of the mandate, such dispute, if it cannot be settled by negotiation, shall be submitted to the Permanent Court of International Justice provided for by Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations.

Article 27.

The consent of the Council of the League of Nations is required for any modification of the terms of this mandate.

Article 28. In the event of the termination of the mandate hereby conferred upon the Mandatory, the Council of the League of Nations shall make such arrangements as may be deemed L,P. TP


290


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


1


necessary for safeguarding in perpetuity, under guarantee of the League, the rights secured by Articles 13 and 14, and shall use its influence for securing, under the guarantee of the League, that the Government of Palestine will fully honour the financial obligations legitimately incurred by the Administration of Palestine during the period of the mandate, including the rights of public servants to pensions or gratuities.

The present instrument shall be deposited in original in the archives of the League of Nations and certified copies shall be forwarded by the Secretary General of the League of Nations to all Members of the League.

Done at London the twenty-fourth day of July, One thousand nine hundred and twenty- two.


INDEX


'Abbasids, 14, 69.

'Abdallah, Pasha of Acre, 23,

73, 106-107. 'Abd al-Melek, 68-69/ 79, 9^,

92. 'Abdu'l Hamid II., 24, 35. Abyssinians, 33, 43, 45, 94, 99. Acre, 5, 18-20, 22, 23, 28, 42,

50, 60, 73, 105-107, 196, 204. Administration, System of,

133-137- Administrative divisions, 28,

134-135- Agriculture and Forestry, 186-

194- Ain Karem, 88-89. Ain Shems, 61, 76-77. Allenby, Lord, 24, 27, 82. 'American Colony,' the, 48. Animals, Society for the Pre- vention of Cru-elty to, 279. Antiquities, Department of,

74-75. 83, 104, 131. Aqsa, Mosque of al-, see Haram

al-Sherif. Arabs, 13-15, 32, 34-35, 203. Aramaic, 10, 35, 57. Archaeology and Art, 60-77. Architecture —

Christian, 63-67.

Greek and Roman, '62-63, 103.

Jewish, 62, 63, 96-97.

Moslem, 67-74, 88. Area, i.


Armenians, 33, 43-44, 94, 96,

97. 99- Arrub, 29, 99, 196. Ascalon, 14, 18, 61, 63, 75, 77,

81, 83, 106. Ashdod, see Esdud. Assizes of Jerusalem, the, 16. Athlit, 104, 198.

Baha'is, 33, 58-59, 105, 107. Baldwin I., 16, 80, 87, 97, 104. Baldwin II., 16, 79, loi. Balfour Declaration, the, 25-

27. 52. Banks, 159-160. Beduin, 34-35. i3o,i39-i4o.i75- Beersheba, 28, 84, 276. Beisan (Bethshan), 7, 60, 75,

103. Beit Jibrin, 62, 75, 86. Belus, River, 107. Bethlehem, 47, 64, 98-99, 240. Bibars, 21, 71, 83, 87, 105, 107. Birds, 243-256. Blood Feud Commissions, 139-

140. Blyth, Bishop, 46-48. Books of Reference, 123-125. Bosnians, 33, 36, 105. Boy Scouts and Girl Guides,

29, 278. Byzantine Empire, the, 13, 15,

66, 79, 87.


Caenaculum, the, 64, 96.


291


T3


ig2


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


Caesarea, 5, 13, 14, 17, 40, 63,

104-105, 106, 198. Cana, 108. Canaanites, 6, 61. Capernaum, 63, 75, 109. Capitulations, the, 139, 282. Captivity, the Babylonia,n, 9,

89, 99. Carmel, Mt., 2, 5, 60, 104, 231,

241. Carmelites, 43, 104. Castles, Crusaders', 20-21, 66,

104, 107. Circassians, 33, 35-36, 203. Climate, 208-209. Coins, 77-80. Colonies, Jewish, 55-56. Commerce and Industry, 169-

170, 276. Companies, Limited Liability,

142-143. Constantine the Great, 63-64,

95. 98.

Consuls, Foreign, 277. Co-operative Societies, 142-143. Copts, 33, 45, 94, 99. Costume, 85, 98. Crusades, 15-21, 63, 82, 83, 85,

87, 91, 92, 93, 101-103, 105,

108. Currency, 158-159. Customs Department and

Dues, 160-168. Cyprus, 16, 20-21, 44, 47, 59,

61, 76, 96, 266.

David, King, 7-8, 84-85, 89,

96, 98.

Dead Sea, the, 4-5, 125, 198, 230, 234-238, 240-241.

Decapolis, the, 11.

Departments, Government, 1 36.

Dome of the Rock, see Harain al-Sherif.

Dominicans, Biblical School of the, 43, 67, 75, 124, 131.

Druses, 33, 57-58, 108, 203.


Education, 173-180,

Emmaus, 88.

Enab, 88.

England, Church of, in Pales- tine, 33, 45-48, 95, 97-98, 179-

Esdraelon (Jezreel), Plain of, 22, 60, 103.

Esdud (Ashdod), 60, 81, 84.

Eudocia, Empress, 65, 82, 95.

Executive Council, 136.

Exhibitions, 132.

Fatimites, 15, 69, 79, 87.

Festivals, 130, 269-273.

Fishes, /%6o-26i.

Flora, 266.

Forestry, see Agriculture.

Franciscans, 42-43, 89, 96, 108,

131-

Frederick I. (Barbarossa) , Em- peror, 17.

Frederick II., Emperor, 18.

Frontiers, i, 162-163.

Galilee, 49, 63, 195, 239. Galilee, Sea of, see Tiberias,

Lake of. Gam.e Preservation, 265-266. Gath, see Tel al-Safi. Gaza, 5, 14, 24, 28, 33, 47, 60,

63, 74, 81-83, 196, 233, 276. Gendarmerie, 203. Geography, 1-5. Geology, 229-238. Georgians, 94, 98. Gethsemane, 65, 75, 97. Gezer, see Tel al- jezer. Godfrey de Bouillon, 16.

Haifa, 5, 28, 33, 47, 49, 104,

122, 160, 196, 202. Haram al-Sherif, 29, 68-69, 72,

91-93. 130, 131- Harbours, 5, 196-198. Hattin, Battle of, 17, 69, 108. Health, Public, 204-208. Hebrew, revival of, 53-54.


INDEX


293


Hebron, 28, 33, 37, 39, 84-85. Hejaz Railway, the, 116, 199,

228. Heraclius, Emperor, 13, 14. Herod the Great, 11, 62-63, 75.

83, 89, 100, I02, 125. Herzl, Theodor, 25. Hezekiah, King, 9, 89. Holidays, Public, 272-273. Holy Grail, the, 105. Holy Sepulchre, Church of the, 64, 66, 90, 93-95. 130.

Order of the, 42. Hospices, 122. Hospitals, 204-205. Hotels, no, 122. Huleh, Lake, 4, 5, 109, 198,

233-

Ibrahim, Pasha, 23, 39, 105,

125. Idumaeans, 11-12, 87. Immigration, Jewish, 52-53,

171-172. Industries, see Commerce. Insects, 261-265. Islam in Palestine, 36-39, 140-

141, 268-269. Israel and Judah, Kingdoms

of, 7-9, lOI. Israelites, early history of, 6-7,

60.

Jabneh, see Yebna. Jacobites, 33, 43, 44-45, 94.

99. Jaffa, 5, 17, 24, 28, 31, 33,

45, 47, 49. 86-87, 122, 196,

233- Jericho, 17, 99-100, 122. Jerome, S., 82, 99. Jerusalem, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16,

17, 24. 27-30, 33, 37, 47, 49,

50, 52-53, 63, 68-74, 89-98,

122. Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of,

15, 19-20, 41, 105.


Jews, 6-12, 25-27, 32, 49-56, 77-78, 84, 95, 105, 108-109, 141-142, 203, 270-273, 278.

Jezzar Pasha, 22, 105-107.

Jordan River and Valley, 4-5, 34, 100, 193, 232-238, 266.

Joshua, 83, 84, 99, loi.

Juhan the Apostate, 12.

Justice, Administration of, 137-143. 150-152.

Justinian, 65, 82, 92, 98, loi.

Kalendar —

Jewish, 270-272.

Moslem, 267-268.

Orthodox, 269. Khwarizmians, 18, 82. Kishon, River, 5, 107.

Lachish, see Tel al-Hesi.

Lakes, 4-5, 198.

Land Tenure and Courts, 140,

152-155, 181-185. Languages, Official, 31. Latin Church in Palestine, 33,

40, 41-43, 94 . 97. 99- Latrun, 88. Law and Law Courts, see

Justice, Administration of. Legislation, 143. Legislative Council, 136-137. Live-stock, 194-195. Louis IX., S., 18. Ludd (Lydda), 71,- 87-88.

Maccabees, lo-ii, 77, 87, 102. Madaba mosaic, 66, 90. Magharbeh, 33, 36. Mamelukes, 21, 71-73. Mammalia, 242-243. Mandate, British, Palestine

under, 24-31 ; text of, 280

sqq. Mar Saba, 3, 99, 231. Medical Department, 204-208. Megiddo, 60-61, 'j^, 103. Meiron, 109.


294


THE HANDBOOK OF PALESTINE


Melchites, 33, 43, 108. Melisende, Queen, 97. Metawileh, 22, 33, 36, 58. Meteorological data, 208-210. Mineral resources, 238-241. Mineral springs, see Springs. Mishna, the, 49, 109. Mohammed 'Ali, 23. Montfort, Castle of, 107. Moslem Sharia Council and

Courts, 37-38, 140-141. Motor-car services, 11 8- 119,

121. Mountains, 3. Municipalities, 28, 140, 224-

226. Museums, 75-77, 83.

Nablus (Shechem), 8, 17, 28, 33, 47, .56-57. 101-102, 231.

Napoleon I., 22, 81, 87, 105- 106.

Napoleon III., 23, 97.

Nazareth, 28, 47, 107-108, 122.

Nebi Musa, Feast of, 130, 269, 272.

Newspapers, 276.

Olives, cultivation of, 193-194.

Olives, Mt. of, 64, 96, 97, 276.

'Omar al-Daher, 22, 105, 108, 109.

'Omar, KhaUf, 40, 66, 82, 89, . 91.

Omayyads, 14-15, 68-69, 88.

Oranges, 55, 87, 171.

Order of S. John of Jerusalem, 20-21, 105-106.

, English, 48, 205.

Orthodox Patriarchate of Jeru- salem, 33, 39-41. 94. 97. 99-

Palestine Exploration Fund,

75, 83, 84, 86, 90. Palestine, meaning of term, 5. Parliamentary Papers, 226-227. Passport Regulations, 111-113.


Petroleum, 240. PhiHstines, 6, 75, 81-83, 86. Phoenicians, 6, 62, 86. Police, 28, 202-204. Population, 2, 32-33. Postage Stamps, 217-222. Postal Services, 210-217. Prisons, 203-204. Pro-Jerusalem Society, the, 29,

92, 93. 95. 131-132. Public Works, 195-196,

Qala'un, Sultan, 20, 21. Qaraites, 53. Qarantal, Jebel, 100. Quarantine, 207-208.

Rafa, 81, 84.

Railways, 115-118, 198-202,

228. Rainfall, 209. Ramleh, 33, 47, 50, 72, 88, 130,

233. 276. Reptilia, 256-259. Revenue and Expenditure,

157-158. Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 17, 87,

107. ' River of Egypt,' the, 5, 80. Rivers, 5.

Roads, 119-122, 195. Romans, 11-12, 87.

Safed, 22, 28, 33, 50-51, 109,

233- Saladin, 17, 41, 69-70, 95, Samaria (Sebastieh), 8, 63, 75,

102-103. Samaritans, 10, 14, 32, 56-57,

101-102, 108. Samuel, Sir Herbert, 30, 278,

279. Sarafend, 50, 58. Schools, see Education. Seljuqs, 15, 87. Shipping, 1 1 3- 1 15, 225. Shrines, Moslem, 37.


INDEX


295


Simon bar Cochba, 12, 49, 78. Smith, Sir Sidney, 22, 106. Solomon, King, 8, 82, 89, 91. Solomon, Pools of, 99, 196. Springs, Mineral, 109, 125-126. Stone, Building, 238-239. Suleyman the Magnificent, 21,

39. 91, 95- Sunrise and Sunset, 129. Syrians. 32, 34-35.

Ta'anach, 60, 103.

Tabor, Mt., 108.

Tantura, 198.

Taxation, 144-157.

Tel al-'Amarna tablets, 6, 60,

88. Tel al-Hesi (Lachish), 61, 86. Tel al- Jezer (Gezer), 61, 76, 88. Telal-Safi (Gath), 76, 81, 83-84. Tel Aviv, 87, 122. Telegraphs and Telephones,

222-223. Templar Community, German,

48-49, 87. Templar, Knights, 20, 104, 109. Temple, the Jewish, 8, 10, 12,

62, 87, 89. Terra Santa, Custodia of, 42-43. Tiberias, Lake of, i, 4, 61, 198,

235- , Town, 22, 28, 49, 50, 75,

108-109, 122, 125-126, 235. Tithes, see Taxation.


Titus, 12, 78, 89.

Tobacco, 150, 165.

Trade Marks and Patents, 143.

Trans- jordania, i, 50, 34, 36,

41, 62-63, 109. ^62, 222, 227-

228, 239. Transliteration, Arabic and

Hebrew, 273-275. Transport, 122. Turks, 21-25, 73-

Uniate Churches, 33, 43. Usdum, Jebel, 230, 240-241.

Venice, 18, 52. Vespasian, 78, loi, 108. Via Dolorosa, the, 29, 70. Virgin, Tomb of the, 90, 97.

Wadi al-Sant, 13, 83. Wailing Wall, the, 90, 95. Waqfs, 37-39, 183. War Cemeteries, 276-277. Water-supply of Jerusalem, 29,

89, 99, 196. Weights and Measures, 126-

129.

Yebna (Jabneh), 49, 71-72, 84. Yemenite Jews, 52-53. Yiddish, 52, 53.

Zedekiah, King, 9, 89. Zionism, 25-27, 53, 56, 87, 180.


.VKINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. THE UNIVERSITY I'RESS, GLASGOW


icooKS:

EGYPT &• PALESTINE

An experience of over fifty years in Egypt and Palestine has placed Thos. Cook & Son in an unrivalled position with regard to travel in these countries.

On the Nile their fleet of First-Class Passenger Steamers make frequent voyages between Cairo, Assuan and the second Cataract, and it may be asserted with some confidence that on no other river of the world can a voyage be made with greater or more studied luxury.

In Palestine, in spite of the new regime, travel is still a very different thing from travel in Europe, and it is only by such an organization as theirs that the country can be visited under the best conditions.

A booklet of arrangements for travel in both Egypt and Palestine may be obtained from

THOS. COOK & SON

Chief Office : LUDGATE CIRCUS, LONDON, E.C.

CAIRO, - - - Nr. Shepheard's Hotel

ALEXANDRIA, - - 2 Rue Fouad Premier

PORT SAID, - - Chareh Sultan Hussein

LUXOR, - - - Nr. Winter Palace Hotel

ASSUAN, - - - Gd. Assuan Hotel

BEYROUT, - - - Nr. Hotel d'Orient

JERUSALEM, - - David Street

150 BRANCHES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

I


The Anglo-Palestine Company

Limited


Head Office : BROOK HOUSE, WALBROOK, LONDON

Head Office for the Orient : JAFFA

Branches:

JERUSALEM, HAIFA, BEYROUT

TIBERIAS, SAFED


AGENCY IN HEBRON


All description of Banking Business transacted on the most favourable terms



Imperial Ottoman Bank


ESTABLISHED 1863


Authorized Capital, - - L.Stg. 10,000,000 Paid up Capital, - - L.Stg. 5,000,000

Reserve, - - - - L.Stg. 1,250,000


Branches in Palestine : JERUSALEM, JAFFA, HAIFA, NABLUS.

Sub-Branches: BETHLEHEM AND RAMALLAH.


The Imperial Ottoman Bank transacts every descrip- tion of British and Foreign Banking Business. With its seventy branch offices all over the East and its correspondents in every important town in the world, it offers special facihties to travellers for the cashing of Circular Notes, Letters of Credit, etc. It has a specially organized Merchandise Department.


London Office, - 26 and 27 THROGMORTON ST., E.G. 2 Paris Office, - 7 RUE MEYERBEER Head Office, - CONSTANTINOPLE

3


NATIONAL BANK OF EGYPT

HEAD OFFICE: CAIRO

Governor : B. HORNSBY, C.B.E.


Fully paid Capital, Reserve Fund, -


^3,000,000 ^2,200,000


London Agency :

6 AND 7 King William Street, E.C.4


Branches in all the Principal Towns in EGYPT and the SUDAN


ALLENBY HOTEL

JERUSALEM

(Ex "Fast")

Situated in a very select part near the Jaffa Gate and the Post-Office.

ENTIRELY RENOVATED &> FITTED WITH . . THE LATEST SANITARY APPLIANCES . .


STRICTLY FIRST CLASS HOTEL.

150 Beds. Bathrooms. Electric Light.


FRENCH CUISINE.

Music at Tea and Dinner daily. Small Dances every Saturday evening.


EVERY FIRST CLASS COMFORT.


DRAGOMAN MEETS ALL TRAINS.

MODERATE TERMS.

Special Guides, who are at the disposal of visitors, are attached to the Hotel.


THE GRAND HOTELS CO. OF EGYPT


CAIRO . .


THE

CONTINENTAL-SAVOY

The most up-to-date and best situated Hotel in town. Entirely Renewed. Overlooking Ezbekieh Gardens. Opera Square. Famous Terraces. 400 Rooms. 200 Bathrooms.

Cairo s Fashionable Griil-Room Restaurant,

Daily Concerts. Weekly Dances.

OPEN ALL THE YEAR ROUND.


MENA HOUSE HOTEL

At the foot of the Pyramids. The Ideal Hotel out of town.


HEALTH RESORT NEAR CAIRO.


HELOUAN

SULPHUR BATHS AND THERMAL ESTABLISHMENT.

GRAND HOTEL, HELOUAN


STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 6


WELL RECOMMENDED

CENTRAL HOTEL S. JOHN HOTEL

JERUSALEM

P.O. Box 177


Telegraphic Address "AMDURSKY," Jerusalem. Telephone No. 154.


Near Jaffa Gate oppo- Situated in the modern

site David's Tower. section of the Old

Verandas looking over City. Windows over-

the most Historical looking the Church of

Sites. the Holy Sepulchre.


FIRST CLASS HOTEL


European Kitchen Electric Light

Bath Rooms Very Comfortable

Hotel Agents and Porters meet all trains

7


TIBERIAS

ON THE SEA OF GALILEE

PALESTINE


HOTEL TIBERIAS

Proprietrix :

MRS. GROSSMAN


NICELY SITUATED EUROPEAN HOUSE

CLEAN AND AIRY BEDROOMS

GOOD FOOD AND GOOD DRINKS

ATTENTIVE SERVICE


Beautiful view on the Lake and surrounding hills


1


KHEDIVIAL MAIL LINE

Managing Agents : CURWEN & CO., ALEXANDRIA

CYPRUS MAIL LINE (subsidised by the British Government) , Royal Mail steamers leave Alexandria on the ist, nth and 2ist of each month at 4 p.m., and Port Said on the 3rd, 13th and 23rd at 9 a.m., for Famagusta, Larnaca, and Limassol, returning to Alexandria via Port Said.

SUDAN MAIL LINE. Mail steamers leave Suez on the ist and nth of each month at 5 p.m. for Tor, Yambo, Jeddah, Port Sudan and Suakin, returning to Suez via the same ports.

Mail steamers leave Suez on the 21st of each month at 5 p.m. for Tor, Wedj, Jeddah, Port Sudan and Suakin, returning to Suez via the same ports and calling at Yambo after Jeddah.

GREECE-TURKEY LINE. Steamers leave Alexandria every alternate Wednesday for Piraeus, Smyrna, Mitylene and Constantinople, returning to Alexandria via the same ports. This service will shortly be made weekly from Alexandria.

SYRIAN-PALESTINE LINE. Steamers leave Alexandria about every fifteen days at 3 p.m., and from Port Said one day later at 6 p.m., for Jaffa, Caifa, Beyrout, Tripoli, Lattakia and Mersina, returning via Alexandretta and the above ports.

SYRIAN-CONSTANTINOPLE LINE. Passenger steamers leave Alexandria and Port Said twice monthly, and cargo steamers (with limited First-Class accommodation) fortnightly, for Jaffa, Caifa, Beyrout, TripoU, Lattakia, Alexandretta, Mersina, Adalia, Rhodes, Chios, Smyrna, Mitylene, Dardanelles and Constantinople, returning via the same ports.

ADEN MAIL LINE. Steamers leave Suez monthly for Wedj,

Yambo, Jeddah, Port Sudan, Suakin, Massowah, Hodeidah

and Aden, returning via the same ports.

(Line is temporarily suspended. Will be resumed in

September 1922.)

All passenger steamers carry Doctors, and are fitted with electric light and fans.

For further particulars regarding dates of sailing, passenger fares and rates of freight, apply to the Company's Agencies, at Alexandria, Port Said, Suez and all ports of call. For passenger fares and dates of sailings only apply to Cox's Shipping Agency, Cairo ; Thos. Cook & Son (Egypt) Ltd., and other Tourist Agencies.

Agents in Palestine : JAFFA - - Mr. A. Cassar. Cargo and Passengers.

CAIFA - - SoLiMAN Bey Nassif. do.

JERUSALEM - The Palestine Passengers only.

Express Co. Ltd,


The Palestine Express Company Limited

JERUSALEM, JAFFA, HAIFA, ALEXANDRIA, BEYROUT


Foreign Agencies : Vienna, London, New York Telegraphic Address for all Branches : PECOLD Codes : A. B.C. 5TH and 6th Editions — Bentley's Code Bankers : The Anglo -Palestine Company Limited


TOURING OFFICE


STEAMSHIP AGENCY


RAILWAY TICKETS


AND


Independent and conducted Tours throughout Palestine, Syria and Egypt. Special arrangements for parties interested in the Jewish historical places and colonies.

Tickets booked for all Steamship Companies. Official appointed Agents of the White Star Line and the International Mercantile Marine Company.

Agents of the Palestine Railways. Tickets booked for the Egyptian State Railways, and the principal trains in Europe and America.

Goods of all kinds forwarded and shipped, stored and insured. Ad- vances against goods C.O.D. col- lected. Luggage stored and insured.

effected against all risks by land, sea and air. Luggage Insurance for accompanied baggage by ready policies. General Agents to :

The Guardian Eastern Insurance Co., London.

The Mondial Marine Insurance Co.

The European Goods and Luggage Insurance Co.

Publishers of Guide Books.

NEW YORK AGENCY: THE PALESTINE PILGRIMAGE,

52 E. loTH Street.

Cables : Oleyregel, New York — Bentley's Code.

10


FORWARDING SHIPPING :


INSURANCE


S. BARAKAT TOURS


Intending visitors to the Holy Land could not consult their own interests better than by arranging for their trips with

SELIM BARAKAT,

JAFFA, PALESTINE.

Independent Tourist Contractor of

EASTERN TOURS

FOR

SYRIA, PALESTINE AND EGYPT.

S. Barakat, who has had years of training and experi- ence with personally conducted parties, places at the disposal of his patrons the knowledge and experience of half a life time on arranging trips through the Holy Land, Syria and Egypt for any number of parties desired.


CLIFF HOTEL, JAFFA

On the sea, yet located in most commanding position, with magnificent view from all rooms. Excellent cuisine, safe and comfortable bathing. Admirably suited for families and week-end parties.

SELIM BARAKAT, Proprietor.


S. CATONI & SONS

STEAMSHIP AGENTS AND MERCHANTS

Telegrams: "OCTAVE," Haifa


1


Agents at Haifa and Acre for : THE PRINCE LINE, LTD. ROYAL NETHERLANDS STEAMSHIP CO. ARMEMENT ADOLF DEPPE SWENSKA ORIENT LINE THE UNITED AMERICAN LINES, INC.

Codes used : A. B. C. 5TH Edition. SCOTT'S CODE, ioth Edition


OCTAVE CATONI

STEAMSHIP AGENT & INSURANCE BROKER

Telegrams: "MESSAGERIE," Haifa


Agent for : CiE. DES MESSAGERIES MARITIMES COMITE CENTRAL des ARMATEURS de FRANC: AMERICA LEVANT LINE

Commissaire cl'Avaries clu COMITE DES ASSUREURS MARITIMES de PARIS

Codes used : A. B. C. 5TH Edition. SCOTT'S CODE, ioth Edition.

12


NEAR EAST TRAVEL BUREAU

Do you wish to visit the

HOLY LAND ^ SYRIA

EGYPT ^ THE NILE

& GREECE

with Comfort, Economy, and Success ?


Before deciding on your tour it will be worth your while to communicate with

D. N. TADROS,

Tourist and Passenger Agent

(Established 1892)

Telesrams: p q g^^ j27,

1 adros 1 ours,

Jerusalem. JERUSALEM


Excursions arranged at fixed rates in above Countries. Passages secured by all Lines. Railway tickets issued. Forwarding and Insurance of baggage. Foreign money exchanged. Hotel accommodation reserved. Private automobiles supplied.

Specially Conducted parties organized from England & America

Offices and Agencies :

Jaffa, Jerusalem, Haifa, Beyrout, Damascus, Cairo, Port Said,

Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Naples, Marseilles, Paris,

London and New York.

L.P. 13 U


MESSAGERIES MARITIMES

French Mail Line ::

Luxe Steamers from 19,000 tons

EGYPT LINE

Marseilles, Alexandria, Port-Said, Jaffa, Haifa, Beyrout, and vice versa.

NORTH MEDITERRANEAN LINE

Marseilles Naples Piraeus Smyrna

Constantinople Rhodes or Vathy Beyrout

Haifa Jaffa and vice versa.

FAR EASTERN LINE

India China Japan Ceylon Australia and East coast of Africa.

>