The New International Encyclopædia/Amana

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AMANA, ăm'ȧ-nȧ. A German religious community established at Amana, Ia., comprising several villages of settlers situated a few miles apart under the government of a president and thirteen directors, elected annually by the community. Family life is preserved, but meals are provided for a number of families together. Woolen mills, flour mills, saw mills, dye-shops, and agriculture are the chief industries operated in common for the benefit of all. Life is simple, and all necessaries are furnished freely to members of the community. New members are elected after a probationary period. Daily prayer-meetings are held. The sect was founded by Eberhard Gruber in Württemberg, Germany, 1714, and came to America, 1843, settling first in western New York and moving to Amana, 1855-64. The community in 1901 numbered 1767 persons, and owned 26,000 acres of land, their total property being valued at $1,500,000. See Communism and Communistic Societies.