Translation:Mishnah/Seder Nashim/Tractate Kiddushin/Chapter 1

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Mishnah 1

A woman is acquired in three ways,
and she acquires herself in two ways.
She is acquired through money, through a contract, or through sexual intercourse.
Through money:
The House of Shamai say: with a dinar or with the equivalent value of a dinar;
and the House of Hillel say: with a peruta or with the equivalent value of a peruta.
How much is a peruta? One eighth of the Italian issar.
She acquires herself through a get or through the death of the husband.
A levirate wife is acquired through sexual intercourse,
and acquires herself through the shoe-removal ceremony or through the death of the levirate husband.


Mishnah 2

A Hebrew slave is acquired through money or through a contract,
and acquires himself through years, through a Jubilee [year], or through prorated money.
A Hebrew maidservant has an advantage over him,
for she acquires herself through signs [of puberty].
[A slave] who is pierced is acquired through piercing,
and acquires himself through a Jubilee [year] or through the death of the master.


Mishnah 3

A Canaanite slave is acquired with money, a contract or establishment of possession;
and acquires himself with money by a third party or a contract by himself;
these are the word of Rabbi Meir.
The Sages say:
even with money by himself and a contract by a third party,
providing that the money belong to a third party.


Mishnah 4

A large animal is acquired through transfer [of the reins],
and a small animal through lifting [it] -
these are the words of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar.
The sages say:
A small animal is acquired through pulling [it].


Mishnah 5

Property which is lienable
is acquired through money, through a contract, or through establishment of possession;
and that which is not lienable
is only acquired through pulling [it].
Property which is not lienable can be acquired along with property which is lienable
through money, through a contract, or through establishment of possession;
and that which is not lienable can force that which is lienable to have an oath taken regarding it.


Mishnah 6

Anything which acts as currency for something else,
once this one comes into possession, this one is obligated for its exchange.
How is it?
If one exchanges a bull for a cow, or a donkey for a bull,
once this one comes into possession, this one is obligated for its exchange.
The high authority [acquires] by money,
and the lay authority [acquires] by establishment of possession.
Speech to the high [authority] is like transfer to the lay [authority].


Mishnah 7

All commandments of the son which are upon the father,
men are obligated, and women are exempt.
And all commandments of the father which are upon the son,
both men and women are obligated.
And every positive commandment which is time-dependent,
men are obligated and women are exempt.
And every positive commandment which is not time-dependent,
both men and women are obligated.
And every commandment which is a prohibition,
whether it is time-dependent or is not time-dependent,
both men and women are obligated;
except for "You shall not round off [the corners of your head],"
"You shall not destroy [the corners of your beard]"
and "You shall not become ritually impure for the dead."


Mishnah 8

Leanings, wavings, presentations, fistfuls,
incense offerings, bird decapitations, receptions of blood, and thigh services,
apply by men, but do not apply by women,
except for the tribute-offering of the wayward woman and the naziritess, for they wave [them].


Mishnah 9

Any commandment which is not tied to the land
applies in the Land [of Israel] and outside the Land [of Israel].
And any commandment which is tied to the land
only applies in the Land [of Israel],
except for [the prohibitions on] orlah and inter-species mingling;
and Rabbi Eliezer says: Even [the prohibition on] new grain.


Mishnah 10

Anyone who performs a single commandment
[the heavenly assembly] do well to him, lengthen his days, and he inherits the Land.
And anyone who does not perform a single commandment
[the heavenly assembly] do not do well to him, do not lengthen his days, and he does not inherit the Land.
And anyone who has not [learned] neither Scripture, the Oral Law, or common sense,
this person is not part of civilization.
And one who grabs hold of all three
regarding him the verse says, "...and the three-ply cord is not quickly severed." (Ecclesiastes 4:12)