Translation:Tolkappiyam/Phoneme, articulation

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Tolkappiyam in English (4th century BCE)  by Tolkappiyar, translated from Tamil by Sengai_Podhuvan and  Wikisource
Phoneme, articulation
Section 1,
Chapter 3
Pir’appiyal
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Translation:Tolkappiyam
Verbatim translation

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Phoneme, articulation

Speech organs, functions of organs, places of sound vibration,

21 verses

First section, verses 83 to 103

Translation

Notes[edit]

The first numbers at the end of the each translation of the verse
denote the serial number of the verse of the section
and the succeeding second one denotes the serial number of the verse of the chapter of source-book.

Speech organs[edit]

  • The raising air-stream originating at the lungs, inflated by the action of diaphragm abides and reinforced at the chest, larynx and pharynx and touches the teeth, lips, tongue, nose and palate, at different places, in distinct ways and by various manner produces sound, with the eight organs, as we know. 83/1

Vowels[edit]

  • In the course of sound production, the twelve vowels are born from larynx. 84/2
  • Among them [a] and [aa] born by opening the mouth. 85/3
  • While articulating the five, [i], [ii], [e], [ee] and [ai] the edge of the front-tongue touches the upper teeth. 86/4
  • While articulating the five, [u], [uu], [o], [oo] and [au], lips round. 87/5
  • The manner of producing each sound is differing a little. 88/6

Consonants[edit]

  • Consonants [k] and [ng] are pronounced by touching the back of the tongue with that of the palate. 89/7
  • Consonants [s] and [nj] are pronounced by touching the middle of the tongue with that of the palate. 90/8
  • Consonants [t] and [n’] are pronounced by touching the tip of the tongue with that of the palate. 91/9
  • Those six phonemes are pronounced in three kinds of articulations. 92/10
  • The tip of the tongue spreads and contacts fast the back of the teeth-ridge to pronounce the consonants [th] and [n”]. 93/11
  • The rising tip of the tongue touches the palate above to pronounce the consonants [r’] and [n]. 94/12
  • The tip of the tongue rises and strike against palates to pronounce [r] and [l”]. 95/13
  • The blade of the tongue moves up and touches the back of the teeth-ridge to pronounce [l] and it strike the portion noted above to pronounce [l’]. 96/14
  • Consonants [p] and [m] are pronounced by lips-touch. 97 /15
  • Consonant [v] is pronounced by (lower) lip touching the (upper) teeth. 98/16
  • Consonant [y] is pronounced while the air through the larynx subjected to the stricture (open approximation) against the palate. 99/17
  • The soft-consonants are pronounced as said earlier along with nasal-air. 100/18
  • The three secondary phonemes sans distinctiveness, being dependant are articulated as their distinctive. 101/19

Hymns[edit]

  • The measurement of aggressive air-stream of phonemes in organs is spoken in the books of ‘An”thanar’, the man who utters hymns. 102/20
  • These intesive parts and functions of articulation of phonemes are not defined here. Only the external movements and functions are spoken above.103/21