Treaty between the United States and Great Britain for the Suppression of the Slave Trade

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Treaty between the United States and Great Britain for the Suppression of the Slave Trade  (1862) 
William H. Seward of the United States, on behalf of President Abraham Lincoln and Richard Bickerton Pemell, Lord Lyons of the United Kingdom on behalf of Victoria of the United Kingdom
Also know as the Seward-Lyons Treaty

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

A PROCLAMATION.

WHEREAS a treaty between the United States of America and her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was concluded and signed by their respective Plenipotentiaries, at the city of Washington, on the seventh day of April last, which treaty is, word for word, as follows:

Treaty between the United States of America and her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the suppression of the African slave trade.

The United States of America and her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, being desirous to render more effectual the means hitherto adopted for the suppression of the slave trade carried on upon the coast of Africa, have deemed it expedient to conclude a treaty for that purpose, and have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

The President of the United States of America, William H. Seward, Secretary of State;

And her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the right honorable Richard Bickerton Pemell, Lord Lyons, a peer of her United Kingdom, a knight grand cross of her most honorable Order of the Bath, and her Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States of America;

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:

ARTICLE I. The two high contracting parties mutually consent that those ships of their respective navies which shall be provided with special instructions for that purpose, as hereinafter mentioned, may visit such merchant vessels of the too nations as may, upon reasonable grounds, be suspected of being engaged in the African slave trade, or of having been fitted out for that purpose; or of having, during the voyage on which they are met by the said cruisers, been engaged in the African slave trade, contrary to the provisions of this treaty; and that such cruisers may detain, and send or carry away, such vessels, in order that they may be brought to trial in the manner hereinafter agreed upon.

In order to fix the reciprocal right of search in such a manner as shall be adapted to the attainment of the object of this treaty, and at the same time avoid doubts, disputes, and complaints, the said right of search shall be understood in the manner and according to the rules following:

First. It shall never be exercised except by vessels of war, authorized expressly for that object, according to the stipulations of this treaty.

Secondly. The right of search shall in no case be exercised with respect to a vessel of the navy of either of the two Powers, but shall be exercised only as regards merchant-vessels; and it shall not be exercised by a vessel of war of either contracting party within the limits, of a settlement or port, nor within the territorial waters of the other party.

Thirdly. Whenever a merchant-vessel is searched by a ship of war, the commander of the said ship shall, in the act of so doing, exhibit to the commander of the merchant-vessel the special instructions by which he is duly authorized to search; and shall deliver to such commander a certificate, signed by himself, stating his rank in the naval set of his country, and the name of the vessel he commands, and also declaring that the only object of the search is to ascertain whether the vessel is employed in the African slave trade, or is fitted up for the said trade. When the search is made by an officer of the cruiser who is not the commander, such officer shall exhibit to the captain of the merchant-vessel a copy of the before-mentioned special instructions, signed by the commander of the cruiser; and he shall in like manner deliver a certificate signed by himself, stating his rank in the navy, the name of the commander by whose orders he proceeds to make the search, that of the cruiser in which he sails, and the object of the search, as above described. If it appears from the search that the papers of the vessel are in regular order, and that it is employed on lawful objects, the officer shall enter in the log-book of the vessel that the search has been made in pursuance of the aforesaid special instructions, and the vessel shall be left at liberty to pursue its voyage. The rank of the officer who makes the search must not be less than that of lieutenant in the navy, unless the command, either by reason of death or other cause, is at the time held by an officer of inferior rank.

Fourthly. The reciprocal right of search and detention shall be exercised only within the distance of two hundred miles from the coast of Africa, and to the southward of the thirty-second parallel of north latitude, and within thirty leagues from the coast of the Island of Cuba.

ARTICLE II In order to regulate the mode of carrying the provisions of the preceding article into execution, it is agreed-

First. That all the ships of the navies of the two nations which shall be hereafter employed to prevent the African slave trade shall be furnished by their respective Governments with a copy of the present treaty, of the instructions for cruisers annexed thereto, (marked A,) and of the regulations for the mixed courts of justice annexed thereto, (marked B.) which annexes respectively shall be considered as integral parts of the present treaty.

Secondly. That each of the high contracting parties shall, from time to time, communicate to the other the names of the several ships furnished with such instructions, the force of each, and the names of their several commanders. The said commanders shall hold the rank of captain in the navy, or at least that of lieutenant; it being nevertheless understood that the instructions originally issued to an officer holding the rank of lieutenant of the navy, or other superior rank, shall, in case of his death or temporary absence, be sufficient to authorize the officer on whom the command of the vessel has devolved to make the search, although such officer may not hold the aforesaid rank in the service.

Thirdly. That if at any time the commander of a cruiser of either of the two nations shall suspect that any merchant-vessel Elder the escort or convoy of any ship or ships-of-war of the other nation carries negroes on board, or has been engaged in the African slave trade, or is fitted out for the purpose thereof, the commander of the cruiser shall communicate his suspicions to the commander of the convoy, who, accompanied by the commander of the cruiser, shall proceed to the search of the suspected vessel; and in case the suspicions appear well founded, according to the tenor of this treaty, then the said vessel shall be conducted or sent to one of the places where the mixed courts of justice are stationed, in order that it may there be adjudicated upon.

Fourthly. It is further mutually agreed that the commanders of the ships of the two navies, respectively, who shall be employed on this service, shall adhere strictly to the exact tenor of the aforesaid instructions.

ARTICLE III As the two preceding articles are entirely reciprocal, the two high contracting parties engage mutually to make good any losses which their respective subjects or citizens may incur by an arbitrary and illegal detention of their vessels; it being understood that this indemnity shall be borne by the Government whose cruiser shall have been guilty of such arbitrary and illegal detention; and that the search and detention of vessels specified in the first article of this treaty shall be effected only by ships which may form part of the two navies, respectively, and by such of those ships only as are provided with the special instructions annexed to the present treaty, in pursuance of the provisions thereof. The indemnification for the damages of which this article treats shall be paid within the term of one year, reckoning from the day in which the mixed court of justice pronounces its sentence.

ARTICLE IV. In order to bring to adjudication with as little delay and inconvenience as possible, the vessels which may be detained according to the tenor of the first article of this treaty, there shall be established, as soon as may be practicable, three mixed courts of justice, formed by an equal number of individuals of the two nations, named for this purpose by their respective Governments. These courts shall reside, one at Sierra Leone, one at the Cape of Good Hope, and one at New York.

But each of the two high contracting parties reserves to itself the right of changing, at its pleasure, the place of residence of the court or courts held within its own territories.

These courts shall judge the causes submitted to them according to the provisions of the present treaty, and according to the regulations and instructions which are annexed to the present treaty, and which are considered an integral part thereof; and there shall be no appeal from their decision.

ARTICLE V. In case the commanding officer of any of the ships of the navies of either country, duly commissioned according to the provisions of the first article of this treaty, shall deviate in any respect from f the stipulations of the said treaty, or from the instructions annexed to it, the Government which shall conceive itself to be wronged thereby shall be entitled to demand reparation; and in such case the Government to which such commanding officer may belong binds itself to cause inquiry to be made into the subject of the complaint, and to inflict upon the said officer a punishment proportioned to any wilful transgression which may be proved to have committed.

ARTICLE VI It is hereby further mutually agreed, that every American or British merchant-vessel which shall be searched by virtue of the present treaty may lawfully be detained, and sent or brought before the mixed courts of justice established in pursuance of the provisions thereof, if, in her equipment, there shall be found any of the things hereinafter mentioned, namely:

First. Hatches with open gratings, instead of the close hatches, which are usual in merchant vessels.

Second. Divisions or bulk-heads in the hold or on deck, in greater number than are necessary for vessels engaged in lawful trade.

Third. Spare plank fitted for laying down as a second or slave deck.

Fourth. Shackles, bolts, or handcuffs.

Fifth. A larger quantity of water in casks or in tanks than is requisite for the consumption of the crew of the vessel as a merchant-vessel.

Sixth. An extraordinary number of water casks, or of other vessels for holding liquid; unless the master shall produce n certificate from the custom-house at the place from which he cleared outwards, stating that a sufficient security had been given by the owners of such vessel that such extra quantity of casks, or of other vessels should be used only to hold palm oil, or for other purposes of lawful commerce.

Seventh. A greater number of mess-tubs or kids than requisite for the use of the crew of the vessel as a merchant-vessel.

Eighth. A boiler, or other cooking apparatus, of an unusual size, and larger, or capable of being made larger, than requisite for the use of the crew of the vessel as a merchant-vessel; or more than one boiler, or other cooking apparatus, of the ordinary size.

Ninth. An extraordinary quantity of rice, of the flour of Brazil, of maniac or cassada, commonly called farinha, of maize, or of Indian corn, or of any other article of food whatever, beyond the probable wants of the crew; unless such rice, flour, farinha, maize, Indian corn, or other article of food, be entered on the manifest as part of the cargo for trade.

Tenth. A quantity of mats of matting greater than is necessary for the use of the crew of the vessel as a merchant-vessel, unless such mats or matting be entered on the manifest as part of the cargo for trade.

If it be proved that any one or more of the articles above specified is or are on board, or have been on board during the voyage in which the vessel was captured, that fact shall be considered as prima facie evidence that the vessel was employed in the African slave trade, and she shall in consequence be condemned and declared lawful prize; unless the master or owners shall furnish clear and incontrovertible evidence, proving to the satisfaction of the mixed court of justice, that at the time of her detention or capture the vessel was employed in a lawful undertaking, and that such of the different articles above specified as were found on board. at the time of detention, or as may have been embarked during the voyage on which she was engaged when captured, were indispensable for the lawful object of her voyage.

ARTICLE VII. If any one of the articles specified in the preceding article as grounds for condemnation should be found on board a merchant-vessel, or should be proved to have been on board of her during the voyage on which she was captured, no compensation for losses, damages, or expenses consequent upon the detention of such vessel, shall in any case be granted either to the master, the owner, or any other person interested in the equipment or in the lading, even though she should not be condemned by the mixed court of justice.

ARTICLE VIII. It is agreed between the two high contracting parties, that in all cases in which a vessel shall be detained under this treaty, by their respective cruisers, as having been engaged in the African slave trade, or as having been fitted out for the purposes thereof, and shall consequently be adjudged and condemned by one of the mixed courts of justice to be established as aforesaid, the said vessel shall, immediately after its condemnation, be broken up entirely, and shall be sold in separate parts, after having been so broken up; unless either of the two Governments should wish to purchase her for the use of its navy, at a price to be fixed by a competent person chosen for that purpose by the mixed court of justice, in which case the Government whose cruiser shall have detained the condemned vessel shall have the first option of purchase.

ARTICLE IX The captain, master, pilot, and crew of any vessel condemned by the mixed courts of justice shall be punished according to the laws of the country to which such vessel belongs, as shall also the owner or owners and the persons interested in her equipment or cargo, unless they prove that they had no participation in the enterprise.

For this purpose, the two high contracting parties agree that, in so far as it may not be attended with grievous expense and inconvenience, the h master and crew of any vessel which may be condemned by a sentence of one of the mixed courts of justice, as well as any other persons found on board the vessel, shall be sent and delivered up to the jurisdiction of the nation under whose flag the condemned vessel was sailing at the time of capture; and that the witnesses and proofs to establish the guilt of such master, crew, or other persons, shall also be sent with them.

The same course shall be pursued with regard to subjects or citizens of either contracting party who may be found by a cruiser of the other on board a vessel of any third Power, or on board a vessel sailing without flag or papers, which may be condemned by any competent court for having engaged in the African slave trade.

ARTICLE X. The negroes who are found on board of a vessel condemned by the mixed courts of justice, in conformity with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be placed at the disposal of the Government whose cruiser has made the capture; they shall be immediately set at liberty, and shall remain free, the Government to whom they have been delivered guarantying their liberty.

ARTICLE XI. The acts or instruments annexed to this treaty, and which it is mutually agreed shall form an integral part thereof, are as follows:

(A.) Instructions for the ships of the navies of both nations, destined to prevent the African slave trade.

(B.) Regulations for the mixed courts of justice.

ARTICLE XII. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at London in six months from this date, or sooner if possible. It shall continue and remain in full force for the term of ten years from the day of exchange of the ratifications, and further, until the end of one year after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same, each of the contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at the end of said term of ten years: And it is hereby agreed between them, that, on the expiration of one year after such notice shall have been received by either from the other party, this treaty shall altogether cease and determine.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty, and have "hereunto affixed the seal of their-arms.

Done at Washington the seventh day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.

[L. S.] WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[L. S.] LYONS.


Art 1 Art 2 Art 3 Art 4 Art 5


Annex (A) to the Treaty between the United States of America and Great Britain, for the Suppression of the African Slave Trade, signed at Washington on the 7th day of April 1862.

Instructions for the Ships of the United States and British Navies employed to prevent the African Slave Trade. ARTICLE I The commander of any ship belonging to the United States or British navy which shall be furnished with these instructions, shall have a right to search and detain any United States or British merchant-vessel which shall be actually engaged, or suspected to be engaged, in the African slave trade, or to be fitted out for the purposes thereof; or to have been engaged in such trade during the voyage in which she may be met with by such ship of the United States or British navy; and such commander shall thereupon bring or send such merchant-vessel (save in the case provided for in article V. of these instructions) as soon as possible, for judgment, before one of the three mixed courts of justice established in virtue of the IVth article of the said treaty, that is to say:

If the vessel shall be detained on the coast of Africa, she shall be brought before that one of the two mixed courts of justice to be established at the Cape of Good Hope and at Sierra Leone, which may be nearest to the place of detention, or which the captor, on his own responsibility, may think can be soonest reached from such place.

If the vessel shall be detained on the coast of the Island of Cuba, she shall be brought before the mixed court of justice at New York.

ARTICLE. II Whenever a ship of either of the two navies, duly authorized as aforesaid, shall meet a merchant-vessel liable to be searched under the provisions of the said treaty, the search shall be conducted with the courtesy and consideration which ought to be observed between allied and friendly nations; and the search shall, in all cases, be made by an officer holding a rank not lower than that of a lieutenant in the navy; or by the officer who at the time shall be second in command of the ship by which such search is made.

ARTICLE III. The commander of any ship of the two navies, duly authorized as aforesaid, who may detain any merchant-vessel, in pursuance of the tenor of the present instructions, shall leave on board the vessel so detained, the master, the mate or boatswain, and two or three, at least, of the crew, the whole of the negroes, if any, and all the cargo. The captor shall, at the time of detention, draw up, in writing, a declaration, which shall exhibit the state in which he found the detained vessel; such declaration shall be signed by himself, and shall be given in or sent, together with the captured vessel, to the mixed court of justice before which such vessel shall be carried or sent for adjudication. He shall deliver to the master of the detained vessel a signed and certified list of the papers found on board the same, as well as a certificate of the number of negroes found on board at the moment of detention.

In the declaration which the captor is hereby required to make, as well as in the certified list of the papers seized, and in the certificate of the number of negroes found on board the detained vessel, he shall insert his own name and surname, the name of the capturing ship, and the latitude and longitude of the place where the detention shall have been made.

The officer in charge of the detained vessel shall, at the time of bringing the vessel's papers into the mixed court of justice, deliver into the court a certificate signed by himself, and verified on oath, stating any changes which may have taken place in respect to the vessel, her crew, the negroes if any, and her cargo, between the period of her detention and the time of delivering in such paper.

ARTICLE IV. If urgent reasons, arising from the length of the voyage the state of health of the negroes, or any other cause, should require that either the whole or a portion of such negroes should be disembarked before the vessel can arrive at the place at which one of the mixed courts of justice is established, the commander of the capturing ship may take upon himself the responsibility of so disembarking the negroes, provided the necessity of the disembarkation, and the causes thereof, be stated in a certificate in proper form. Such certificate shall be drawn up and entered at the time on the log-book of the detained vessel.

ARTICLE V. In case any merchant-vessel, detained in pursuance of the present instructions, should prove to be unseaworthy, or in such a condition as not to be taken to one of the three ports where the mixed courts of justice are to be established in pursuance of the treaty of this date, the commander of the detaining cruiser may take upon himself the responsibility of abandoning or destroying her, provided the exact causes which made such a step imperatively necessary be stated in a certificate verified on oath. Such certificate shall be drawls up and formally executed in duplicate at the time.

In case of the abandonment or destruction of a detained vessel, the master and crew, together with the negroes and papers found on board, and one copy of the sworn certificate mentioned in the preceding paragraph of this article, shall be sent and delivered to the proper mixed court of justice at the earliest possible moment.

The undersigned plenipotentiaries have agreed, in conformity with the XIth article of the treaty signed by them on this day, that the present instructions shall be annexed to the said treaty, and be considered an integral part thereof.

Done at Washington the seventh day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.

[L. S.] WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[L. S.] LYONS.


Art 1 Art 2 Art 3 Art 4 Art 5 Art 6 Art 7 Art 8 Art 9


Annex (B) to the Treaty between the United States of America and Great Britain, for the Abolition of the African Slave Trade, signed at Washington on the 7th day of April, 1862.

Regulations for the Mixed Courts of Justice. ARTICLE I. The mixed courts of justice to be established under the provisions of the treaty, of which these regulations are declared to be an integral part, shall be composed in the following manner:

The two high contracting parties shall each name a judge and an arbitrator, who shall be authorized to hear and to decide, without appeal, all cases of capture or detention of vessels which, in pursuance of the stipulations of the aforesaid treaty, shall be brought before them.

The judges and the arbitrators shall, before they enter upon the duties of their office, respectively make oath before the principal magistrate of the place in which such courts shall respectively reside, that they will judge fairly and faithfully; that they will have no preference either for claimant or for captor; and that they will act in all their decisions in pursuance of the stipulations of the aforesaid treaty.

There shall be attached to each of such courts a secretary or registrar, who shall be appointed by the party in whose territories such court shall reside.

Such secretary or registrar shall register all the acts of the court to which he is appointed; and shall, before he enters upon his office, make oath before the court, that he will conduct himself with due respect for its authority, and will act with fidelity and impartiality in all matters relating to his office.

The salaries of the judges and arbitrators shall be paid by the Governments by whom they are appointed.

The salary of the secretary or registrar of the court to be established in the territories of the United States shall be paid by the United States Government; and that of the secretaries or registrars of the two courts to be established in the territories of Great Britain shall be paid by her Britannic Majesty.

Each of the two Governments shall defray half of the aggregate amount of the other expenses of such courts.

ARTICLE II. The expenses incurred by the officer charged with the reception, maintenance, and care of the detained vessel, negroes, and cargo, and with the execution of the sentence, and all disbursements occasioned by bringing a vessel to adjudication, shall, in case of condemnation, be defrayed from the funds arising out of the sale of the materials of the vessel, after the vessel shall have been broken up, of the ship's stores, and of such parts of the cargo as shall consist of merchandise. And in ease the proceeds arising out of this sale should not prove sufficient to defray such expenses, the deficiency shall be made good by the Government of the country within whose territories the adjudication shall have taken place.

If the detained vessel shall be released, the expenses occasioned by bringing her to adjudication shall be defrayed by the captor, except in the cases specified and otherwise provided for under article VII. of the treaty to which these regulations form an annex, and under article VII. of these regulations.

ARTICLE III. The mixed courts of justice are to decide upon the legality of the detention of such vessels as the cruisers of either nation shall detain in pursuance of the said treaty.

The said courts shall adjudge definitively, and without appeal, all questions which shall arise out of the capture and detention of such vessels.

The proceedings of the courts shall take place as summarily as possible; and for this purpose the courts are required to decide each case, as far as may be practicable, within the space of twenty days, to be dated from the day on which the detained vessels shall have been brought into the port where the deciding court shall reside.

The final sentence shall not, in any case, be delayed beyond the period of two months, either on account of the absence of witnesses, or for any other cause, except upon the application of any of the parties interested; but in that case, upon such party or parties giving satisfactory security that they will take upon themselves the expense and risks of the delay, the courts may, at their discretion, grant an additional delay, not exceeding four months.

Either party shall be allowed to employ such counsel as he may think fit, to assist him in the conduct of his cause.

All the acts and essential parts of the proceedings of the said courts shall be committed to writing and be placed upon record.

ARTICLE IV. The form of the process, or mode of proceeding to judgment, shall be as follows:

The judges appointed by the two Governments, respectively, shall in the first place proceed to examine the papers of the detained vessel and shall take the deposition of the master or commander, and of two or three, at least, of the principal individuals on board of such vessel; and shall also take the declaration or oath of the captor, if it should appear to them necessary to do so, in order to judge and to pronounce whether the said vessel has been justly detained or not, according to the stipulations of the aforesaid treaty, and in order that, according to such judgment, the vessel may be condemned or released. In the event of the two judges not agreeing as to the sentence which they ought to pronounce in any case brought before them, whether with respect to the legality of the detention, or the liability of the vessel to condemnation, or as to the indemnification to be allowed, or as to any other question which may arise out of the said capture; or in case any difference of opinion should arise between them as to the mode of proceeding in the said court, they shall draw by lot the name of one of the two arbitrators so appointed as aforesaid, which arbitrator, after having considered the proceedings which have taken place, shall consult with the two judges on the case; and the final sentence or decision shall be pronounced conformably to the opinion of the majority of the three.

ARTICLE V. If the detained vessel shall be restored by the sentence of the court, the vessel and the cargo, in the state in which they shall then be found, (with the exception of the negroes found on board, if such negroes shall have been previously disembarked under the provisions of articles IV. and V. of the instructions annexed to the treaty of this date,) shall forthwith be given up to the master, or to the person who represents him; and such master or other person may, before the same court, claim valuation of the damages which he may have a right to demand. The captor himself, and, in his default, his Government, shall remain responsible for the damages to which the master of such vessel, or the owners either of the vessel or of her cargo, may be pronounced to be entitled.

The two high contracting parties bind themselves to pay, within the term of a year from the date of the sentence, the costs and damages which may be awarded by the court; it being mutually agreed that such costs and damages shall be paid by the Government of the country of which the captor shall be a subject.

ARTICLE VI. If the detained vessel shall be condemned, she shall be declared lawful prize, together with her cargo, of whatever description it may be, with the exception of the negroes who shall have been brought on board for the purpose of trade; and the said vessel, subject to the stipulations in the VIIIth article of the treaty of this date, shall, as well as her cargo, be sold by public sale for the profit of the two Governments, subject to the payment of the expenses hereinafter mentioned.

The negroes who may not previously have been disembarked shall receive from the court a certificate of emancipation, and shall be delivered over to the Government to whom the cruiser which made the capture belongs, in order to be forthwith set at liberty.

ARTICLE VII. The mixed courts of justice shall also take cognizance of, and shall decide definitively and without appeal, all claims for compensation on account of losses occasioned to vessels and cargoes which shall have been detained under the provisions of this treaty, but which shall not have been condemned as legal prize by the said courts; and in all cases wherein restitution of such vessels and cargoes shall be decreed, save as mentioned in the VIIth article of the treaty to which these regulations form an annex, and in a subsequent part of these regulations, the court shall award to the claimant or claimants, or to his or their lawful attorney or attorneys, for his or their use, a just and complete indemnification for all costs of suit, and for all losses and damages which the owner or owners may have actually sustained by such capture and detention; and it is agreed that the indemnification shall be as follows:

First. In case of total loss, the claimant or claimants shall be indemnified-

(A.) For the ship, her tackle, equipment and stores.

(B.) For all freights due and payable.

(C.) For the value of the cargo of merchandise, if any, deducting all charges, and expenses which would have been payable upon the sale of such cargo, including commission of sale.

(D.) For all other regular charges in such case of total loss.

Secondly. In all other cases (save as hereinafter mentioned) not of total loss, the claimant or claimants shall be indemnified-

(A.) For all special damages and expenses occasioned to the ship by the detention, and for loss of freight, when due or payable.

(B.) For demurrage when due, according to the schedule annexed to the present article.

(C.) For any deterioration of the cargo.

(D.) For all premium of insurance on additional risks.

The claimant or claimants shall be entitled to interest at the rate of 5 (five) per cent. per annum on the sum awarded, until such sum is paid by the Government to which the capturing ship belongs. The whole amount of such indemnifications shall be calculated in the money of the country to which the detained vessel belongs, and shall be liquidated at the exchange current at the time of the award.

The two high contracting parties, however, have agreed, that if it shall be proved to the satisfaction of the judges of the two nations, and without having recourse to the decision of an arbitrator, that the captor has been led into error by the fault of the master or commander of the detained vessel, the detained vessel in that case shall not have the right of receiving, for the time of her detention, the demurrage stipulated by the present article, nor any other compensation for losses, damages, or expenses consequent upon such detention

Schedule of demurrage or daily allowance for a vessel of-

100 tons to 120 tons, inclusive £5 per diem.
121 tons to 150 tons, " 6
151 tons to 170 tons, " 8
171 tons to 200 tons, " 10
201 tons to 220 tons, " 11
221 tons to 250 tons, " 12
251 tons to 270 tons, " 14
271 tons to 300 tons, " 15
And so on in proportion.

ARTICLE VIII. Neither the judges, nor the arbitrators, nor the secretaries or registrars of the mixed courts of justice, shall demand or receive from any of the parties concerned in the cases which shall be brought before such courts any emolument or gift, under any pretext whatsoever, for the performance of the duties which such judges, arbitrators, and secretaries or registrars have to perform.

ARTICLE IX. The two high contracting parties have agreed that, in the event of the death, sickness, absence on leave, or any other legal impediment of one or more of the judges or arbitrators composing the above-mentioned courts, respectively, the post of such judge or arbitrator shall be supplied, ad interim, in the following manner:

First. On the part of the United States, and in that court which shall sit within their territories: if the vacancy be that of the United States judge, his place shall be filled by the United States arbitrator; and either in that case, or in case the vacancy be originally that of the United States arbitrator, the place of such arbitrator shall be filled by the judge of the United States for the southern district of New York, and the said court, so constituted as above, shall sit, and in all cases brought before them for adjudication shall proceed to adjudge the same, and pass sentence accordingly.

Secondly. On the part of the United States of America, and in those courts which shall sit within the possessions of her Britannic Majesty: if the vacancy be that of the United States judge, his place shall be filled by the United States arbitrator; and either in that case, or in case the vacancy be originally that of the United States arbitrator, his place shall be filled by the United States Consul, or, in the unavoidable absence of the Consul, by the United States Vice-Consul. In case the vacancy be both of the United States judge and of the United States arbitrator, then the vacancy of the judge shall be filled by the United States Consul, and that of the United States arbitrator by the United States Vice-Consul. But if there be no United States Consul or Vice-Consul to fill the place of the United States arbitrator, then the British arbitrator shall be called in in those cases in which the United States arbitrator would be called in; and in case the vacancy be both of the United States judge and of the United States arbitrator, and there be neither United States Consul nor Vice-Consul to fill, ad interim, the vacancies, then the British judge and the British arbitrator shall sit, and, in all cases brought before them for adjudication, shall proceed to adjudge the same and pass sentence accordingly.

Thirdly. On the part of her Britannic Majesty, and in those courts which shall sit within the possessions of her said Majesty: if the vacancy be that of the British judge, his place shall be filled by the British arbitrator; and either in that case, or in case the vacancy be originally that of the British arbitrator the place of such arbitrator shall be filled by the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor resident in such possession; in his unavoidable absence, by the principal magistrate of the same; or in the unavoidable absence of the principal magistrate, by the secretary of the Government; and the said court, so constituted as above, shall sit, and, in all cases brought before it for adjudication, shall proceed to adjudge the same, and to pass sentence accordingly.

Fourthly. On the part of Great Britain, and in that court which shall sit within the territories of the United States of America: if the vacancy be that of the British judge, his place shall be filled by the British arbitrator; and either in that case or in case the vacancy be originally that of the British arbitrator, his place shall be filled by the British Consul; or in the unavoidable absence of the Consul, by the British Vice-Consul; and in case the vacancy be both of the British judge and the British arbitrator, then the vacancy of the British judge shall be filled by the British Consul, and that of the British arbitrator by the British Vice-Consul. But if there be no British Consul or Vice-Consul to fill the place of British arbitrator, then the United States arbitrator shall be called in in those cases in which the British arbitrator would be called in; and in case the vacancy be both of the British judge and of the British arbitrator, and there be neither British Consul nor Vice-Consul to fill, ad Term, the vacancies, then the United States judge and arbitrator shall sit, and in all cases brought before them for adjudication shall proceed to adjudge the same, and pass sentence accordingly.

The chief authority of the place in the territories of either high contracting party where the mixed courts of justice shall sit, shall, in the event of a vacancy arising, either of the judge or the arbitrator of the I other high contracting party, forthwith give notice of the same by the most expeditious method in his power to the Government of that other high contracting party, in order that such vacancy may be supplied at the earliest possible period.

And each of the high contracting parties agrees to supply definitively, as soon as possible, the vacancies which may arise in the above-mentioned I courts from death, or from any other cause whatever.

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries have agreed, in conformity with the XIth article of the treaty signed by them on this day, that the preceding regulations shall be annexed to the said treaty and considered an integral part thereof.

Done at Washington the seventh day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.

[L. S.] WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[L. S.] LYONS.

And whereas the said treaty has been duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged at London, on the twentieth ultimo, by Charles Francis Adams, Esq.re, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at the Court of St. James, and Earl Russell, her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, on the part of their respective Governments.

Now, therefore, be it known that I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United States of America, have caused the said treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this seventh day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty two, and of the independence of the United States of America the eighty-sixth.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.