Treaty of Chaumont

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TREATY of Union, Concert, and Subsidy, between Britannic Majesty and His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty the Emperor of Austria.—Signed at Chaumont, the 9th of March, 1814.[1]
The plenipotentiaries of the high powers who signed the treaty
This is the treaty between Great Britain and Austria. Treaties containing the same Stipulations, verbatim, were concluded on the same day between Great Britain and Prussia, and Russia, respectively.[2] The Treaties between Great Britain and Russia and Prussia are couched in exactly the same terms as the above. They are therefore not inserted in the Parliamentary record.[3] The Treaty was drawn up in French—the lingua franca of diplomacy at the time. The treaty was signed on the 9th or 14th of March, but was dated 1st March.

In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, and His Majesty the King of Prussia, having transmitted to the French Government proposals for concluding a General Peace, and being desirous, should France refuse the Conditions therein contained, to draw closer the ties which unite them for the vigorous prosecution of a War undertaken for the salutary purpose of putting an end to the miseries of Europe, of securing its future repose, by re-establishing a just balance of Power, and being at the same time desirous, should the Almighty bless their pacific intentions, to fix the means of maintaining against every attempt the order of things which shall have been the happy consequence of their efforts, have agreed to sanction by a solemn Treaty, signed separately by each of the 4 Powers with the 3 others, this twofold engagement.

In consequence, His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has named to discuss, settle, and sign the Conditions of the present Treaty, with His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the Right Honourable Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, one of His said Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Member of Parliament, Colonel of the Londonderry Regiment of Militia, and Ins Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, &c., &c., &c , and His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty having named, on his part, the Sieur Clement Wenceslaus Lothaire, Prince Metternich Winueburgh Ochseuhausen, Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen, Knight of the Russian Orders of St. Andrew, of St. Alexander Newsky, and of St. Anne, of the First Class, Knight of the Prussian Orders of the Black and Red Eagles, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Joseph of Wurtzburg, Knight of the Order of St.Hubert of Bavaria, of the Golden Eagle of Wurlemburg, and of several others, his Chamberlain, Privy Councilor, Minister of State, of Conferences, and of Foreign Affairs.

The said Plenipotentiaries, after having exchanged their Full Powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

Art. I. The High Contracting Parties above named solemnly engage by the present Treaty, and in the event of France refusing to accede to the Conditions of Peace now proposed, to apply all the means of their respective States to the vigorous prosecution of the War against that Power, and to employ them in perfect concert, in order to obtain for themselves and for Europe a General Peace, under the protection of which the rights and liberties of all Nations may be established and secured.

This engagement shall in no respect affect the Stipulations which the several Powers have already contracted relative to the number of Troops to be kept against the Enemy ; and it is understood that the Courts of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, engage by the present Treaty to keep in the field, each of them, 150,000 effective men, exclusive of garrisons, to be employed in active service against the common Enemy.

II. The High Contracting Parties reciprocally engage not to negotiate separately with the common Enemy, nor to sign Peace, Truce, nor Convention, but with common consent. They, moreover, engage not to lay down their Arms until the object of the War, mutually understood and agreed upon, shall have been attained.

III. In order to contribute in the most prompt and decisive manner to fulfil this great object, His Britannic Majesty engages to furnish a Subsidy of £5,000,000 for the service of the year 1814, to be divided in equal proportions amongst the 3 Powers: and His said Majesty promises moreover to arrange, before the 1st of January in each year, with Their Imperial and Royal Majesties, the further Succours to be furnished during the subsequent year, if (which God forbid) the War should so long continue.

The Subsidy above stipulated of £5,000,000 shall be paid in London, by monthly instalments, and in equal proportions, to the Ministers of the respective Powers duly authorized to receive the same.

In case Peace should be signed between the Allied Powers and France before the expiration of the year, the Subsidy, calculated upon the scale of £5,000,000, shall be paid up to the end of the month in which the Definitive Treaty shall have been signed; and His Britannic Majesty promises, in addition, to pay to Austria and to Prussia 2 months, and to Russia 4 months, over and above the stipulated Subsidy, to cover the expenses, of the return of their Troops within their own Frontiers.

IV. The High Contracting Parties will be entitled respectively to accredit to the Generals commanding their Armies, Officers, who will be allowed to correspond with their Governments, for the purpose of informing them of the Military events, and of everything which relates to the operations of the Armies.

V. The High Contracting Parties, reserving to themselves to concert together, on the conclusion of a Peace with France, as to the means best adapted to guarantee to Europe, and to themselves reciprocally, the continuance of the Peace, have also determined to enter, without delay, into defensive engagements for the protection of their respective States in Europe against every attempt which France might make to infringe the order of things resulting from such Pacification.

VI. To effect this, they agree that in the event of one of the High Contracting Parlies being threatened with an attack on the part of France, the others shall employ their most strenuous efforts to prevent it, by friendly interposition.

VII. In the case of these endeavours proving ineffectual, the High Contracting Parlies promise to come to the immediate assistance of the Power attacked, each with a body of 60,000 men.

Art. VIII. Such auxiliary corps shall respectively consist of fifty thousand infantry and ten thousand cavalry, with a train of artillery, and ammunition in proportion to the number of troops: the auxiliary corps shall be ready to take the field in the most effective manner, for the safety of the power attacked or threatened, within two months at latest after the requisition shall have been made.

IX. As the situation of the Seat of War, or other circumstances, might render it difficult for Great Britain to furnish the stipulated Succours in English Troops within the term prescribed, and to maintain the same on a War establishment, His Britannic Majesty reserves the right of furnishing his Contingent to the requiring Power in Foreign Troops in his pay, or to pay annually to that Power a sum of money, at the rate of £20 per each man for Infantry, and of £30 for Cavalry, until the stipulated Succour shall be complete.

The mode of furnishing this Succour by Great Britain shall be settled amicably, in each particular case, between His Britannic Majesty and the Power threatened or attacked, as soon as the requisition shall be made: the same principle shall be adopted wilh regard to the Forces which His Britannic Majesty engages to furnish by the 1st Article of the present Treaty.

X. The Auxiliary Army shall be under the orders of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the requiring Power; it shall be commanded by its own General, and employed in all military operations according to the rules of War. The pay of the Auxiliary Army shall be defrayed by the requiring Power; the rations and portions of provisions and forage, &c., as well as quarters, shall be furnished by the requiring Power as soon as the Auxiliary Army shall have passed its own Frontier; and that upon the same footing as the said Power maintains, or shall maintain, its own Troops in the field or in quarters.

XI. The discipline and administration of the Troops shall solely depend upon their own Commander; they shall not be separated. The trophies and booty taken from the Enemy shall belong to the Troops who take them.

XII. Whenever the amount of the stipulated Succours shall be found inadequate to the exigency of the case, the High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves to make, without loss of time, an ulterior arrangement as to the additional Succours which it may be deemed necessary to furnish.

XIII. The High Contracting Parties mutually promise, that in case they shall be reciprocally engaged in Hostilities, in consequence of furnishing the stipulated Succours, the Party requiring and the Parties called upon, and acting as Auxiliaries in the War, shall not not make Peace but by common consent.

XIV. The Engagements contracted by the present Treaty, shall not prejudice those which the High Contracting Parties may have entered into with other Powers, nor prevent them from forming new engagements with other States, with a view of obtaining the same salutary result.

XV. In order to render more effectual the Defensive Engagements above stipulated, by uniting for their common defence the Powers the most exposed to a French invasion, the High Contracting Parties engage to invite those Powers to accede to the present Treaty of Defensive Alliance.

XVI. The present Treaty of Defensive Alliance having for its object to maintain the equilibrium of Europe, to secure the repose and independence of its States, and to prevent the invasions which during so many years have desolated the World, the High Contracting Parties have agreed to extend the duration of it to 20 years, to take date from the day of its Signature; and they reserve to themselves, to concert upon its ulterior prolongation, 3 years before its expiration, should circumstances require it.

XVII. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the Ratifications exchanged within 2 months, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and affixed thereto the Seal of their Arms.

Done at Chaumont this 1st of March in the year of our Lord 1814.

(L.S.) CASTLEREAGH.
(L.S.) CLEMENT WENCESLAUS LOTHAIRE, PRINCE OF METTERNICH.

Additional Article[edit]

Additional Article between Great Britain and Russia.— Chaumont, 1st March, 1814.

His Britannic Majesty engages for the year 1814, to provide for the maintenance of the Russian Fleet, and its Crews, now in the Ports of England. The expense is estimated at £500,000 sterling.

In the event of Peace with France, or of the departure of the said Fleet on its return to Russia in the course of the year, His Britannic Majesty shall provide for its maintenance for 4 months, reckoning from the day of the Signature of the Peace, or of the departure of the Fleet from the Ports of England.

The present Additional Article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted word for word in the Treaty Patent of this day.

It shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and affixed to it the Seal of their Arms.

Done at Chaumont, the 1st of March in the year of our Lord 1814.

(L.S.) CASTLEREAGH.
(L.S.) CHARLES ROBERT, COMTE DE NESSELRODE.

Notes[edit]

  1. British and foreign state papers pp. 121–129
  2. British and foreign state papers p. 121 footnote
  3. Handsard p. 627

References[edit]

  • Complied by the Librarian and Keeper of the papers, Foreign Office, British and foreign state papers 1814—1815 Volume 2, James Ridgway and sons, 1839. pp. 121–129
  • Hansard, Thomas Curson. The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, Vol. XXVII. (period 4 November 1813 – 6 June 1814), Longman et al. 2 May 1914, pp.623–627