1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Schwarz, Christian Friedrich

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SCHWARZ (or Schwartz), CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (1726-1798), German Protestant missionary to India, was born on the 8th of October 1726 at Sonnenburg, in the electorate of Brandenburg, Prussia. Having learned Tamil to assist in a translation of the Bible into that language, he was led to form the intention of becoming a missionary to India. He received ordination at Copenhagen on the 8th of August 1749, and, after spending some time in England to acquire the English language, embarked early in 1750 for India, and arrived at Trichinopoly on the 30th of July. Tranquebar was for some time his headquarters, but he paid frequent visits to Tanjore and Trichinopoly, and in 1766 removed to the latter place. Here he acted as chaplain to the garrison, who erected a church for his general use. In 1769 he secured the friendship of the raja of Tanjore, who, although he never embraced Christianity, afforded him every countenance in his missionary labours. Shortly before his death he committed to Schwarz the education of his adopted son and successor. In 1779 Schwarz undertook, at the request of the Madras government, a private embassy to Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore. When Hyder invaded the Carnatic, Schwarz was allowed to pass through the enemy's camp without molestation. After twelve years in Trichinopoly he removed to Tanjore, where he spent the remainder of his life. He died on the 13th of February 1798. Schwarz's direct success in making converts exceeded that of any other Protestant missionary in India, in addition to which he succeeded in winning the esteem of Mahommedans and Hindus. The raja of Tanjore erected a monument, executed by Flaxman, in the mission church, in which he is represented as grasping the hand of the dying missionary and receiving his benediction. A splendid monument to Schwarz by Bacon was placed by the East India Company in St Mary's church at Madras.

See Remains of Schwarz, with a sketch of his life (1826); Memoirs of Life and Correspondence, by H. N. Pearson (1834, 3rd ed. 1839); Life, by H. N. Pearson (1855).