A General History for Colleges and High Schools (Myers)/Index

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Pronunciations are in Wiktionary, or another online dictionary.

A[edit]

Aachen, 408.

Abbas, 400.

Abbassides, house of, 400.

Abderrahman, 399.

Abubekr, first caliph, 395.

Abukir, battle of, 670.

Absalom, son of David, 65.

Academy, the, at Athens, 207.

Accad, 41, 45.

Accadians, civilization of, 41.

Achaeans, the 90, 91, 97.

Achaean League, 175.

Achaia, the name, 97.

Achilles, 95, 106, n.

Acre, siege of, by crusaders, 445.

Acropolis, Athenian, 180.

Actium, battle of , 304.

Addison, Joseph, 629.

Adolphus, Gustavus, k. of Sweden, 583, 585.

Adonijah, 65.

Adrianople, peace of, 693.

Aegatian Islands, naval battle near, in First Punic War, 253.

Aegean Sea, 88, 89.

Aegina, 220.

Aegisthus, 96.

Aegospotami, capture of Athenian fleet at, 154.

Aemilianus, Scipio, 271, 272.

Aeneas, 96.

Aeolians, the, 236; migration to Asia Minor, 97.

Aeolus, 103.

Aequians, the, 236.

Aeschines, 199, 200.

Aeschylus, 193, 194.

Aetius, Roman general, 345.

Aetolian league, 175.

Africa, circumnavigation of, in reign of Necho II., 26.

Africa (North), conquest of, by the Arabs, 397.

Agade, 42.

Agamemnon, 92, 95.

Agincourt, battle of, 486.

Agora, the, 98.

Agrarian troubles at Rome, 274-277.

Agricola, 314, 315.

Agrippina, 312.

Ahmes. See Amosis.

Ahriman, 83, 84.

Ahura Mazda. See Ormazd.

AixlaChapelle, treaty of, 593; peace of, 645.

Ajax, 95.

Alaric, his first invasion of Italy, 339; sacks Rome, 342; his death, 343.

Alba Longa, 223.

Albertus Magnus, 471.

Albigenses, 493, 494.

Alcibiades, leader at Athens, 151, 152, 153, 154; as a pupil of Socrates, 206, 207.

Alcmaeonidae, first banishment from Athens, 120; second banishment, 122; contract to rebuild the Delphian temple, 122, 123.

Alemanni, the, 336.

Alexander I., czar, 678; II., 696-699; his assassination, 699; III., 699.

Alexander the Great, 161-167; division of the Empire of, 170.

Alexandria, in Egypt, founding of, 163.

Alexandrian Age in Greek Literature, 201, 202. Museum and Library, 173, 201; library destroyed by the Saracens, 397.

Alexius Comnenus I., Greek emp., 440.

Alfred the Great, K. of England, 412.

Algiers, 533, n.

Ali, caliph, 395, 399.

Allah, 395.

Allia, battle of, 239, 240.

Allodial Lands. – Lands held in one’s own right, without being subject to any rent or service to a superior. See p. 424.

Alphabet, origin of, 72; spread of, 72.

Alsace, ceded to the German Empire, 691.

Alva, d. of, 565, 566.

Amasis, k. of Egypt, 33, 110, n.

Amazons, 186.

Amboise, conspiracy of, 574.

America, discovery of, by Columbus, 513, 514.

American colonies (English), separation from England, 632.

Amerigo Vespucci, 468, n.

Amiens, peace of, 674.

Ammon, oasis of, 77. Zeus, 163.

Amosis, 21.

Amphictyony, the Delphian, 108, 160.

Amphitheatre, Flavian. See Colosseum.

Amrou, 397.

Amunoph III., 22.

Amurath I., 462.

Amytis, 62.

Anacreon, 192.

Anaxagoras, 205.

Anaximander, 203.

Anaximenes, 203.

Anchises, 96.

Ancus Martius, 225.

Anglo Saxons, enter Britain, 344, their conquest of, 375; their conversion, 378-381.

Angora, battle of, 462.

Angro Mainyus. See Ahriman.

Anne of Austria, regent, 591.

Anne, q. of England,, reign, 628, 629.

Annus Mirabilis, 620.

Anthony, k. of Navarre, 573.

Antioch, 171; captured by the crusaders, 442.

Antiochus III., the Great, 171, 172, 268.

Antipater, 174.

Antiquity of Man, 1.

Antoninus Pius, Roman emp., 321.

Antony, Mark, his oration at Caesar’s funeral, 299, 300; enters second triumvirate, 301; usurpations of, 301; revels with Cleopatra, 303; flees from Actium, 304; his death, 304.

Antwerp, 567.

Apelles, 189.

Apennines, 222.

Aphrodite, 102; statue of, at Cnidus, 186.

Apis, 29.

Apocrypha, the, 69.

Apollo, 102; oracles of, 104, 106.

Appius Claudius Caecus, 245.

Appius Claudius, the decimvir, 237, 238.

Appeals, Statue of, 546.

Apulia, 222.

Aquae Sextiae, battle of, 279.

Aqueduct, Claudian, 311.

Aqueducts, Roman, 352.

Aquinas, Thomas, 471.

Arabia, 392.

Arabs, character of, 392; religious condition before Mohammed, 392; spread of their religion and language, 401.

Aragon, 498.

Arbela, battle of, 163, 164.

Arcadia, 87, 97.

Arcadius, Eastern Roman emp., 338.

Arch of Constantine, 353. Titus, 314.

Archimedes, 213, 263.

Architecture, Assyrian, 55, 56; Babylonian 61, 62; Chaldaean, 43, 44; Grecian, 176-182; Pelasgian, 176, 177; Persian, 84-86; Roman, 350-353.

Architecture, Greek orders of, 177.

Archons, the, 119.

Areopagus, court of the, 121.

Ares, 102.

Argolis, 87, 117.

Argonauts, the, 94.

Argos, 130.

Arianism, 332.

Aristarchus, 213.

Aristides, the Just, his ostracism, 129; leader at Athens, 137, 138.

Aristophanes, 195, 196.

Aristotle, 208-210.

Armada, Invincible, 558-560.

Arminius, 308.

Army, standing, of England, beginning of, 619; increased by James II., 622.

Aricia, 244.

Arridaeus, Philip, 170, n.

Artaphernes, Persian general, 126.

Artaxerxes II., k. of Persia, 81.

Artemis, 102.

Artemisia, 182.

Artois, 591.

Arverni, 292.

Aryans, migrations of, 4, 5; early culture of, 5, 6; importance of Aryan studies, 6; enter India, 8.

Aspasia, 217.

Asshur, emblem of, 53. Asshurbanipal, pp. 50-51.

Assyria, political history of, 48-51.

Assyrian Literature, 57.

Assyrians, religion, arts, and general culture of, 52-57; character of, 53; their palaces and temples, 55.

Astrology among the Chaldaeans, 45.

Astyages, king of the Medes, 74.

Athena, 102; colossal statue of, by Phidias, 185.

Athenian constitution, reformed by Solon, 120; by Clisthenes, 123.

Athenian Empire, basis of, 138; strength and weakness, 145, 146.

Athenian supremacy, period of, 136-146.

Athenians, mixed origin of, 117.

Athens, early history of, 117-124; site of, 118; kings of, 118, 119; burned by Persians, 133, 134; rebuilding of, 136; Long Walls of, 142; pestilence at, 148, 149; condition at end of Peloponnesian War, 155; social life at, 219, 220; population of, 220, n.

Athos, Mount, 130; wreck of Persian fleet near, 80.

Attica, population of, 117, 220, n.

Attila, 345, 346.

Auerstadt, battle of, 678.

Augurs, college of, at Rome, 230.

Augsburg, Religious Peace of, 533; League of, 595.

Augustine, his mission to the Angles and Saxons, 378.

Augustus, Caesar, reign of, 305-309.

Augustus the Strong, k. of Poland, 637.

Augustulus. See Romulus Augustus.

Aurelian, Roman emp., 329.

Aurelius, Marcus, Roman emp., 321-323.

Austerlitz, battle of, 677.

Austria, house of, 507.

Austrian Succession, War of the, 644, 645.

Austro-Sardinian War, 711, 712.

Aventine, 227.

Avignon, removal of papal chair to, 457.

Azof, conquest of, by Peter the Great, 634.

B[edit]

Babel, tower of, 46.

Babylon, taken by Cyrus, 60, 68; great edifices of, 61, 62.

Babylonia, the name, 43.

Babylonian history, 58-60; temples and palaces, 61, 62.

Bacchus. See Dionysus.

Bacon, Sir Francis, 562, n., 605.

Bacon, Roger, 471.

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, 555.

Bactria, conquest of, by Alexander, 164, 165.

Bagdad, founded, 400.

Bailly, French statesman, 652.

Bajazet, 462.

Balaklava, 695.

Baldwin, count of Flanders, 446.

Balearic Islands, 247.

Balliol, John, k. of Scotland, 482.

Bannockburn, battle of, 483.

Barbadoes, 614.

Barbarossa, Algerian pirate, 532, n.

Barrack emperors, the, 325.

Basques, 3, 405.

Bastile, storming of the, 652.

Batavian Republic, 674, 676, n.

Battues, 665.

Bautzen, battle of 685.

Bayard, Chevalier, 532.

Behistun Rock, 79.

Belgium, kingdom of, 568, n.; revolution in, 689, n.

Belisarius, 372, 389.

Belshazzar, 60.

Beluchistan, 166.

Benedictines, order of the, 383.

Beneventum, battle of , 246.

Benevolences, 541; resorted to, by Charles I., 606.

Beresina, the, 684.

Bergen, 469.

Bergerac, peace of, 575, n.

Berlin decree, 679.

Berlin, treaty of (1878), 697, 698.

Bessarabia, 698.

Bestia, Roman consul, 277.

Bias 203, n.

Bismarck, Otto von, 703.

Bithynia, 442.

Black Death, 485, n., 486, n.

Black Prince, 485.

Blenheim, battle of, 597.

Bloody Assizes, 622.

Blucher, 687.

Boccaccio, 474.

Boeotia, 87.

Boeotian League, 148.

Boii, Gallic tribe, 255.

Boleyn, Anne, 544, 546, 549.

Bonaparte, Jerome, 679.

Bonaparte, Louis, 676, n.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, defends the convention, 666; his Italian campaigns, 668; in Egypt, 669; in Syria, 670; overthrows the Directory, 671; First Consul, 673-675; proclaimed emperor, 675; his wars, 676-685; his second marriage, 681; at the summit of his power, 681, 682; fist abdication, 685; second abdication, 688; his death, 688.

Bordeaux, 665.

Borodino, battle of, 683.

Borsippa, temple of the Seven Spheres at, 61.

Bosnia, 698.

Bosphorus, 79.

Bosworth Field, battle of, 488.

Boulak Museum, 39.

Boulogne, 677.

Bourbon, Constable of, 531.

Bourbon, house of, in Huguenot Wars, 573, 574, 575, 578; Henry IV., k. of France, 578, 579. For other kings of this house, see Louis.

Boyne, battle of the, 627.

Braddock, General, 631.

Bradshaw, John, 613.

Brahma, 10.

Brahmanism, 9-11; modified by Buddhism, 12.

Brahmans, 8.

Brandenburg, 587; mark of, 642.

Brasidas, Spartan general, 150.

Brennus, 241.

Bretigny, treaty of, 486, n.

Britain, invaded by Caesar, 292; conquest of, by Claudius, 311; the Hadrian Wall, 320.

Bruce, Robert, k. of Scotland, 483.

Bruges, 469.

Brumaire, 671.

Brundisium, 295.

Brundusium, 447.

Brunswick, house of. See Hanover.

Brutium, 222.

Brutus, L Junius, 232.

Brutus, the liberator, 299, 300, 302, 303.

Bucephala, 165.

Buddha, 11.

Buddhism, 11, 12; introduced into China, 17.

Bunyan, John, 617, 618.

Burgundians, conversion of, 378.

Burleigh, Lord. See Cecil.

Busentinus, river, 344.

Butler, Samuel, 625.

Byron, Lord, 693, n.

Byzantium, 332, 333.

C[edit]

Caaba, 392, 393.

Cabot, John, 542; Sebastian, 542.

Cadmus, 92.

Caesar, Julius, proscribed by Sulla, 283, 284; early life, 291; forms the First Triumvirate, 291; his Commentaries, 292; his campaigns in Gaul and Britain, 292, 293; civil war with Pompey, 293-296; defeats Pharnaces, 296; his triumph, 297; his genius as a statesman, 297, 298; his death, 298, 299.

Caesarion, 304.

Cairo, 32, 401.

Caius, grandson of Augustus, 308.

Caius Caesar. See Caligula.

Calabria, 222.

Calais, captured by the English, 485; lost, 553.

Caledonians, the, 315.

Calendar, origin of, in Egypt, 36; reformed by Caesar, 298.

Caligula, Roman emp., 310, 311.

Caliphate, the, changes in, 399; golden are of, 400; dismembered, 400.

Callimachus, 177.

Calmar, union of, 512.

Calonne, 650.

Calvin, John, 525, 526 and n.

Cambunian Mountains, 87.

Cambyses, k. of Persia, 77.

Camillus, dictator, 239, 241.

Campania, 222.

Campeggio, 545.

Campo Formio, treaty of, 668.

Campus Martius, 227.

Cannae, battle of, 261.

Canossa, 454.

Canute, 412.

Cape Breton Island, 542.

Capetians. See France. Capetian kings, 491, n.

Capitoline Hill, 226; temple, 227.

Capreae, island of, 309, 310.

Capua, opens its gates to the Carthaginians, 262; destroyed by the Romans, 263.

Caracalla, Roman emp., 326, 327.

Caractacus, 311.

Carbonari, 709.

Caria, 268.

Carlstadt, 524.

Carmania, 166.

Carolingian family, beginning of, 404; extinction of, 409.

Carthage, 247; empire of, 247; government of, 247; compared with Rome, 248; destroyed by the Romans, 271; rebuilt by Caesar, 297.

Carthage, New, in Spain, 257, 259.

Carthaginian Empire, 247; government and religion, 247. See Punic Wars.

Carus, Roman emp., 329.

Cassander, 170, 171.

Cassius, the liberator, 299, 300, 302, 303.

Castes among Hindus, origin of, 89, n.

Castile, union with Aragon, 498.

Catacombs, Roman, 331.

Cateau Cambresis, treaty of, 536.

Cathay, 13.

Cathedral building, 505.

Catherine (the Great) of Russia, 639-641.

Catholic Emancipation Act, 722.

Catiline, conspiracy of, 289, 290.

Cato, the Censor, 270.

Catullus, 354.

Catulus, Roman consul, 253.

Caucasian Race, 2, 3.

Caucasus, 71.

Cavaliers, in English civil war, 610.

Cavour, Count, 711.

Cawnpore, 727.

Cayster, river, 75.

Cecil, Robert, 555.

Cecil, Sir William (Lord Burleigh), 555.

Cecropia, 92.

Cecrops, 92.

Celts, the, 4, 7, 369; Christianity among, 379-381.

Celtiberians, the, 272.

Cenobites, 383.

Censors, the Roman, 238.

Centaurs, 104.

Cerberus, 104.

Chaeronea, battle of, 160, 161.

Chalcidici, 160.

Chaldaea, political history of, 40-43.

Chaldaean literature, 44-47; religion, 45, 46; mythology, 46.

Chaldaeans, mixed character of, 41; arts, religion, and general culture of, 43-47.

Chalons, battle of, 345.

Champollion, 36.

Chantry “An endowed chapel where one or more priests daily sing or say mass for the souls of the donors, or such as they appoint.”—Webster.

Charlemagne, reign, 403-408; restores the Empire in the West, 406; his death, 408.

Charles, archd. of Austria, 596, 597.

Charles the Bold, d. of Burgundy, 495.

Charles I., k. of England, reign, 606-612; his execution, 612; II., reign, 618-621.

Charles VII., k. of France, 486, 487; VIII., 495, 496; IX., 574, 575, 576, 577.

Charles V., emp. H. R. E., reign, 530-534; his cloister life, 534, 535; VI., 644, 645.

Charles, cardinal of Lorraine, 573.

Charles Martel, 399, 403.

Charles II., k. of Spain, 596.

Charles the Simple, of France, 413.

Chartism, 718.

Charybdis, 104.

Chastenoy, peace of, 575, n.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 490.

Chedorlaomer, 43.

Che Hwang-te, 13.

Cheops. See Kufu.

Cheviot, Hills, 543, n.

Chilo, 203, n.

Chilperic, 404.

China, ancient history of, 12-17; Great Wall of, 13; religions in, 16; ancestor worship in, 17.

Chinese Writing, 14; literature, 14-16; great wall, 13, n.; morality, 16; competitive examinations, 16.

Chios, 88.

Chivalry, defined, 429; origin, 429; training of the knight, 430; ceremonies of knighting, 430; the tournament, 431; decline of, 431; influence of, 432.

Chosroes, k. of Persia, 390.

Christ, birth of, 308; crucifixion of 310.

Christian IV., k. of Denmark, 583.

Christianity, causes of rapid spread of, in the Roman E., 310; early spread of, 319, 320; under Constantine, 332, 333; under Julian the Apostate, 334, 335; under Jovian, 335; conversion to, of the Goths, 336; influence of, upon gladiatorial combats, 340; rapid progress of, 343; introduced among the Teutonic tribes, 377-384; abolished, during French Revolution, 661, 662; restored, 666.

Christians, persecutions of, under Nero, 312, 313; under Domitian, 317; under Trajan, 319; under Aurelius, 322; under Diocletian, 330, 331.

Churchill, John. See Marlborough.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, prosecutes Verres, 287; oration against Catiline, 290; death of, 302.

Cid, Poem of the, 501.

Cilicia, 287, 288.

Cimbri, the, 278, 279.

Cimon, Athenian statesman, 139, 140.

Cincinnatus, 236.

Cinderella, romance of, 36.

Cinna, 291.

Circeii, 281.

Circensian Games, 231.

Circus Maximus, 227, 350, 352.

Cirrha, 108.

Cisalpina, Gallia, 222.

Cisalpine Republic, proclaimed, 668; changed into kingdom of Italy, 676, n.

City, the, Greek idea of, 92.

Civilization, three elements of, 368.

Claudius, Roman consul, 251, 252.

Claudius, Roman emp., 311, 312.

Cleobulus, 203, n.

Cleon, Athenian demagogue, 149, 150.

Cleopatra, 303, 304.

Clermont, council of, 440.

Cleves, Anne of, 549.

Clients, in Rome, 225.

Clisthenes, reforms of, 123.

Clitus, 165.

Clive, Robert, 725.

Cloaca Maxima, 226.

Clovis, 374; his conversion, 378.

Clytemnestra, 96.

Cnidus, 186.

Code Napoleon, 675.

Codrus, k. of Athens, 118, 119.

Coele Syria, 288.

Colbert, 592.

Colchis, 71.

Colet, 540.

Coligny, Gaspard de, admiral of France, 573, 574, 576.

Collatinus, Tarquinius, 232.

Colonies, Greek, 110, 111; Roman and Latin, 246, n.

Colosseum, the, 315, 316, 352.

Columbus, his first voyage, 513, 514.

Comitia, centuriata, 227; curiata, 224, 227; tributa, 235, n.

Commodus, Roman emp., 324, 325.

Commons, English House of, origin, 480, 481; privileges of, 603, 604. See Parliament and Reform Bill.

Commonwealth, the English, 613-617.

Confucius, 15, 16, 17.

Conrad III., emp. H. R. E., 444.

Conradin, last of Hohenstaufen family, 504, n.

Constance, church council of, 458.

Constantine the Great, 332, 333.

Constantine VI., Eastern emp., 406.

Constantinople, founding of, 332, 333; besieged by the Saracens, 398; capture of, by the crusaders, 446; the Latin Empire, 446.

Constantius, Roman emp., 331, 332, 334.

Consuls, Roman, first, 232.

Continental system of Napoleon, 679.

Conventicle act, 619.

Cora, 244.

Corcyra, 88, 148.

Corcyraeans, the, 147.

Corday, Charlotte, 660.

Cordeliers, origin of, 654; clubs closed, 666.

Cordova, 398.

Corfinium, 280.

Corfu. See Corcyra.

Corinth, Congress of Greeks at, 130, 131; in Peloponnesian War, 147, 148; sacked by Rome, 175; destruction of, by Romans, 269.

Coriolanus, legend of, 235.

Corn, free distribution of, at Rome, 364.

Corneille, 599.

Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, 277.

Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, sarcophagus of, 365.

Coroebus, 106.

Corpus Juris Civilis, 358; study of, in mediaeval age, 388.

Corsica, acquired by Rome, 254.

Cortez, Hernando, 516.

Cos, 98.

Cosmography of the Greeks, 101.

Council, first, of Church, 332; of the North, 607 and n.

Covenanters, the, origin of, 608; persecuted under Charles II., 619.

Cranmer, Thomas, 546, 553.

Crassus, the triumvir, 290, 291; war with Parthia, 293; his death, 293.

Crecy, battle of, 484.

Crete, 89, 99.

Crimea, conquered by Catherine the Great of Russia, 640.

Crimean War, 694-696, 726.

Crissa, 108.

Croesus, k. of Lydia, 75, 76.

Cromwell, Oliver, his “Ironsides,” 611; Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 613; ejects the Long Parliament, 614; as Lord Protector, 615, 616; his death, 616.

Cromwell, Richard, 616.

Cromwell, Thomas, 545, 546.

Crotona, III. [No page(s) were given.]

Crusades, 438-451. See Table of Contents. Causes of, 438; results, 449-451.

Cryptia, the, 115.

Cuba, 538, n.

Cuneiform writing, origin of, 44; key to, 79, n.

Curio Dentatus, Roman consul, 246, 296.

Cyaxares, k. of the Medes, 74.

Cyclades, the, 88.

Cyclops, the, 104, 176.

Cydnus, the, 303.

Cylon, rebellion of, 119, 120.

Cynics, the, 210.

Cynoscephalae, battle of, 267.

Cyrene, 111.

Cyrus the Great, k. of Persia, 74-77.

Cyrus the Younger, 156.

Cythera, 88, 89.

Czar, the name, 637, n.

D[edit]

Dacia, conquered by Trajan, 320.

Danes, in England, 411, 412.

Dante, 474.

Danton, 655; urges the massacre of the royalists, 656; member of the committee of public safety, 659; his fall, 663.

Dark Ages, 366; history of, 371.

Darius I., k. of Persia, 78-80; reforms of, in government, 82; III., 82.

Datis, Persian general, 126.

David, k. of the Hebrews, 64.

Decelea, 153.

Decelean War, 153.

Decemvirs, first board of, 237; second, 237, 238.

Decius, Roman emp., 328.

Declaration of Indulgence, 622.

Declaration of Rights, English, 624; Irish, 632.

Defoe, Daniel, 629.

Delhi, 727.

Delium, battle of, 150.

Delos, 88; confederacy of, 137, 138; converted into an empire by the Athenians, 138, 139.

Delphi, 87; temple at, 179; oracle at. See Delphian oracle.

Delphian oracle, 105, 106; in Persian War, 131,134.

Demeter, 103.

Democritus, 205.

Demosthenes, Athenian general, 152.

Demosthenes, the Athenian orator, 160, 174, 199-201.

Desiderius, k. of the Lombards, 405.

Diana, temple of, at Ephesus, 178, 179

Di Cesnola, 179, n.

Dictator, office of, at Rome, 232, n.

Diocletian, Roman emp., 329-332.

Diogenes, 210.

Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, 207.

Dionysus, 103, 193; theatre of, at Athens, 182.

Disestablishment of the Irish Church, 722, 723; proposed disestablishment of State Church in England and Scotland, 723.

Disraeli, 727.

Dissenters, Protestant, civil disabilities removed from, 721.

Divination among the Greeks, 104; among the Romans, 229.

Divine Right of Kings, doctrine of the, 590-601; denied in the Bill of Rights, 626.

Dodona, oracle at, 87, 105.

Domitian, Roman emp., 317.

Don Quixote, 625.

Dorians, the, 90, 91; invasion of the Peloponnesus, 96, 97; migrations to Asia Minor, 98.

Draco, laws of, 119.

Dragonnades, the 595.

Drake, Sir Francis, 560, 570.

Drama, the Greek, 193-196.

Drogheda, 613.

Dryden, John, 625.

Duillius, C., Roman consul, 249.

Dunbar, battle of, 614.

Duns Scotus, 471.

Dutch Republic. See Netherlands.

Dutch War, in reign of Charles II., 620.

E[edit]

East India Company, chartered by Elizabeth, 603.

Eastern Empire, 389-391.

Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, 418.

Ecclesiastical Reservation, the, 534.

Eckmuhl, battle of, 680.

Edda, elder, 411, n.; younger, 411, n.

Edessa, 328, n., 444.

Education among the Greeks, 215, 216.

Edward the Confessor, k. of England, 412, 433.

Edward I., k. of England, his conquest of Wales, 481, 482; his wars with Scotland, 482; III., claims the French throne, 484; his wars with France, 484, 485; VI., reign, 550-552.

Egbert, k. of the West Saxons, 375.

Egmont, 565.

Egypt, ancient history of, 18-26; geology of, 18; delta of the Nile, 18; climate of, 19; dynasties and chronology, 19, 20.

Egyptians, racial affinities of, 3; ancient classes of, 27; religious doctrines, 27, 28; animal-worship, 28, 29; judgment of the dead, 29-31; tombs, 31; pyramids, 31; palaces and temples, 32, 33; sculptures, 33, 34; glass manufacture, 35; writing and literature, 35, 36; science, 36; art of embalming, 37; royal mummies, 38, 39.

Elamites, the, 42.

Elba, 685.

Electors of the H. R. E., 507, n.

Elgin, Lord, 182, n.

Elijah, 67.

Elisha, 67.

Elysian fields, 101.

Elizabeth, q. of England, 554-562.

Elizabeth of Russia, 646.

Embalming, art of, 37-39.

Empedocles, 205.

England. See Anglo-Saxons and Table of Contents. Introduction of Christianity, 382; conquest of, by the Normans, 433-437; advantages to, of the conquest, 437; Plantagenet p., 479-489; wars with Scotland, 482, 483; the Hundred Years’ War, 484-488; under the Stuarts, 601-630; since the congress of Vienna, 715-728.

English, origin of the, 7.

English language, growth of, 489.

Ennius, 354.

Epaminondas, 157, 158.

Ephesus, 97; temple at, 178.

Ephors, 114.

Epicureans, 211.

Epicurus, 211.

Epictetus, 357.

Epirus, 87.

Erasmus, 540.

Erech, 45.

Eretria, 126.

Erinnyes. See Eumenides.

Esarhaddon II., 51.

Escurial, palace of, 538.

Esquimaux, 3.

Essex, Earl of (Elizabeth’s favorite), 561, n.

Ethiopians, the, 101.

Etruria, 222, 223.

Etruscans, the, 223.

Euboea, 88.

Euclid, 213.

Eugene, Prince of Savoy, 597.

Eumenes, k. of Pergamus, 268.

Eumenides, 103.

Euphrates, valley of the, 40; turned by Darius I., 60, n.

Euripides, 195.

Eurotas, the, 112.

Eylau, battle of, 678.

Excommunications, 453, 454.

F[edit]

Fabius Maximus, the Delayer, 260, 261.

Fabius, Quintus, 257.

Fabricius, 246.

Fairfax, Sir Thomas, 611.

Fawkes, Guy, 602.

Ferdinand of Aragon, 498-500.

Ferdinand, k. of Bohemia and emp. of H. R. E., 582, 583.

Fetichism, 402.

Feudalism, defined, 421; the ideal system, 421; Roman and Teutonic elements in, 423; ceremony of homage, 423; relation of lord and vassal, -- escheat, forfeiture, and aids, 423; development of the system, 424; classes in the feudal state, 425; castles of the nobles, 425; causes of its decay, 426; defects of, 427; good results of the system, 428. See Norman Conquest of England.

Finns, the, 2, 382.

Fire, great, at Rome, 312; in London, 620.

Fire-worshippers, 84, n., 401, n.

Fisher, bishop, 549.

Flamininus, Roman consul, 267.

Flavian Age, 314.

Flavian Amphitheatre. See Colosseum.

Fleix, treaty of, 575, n.

Flodden Field, battle of, 543, n.

Florence, city, 467, 468.

Fort Du Quesne, 631.

Forum, Roman, 227.

Fox, Charles James, 652.

France. See Franks and Table of Contents. Under the feudal system, 427; beginning of kingdom, 491; the Capetian p., 491-494; the Valois p., 494-498; in the Thirty Years’ War, 581, 586, 587; ascendancy of, under Louis XIV., 590-599; decline under, 599, 600.

Francis I., k. of France, his wars with the emp. Charles V., 531, 532; persecutes the Vaudois, 533.

Francis II., k. of France, 574.

Francis, d. of Guise, 573, 574.

Francis II., emp. H. R. E., 656, 669, 674-677.

Franche-Comte, 594.

Franco-Prussian War, 705.

Franks, under the Merovingians, 373, 374; conversion of, 378.

Frederick Barbarossa, in third crusade, 445; his death, 445.

Frederick IV., k. of Denmark, 637.

Frederick II., of Germany, 448, n.

Frederick V., of the Palatinate, 582, n.

Frederick William, the Great Elector, 642.

Frederick William I., k. of Prussia, 643, 644; III., 653, 678; IV., 703.

Frederick III., first k. of Prussia, 643; II., the Great, 644-646.

Frederick’s Hall, siege of, 638.

French and Indian War, 631.

Friedland, battle of, 678.

Froissart, 497.

Fronde, Wars of the, 591, n.

Fulvia, wife of Antony, 302.

Furies, the. See Eumenides.

G[edit]

Gades, 72.

Galba, Roman emp., 313

Galatia, 174.

Galerius, Roman emp., 331, 332.

Galileo, 468, n.

Games, sacred, of the Greeks, 106, 107; influence of, 107, 108.

Garibaldi, 711, 713.

Gascons, 405.

Gauls, invade Macedonia, 174; settle in Italy, 223; sack Rome, 239-241; in Northern Italy, conquered by the Romans, 255; conquered by Caesar, 292, 293.

Gautama. See Buddha.

Gaza, 670.

Gedrosia, 166.

Gelon, k. of Syracuse, 235.

Genesis, Chaldaean account of, 46.

Genghis Khan, 461.

Genoa, 467.

Genseric, k. of the Vandals, 346, 347, 372.

German migration, beginning of, 278.

Germanic tribes. See Teutons.

Germany, introduction of Christianity, 381; beginnings of the kingdom of, 501, 502; end of the kingdom of, 677; confederation of the Rhine, 677; end of the H. R. E., 677; confederation of 1815, 700; revolutions of 1830 and 1848, 700-702; the Seven Weeks’ War, 703, 704; North-German Union, 704, 705; Franco-Prussian War, 705; New German Empire, 705-707.

George, Prince of Denmark, 628.

George I., k. of England, 630; II., 630; III., 630.

Geta, Roman emp., 326.

Ghent, Pacification of, 567.

Ghibellines, 504.

Gibraltar, ceded to England, 597.

Gideon, 63.

Gilboa, Mount, 64.

Girondists, the name, 655; party in the national convention, 657; fall of, 659.

Gladiatorial combats, 361-363; suppression of, 339, 340.

Gladiators, war of the, 285, 286.

Gladstone, prime minister, 719, 728.

Godfrey of Bouillon, 442, 443.

Godwin, ear of Wessex, 434.

Golden Candlestick, 347, n.

Gomates, 78.

Gordon, General, 728.

Gorgias, 205.

Gorgons, 104.

Goths, the, 336, 337; conversion of, 377.

Gracchi, reforms of, 276, 277.

Gracchus, Caius, 276, 277, Tiberius, 276.

Grace, edict of, 581.

Graeco-Persian War, 125-135.

Granada, 398; conquest of, 499, 500.

Grand Alliance, the, 596.

Granicus, battle of the, 162.

Gratian, Roman emp., 336, 337, 338.

Grattan, Henry, 632.

Great Britain, the name, 629. See England.

Great Fire in Rome, 312.

Great Schism, the, 468.

Great Seal of England, 624.

Grecian architecture, 176-182, sculpture, 187-189, temples as banks of deposit, 178, n.

Greece, divisions of, 87; mountains of, 87, 88; islands about, 88; influence of country upon inhabitants, 89.

Greek Church, the, 417.

Greek Empire. See Eastern Empire.

Greek Fire, 398.

Greeks, local patriotism of, 92; myths and legends of, 93-97; society of, in the Heroic Age, 98-108; piracy among, 99; religion of, 101-108; colonies, 110, 111; literature, 190-202; philosophy and science, 203-214; social life, 215-222.

Gregory. For this name see Popes.

Grey, Lady Jane, 552.

Guebers, 401, n. See Fire-worshippers.

Guelphs, 504.

Guillotine, the, 662.

Guiscard, Robert, 433.

Guise, family of, 573.

Gunpowder, effect of use in war, 427.

Gunpowder Plot, the, 602.

Gustavus Vasa, 512.

Gutenberg, John, 476.

Gylippus, Spartan commander, 152.

H[edit]

Hades, realm of, 101; the god, 103.

Hadrian, Roman emp., 320.

Halicarnassus, mausoleum at, 182.

Halys, the, 75.

Hamilcar Barcas, 252, 256.

Hamites, 3.

Hampden, John, 608, 609.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 62.

Hannibal, his vow, 257; attacks Saguntum, 257; crosses the Alps, 258, 259; in Italy, 259-264; his death, 265, n.

Hanno, Carthaginian admiral, 253.

Hanover, house of, 630; sovereigns of, 630, n.

Hanseatic League, 468, 469.

Harold I. (son of Godwin), k. of England, 434, 435.

Harold Hardrada, k. of Norway, 434.

Haroun Al Raschid, 400.

Hasdrubal, Hannibal’s brother, 264.

Hasdrubal, son-in-law of Hamilcar, 256.

Hastings, battle of, 434, 435.

Hebert, 663.

Hebrew monarchy, founding of, 63, 64; division of, 66.

Hebrew Temple, robbed by Titus, 314.

Hebrews, enter Egypt, 21; history of, 63-68; their religion and literature, 68, 69.

Hector, 95.

Hegira, the, 393.

Helen, 95.

Helena, St., 688.

Helicon, Mount, 88.

Hellas, the name, 91, n.

Hellenes, the 89-91. See Greeks.

Hellenism, meaning of the term, 159, n.

Hellespont, passage of, by Xerxes, 132.

Hellespontine bridges, 130, 131, 132.

Helots, the, 112; revolt of, 140.

Helvetic Republic, established, 670.

Henry I., k. of England, 436, n.; II., 437; III., 480, 481; VII., 541-543; VIII., 543-549.

Henry II., k. of France, 572; III., 577.

Henry IV., emp. H. R. E., 454, 455.

Hephaestus, 102.

Hera, 102.

Heraclea, battle of, 245.

Heracles, 93, 94, 97; Chaldaean origin of the myth of, 47.

Heraclidae, 96, 97.

Heraclitus, 203.

Heraclius, reign, 390, 396.

Heralds, college of, at Rome, 231.

Herculaneum, 316.

Hercules, Pillars of, 71.

Hermann. See Arminius.

Hermes, 102; statues of, at Athens, 152, n.

Hermits, 382, 383.

Hermus, the 75.

Herodotus, 197.

Herostratus, 178.

Herzegovina, 698.

Hesiod, 191, 192.

Hestia, 102.

Hetairae, the, 217.

Hezekiah, k. of Judah, 49.

Hiero, k. of Syracuse, 249; his death, 262.

Hieroglyphical writing, Egyptian, 35, 36; among the Accadians, 41.

High Commission Court, 607, n., 622.

Hildebrand. See Pope Gregory VII.

Himera, battle of, 135, n.

Hinduism, 12.

Hindu Kush Mountains, 165.

Hipparchus, 122, 214.

Hippias, 122, 124, 126.

Hippo, 72.

Hiram, k. of Tyre, 65, 72.

History, Divisions of, 1.

Hittites, 23, 24.

Hohenlinden, battle of, 674.

Hohenstaufen, house of, contest with the Popes, 455.

Hohenzollern, house of, 642.

Holland. See Netherlands. In war with Louis XIV., 593.

Holstein, 703.

Holy Alliance, 692.

Holy League, the, 543, n.

Holy Roman Empire, relations of, to the Papacy, 419; renewal by Otto the Great, 502, 503; diminished by the Treaty of Westphalia, 587; end of, 677.

Homer, 191.

Hong-Kong, ceded to England, 726.

Honorius, Roman emp., 338, 342.

Hooker, Richard, 562, n.

Horace, 354.

Horn, 565.

Hortensius, 355.

Horus, 28.

Hospitallers, order of, origin, 443; lose the island of Rhodes, 532; defend the island of Malta, 537., n.

Howard, Catherine, 549.

Hubertsburg, peace of, 646.

Hudibras, 625.

Hudson Bay territory, 597.

Huguenots, name, 572, n., 2; granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes, 578; political power crushed by Richelieu, 580; driven from France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 594, 595.

Huguenot Wars, 572-581.

Humanism, 474.

Hundred Years’ War, 484-488.

Hungarians, 382, n., 460.

Hungary, revolution in (1848), 702.

Huns, the, 13, 337, 345.

Huss, John, 506.

Hussites, 506.

Hyksos, 21.

Hymettus, Mount, 88.

Hypatia, 212.

I[edit]

Iceland, settled by the Northmen, 411.

Iconoclasts, the, 417; in the Netherlands, 564, 565.

Ictinus, 180.

Il, 45.

Iliad, the, 190, 191.

Ilios, 95.

Illyrian corsairs, 254, 255.

Independents, in English civil war, 610, 611, 612.

India, ancient history of, 8-12; invasion of , by Alexander, 12; partly subdued by Darius I., 79; British Empire in, 723-727; Afghan War of 1838-1842, 725; Sepoy Mutiny, 726, 727; government of, transferred to the English crown, 727; progress in, 727, n.

Inquisition, set up by q. Isabella in Spain, 500; character of the tribunal, 527.

Interdicts, 453, 454.

Iona, 380.

Ionian islands, 88.

Ionians, the, 90, 91; migration to Asia Minor, 97.

Ipsambul, temple of, 33.

Ipsus, battle of, 170.

Iran, 74.

Ireland, introduction of Christianity, 379; during the Commonwealth, 613; under the Protectorate, 615; given legislative independence, 632.

Irene, Eastern empress, 406.

Ireton, 618.

Isabella of Castile, 498-500.

Isis, 28.

Islam. See Mohammedanism.

Israel, kingdom of, 67.

Issus, battle of, 162, 163.

Italian city-republics, 464-470.

Italian Renaissance, 474, 475, 510, 511.

Italians, the, of classical times, 223.

Italica. See Corfinium.

Italy, divisions of, in ancient times, 222; early inhabitants of, 223; state during the Middle Ages, 509; as reorganized by the Congress of Vienna, 708; history of, since, 708-714.

Ithaca, 88.

Ivry, battle of, 578.

Izdubar, Epic of, 46.

J, K[edit]

Jacobins, origin of club, 654; clubs closed, 666.

Jacobites, the name, 627.

Jaffa, 670.

“Jail Delivery,” in French Revolution, 452.

James I., k. of England, reign, 601-606; II., reign, 622-624.

James II, k. of Scotland, 543, n.

Jamestown, 602.

Janus, 228; temple of, closed under Augustus, 307.

Jason, 94.

Jaxartes, the, 400.

Jeffries, chief justice, 622, n.

Jena, battle of, 678.

Jephthah, 63.

Jeroboam, first k. of Israel, 66.

Jerome of Prague, 506.

Jerusalem, captured by Nebuchadnezzar, 58; temple at, 65; taken by Titus, 314; captured by the crusaders, 442; Latin kingdom of, established, 443; city taken by Saladin, 444; end of the Latin kingdom of, 448.

Jesuits, order of, 527,528.

Jews, last dispersion of, 321; admitted to English House of Commons, 722; to corporate offices, 722.

Joan of Arc, 486, 487.

John, Don, of Austria, at Lepanto, 537; in the Netherlands, 567.

John, k. of England, quarrel with Innocent III., 456; signs Magna Charta, 479, 480.

Josephus, works of, 69.

Jourdan, 668.

Judah, kingdom of, 67, 68.

Judges, the 63.

Jugurtha, k. of Numidia, 277; war with, 277, 278.

Julian the Apostate, 333-335.

Julianus, Didius, 325, 326.

Juno, 228.

Jupiter, 228.

Justin Martyr, 322.

Justinian, reign, 389.

Juvenal, 319, 355.


Karnak, Temple of, 22, 33.

Kars, 697.

Khartoum, 728.

Khita, 23.

Khorsabad, 49.

Kleber, 670, 671; his assassination, 674.

Knighthood, religious orders of, 443 and n. See Hospitallers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights.

Knox, John, 557.

Konigsberg, 643.

Koran, the, 394.

Koreishites, 393, 394.

Kosciusko, 641.

Kossuth, 702.

Koyunjik, 55, 56; mound of, 55.

Kudur-Na-Khunta, 42.

Kufu I.,20.

L[edit]

Lacedaemon. See Sparta.

Lacedaemonians. See Spartans.

Laconia, 87, 116.

Lafayette, 653.

Laocoon group, 188.

Lahore, 165.

Lamachus, Athenian general, 152, n.

Lamartine, 660.

Lamian War, 174.

Lancaster, house of, 479, n.; badge of, 488. See Roses, Wars of the.

Langton, Stephen, 456.

Lanuvium, 244.

Lapps, the, 3.

Lares, the, 228. 229.

La Rochelle, granted as a stronghold to the Huguenots, 575; peace of, 575, n.; destroyed by Richelieu, 580.

Las Casas, 518, n.

Latimer, 553.

Latin colonies, 246, n.

Latin League, 223; dissolution of, 244.

Latins, 223; in the Social War, 279, 280.

Latium, 222, 223.

Laud, William, 607, 609.

Layard, discoveries of, at Nineveh, 57.

Lebanon, Mount, 70.

Leipsic, battle of, 584.

Leo the Great, 346.

Leo III., the Isaurian, Eastern emp., 398, 417.

Leonardo da Vinci, 511, n.

Leonidas, k. of Sparta, 133.

Lepanto, battle of, 537

Lepidus, the triumvir, 300, 301, 302, 304.

Lesbos, 88, 97.

Leuctra, battle of, 157.

Leuthen, battle of 646.

Lewes, battle of, 481.

Lewis I., Carolingian k., 408. See Louis.

Liberalism in England, 715-720.

Licinius, C., laws of, 242, 243.

Liguria, 222.

Ligurian Republic, 668, 674, 676, n.

Liris, the, 223.

Literature, Egyptian, 36; Chaldaean, 44-47; Assyrian, 57; Hebrew, 68, 69; Grecian, 190-192; Roman, 354-359; French, beginnings of, 496-498; under Louis XIV., 599; Spanish, 500, 501; German, beginnings of, 508; English, under Henry VIII., 529; of the Elizabethan Age, 561; of the Puritan p., 617, 618; of the Restoration, 624; of Queen Anne’s Age, 629.

Livy, 356.

Loire, 665.

Lollards, the, 491, 540.

Lombards, the, 374, 404, 405.

Longjumeau, peace of, 575, n.

Longus, L. Sempronius, 259.

Long Walls, the, of Athens, destruction of, 154.

Lords, House of. See Parliament.

Lorraine, ceded to the German Empire, 691.

Lothair, emp., 408.

Louis, prince of Conde, 573, 574.

Louis VII., k. of France, 444; IX., 448, n.; XI., 495; XIII., 579; XIV., reign, 590-599; intrigues with the Stuarts, 620, 622, 628; XV., 650; XVI., his accession, 650; his flight, 654; trial and execution, 658; XVIII., 685, 686, 687, 688.

Louis Napoleon. See Napoleon III.

Louis Philippe, k. of France, 689.

Loyola, St. Ignatius. 528.

Lubeck, peace of , 583.

Lucan, 313.

Lucania, 222.

Luceres, 224.

Lucilius, 354.

Lucius, grandson of Augustus, 308.

Lucretius, 354.

Luneville, treaty of, 674.

Lusitanians, the, 272.

Luther, Martin, opposes Tetzel, 522; his ninety-five theses, 522, 523; burns the papal bull, 523; at the Diet of Worms, 523, 524; his death, 525.

Lutzen, battle of, 585.

Luxor, temple of, 33.

Lyceum, the Athenian, 122.

Lycia, 75, 268.

Lycurgus, legend of, 112, 113.

Lydia, 75.

Lydians, the 75.

Lyons, 660.

Lysander, Spartan general, 154.

Lysimachus, kingdom of, 171.

Lysippus, 186, 187.

M[edit]

Maccabees, the, 68.

Machiavelli, 468, n.

Macedonia, population of, 159; under Philip II., 159-161; after the death of Alexander, 173-175.

Macedonian supremacy, p. of, 159-168.

Madrid, peace of, 532.

Maecenas, minister of Augustus, 307.

Magdeburg, sack of, 584.

Magellan, 515, 516.

Magenta, battle of, 712.

Magi, 78, n., 84.

Magianism, 78, n.

Magna Charta, 479, 480.

Magna Graecia, 111.

Magnesia, battle of, 268.

Mago, brother of Hannibal, 261.

Magyars. See Hungarians.

Maharbal, Carthaginian general, 262.

Malplaquet, battle of, 597.

Mandeville, Sir John, 451.

Manetho, 19.

Manlius, M., 240, 241, 242.

Mantinea, battle of, 158.

Marat, 655; his assassination, 660.

Marathon, battle of 126, 127.

Marcellus, Marcus Claudius, 262.

Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, 308.

Marco Polo, 451.

Mardonius, Persian general, 80, 135.

Margaret, Duchess of Parma, 564.

Marengo, battle of, 674.

Marie Antoinette, her execution, 660.

Marie Theresa, of Austria, 645.

Mariette, 29.

Marlborough, d. of, 596, 597.

Marius, Caius, in the Jugurthine war, 278; defeats the Cimbri and Teutones, 278, 279; contest with Sulla, 281; wanderings of, 281, 282; his death, 282.

Mars, 228.

Marseillaise hymn, 658.

Marsic War. See Social War.

Mary Stuart, q. of Scots, 557, 558.

Mary Tudor, q. of England, reign, 552-554.

Mary, wife of William III. of England, 624-628.

Masinissa, k. of Numidia, 269, 270.

Maspero, Professor, quoted, 39.

Massalia, III. [No pages were included.]

Maurepas, 650.

Maurice, of Nassau, 569.

Mausolus, 182.

Maxentius, 353.

Maximin, 328.

Maximian, Roman emp., 330, 331.

Maximilian I., emp. H. R. E., 507.

Mazarin, Cardinal, 591, 592.

Mazzini, Joseph, 710.

Mecca, 392.

Medes, 4, 74.

Medici, Catherine de, her character, 573; her part in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 576; Mary de, 579.

Medina, 396.

Megacles, the archon, 119, 120, 122.

Megalopolis, 157.

Majestas, law of, 309.

Melanchthon, Philip, 525, n.

Memnon, statues of, 34.

Memphis, 20.

Mendicant Friars, origin of the order of, 456.

Menelaus, 92, 95.

Menenius, 234.

Menephtha, 24.

Menes, 20.

Merovaeus, 374.

Messenia, 87, 116.

Messenian Wars, 116, 117.

Messina, 117.

Metaurus, battle of, 264.

Metellus, Roman tribune, 295.

Metempsychosis. See Transmigration of souls.

Methodism, rise of, 721; effects of, upon religious toleration, 721.

Metternich, Prince, 702.

Metz, 653.

Mexico, conquest of, by Cortez, 516.

Michael Angelo, 468, n., 511, n.

Milan decree, 679.

Miletus, 97, 111.

Military roads of ancient Rome, 255.

Miltiades, 126, 127, 128.

Milton, John, 617, 618.

Minerva, 228.

Minnesingers, 508.

Minorca, ceded to England, 597.

Minos, 94.

Minotaur, the, 94.

Mithridates the Great, massacres Italians in Asia Minor, 281; wars with Rome, 282-288; his death, 289.

Moawiyah, 400.

Moesia, 339.

Mohammed II., sultan of the Ottomans, 462, 463.

Mohammedanism, doctrines of, 394; spread of, 401; defects of, 401.

Moliere, 599.

Moloch, 248.

Moltke, 704.

Monasteries, suppression of, by Henry VIII., 547.

Monasticism, rise of, 383; advantages of, 383.

Mongols, 460, 461.

Monk, 617.

Monmouth, d. of, 622, n.

Montcalm, 631.

Montfort, Simon de, summons the English Commons and Parliament, 481.

Moors, 397; culture of, 401, 402; kingdom of Granada, 499; persecuted by Philip II. , 536; expulsion from Spain, 538.

More, Sir Thomas, 540; the Utopia, 549, 550; his execution, 549.

Moreau, 668.

Morgarten Pass, battle of, 506.

Morton, English minister, 541.

Moscow, burning of, 683, 684.

Mountainists, the name, 655.

Mummius, Roman consul, 269.

Municipia, 279.

Munzer, 524.

Murat, Napoleon’s brother-in-law, 680.

Mutiny Bill. This was an important statute of the first year of William and Mary, by which the command of the army was given to the king for twelve months only. The necessity of an annual renewal of this act secures indirectly the yearly assembling of the representatives of the nation. [No pages were included. See William and Mary.]

Mycale, battle of, 135.

Mylae, battle of, 249, 250.

Mytilene, 149, 150.

N, O[edit]

Nabonadius, last king of Babylon, 60.

Nabopolassar, 58.

Naevius, 354.

Nantes, edict of, publication of, 578; revocation of the edict of, 594; in Reign of Terror, 665.

Naples, annexed to kingdom of Italy, 712, 713.

Napoleon. See Bonaparte.

Napoleon III., 690, 691.

Narses, 372.

Narva, battle of, 637.

Naseby, battle of, 612.

National Assembly, French, 651.

Naucratis, 111.

Naxos, 138, 139.

Nearchus, admiral of Alexander, 166.

Nebuchadnezzar, 58, 59.

Necho II., 25, 26.

Necker, 650.

Negropont. See Euboea.

Negro Race, 2.

Nelson, English admiral, 670, 678.

Nemea, 106.

Nemesis, 103.

Neo Platonists, the, 212.

Nero, Roman emp., 312, 313.

Nerva, Roman emp., 317, 318.

Nestor, 95.

Netherlands, the country, 563; under Charles V., 563; revolt of the, 563-571; pacification of Ghent, 567; union of Utrecht, 567; treaty of 1609, 570; Spanish Netherlands, war concerning, 593; ceded to Austria, 597; Austrian Netherlands ceded to the French Republic, 669.

Nicaea, 332; captured by the crusaders, 442.

Nice, 668.

New Amsterdam, 620.

Newfoundland, surrendered by France to England, 597.

New Model, the, organized, 611; disbanded, 618.

New Orleans, 631.

Newton, Sir Isaac, 630.

Ney, Marshal, 684.

Nibelungen, song of the, 508.

Nicaea, 165.

Nicholas I., czar, reign, 693-696.

Nicias, peace of, 150.

Nicias, 152, n.

Nicomedia, 330.

Nicopolis, battle of, 462.

Niemen, the, 684.

Nihilism, 698, 699.

Nile, the valley of, 1; inundation of, 18; delta of, 18; cataracts of, 18, n.; deposits of, 18, n.; Canopic branch of, 25.

Nimequen, treaty of, 594.

Nineveh, fall of, 51; ruins of, 54, n.

Nineveh, battle of, 390.

Nirvana, 12.

Nomentum, 244.

Normans, in Gaul, 413; in Italy, 433, n.; their conquest of England, 433-437; effects of Norman Conquest on literature, 489, 490. See Northmen.

Norsemen. See Northmen.

Northmen, 410-413.

Notables, assembly of, 650.

Nottingham, 610.

Novgorod, 469.

Nova Scotia, 597.

Nubia, 33.

Numa, 225.

Numantia, 272.

Nystadt, peace of, 638.


Oates, Titus, 621.

O’chus, Artaxerxes, k. of Persia, 166.

O’Connell, Daniel, 722.

Octavia, wife of Antony, 304.

Octavius, Roman consul, 282.

Octavius, Caius (Augustus), opposes Antony, 301; enters Second Triumvirate, 301; divides the world with Antony, 303; defeats Antony at battle of Actium, 304; reign of, 305-309. See Augustus.

Odenatus, 329.

Odoacer, 348.

Odysseus, 88.

Odyssey, the, 96, 190, 191.

Oileus, 95.

Olympia, 106, 107.

Olympiad, 107.

Olympian Council, 102, 103; Games, 106, 107.

Olympian Zeus, by Phidias, 185.

Olympus, Mount, 88.

Omar, caliph, 397, 399.

Ommaya, 400, n.

Ommiades, house of, 400.

Opium War, 725, 726.

Oracles, Greek, 104-106.

Orange, William of, 565-569.

Orange-Stuarts, the, 626-629.

Oratory, among the Greeks, 198-201; among the Romans, 335.

Ordeals, 387.

Orleans, Maid of, 486, 487.

Orleans, siege of, 486.

Ormazd, 83, 84.

Orontes, the, 171.

Orpheus, 94.

Osiris, 28, 29, 30.

Ossa, Mount, 88.

Ostracism, 123, 124.

Ostrogoths, the, 337; kingdom of, 371.

Oswy, k. of Northumbria, 380.

Othman, caliph, 399.

Otho, Roman emp., 313.

Otto I., the Great, emp. H. R. E., 502.

Oudenarde, battle of, 597.

Ovid, 354.

Oxenstiern, 586.

Oxus, the, 165.

P, Q[edit]

Pactolus, the, 75.

Paine, Thomas, 654.

Palatine, 224.

Palatinate, war of the, 595.

Pallas. See Athena.

Palmyra, fall of, 329.

Panathenaea, the Great, 180, n.

Panormus, battle of, 251.

Pantheon, 350.

Papacy, the, basis of temporal power, 404; growth of its power, 414-420; primacy of the bishop of Rome, 415; at the fall of the Empire in the West, 415; authority enhanced by its missions, 416; effect upon, of the iconoclastic controversy, 413; appeals to Rome, 418; relations of, to the H. R. E., 419; influence upon, of the crusades, 449; supremacy of, 452-457; reforms of Gregory VII., 452; at its height, 455; decline of its temporal power, 457-459; removal of the papal chair to Avignon, 457; the great schism, 458; revolt of the temporal princes, 458; end of temporal power, 714; decree of papal infallibility, 714.

Papal States, beginning of, 404.

Papinian, 326.

Papyrus paper, 35.

Pariahs, 9.

Paris, son of Priam, 95.

Paris, treaty of (1763), 631; peace of (1763), 646; treaty of (1856), 695.

Parliament, English, under James I., 603, 604; under Charles I., 606, 607; the Long P., 609; friends of the king shut out, 612; House of Lords abolished, 613; at the time of the Commonwealth, 614, 615; dissolved by Cromwell, 614; Rump P., 614; the Little P., or Praise-God Barebone P., 614; convention P., 624; union of English and Scottish parliaments, 629; Irish, secures legislative independence, 632.

Parma, d. of (Alexander Farnese), 567.

Parnassus, Mount, 88.

Paros, 128.

Parr, Catherine, 549.

Parrhasius, 189.

Parsees, the, 401, n. 2.

Parthenon, the, treasures of, 179, n.; description of, 180, 182.

Parthenopaean Republic, established, 670; abolished, 671.

Parthia, 172, n.

Parthian E., end of, 334, n.

Pasargadae, tomb of Cyrus at, 77.

Patriarchs, the Hebrew, 63.

Patricians, the name, 224; in early Rome, 224.

Patricius. See St. Patrick.

Patroclus, 95.

Paulus, Aemilius, 268.

Pausanius, 135, 137.

Pavia, battle of, 532.

Peasants’ War, 524.

Pelasgian architecture, 176, 177.

Pelasgians, the, 89, 90.

Pelion, Mount, 88.

Pelopidas, 157.

Peloponnesus, the divisions of, 87; the name, 92.

Peloponnesian War, the, 147-155.

Pelops, 92.

Penates, the, 228, 229.

Penelope, 96.

Peninsular Wars, 679, 680.

Pentateuch, 395.

Pepin the Short, 403, 404; his death, 408.

Perdiccas, 170 and n.

Pergamus, 171, n.

Periander, 110, 203, n.

Pericles, fosters the naval power of Athens, 141, 142; his social policy, 144; his death, 149; as an orator, 199.

Pericles, age of, 141-146; peace of, 142, 143.

Perioeci, 112, 114.

Persepolis, ruins of, 85; destroyed by Alexander, 164.

Perseus, k. of Macedonia, 268.

Persia, conquered by the Saracens, 396.

Persian E., established by Cyrus, 74; political history of, 74-82; nature of government, 82; table of kings, 86; the New, 334, n.

Persians, origin of, 4; relation to the Medes, 74; literature and religion, 83, 84.

Persius, 355.

Pertinax, Roman emp., 325.

Peru, conquest of, by Pizarro, 516, 517.

Peter the Great, of Russia, 633-639; III., 646.

Peter the Hermit, 439, 441.

Petition of Right, 606.

Petrarch, 474.

Phidias, 180, 184, 186.

Phidippides, 126.

Philip of Anjou, 596, 597.

Philip Augustus, k. of France in third crusade, 445.

Philip the Fair, k. of France, 494.

Philip the Handsome, archd. of Austria, 530.

Philip II., k. of Macedonia, 159-161; V., 267.

Philip, Roman emp., 328.

Philip II., k. of Spain, reign, 535-538; III., 538; IV., 593.

Philippi, battle of, 302, 303.

Philistine, 64.

Philo, 69, 212.

Phoebus. See Apollo.

Phocians, the, 160.

Phocis, 87.

Phoenicia, 70.

Phoenicians, racial affinities, 70; their commerce, 70, 71; colonies, 72; arts disseminated by, 72; enterprises aided by, 73; circumnavigation of Africa, by, 73.

Picardy, 439.

Picenum, 222.

Picts, the, 320, 336, 344.

Pilgrimage of Grace, 548.

Pindar, 192.

Pindus Mountains, 88.

Piracy among the Greeks, 99.

Piraeus, 129, 136, 137.

Pirates, defeated by Pompey, 287, 288.

Pisa, church council of, 458.

Pisistratidae, 121-123.

Pisistratus, the tyrant, 121, 122.

Pistoria, battle of, 290.

Pittacus, 203, n.

Pitt, William, the Elder, 631; the Younger, 720.

Pizarro, Francisco, 517.

Placentia, council of, 440.

Plague, the, in era of Justinian, 389; in London, 620.

Plantagenet, house of, 479; history of P. period, 479-489.

Plassey, battle of, 725.

Plataea, battle of, 135; attack upon, by Thebans, 148; destruction of, by the Spartans, 150.

Plataeans, the, at Marathon, 126.

Plato, 207, 208.

Plautus, 354.

Plebeians, origin, 225; first secession of, 233, 234; admitted to the consulship, 242, 243; admitted to various public offices, 243.

Plevna, 697.

Pliny the Elder, 357; the Younger, his correspondence with Trajan, 319, 320.

Plotinus, 212.

Plutarch, 202.

Pluto. See Hades.

Poitiers, battle of, 485, 486.

Poland, first partition of, 640; second, 646; third, 640, 641; revolution in (1830), 693, 694.

Pollentia, battle at, 339.

Polybius, 202.

Polycarp, 322.

Polycletus, 186.

Polycrates, 110.

Polygnotus, 188, 189.

Polyxena, 189, n.

Pompadour, Madame de, 650.

Pompeii, 316, 317, n.

Pontifex Maximus, 230.

Pontiffs, college of, at Rome, 230.

Pontus, 170, n.

Pope, Gregory VII., 452-455.

Popes. See papacy. Gregory I., 378; Stephen II., 404; Leo III., 406, 407; Gregory II., 417; Urban II., 439, 440; Gregory VII., 452-455; Innocent III., 455; Martin V., 458; Alexander V., 458; Pius V., 537; Leo X., 544; Clement VII., 545; Sixtus V., 558; Gregory XIII., 577; Pius VII., made prisoner by Napoleon, 681; Pius IX., 714.

Popish Plot, 621.

Pompey, C. Neius, the Great, in Spain, 285; defeats gladiators, 285, 286; defeats pirates, 287, 288; conducts the Mithridatic War, 288; conquers Syria, 288; his triumph, 289; enters triumvirate, 291; rivalry with Caesar, 293-296; his death, 296.

Portugal, acquired by Philip II., 535; becomes independent of Spain, 538, n.; in Napoleonic wars, 679.

Porus, Indian king, 165.

Portus Romanus, 311.

Poseidon, 102.

Potidaea, 147.

“Potsdam Giants,” 644.

Praeneste, 244.

Praetorian guard, formation of, 309; disbanded, 326.

Pragmatic sanction, 645.

Prague, peace of (1866), 704.

Praxiteles, 186.

Preston Pans, battle of, 631.

Pretender, the Old, 628; the Young, 631.

Pride’s Purge, 612.

Printing in China, 14.

Probus, Roman emp., 329.

Prodicus, 205.

Proscriptions, under the second triumvirate, 302.

Protagoras, 205.

Protectorate, the English, 615, 616.

Protestation, the Great, 604.

Protestantism. See Reformation.

Protestants, origin of name, 525.

Province, first Roman, 254.

Prussia, duchy of, 642, 643; rise of, 642-646.

Psalms, authorship of, 64, n.

Psammetichus I., 24, 25.

Ptolemies, kingdom of the, 172, 173.

Ptolemy, Claudius, the astronomer, 214.

Ptolemy I., Soter, 172, 173; II., Philadelphus, 173; III., Euergetes, 173.

Public lands in Italy, 274, 275.

Punjab, conquered by Darius I., 79.

Pultowa, battle of, 638.

Punic War, first, 247-253; second, 258-266; third, 269-272.

Puritan literature, 617.

Puritanism, its extreme severity, 625.

Puritans, origin of, 556.

Puteoli, 284.

Pydna, battle of, 268, 269.

Pylos, 150.

Pym, John, 609.

Pyramid kings, 20.

Pyramids, the, 31, 32; battle of the, 669.

Pyrenees, treaty of the, 591.

Pyrrho, 212.

Pyrrhus, k. of Epirus, 244-246.

Pythagoras, 204.

Pythia, 105.


Quebec, heights of, 631.

R[edit]

Ra, 45.

Races of mankind, 2; table of, 7.

Racine, 599.

Radagaisus, 341.

Railroads, 729, 730.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 560, 604.

Ramadan, feast of, 395.

Rameses II., 23, 33; mummy of, 39.

Ramillies, battle of, 597.

Ramnes, the, 223, 224.

Raphael, 511, n.

Raphia, battle of, 49.

Rastadt, 597.

Ravaillac, 579.

Real presence.—In Roman Catholic theology, the actual presence of the body and blood of Christ, in the sacrament of the Lord’s supper. See p. 551.

Reformation, beginnings of the, under Luther, 519-525; progress of, checked, 525-528; general results, 528, 529; in England, 539-562; in France, 572-581.

Reform Bill of 1832, 716-718; of 1867, 718,719; of 1884, 719.

Regicides, the English, 618.

Regulus, Roman consul, 250, 251.

Rehoboam, k. of the Hebrews, 66.

Reign of Terror, 659-666.

Renaissance. See Italian Renaissance.

Restitution, edict of, 583.

Restoration of the Stuarts, 616-618.

Revenue, settlement of the, in reign of William III., 627.

Revival, age of, characteristics of the, 366.

Revival of learning, 471-477; in England, 539, 540.

Revolution, American, 632; influence of, upon France, 649; English, 601-608; of 1688, in England, 623, 624, 626; French (1789-1799), 647-672; German, of 1830, 700; of 1848, 701, 702; Hungarian, of 1848, 702; Italian, of 1820, 709; of 1830, 710; of 1848, 710; Polish, of 1830-1832, 693, 694.

Rhegium, 117.

Rhenus, the, 301.

Rhodes, 88, 89, 170, n.; colossus at, 187, 188; captured by the Turks from the Knights of St John, 532.

Richard I., the Lion-hearted, k. of England, as a Crusader, 445, 446.

Richelieu, Cardinal, 579-581; lays the basis of the power of Louis XIV., 591.

Ridley, 553.

Rienzi, tribune of Rome, 509, 510.

Rights, bill of, 626.

Rig-Veda, the, 9.

Robespierre, 655; effects the ruin of Hebert and Danton, 663; his part in the Reign of Terror, 664, 665; his execution, 665, 666.

Roderic, k. of Visigoths, 398.

Roland, Madame, 661.

Roland, paladin, 405.

Rollo, Scandinavian chief, 413.

Roman citizenship extended to the Italian allies, 280; extended to the provincials, 327.

Roman emperors, table of, 349.

Roman Empire, establishment of, 305; extent of, under Augustus, 306, 307; public sale of, 325; divided into prefectures by Constantine the Great, 333; final division of, 338; in the East, 338, 339; fall of, in the West, 347.

Roman Law, 358, 359; revival of, in Middle Ages, 388.

Romance languages, formation of, 386.

Romance nations, 385;

Romanoff, house of, 633.

Romans, religion of, 228-231; sacred games of, 231; social life among, 359-365; education, 359; the public amusements, 360; the drama among, 360.

Rome, location of, 223; hills of, 224; classes of society during regal period, 224, 225; early government of, 224; kings of, 225; sack of, by the Gauls, 239-241; first Roman province, 254; last triumph at, 339; ransom of, 341, 342; sack of, by Alaric, 342, 343; effect of the disaster upon paganism, 343; sacked by the Vandals, 346, 347; relation of fall to world-history, 367; sacked by the Imperial army, 532; becomes the capital of the kingdom of Italy, 713, 714.

Romulus, 225.

Romulus Augustus, last Roman emp. in the West, 348.

Roncesvalles, Pass of, 405.

Roses, Wars of the, 488, 489; union of the, 541.

Rosetta Stone, 36.

Rossback, battle of, 646.

Roundheads, origin of name, 610.

Rousseau, 649.

Roussillon, 591.

Royal touch, superstition of, 601, 602.

Roxana, bride of Alexander, 165.

Rubicon, the, Caesar crosses, 294, 295.

Rump Parliament, 614.

Runnymede, 480.

Ruric, 411.

Russia, invasion of, by Darius I., 79; introduction of Christianity, 382, n.; the name, 508; Tartar conquest of, 508; freed from the yoke of the Mongols, 508, 509; under Peter the Great, 633-639; under Catherine the Great, 639-641; invasion of, by Napoleon, 683, 684; Alexander I. and the Holy Alliance, 692; Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, 693; Crimean War, 694, 695; emancipation of the serfs, 696; Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, 696-698; Nihilism, 698, 699.

Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, 693; of 1877-1878, 696-698.

Ryswick, treaty of, 596.

S[edit]

Sabaeanism, 45.

Sacred War, first, 108; second, 160.

Sadowa, battle of, 704.

Sages, the Seven, 203.

Saguntum, 257.

St. Antony, 383.

St. Augustine, 358.

St. Bartholomew, massacre of, 576, 577.

St Benedict, 383.

St Bernard, 444.

St. Boniface, 382.

St. Columba, 380.

St. Dominic, 456.

St. Francis, 456.

St. Germain, treaty of, 574, 575.

St. Jerome, 358.

St. John, knights of. See Hospitallers.

St. Patrick, 379.

St. Petersburg, founding of, 637.

Sais, 25.

Saladin, captures Jerusalem, 444; the antagonist of Richard, 445.

Salamis, naval battle of, 134.

Sallust, 356.

Salona, 331.

Samaria, 48, 66.

Samaritans, origin of, 67.

Samnite War, first, 243; second, 244; third, 244.

Samnium, 222.

Samos, 88, 110.

Samson, 63.

Samuel, judge of Israel, 63.

Sansculotte, 663.

Sapor, k. of Persia, 328, n.

Sappho, 192.

Saracens, conquests of, 392-402; preserve Greek science, 473. See Arabs, and Mohammed.

Saracus. See Esarhaddon II.

Sardanapalus. See Asshurbanipal.

Sardinia, acquired by Rome, 254.

Sardis, capital of Lydia, 75; captured by Cyrus, 76; sacked by the Greeks, 80.

Sargon I., k. of Assyria, 42, 48, 49.

Sarum, 717.

Sassanian monarchy, 334, n.

Saul, k. of the Hebrews, 64.

Savonarola, Girolamo, 511.

Saxons. See Anglo-Saxons. Invade Britain, 336; subjugated by Charlemagne, 406.

Scandinavians. See Northmen. Conversion of, 382.

Scarabaeus, the, 29.

Schleswig, 703.

Schmalkald, League of, 533.

Scholasticism, 471, 472.

Schoolmen, chief of the, 471.

Scipio, P. Cornelius (Africanus), 264, 265.

Scipio, Publius Cornelius, 259, 260.

Scone, stone of, 482.

Scotland, wars with England, 482, 483; under the Commonwealth, 614; under the Protectorate, 615.

Scots, the, 320.

Scriptures, translated into the Gothic language, 377.

Scylla, 104.

Sebastopol, 695.

Sedgemoor, battle of, 622, n.

Sejanus, 309, 310.

Seleucia, 171.

Seleucidae, the, kingdom of, 171, 172.

Seleucus Nicator, 170, 171.

Self-denying ordinance, in English civil war, 611.

Semitic peoples, 4.

Sempach, battle of, 506.

Seneca, 312, 313, 356.

Senlac. See Hastings.

Sennacherib, 49, 50; palace of, at Nineveh, 56; will of, 57.

Sentinum, battle of, 244.

Separatists, 556.

Sepoy Mutiny, 726, 727.

Septuagint, the, 201.

Serfs, 425; under feudal system, 425; emancipation of, in Russia, 696.

Sertorius, 285.

Servetus, 527.

Servile Wars in Sicily, 273, 274, n.

Servius Tullius, wall of, 226; constitution of, 227.

Sesostris. See Rameses II.

Set, 28.

Seti I., 23.

Seven Weeks’ War, 703.

Seven Years’ War, 645, 646.

Severus, Alexander, Roman emp., 327, 328.

Severus, Septimius, Roman emp., 326.

Seville, 398.

Seymour, Jane, 549.

Seymour, Lord Henry, 559.

Sextius, Roman governor, 282.

Shakespeare, William, 562, n.

Shamanism, 45.

Sharrukin. See Sargon I.

Sheba, q. of, 66.

Shepherd kings, the. See Hyksos.

Shiites, 395, n.

Ship-money, 608.

Shumir, 41.

Sibylline Books, keepers of, 229, 230; burned, 283.

Sicilian expedition, 151-153.

Sicilian Vespers, 504, n.

Sicily, island of, 222; made a Roman province, 254; made part of kingdom of Italy, 712, 713.

Sidney, Sir Philip, 562, n., 570.

Sidon, 70.

Silesia, 645.

Simony, 453.

Sinon, 96.

Siwah, oasis of, 163.

Skeptics, the, 211, 212.

Slavery, among the Greeks, 98, 220, 221; among the Romans, 273, 274, 364.

Slavonians, 369.

Smerdis, the false, See Gomates.

Smith, Sir Sidney, 670.

Smyrna, 191.

Sobieski, 538, n. I.

Social life among the Romans, 359-365.

Social War in Italy, 279, 281.

Socii, 279.

Socrates, 121, 156, 206 207.

Sogdiana, 165.

Soissons, vase of, 373, n.

Solferino, battle of 712.

Solomon, k. of the Hebrews, 65, 66.

Solon, laws and reforms of, 120-122.

Solyman the Magnificent, 531.

Sophia, electress of Hanover, 629.

Sophists, the, 205, 206.

Sophocles, 193, 194.

Soudanese, revolt against the khedive, 728.

Spacteria, 150.

Spain, conquest of, by Saracens, 398; union of Castile and Aragon, 498; conquest of Granada, 499; the Inquisition in, 500; Spanish colonization in the New World, 517; ascendancy of, under Charles V. and Philip II., 530-538; her rapid decline, 538; revolt of her American colonies, 538,n.; in the war of the Spanish Succession, 596.

Spanish Fury, the, 567.

Spanish Succession, war of the, 596, 597, 628.

Sparta, early history of, 112-117; opposes the Athenian democracy, 124.

Spartacus, 285, 286.

Spartan supremacy, 155, 156.

Spartans, the, See Sparta.

Spartiatae, See Spartans.

Spenser, Edmund, 562, n.

Sphinx, great Egyptian, 34.

Spires, second diet of, 525.

Sporades, the, 88.

Spurinna, Roman astrologer, 299.

Stagira, 209.

Stamford Bridge, battle of, 434.

Stanislaus Lesczinski, 638.

Star Chamber, the, 607, n.

States-General of France, first meeting of, 494; no meeting under Louis XIV., 592; meeting of, in 1789, 650, 651; changed into the National Assembly, 651.

Steamship, ocean, navigation, 729.

Stephen of Blois, 436, n.

Stilicho, 339, 341,

Stoics, the, 210, 211.

Strelitzes, 635.

Stuart, house of. See Table of Contents.

Stuart, Henry (Lord Darnley), 557.

Stuart, Mary, 557, 558.

Sudras, 8, 11.

Suevi, 341; conversion of, 378.

Suez Canal, 727, 728.

Suffetes, Carthaginian magistrates, 247.

Sulla, fights under Marius in Africa, 278; secures command of Mithridatic expedition, 281; brings war to a close, 282, 283; proscriptions of, 283, 284.

Sunium, 179, n.

Sunnites, 395, n.

Supremacy, act of, 546, 555.

Supreme Being, worship of, set up by Robespierre, 664.

Surajah Dowlah, 724.

Surat, 603.

Susa, 42, 78.

Suttee, 12, n.

Sweden, in Thirty Years’ War, 583-586; receives lands in Germany, 587; under Charles XII., 636, 637, 638.

Swift, Jonathan, 629.

Swiss Guards, massacre of the, 656.

Syagrius, 374.

Sybaris, 111.

Syracuse, 111, 152, 262.

T[edit]

Tabor, Mount, battle of, 670, n.

Tacitus, the historian, 356.

Tacitus, Roman emp., 329.

Tagus, the, 400.

Talmud, 69.

Tamerlane, 461.

Tancred, 442, 443.

Tao, 17.

Taoism, 17.

Tarentum, 111, 244, 245.

Tarpeia, 242, n.

Tarpeian Rock, 242, n.

Tarquinius, Priscus, 225; Superbus, 225, 227.

Tarquins, the, Rome under, 226; expulsion from Rome, 227.

Tartarus, 101.

Tegea 117.

Telamon, battle near, 255.

Telegraph, 729, 730.

Telemachus, 340.

Tell, William, 506.

Tempe, vale of, 87.

Templars, Order of the, origin, 443, n.

Ten Thousand Greeks, the, expedition of, 156.

Ten Tribes, the, captivity of, 48.

Terence, 354.

Test Act, 621.

Tetzel, 521, 522.

Teutones, the, 278, 279.

Teutonic knights, order of, origin, 443.

Teutons, the, their character, 368, 369; kingdoms established by, 371-376; conversion of, 377-384; fusion with the Latins, 385-388; legislation of, 386; ordeals among, 387, 388.

Thales, 203, n.

Thapsus, battle of, 297.

Theatre, the, among the Greeks, 217, 218.

Theatre of Dionysus, at Athens, 182.

Theban supremacy, 156-158.

Thebes, in Egypt, 20; royal tombs at, 31.

Thebes, in Greece, 87; destroyed by Alexander, 161, 162.

Themistocles, in Persian War, 128-130; naval policy of, 136; his ostracism, 137; as an orator, 199.

Theocritus, 202.

Theodoric, k. of the Visigoths, 371.

Theodosius the Great, 337, 338.

Thermae, Roman, 352, 353.

Thermopylae, battle of, 132, 133.

Theseus, 94, 118.

Thespians, at Thermopylae, 133.

Thespis, 193.

Thessaly, 87.

Thiers, 691.

Thirty-nine articles, 551.

Thirty tyrants, 328.

Thirty Years’ War, 582-589.

Thor, 379.

Thothmes II., 22.

Thrace, made part of the Persian Empire, 80; kingdom of, 171.

Thucydides, 197, 198.

Tiberine Republic, established, 670; abolished, 671.

Tiberius, Roman emp., 309, 310.

Tibur, 244, 329.

Ticinus, battle of the, 260.

Tiers Etat, 651.

Tiglathinin, 43, 58.

Tiglath Pileser I., 48; II., 48.

Tigris, valley of the, 40.

Tilly, 583, 584.

Tilsit, treaty of, 678.

Timon, the Athenian misanthrope, 151.

Titian, 511, n.

Tities, 224.

Titus, Roman emp., 315-317.

Tobacco, introduced into England, 561.

Todleben, 695.

Toledo, 398.

Tory.—This term probably comes from the Irish word toree (give me), the command of the robber. Before pressed into political service, it was applied to the half-civilized natives of certain districts in Ireland.

Tory, origin of T. party, 621.

Tostig, 434.

Toulon, 665.

Tournament, 431.

Tours, battle of, 398.

Tower of London, 605.

Towns, growth of, 464; relations of, to the feudal lords, 464.

Trafalgar, battle of 678.

Trajan, Roman emp., 318-321.

Transmigration of souls, among the Brahmans, 10, 11; among the Egyptians, 30, 31.

Trasimenus, Lake, battle of, 260.

Trebia, battle of the, 260.

Tribonian, 358.

Tribunes, Roman, 234, 235; military tribunes, 238.

Triple Alliance, the, 593.

Triumvirate, First, 291; Second, 300-302, 303.

Trojan War, the, 94-96.

Troubadours, 496, 497.

Trouveurs, 497.

Troy. See Ilios.

Troyes, treaty of, 486.

Truceless War, the, 256.

True Cross, the, 390, 396.

Tudor, house of, England under, 539-562; names of Tudor sovereigns, 539, n.

Tuileries, palace of the, 653.

Tullus Hostilius, 225.

Tunis, 532, n.

Turanian peoples, 2, 3.

Turgot, 650.

Turin, 713.

Turks, embrace Mohammedanism, 396; the Seljuks, 460; Ottoman T., empire of, founded, 461-463; they capture Constantinople, 462; check to their arms, 463; defeated at Lepanto, 537; besiege Vienna, 538, n. I. See Russo-Turkish Wars.

Twelve tables of Roman law, 236, 237.

Tyburn, 618.

Typhon. See Set.

Tyrants, Greek, 109, 110.

Tyre, captured by Nebuchadnezzar, 59; history of, 70, 71; siege of, by Alexander, 163.

Tyrtaeus, 116, 117.

Tzar. See Czar.

U, V, W, X, Y, Z[edit]

Ulfilas, 377.

Ulm, battle of, 677.

Ulysses. See Odysseus.

Umbria, 222.

Uniformity, acts to secure, 551; act of, 555, 556.

Union, Customs, 701.

Universities, in the Middle Ages, 472.

Ur, of the Chaldees, 63.

Utica, 72.

Utrecht, union of, 567; treaty of, 597.


Valens, Roman emp., 335, 336.

Valentinian, Roman emp., 335, 336.

Valerian, Roman emp., 328, n.

Valerius, Publius, 232.

Valmy, battle of, 657.

Valois, house of, 494. n.; history of France under Valois sovereigns, 494-496.

Valois Orleans, house of, 572, n.

Vandals, establish kingdom in North Africa, 344; sack Rome, 346; conversion of, 378.

Varus, defeated by Hermann, 308.

Vasco da Gama, 514, 515.

Vassey, massacre of, 574.

Vatican, council of the, 714.

Vaudois, 533.

Vedas, 9.

Veii, siege of, 238, 239.

Vendee, 658.

Vendidad, the, 83.

Veneti, the, 346.

Venetia, 222.

Venice, takes part in the fourth crusade, 446; general sketch of its history, 466, 467; becomes part of the kingdom of Italy, 713.

Vercellae, battle of, 279.

Vercingetorix, 292.

Verdun, treaty of, 408.

Verona, battle at, 339.

Verres, abuses of, 286, 287.

Versailles, 648.

Vespasian, Roman emp., 314, 315.

Vesta, the worship of, 228.

Victor Emmanuel I., k. of Sardinia, 709; II., 711; takes possession of Rome, 714; his death, 714, n.

Victor Hugo, 667.

Vienna, congress of, 685, 686; reorganization of Germany by, 700; of Italy, 708.

Villeins, 425.

Vindobona, 323.

Vineland, 411.

Virgil, 354.

Virginia, origin of name, 560.

Visigoths, the, 336, 337; establish kingdom in Gaul and Spain, 344, 372.

Vitellius, Roman emp., 313.

Volga, 638.

Volscians, the, 235.

Voltaire, 649.

Vulgate, 358, n.


Wafels, battle of, 506.

Wagram, battle of, 680.

Waiblings, See Ghibellines.

Waldenses. See Vaudois.

Waldo, Peter, 533, n.

Wales, conquest of, 481.

Wallenstein, first appearance in Thirty Years’ War, 583; removed from his command, 583; restored, 585; his assassination, 586.

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 555.

Walter the Penniless, 441.

Warsaw, grand duchy of, 679.

Waterloo, 687, 688.

Welfs. See Guelphs.

Wellesley, Sir Arthur (d. of Wellington), in Spain, 680.

Wentworth, Thomas, 607, 609.

Wesley, John, 721, n.

Western Empire (Teutonic). See Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire.

Westphalia, treaty of, 586-589; kingdom of, 679.

Whig.—The origin of this word is a little uncertain; some get it from the initial letters of the phrase, “We hope in God,” which was the motto of some of the early members of the party; others from whey, the drink of the Scotch covenanters.

Whigs, origin of W. party, 621.

Whitby, council of, 380.

Whitefield, George, 721, n.

Wilfred, 380.

William I., the Conqueror, k. of England, 434-436; II., the Red, 436, n.

William III., k. of England, his part in the Revolution of 1688, 623, 624; reign, 626-628.

William I., k. of Prussia, 703; becomes emp. of the New German Empire, 707.

William I., the Silent. See Orange, William of.

Winfred. See St. Boniface.

Winkelried, Arnold of, 506.

Witan, the 433.

Witikind, 406.

Woden, 379.

Wolfe, Major-General, 631.

Wolseley, Lord, in Egypt, 728.

Wolsey, Cardinal, 543, 545.

Woman, social position of, among the Greeks, 216, 217.

Worcester, battle of, 614.

Worms, diet of, 523, 524.

Wurtemburg, duchy of, in Thirty Years’ War, 588.

Wycliffe, 490, 491.


Xanthippe, 206.

Xavier, Francis, 528.

Xenophon, 156, 198.

Xeres, battle of, 398.

Xerxes I., k. of Persia, 80, 81.


York, d. of, 621.

York, house of, 479, n.; badge of, 488. See Roses, Wars of the.

Yuste, monastery of, 534.


Zaandam, 635.

Zagros Mountains, 59, 60.

Zama, battle of, 264, 265.

Zealand, 567, 568.

Zedekiah, k. of Judah, 68.

Zela, battle of, 296.

Zendavesta, the, 83.

Zeno, 210.

Zeno, Roman emp. in the East, 348.

Zenobia, 329.

Zeus, 102; oracles of, 104, 105.

Zeuxis, 189.

Zorndorf, battle of, 646.

Zoroaster, 83.

Zoroastrianism, 83, 84.

Zutphen, siege of, 570.

Zwingle, Ulrich, 525.


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