A Treatise on Geology

From Wikisource
 
Jump to: navigation, search
A Treatise on Geology  (1852) 
by John Phillips (1800-1874)


CONTENTS.






 
PREFACE
 
CHAPTER I.
 
INTRODUCTORY VIEWS.
Page
Objects of Geological Science 1
Means of Geological Investigation 6
Scale of Geological Time 8
Series of Stratified Rocks 9
Lapse of Time inferred from the Nature of the Series of Rocks 10
Antiquity of the Surface 11
Nature of the Scale of Time 12
Terms of the Scale of Geological Time 12
Series of Terms on the Scale of Geological Time 14
Interruptions in the Series of Time 16
Length of the Scale of Time 17
Means of Investigation of Facts 18
Means of Interpretation of Phenomena 20
 
CHAP. II.
 
GENERAL REASONINGS CONCERNING THE SUBSTANCE OF THE GLOBE.
 
Chemical Data as to the exterior Parts of the Earth 23
Proportions per cent, of Oxygen in Earths, Minerals, and Rocks 24
Physical Data as to the interior Constitution of the Earth 26
Mass of the Globe, whence derived 28
 
CHAP. III.
 
GENERAL TRUTHS CONCERNING THE STRUCTURE OF THE EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE GLOBE.
 
Structure of the external Parts of the Globe 33
Forms of Rock Masses 35
Position of Rocks. Declination of Strata 36
Local Declinations and unusual Positions of Strata 39
Faults 40
Extent and Frequency of Faults 42
Relation of Faults, Mineral Veins, Dikes, &c. to the great Lines of disturbed Rocks 44

Origin of stratified and unstratified Rocks 45
Relative Periods of disturbed Stratification 49
 
CHAP. IV.
 
SERIES OF STRATIFIED ROCKS.
 
Sections and Maps of Strata 53
Table of British stratified Deposits 54
Varieties of Stratification 59
Divisional Structures of Rocks 62
Geographical Relations of Joints 65
Cleavage 67
 
CHAP. V.
 
ORGANIC REMAINS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS.
 
Fossil Plants 69
Table of their Geological Distribution 73
Fossil Zoophyta 73
Table of certain Groups 76
Fossil Mollusca 77
Table of proportionate Number of Species at different Geological Periods 80
Table of proportionate Number of Species in the different Orders or Classes of Mollusca in different Geological Periods 81
Table of Genera containing many living Species of Gasteropoda 82
Table of Genera containing many Fossil Species of Conchifera 83
Table of Genera of Cephalopoda 83
Table of Subgenera of Ammonites 84
Articulated Animals 84
Table of Crustacea 85
Fossil Fishes 86
Agassiz's. Classification of Fishes 88
Table 90
Fossil Reptiles 91
Owen's System of Fossil Saurians 92
Fossil Birds 95
Fossil Mammalia 95
Marsupial of Stonesfield 97
Table of Mammalia 99
General Considerations 100
 
CHAP. VI.
 
HISTORICAL VIEW OF THE STRATIFIED ROCKS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH.
 
Introductory Remarks 107
Granitic Basis of the Crust of the Earth 108

Granite Veins 109
Metamorphism of Rocks 110
Hypozoic Strata.
Gneiss and Mica Schist System 111
Composition 111
Lamination 114
Stratification 115
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 117
Organic Life 118
Extent of Country occupied by 119
Physical Geography 120
Igneous Rocks 121
General Inference concerning 122
Palæozoic Strata.
Lower Cambrian System of Sedgwick 124
Composition 125
Structure 126
Cleavage 128
Succession of its Strata 128
Organic Remains 131
Geographical Extent 132
Physical Geography 133
Igneous Rocks 134
Silurian System of Murchison 136
Composition 136
Structure 136
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 138
Table of the Strata 139
Organic Remains 140
Tables of ditto 141-144
Figures of ditto 145
Geographical Extent 146
Figure exhibiting ditto 147
Physical Geography 148
Igneous Rocks 148
Mineral Veins 149
Close of the Silurian Period, and ensuing Disturbances of the Crust of the Globe 149
Figures exhibiting ditto 151-153
Devonian System 154
Composition 154
Organic Remains 156
Tables exhibiting ditto 157
Figures of ditto 158-159
Geographical Extent 160
Carboniferous System 162
Composition 162
Structure 160
Figures of ditto 164-165
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 166

Organic Remains 170
Figures of ditto 171,173,175
Physical Geography 175
Geographical Extent 177
Igneous Rocks 184
General View of the Circumstances under which the Carboniferous System was deposited 186
Extent of British Coal Fields under superior Strata Disturbances of the Carboniferous System 193
Figures illustrating ditto 194-195
Permian System (Magnesian Limestone Series of England) 195
Composition 196
Structure of its Deposition 197
Divisional Planes 197
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 197
Organic Remains 198
Table of ditto 199
Figures of ditto 200
Table of Fauna of 201
Geographical Extent 202
Mesozoic Strata.
Triassic System (Part of Saliferous of former Editions) 203
Composition 203
Organic Remains 205
Geographical Extent 206
Physical Geography 208
Igneous Rocks 208
Origin and Aggregation of the Materials of the Triassic and Permian Systems 209
Origin of Rock Salt and Gypsum 210
Oolitic System 214
Composition 214
Structure 217
Divisional Planes 217
Series of Strata 218
Table exhibiting ditto 219
Figures illustrating ditto 220-221
Organic Remains 222
Tables of ditto 222-224
Figures of ditto 224-225
Geographical Extent 226
Figure of ditto 229
Physical Geography 230
Figure illustrating ditto 230
General Review of the System 231
Cretaceous System 233
Composition 233
Stratification 235
Succession of its Strata 236

Organic Remains 237
Figures of ditto 238-240
Geographical Extent 240
Physical Geography 242
Igneous Rocks 243
Close of the Secondary Period, and ensuing Disturbances of the Crust of the Globe 244
Cainozoic or Tertiary Strata.. (Supercretaceous Deposits, &c.) 249
Composition 250
Structure and Stratification 251
Divisional Planes 252
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 252
Freshwater Formations 254
Geographical Extent and Physical Geography 260
Organic Remains 264
In Marine Deposits 272
In Lacustrine and Lignitic Deposits of known Era 273
In Lacustrine Deposits of doubtful Era 275
Figures of ditto 275
Disturbing Movements during and after the Tertiary Period 276
Post-Tertiary and Modern Strata (including Pleistocene and other Deposits)
View of the Relation of these to Tertiary Strata 278
Classification of 281
Detrital Deposits 281
Erratic Block Group 283
Ossiferous Gravel, Pebbly Clay, Sand, &c. 298
Ossiferous Caves and Fissures 303
General Table of Vertebral Remains in Post-Tertiary Accumulations 304
Description of Caverns 310
General Considerations on "Diluvial" Phenomena 316
Zoological and Botanical Character of "Diluvial" Period 319
Ancient Marine Deposits 321
Raised Beaches 321
Change of Level of Land adjoining the Baltic 324
Marine Deposits in Progress 329
Coral Reefs 329
Mr. Stutchbury's Views of 330
Mr. Darwin, on Coral Islands 333
Shell Beds 336
Classes of Shells 340
Banks of Sand, Clay, Gravel, &c. 341


CONTENTS.


TO


THE SECOND VOLUME.





CHAPTER VI.continued.
 
HISTORICAL VIEW OF STRATIFIED ROCKS.
Page
Post-Tertiary Strata, continued.
Fluviatile and Lacustrine Deposits 1
Ancient Valley Formations 2
Fluviatile Deposits in 3
Rock Terraces in 6
Fluviatile Deposits 8
Waste of the Earth's Surface 9
Effects of Rain 10
Effects of Frost 11
Effects of Springs 19
Effects of Rivers 20
Lakes on the Course of Rivers 23
Deep Lakes on the Course of a River 24
New Lands at the Mouths of Rivers 27
Estuary and Shore Deposits 31
Lacustrine Deposits 36
Classification of Fossil Mammalia 39
Eocene or Lower Tertiary Period 41
Organic Remains of the Paris Basin 41
Organic Remains of the Quarries of Binstead 42
Middle Tertiary Period 43
Fossil Remains of the upper Freshwater Beds of the Paris Basin 43
Organic Remains of various Freshwater Beds 44-47

Lakes of the Pleiocene and Diluvial Period 48
Fossil Mammalia of the upper Val d'Arno 48
Series of Deposits in the upper Val d'Arno 49
Series of Deposits at Bielbecks 50
Organic Remains at Bielbecks 50
Fossil Shells of the Valley of the Thames 51
Charlesworth's Classification of Mammaliferous Strata 52
Modern Lacustrine Deposits 53
Analysis of the Deposition 55
Subterranean and Submarine Forests 57
Buried Trees on the Course of a River 57
Series of Beds associated with Tin Ore at Sandrycock, Cornwall 60
Turf Moors 62
Antiquity of Subterranean Forests 64
General Considerations 68
 
CHAP. VII.
 
UNSTRATIFIED ROCKS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH.
 
General Remarks 71
Igneous Origin 71
Geological Age 72
Composition 72
Mineral Composition of Unstratified Rocks 80
Scrope's Synopsis of Volcanic Rocks.─Trachyte 83
Greystone.─Basalt 84
Elements of the Old Rocks of Fusion.─Division I. Felspathic 84
Division II.─Hornblende, Augite, &c Felspathic 84
Division III. Hornblendic, Augitic, &c. 85
Mixed Rocks 86
Gradations among Igneous Rocks 87
Chemical Composition of the Rocks of Igneous Origin 90
Analysis of Minerals in Igneous Products 91
Table of Varieties of Mica 92
Table of Varieties of Granite 92
Table of Varieties of Sienite 93
Table of Combinations of Felspar 93
Analysis of Serpentine 94
Table of Felspathic Compounds analogous to Granite 94
Analyses of Pumice, compact Lava of Calabria, Basalt 95
Exterior Forms of the Masses of Igneous Rocks 95
Interposed Beds 95
Overlying Masses 97
Fissures 97
Dykes 98
Veins 99

Internal Divisions of Igneous Rocks 108
Phenomena Observed where Igneous Rocks come in contact with Stratified Masses 109
Induration of Stratified Rocks 109
Alteration of the Structure of Rocks by Heat 111
Metamorphic Rocks 125
Re-arrangement of the Particles of Rocks 126
Alteration of the Chemical Nature of Rocks 131
Dolomitic Limestone 133
Generation of New Minerals 136
Metamorphic Slates 139
Succession of Metamorphic Slates 140
Metamorphic Mica Schist, Gneiss, &c. 143
Relative Antiquity of Pyrogeuous Rocks 145
Table of the Principal Disturbances of the Stratification of the British Islands, with the Igneous Rocks observed in connection therewith 152
Class I.─Before the Deposition of Old Red Sandstone 152
Class II.─Before the Deposition of the Lias 153
Class III.─Before the Deposition of the Lower Green Sand 154
Class IV.─Since the Deposition of the Chalk 154
 
CHAP. VIII.
 
MINERAL VEINS.
 
Remarks 155
Geographical Distribution 156
Occurrence of Mineral Veins near Centres of Igneous Action 159
Relations of Veins to the Substance and Structure of the Neighbouring Rocks 163
Relation of Veins to each other 171
First Class.─Oldest Tin Veins 171
Second Class.─More recent Tin Lodes 171
Third Class.─Oldest East and West Copper Lodes 172
Fourth Class.─Contra Copper Lodes 172
Fifth Class.─Cross Courses 173
Sixth Class.─More recent Copper Lodes 173
Seventh Class.─Cross Flukans 173
Eighth Class.─Slides 173
Deposits of Metallic Veins in Cornwall 174
Theory of Mineral Veins 177
Veins are of posterior Date to the Rocks which they traverse 178
Description of Huel Peever Vein 180
Origin of Vein Fissures 188
Filling of the Fissures 192
Recapitulation 196

CHAP. IX.
 
MODERN EFFECTS OF HEAT ON THE GLOBE.
Page
Remarks 200
Volcanic Action 201
Origin of Volcanos 202
Volcanos in Action 208
Dispersion of Ashes, Stones, Mud, &c. 213
Extinction of Volcanos 216
Extinct Volcanos 220
Geographical Distribution of Volcanos. 221
Asiatic Volcanos 227
American Volcanos 229
African Volcanos 231
Australian 232
Indian Ocean 232
Pacific Ocean 232
Geological Age of Volcanos 233
Volcanic Eruption Forces.─Earthquakes 234
Ejection of Ashes and Stones 235
New Mountains formed 236
New Islands raised 236
Earthquakes 242
Hypotheses of Volcanic Action 248
Thermal Springs 252
Warm Springs of the British Islands, yielding Nitrogen, &c. 255
Warm Springs of a Part of Germany, &c., yielding Carbonic Acid, &c. 256
Warm Springs of the Pyrenees 256
Warm Springs of Volcanic Countries 257
Summary of their Geological Relations to existing Volcanos 259
Experimental Inquiries into the Heat of the Globe 262
First Class of Experiments.—Metalliferous Veins 270
Tables of Temperatures of Water at different Depths in the Mines of Freyberg 270
Account of Temperatures of Water at different Depths in various Countries 271
Second Class of Experiments.—Stratified Rocks 272
Account of the Temperatures of Water at various Depths in different Mines 273
Cordier's Summary of Observations in the Coal Mines of Carmeaux, Littry, and Decise 274
Summary of Observations on Subterranean Temperatures in Rocks 275
Third Class of Experiments.—Artesian Wells 276
Tables of Temperatures of Water, with Mean Results 276

CHAP. X.
 
STATE OF GEOLOGICAL THEORY.
Page
General Observations 277
Physical Geography 286
Distribution of Land and Sea 286
Heights and Depths 288
Displacements of Stratified Rocks 289
Direction 292
Production of Longitudinal Fissures 299
Formation of Transverse Fissures 300
Formation of Fissures in a Conical Elevation 300
Faults 301
Periods of Ordinary and Critical Action 301
Primary Period.—Carboniferous Period 302
Oolitic and Cretaceous.—Periods Eocene Period of Mr. Lyell 303
Modern Period of Ordinary Action 304
Climate 305
Conclusion 315
CHAP. XI.
 
POPULAR VIEWS AND ECONOMICAL APPLICATIONS OF GEOLOGY.
 
Introductory Remarks 317
Aspect of the Earth's Surface 319
Outline of Land and Sea 320
Undulations of the Interior 322
Scenery 324
Economical Applications of Geology 326
Agriculture 326
Construction of Roads, Railways, Canals, &c. 329
Building Materials 330
Coal and other Mineral Products 331
 
INDEX.
 
This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.