A Treatise on Geology/Index

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A Treatise on Geology by John Phillips (1800-1874)
Index



INDEX.


A.

Aar, glacier of the, its extent, ii. 13.
Abberley Hills, position of strata in the, i. 39. Fossils of, 142. Silurian strata of, 149.
Aberystwith, cleavage of rocks in, i. 68.
Acosta, M., on waves, ii. 242.
Acunha, Tristan d', extinct volcano of, ii. 231.
Adriatic, accession of new land on the coasts of, ii. 28. 34.
Ægean Sea, its depth, divided into eight zones, i. 337. Various species of mollusca found in, 338, et seq.
Africa, volcanos of, ii. 231.
Agassiz, M., his discoveries in fossil zoology, i. 86, 87, 88. 90, 91. 96. 157. 176. 208. 233. 270. ii. 47.
Agnano, Lago, once a volcanic crater, ii. 220.
Agriculture, successful pursuit of, dependent on a knowledge of geology, ii. 326.
Aix, freshwater deposits of, ii. 43. Insects found in, 44.
Aix-la-Chapelle, analysis of its mineral waters, ii. 256.
Albano, Mount, extinct volcano of, ii. 226.
Aldstone Moor, "flats" of, ii. 166. Lead mines of, 176. Change of the "hade" of the veins of, 191.
Aleutian Isles, reference to volcanic; phenomena in connection with the, ii. 229.
Alhama, freshwater beds of, animal deposits of the, ii. 44.
Alluvium. See Post-tertiary Strata.
Alps, dip of stratified rocks in, i. 37. Position of strata in, 39. Hypozoic strata predominant in, 58. Chalk little seen about or beyond, 58. Of Savoy, alteration of lias clays of, 68. An example of the granitic basis of the earth's crust, 108.
Altai Mountains, ii. 228.
Alte Hoffnung Gottes, temperature of the mine of, ii. 271.
Alum Bay, I. of Wight, sand rocks of, i. 250. 254.
Alumina, proportion of oxygen in,
Ambleside, mottled clay slate found at, i. 126.
America, North, fossils of, i. 143. Hall's subdivision of rocks of, 143. Cretaceous system, how developed in, 242. Volcanos of, ii. 229.
America, South, volcanos of, ii. 229. Internal sea of melted rock below a large part of, 247.
Ammonites, table of subgenera of, Amorphous masses under strata, ii. 108.
Amphitherium, new name for fossil remains of marsupials, i. 96.
Andes, their elevation attributed to volcanic action, ii. 208. Volcanos of the, 230.
Animal life, zero of, i. 339.
Animals, organic remains of, i. 69.
Articulated, 84. Tables of, found in post-tertiary strata, 304. See Organic Remains.
"Anticlinal, the Great Merioneth," of Sedgwick, i. 130.
Anticlinal Lines, their direction, ii. 292. See Strata.
Antrim, basaltic formation of, ii. 96. 128.
Apennines, dip of stratified rocks in, i. 37.
Arachnida not common as fossils, i. 85.
Arago, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 267, et seq. 308. On the temperature of Artesian wells, 276.
Ararat, Mount, volcanic character of, ii. 227.
Arbroath, Scotland, fossil remains offish found at. i. 86.
Archipelago, the Dangerous, coral islands of the, i. 331.
Archipelago, Greek, volcanos of the, ii. 222.
Arctic regions, once covered by plants of tropical lands, i. 226. Various theories explanatory of the origin of erratic blocks, icebergs, glaciers, &c. of, 281-298. Their influence on temperature of the earth, ii. 310.
Ardennes, dip of stratified rocks from, i. 37.
Argillaceous beds, three types of, i. 246
Argillaceous slaty rocks of Cornwall altered by their proximity to granite, ii. 142.
Arno, Val d', animal remains found in, ii. 48.
Arran, granitic veins in the clay slates of, i. 109. 134. Granite found in gneiss of, 121. Remarkable section of carboniferous system in, 167. Igneous rocks of, 184. ii. 145.
Artesian wells, experiments on their temperature, ii. 276.
Articulated animals, their remains, i. 85. See Organic Remains.
Asaphi, where found, i. 147.
Ascension Isle, volcanic nature of, ii. 231.
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, coal district of, i. 181.
Ashes of volcanos, dispersion of, ii. 213. 235.
Ashgill Force, i. 177.
Asia, volcanos of, ii. 227.
Asphaltum, in Trinidad, ii. 230.
Atlantic Ocean, tertianes bordering on, i. 262. Its depth, how ascertained, ii. 288.
Atlas, Mount, basaltic eruptions of, ii. 231.
Atmosphere, temperature of the, its influence on the earth, ii. 264.
Augite, how found, ii. 84.
Australia, volcanic action formerly exhibited in. ii. 232. Its survey recommended, 337. Sir R. Murchison's notes of its gold regions, 337, et seq.
Auvergne, dip of stratified rocks from, i. 37. Bones in, covered by volcanic scoriæ, 47. Allusions to its extinct volcanos, 278. ii. 206, 207. 216.
Avalanche, its origin and descent explained, ii. 13.
Avernus, Lake, once a volcanic crater, ii. 220.
Axis, anticlinal, the term explained, i. 39. See Anticlinal Lines.
Axis, synclinal, its explanation, i. 39.
Aymestry, abundance of zoophyta in bands of, i. 75,76. Limestones of, 136. Corals found in rocks of, 138.
Azores, rise of islands in the, ii. 222. 237.


B.

Bagshot sands, i. 255.
Bakewell waters, analysis of, ii. 255.
Bakur, its celebrated "field of fire," ii. 227.
Bala, limestone of, i. 124. Fossils of, 130.
Balachulish, quartz rock of, its stratification, i. 115.
Bald, Mr., his experiments on the temperature of coal mines, ii. 273.
Balæna, fossil remains of, i. 98.
Baltic and Black Seas, sandy deposits which lie between, i. 262. Relation of phenomena of raised beaches to the gradual subsidence of the level of, 324.
Bangor, black shales of, i. 130.
Banks of sand, clay, &c., their origin accounted for, i. 341.
Banwell cave, i. 311. 315.
Barmouth sandstones, i. 130.
Barrande, M., reference to his geological researches, i. 143. 147.
Barrowdale, clay slate of, i. 129.
Bath waters, their analysis, ii. 255.
Barton clay, composition of, i. 254.
Basalt, proportion of oxygen, i. 25. Divided prisms of, in Staffa and the Giant's Causeway, 63. Mr. Watt's experiments on the amorphous, of Rowley, i. 185. ii.73. Analyses of, 84. 95. Of Hasenberg, 95. Of Staffa, 95.
Basin of Paris, convergence of stratified rocks at, i. 37.
Batavia, coal fields of, i. 1831
Beaches, raised, phenomena of, i. 321. Theories of Messrs. Brongniart and Prestwich accounting for, 321,322.
Beaumont, Elie de, on primary strata, i. 150. His observations on changes of the earth's crust, 153. 248. His name for the upper term of the tertiary strata, 258. Attributes elevation of Corsica and Sardinia to disturbance during tertiary period, 277. On the oolitic strata of Tarentaise, 144. On volcanos, 205. On direction of anticlinal lines, ii. 292. On ordinary and critical action of the earth, 301. On dislocations of molasse, 295.
Beche, Sir H. de la, on the fissures of rocks of Cornwall, i. 65. Ordnance maps of, 129. On the fossils of Bala, 130. His analysis of minerals found in igneous products, ii. 91, et seq. His survey of Devon and Cornwall, 105. On the altered rock of Dartmoor, 143. On mineral springs, 259.
Beddgelert, valley of, i. 134.
Bellevue, M. de, his designation of the phenomena of raised beaches, i. 324. On temperature of Artesian wells, ii. 276.
Ben Cruachan, an example of the granitic basis of the crust of the earth, i. 108. Porphyritic dykes at, 121.
Ben Nevis, porphyry discovered in, i. 121. Its height, ii.260. Not perpetually covered with snow, 265.
Bengal, Bay of, amount of annual discharge of sediment into, ii. 34.
Bermudas. Islands of, their origin compared with that of limestone corals of Dudley and Wenlock, i. 148. Coral reefs of, 330. Thought to resemble leithakalk of Transylvania, i. 253.
Berwyn Mountains, dip of strata at the, i. 38.
Bex salt mines, their temperature, ii. 272.
Bielbecks, excavations at, and discovery of animal remains by Mr. W. V. Harcourt, ii. 50.
Bies Bosch, encroachments of the sea on, ii. 33.
Binstead quarries, animal remains found in, ii. 42.
Birds, fossil remains of, i. 95. See Organic Remains.
Bize, bone caves of, remains of Man supposed to be found in, i. 100.
Black Forest, abundance of saliferous deposits in, i. 207.
Black Hill, Jamaica, its origin volcanic, ii. 230.
Blainville, De, his researches in fossil zoology, i. 96.
Blumenbach, his theory accounting for animal remains found in caves, i. 312.
Boase, Dr., on the vegetable deposits of Mount's Bay, ii. 61. On the mineral veins of Cornwall, 177. 189.
Bognor beds, their composition, i. 255.
Bogs of Ireland, their situation and thickness, ii. 63, 64.
Bohl, valley of the, ii. 214.
Bolca, Monte, fossil deposits of, i. 87
Borelli, his account of the destruction of Catania, ii. 211.
Bornholm, organic remains of cycadeæ and equiseta in the rocks of, i. 72. De Luc's account of, ii. 62.
Borset, mineral waters of, their analysis, ii. 256.
Boulder formation, i. 281. Speculations concerning the origin of, 281-294.
Bourbon; Isle of, ii. 231.
Brachiopoda, shells of, in the Welsh mountains, i. 72.
Bracklesham sands, their composition, i. 255.
Brahmaputra, amount of its annual discharge of sediment, ii. 34.
Bredon Hill, i. 230.
Breislac, M., his computation of the lava current of Vesuvius, ii. 211.
Brewster, Sir D., on temperature, ii. 264.
Bridgenorth, remarkable row of terraces at, ii. 7.
"Bridgwater Treatise," Dr. Buckland's, reference to, i.89.
Brine springs, analysis of, i. 205.
Brinham Rocks, ii. 10.
Bristol Hot Wells, 1, analysis of the waters of, ii. 255.
Brittany, stratified rocks of, their dip, i. 37. Mines of, ii. 161. Temperature of the mines of, 271.
British Isles, once submerged by the sea, i. 148. Thermal springs of, ii. 255. Scenery of, 325.
Broderip, Mr., reference to, i. 96.
Brongniart, M. Adolphe, his table of living and extinct plants, i. 73. His theory accounting for the earth's early productiveness, 187. His theory of the origin of coal, 188. His theory accounting for fresh water interpolations in marine strata of Paris, 261. His synopsis of tertiary plants, 265. His views as to the origin of raised beaches, 321, et seq.
Buch, Von, his table of Ammonites, i.84. His speculation concerning Alpine dolomite's, 210. On the transformations of limestone, ii. 134. On the Sienite of Christiania, 143. His hypothesis on the "craters of volcanos," 203, et seq., 231. On direction of anticlinal lines, 292, et seq.
Buckland, Dr., references to his geological researches, passim. His account of Kirkdale Cave, i. 315.
Buddle, Mr., notice of his sections of the coal of Newcastle, i. 169. His experiments on temperature of coal mines, ii. 273.
Building materials, geology necessary for proper choice of, ii. 330.
Bunter of the Mesozoic strata, i. 203.
Buprestidæ of Stonesfield, i. 223.
Burdiehouse, fossil remains of fish at, i. 87.
Buxton. analysis of the waters of, 255.


C.

Cader Idris, ancient strata of, i. 129, 130.
Cainozoic or Tertiary strata, table of its deposits, i. 54. 249. Composition of, 250. Structure and stratification of, 251 . Divisional planes of, 252. Succession and thickness of, 252. Freshwater formations above, 254. Geographical extent and physical geography of, 260. Organic remains of, 264. Disturbances during and after, 276.
Calabria, lava of, its analysis, ii. 95.
Caldcleuph, Mr., his account of the second great earthquake of Chili, ii. 241.
California, volcanos of, ii. 229.
Cam Fell, plants on, ii. 327.
Cambrian system, i. 57. 124, et seq.
Canada, its survey recommended, ii. 337.
Canals, a knowledge of geology necessary for the construction of, ii. 329.
Canary Islands, volcanic in their origin, ii. 231.
Cantal, Plomb du, ii. 205. Deposits found in beds of, 44.
Caradoc, gritstone of, i. 136. Formation, table of, 139.
Carbonic acid, amount of, in thermal springs of Germany, ii. 256.
Carbonic acid gas, its effect on granite, ii. 9. Found in calcareous strata, 129.
Carboniferous system, table of deposits of, i. 56. Its prevalence in England and Ireland, 58. Strata of, 162. Its composition, 162. Its structure, 163. Its succession and thickness, 166. Its organic remains, 170. Its physical geography, 176. Its geographical extent, 177. Igneous rocks of, 184. General view of the circumstances under which the system was deposited, 186. Disturbances of the system, 193.
Cardona, salt mines of, i. 211.
Carguairazo, peak of, volcanic eruption of the, ii. 215.
Carmeaux, mines of, their temperature, ii. 274.
Carne, Mr., his description of the vein systems of Cornwall, ii. 171, et seq.
Carnivora, in marine deposits, i. 272. See Organic Remains.
Carpathians, dip of stratified rocks in the, i. 37. Green sand plentiful in, 58.
Carrara, marble of, ii. 130.
Catania, destruction of, by currents of lava, ii. 211.
Caucasus, volcanic accumulations of the, ii. 227.
Cautley, Captain, his discovery of remains of quadrumana, i. 100.
Caves, Caverns, ossiferous, i. 303. Their origin obscure, 310. Various kinds of, 310. Almost exclusively found in limestone, 310. Theories accounting for animal remains found in, 311.
Cement, Roman, how derived, and where found, i. 256.
Cephalopoda, amount of, found fossil, i. 80. Table of, 83.
Cervus megaceros, recent existence of, i. 320.
Cetacea in marine deposits, i. 272. See Organic Remains.
Chahorra, Mount, its eruption of stones, ii. 235.
Chalk, its extent of range in England and France, i. 36. Little seen about or beyond the Alps, 58. Its composition, &c., see Cretaceous System. Its rise from the sea accounted for, ii. 5.
Chambers. Mr., notice of his work, "Ancient Sea Margins," ii. 2.
Chamouni, Vale of, position of strata in, i. 39. Cleavage of strata in, 128.
Channel, English, tertiaries dependent on the, i. 262. Peculiar shells of the, 269.
Chaos, mis-application of the term, 107.
Charlesworth, Mr., his researches on the super-cretaceous deposits of the eastern counties, ii. 52.
Charnwood Forest, i. 68. Clay slate of, 126. 132.
Chat Moss, oak tree stumps found in, ii. 58.
Chert, how and where found, i. 234.
Cheshire, salt district of, i. 212.
Chili, volcanos of, ii. 230. Earthquakes of, 221. 241. 249. Coast of, raised by convulsive movements, 241. 291.
Chloride of sodium, chemical name for common salt, i. 210.
Chlorite schist, difference between it and mica schist, i. 113.
Christiania, sienite of, ii. 143.
Cirripeda, not common as fossils, i. 96.
Cistus helianthemum, soil peculiar for, ii. 327.
Clar, argillaceous, three kinds of, i. 246.
Clay, Kimmeridge, where found, i. 227.
Clay banks, their composition and origin, i. 341.
Clay-slate, different colours of, i. 156.
Clay-slate system, i. 124. Regarded by Sedgwick as the Cambrian, 124. Its composition, 125. Structure of. 126. Cleavage of, 127. Succession of its strata, 128. Organic remains found in, 131. Geographical extent of the system, 132. Its physical geography, 133. Its igneous rocks, 134. Clay-stone, proportion of oxygen in, i. 25.
Cleavage of rocks, i. 67. 115. 128. 137. ii. 117. A result of pressure, 117. 120. Mr. Sharpe's views of, 117. 120, et seq.
Clee Hills, position of strata in the, i. 39. The series of, how expressed, 179.
Clift, Mr., identifies teeth of hippopotamus and ox in animal remains of Georges Gmünd, ii. 47.
Climate of the earth, during early geological periods, ii. 305. Mr. 1 Lyell's hypothesis on, 305. Speculations on heat and cold as affecting, 306. Hypotheses of Sir J. Herschel and M. Poisson, accounting for varieties, 306, et seq. Difference of Atlantic and Continental climates, to what ascribed, 309.
Clwydd, Vale of, its faults, i. 44.
Coal, dip of, in Gloucestershire and Somersetshire, i. 49. In Yorkshire and Durham, 50. Always found in beds. 163. Its composition, 163. Ironstone found in its districts, 165. Structure of beds of, at Swansea. 160. Succession and thickness of strata of, 166. Organic remains found in, 177. Its inexhaustibility considered, 181. Theories accounting for the origin of, 188. Its extent under superior strata, 193. A knowledge of geology necessary for its discovery and successful extraction, ii. 331.
Coalfield, Newcastle, fault in the, 142.
Coal mines, experiments on their temperature, ii. 273.
Coalfield Dyke, account of, ii. 132.
Colchester, 'Mr., his discovery of fossil quadrumana at Kyson, i. 100.
Coley Hill, igneous rocks of, i. 68. Cleavage in, 128. 135.
Conception, destruction of, by an earthquake, ii. 221. Elevation of the strata of clav in the bav of, 241.
Conchifera, amount of, found fossil, i. 80. Table of, 83.
Coniston, slate of, i. 133.
Connemara, serpentine found in, i. 121.
Conrad, Mr., his classification of North American tertiaries, i. 264. 270.
Conybeare, Mr., his geological investigations, i. 154. 203. Reference to his "Geology of England and Wales," 183. On the "killas" of Cornwall, ii. 142.
Copper ore, the richest, at what depth found, ii. 170. Lodes, ancient and more recent, 172, 173.
Coral, in rocks of Dudley, Wenlock, &c. i. 138. Reels and islands of, their origin, 329. Labours of zoophyta in forming, 331. Peculiarity of their form, 331, et seq. See Organic Remains.
Cordier, M., his experiments on temperature of the mines of Carmeaux, ii. 274.
Cordilleras, volcanos of the, ii. 221.
Cornwall, mica schist and gneiss rarely found in, i. 58. Granitic structure of the rocks of, 108, 109. ii. 104. Survey of, by Sir H. De la Beche, 105. Alterations produced on the slaty rocks of, by proximity of granite, 108. 142. Minerals of, 156, et seq. Temperature of the mines of, 271.
Corygills, Arran, the rocks of, i. 63.
Cotidal lines, Whewell's Essays on, ii. 288.
"Crag," marine Deposit, where found, i. 255. Roman cement made from, 266.
Craven district of Yorkshire, position of strata at, i. 39. Length of faults in, 43. 135.
Cretaceous system, table of deposits of the, i. 54. Its composition, 233. Its stratification, 235. Succession of its strata, 236. Organic remains found in, 237. Its geographical extent, 240. Its physical geography, 242. Its igneous rocks, 243.
Crinan canal, i. 116.
Crocodiles, fossil remains of. i. 92. Their instinctive habits alluded to, 93, 94.
Crossfell, position of strata at, i. 39. The "Whin Sill," a basaltic formation found at, ii. 96.
Crust of the earth, historical view of the rocks of, i. 107. Granitic base of, 10S. Disturbances of, at close of Silurian period, 149. At close of Secondary period, 244. During and after the Tertiary period, 276.
Crustacea, table of fossil genera of, 85.
Cullercoats, fault at, i. 40. 193.
Cumberland, red sandstone of, i. 16. Cleavage of rocks in, 68. Slate of, 133, 134. Lake district of, 133.
Cumbrian mountains, dip of stratified rocks in, i. 37. Granitic structure of, 108. Porphyry abundant in, 134. Detritus yielded by, to diluvial currents, 283.
Cuvier, his opinion of "true" geology, i. 69. His discoveries in fossil zoology, 88. 90. 96. 98. 116. 256. 261. 298. 312.
Cycadeae found in oolitic strata, i. 222.


D.

Danube, organic remains found in the, i. 269.
Dartmoor, altered rocks of, ii. 143.
Darwin, Mr., his ingenious theory of the origin of boulders, i. 296. His observations on coralligenous zoophyta and coral islands, 331, ft seq. On the volcanic origin of the islands of the Pacific, ii. 232. On the dynamics of earthquakes, 247. On the displacements of stratified rock accounting for continental elevation, 289. 304.
Daubeny, Dr., references to his work on volcanos, ii. 136. 210, et seq. On mineral and thermal springs, 254, et seq.
Daubuisson, M., extract from his "Traité de Geologie," ii. 250. His experiments on the heat of mines, ii. 270.
Dauphine, organic remains found in, i. 123.
Davy, Sir H., reference to, ii. 329.
Dechen, Von, his plans of granite veins, ii. 104. On the alterations produced on argillaceous slaty rocks by granite, 108. 142. On the changes effected by the granite of the Harz, 143.
Decise, mine of, its temperature, ii. 275.
Deltas, how formed, ii. 25, et seq.
Demavend, Peak of, its height, ii. 228.
Denham, Captain, his survey of the estuary of the Mersey, ii. 33.
Deposits, British, table of, i. 54. Various kinds of, 58. Of the various strata, see Hypozoic and following Strata. Supracretaceous, 249. 272, et seq. Modern, 278. Classification of, 281. Detrital, 281. Tables of vertebral, 304. Ancient marine, 321. Marine, in progress. 329. Fluviatile, ii. 1.8. Lacustrine, 36. Metalliferous, 155.
Derbyshire, coal formation of, i. 166. Difference in herbage of, 177.
Derwent, delta of the, how formed, ii. 25.
Deshayes, M., his researches concerning tertiary mollusca, i. 265. His discoveries of animal remains in lacustrine deposits, ii. 48.
Desnoyers, M. J., his comparison of the English "crag" to the epilimnic group of Paris basin, i. 257. His report on ossiferous caves, 303.
Detrital deposits, i. 281, et seq.
Devil's Arrows, Boroughbridge, ii. 10.
Devonian system, table of deposits of, i. 56. Composition of the strata of, 154. Organic remains found in, 156. Its geographical extent, 160.
Didelphys, fossil remains of, i. 96.
Dillwyn, Mr., his notice of phenomenon in coal formation of Swansea, i. 163.
Diluvial period, theories accounting for the phenomena of the, i. 281, et seq. General considerations of the phenomena of, 316, et seq. Zoological and botanical characters of the period, 319. See Post-tertiary Strata. Lakes of the, ii. 48.
Diluvium, i. 278. 281. See Post-tertiary Strata.
Dislocations of strata, their direction considered, ii. 292, et seq. See under heads of the various Strata.
Disturbances of stratification in British Islands, tables of, ii. 152.
Dolcoath Mine, depth of, ii. 170. Its temperature, 271.
Dolgelly, valley of, i. 134.
Dolomitic limestone, description and origin of, ii. 133.
Donati, M., his researches in the Adriatic, i. 46. On deposits of the Rhone, ii. 29.
Drainage, effects of, ii. 21.
Dream Cavern, skeleton of a rhinoceros found in, i. 311.
Drift in post-tertiary strata, i. 281.
Dudley, corals found in rocks of, i. 138.
Dufrenoy, M., his remarks on the strata of the Pyrenees, i. 244. His memoir on the tertiaries of France, 257. 259. On the metalliferous veins of the Pyrenees, 162. On volcanos, 205.
Dünolly, cubic pyrites found at, i. 126.
Durham, dislocation of coal and limestone strata in, i. 50.
Dykes, another name for faults, i. 40. Their extent and frequency, 42. Their relation to disturbed rocks, 44. See Strata.
Dykes in igneous rocks, ii. 98. Singular combination of, at Kaghlin, 128. Remarkable one at Cockfield, 132.


E.

Earn, Loch, stratification in the quartz rock of, i. 115, 116.
Earth, strata of the, its age, how ascertained, i. 8. Physical changes of the, how determined, 18. 20. Chemical data for the exterior parts of the, 23. Composition of its mass, 23. Physical data of its interior constitution, 26. Its mass, whence derived, 28. Structure of its external parts, 33. Historical view of stratified rocks in the crust of, 107. Granitic base of the crust of, 108. Disturbances in the crust at the close of the Silurian period, 149. Disturbances at the close of the Secondary period, 244. Disturbances during and after the Tertiary period, 276. Waste of the, ii. 9. Effects of rain, &c., as agents of disintegration of, 10, et seq. Unstratified rocks in crust of, 71. Huttonian hypothesis of its construction, 194. Modern effects of heat in, 200. See Heat, Volcanos. Experimental inquiries into heat of, 262. Its physical geography, 286. Its distribution into land and sea, 286. Heights and depths of, 288. Displacements of stratified rocks of, 289. Direction of anticlinal lines of, 292. Periods of ordinary and critical action of, 301. Modern period of ordinary action of, 304. Climate of, 305. Hypotheses advanced accounting for climates of, 305, et seq. See Heat. Aspect of the surface of, 319. Outline of the land and sea portions of, 320. Undulations of the interior of, 322. Scenery of, 324. Agriculture of, dependent on a proper knowledge of its geology, 326. Proper construction of roads, &c., dependent on a knowledge of its strata, 329. Knowledge of the various strata of, and their qualities, necessary for architectural and building purposes, 330. This knowledge requisite also for successful acquisition of its mineral and other products. 331.
Earths, proportions of oxygen contained in various, i. 24.
Earthquakes premonitory of volcanic eruptions, ii. 208. 221. Towns destroyed by, 221. Phenomena attending, 234, et seq. Account of various, 241. Movements of, described, 243. Theories accounting for, 243, et seq. Wave movements of, 243, 244.
Egypt, Lower, the gift of the Nile, ii.28.
Eifel, extinct volcanos of the, ii. 135. 202. 216. 220.
Electricity, currents of, their effects on metallic bodies, ii. 114. 195. Mr. Fox's theory accounting for, 114. 195, et seq.
Elevation of mountains, ii. 289. 290.
Elgin, fossil remains at, i. 92.
Elk, the Irish, fossil remains of, i. 99. ii. 56. 69.
Ellis, Mr., his description of the crater of Kirauea, ii. 532.
Elster, valley of the, fossil remains of Man found in, i. 100.
Ems, its mineral waters, their analysis, ii. 256.
Eocene period, deposits of the, ii. 41. See Strata.
Epilimnic formation, the, i. 257.
Eppelsheim, animal remains found at, ii. 45.
Eribol, Loch, orteoceratites discovered at, i. 118. Quartz rock of, 117.
Erratic block groups, i. 281. 283. Theories accounting for their formation, 281 298.
Estuary and shore deposits, description of, and their effects, ii. 31, et seq.
Etna, volcano of, i. 278. ii. 203. Phenomena attending eruptions of, 204. Height and circumference of, 211. Various eruptions of, 217, 218.
Euganean hills, extinct volcanos of, i. 278. ii. 227.
Europe and British Isles, once covered by the sea, i. 149.
Everest, Mr., his analysis of the waters of the Ganges, ii. 34.


F.

Facts, geological, the means for investigating, i. 18.
Falconer, Dr., his discovery of fossil quadrumana, i. 100.
Faults, description of, i. 40. Local names for, 40. Extent and frequency of, 42. Their relation to disturbed rocks, 44. Their cause, ii. 301. See Strata.
Fauna of the magnesian limestone, i. 200. Of the Permian system, 201. Glacial marine, 327.
Felspar, proportion of oxygen in, i. 25. Its composition, 31. How and where found, ii. 84.
Felspathic rocks, how and where found, ii. 84.
Ferrybridge, discovery of submarine forest at, ii. 57.
Festiniog, valley of, i. 134.
Firs, remarkable heights of, ii. 67.
Fish, thrown out by volcanos, account of, ii. 215.
Fishes, fossil remains of, i 86. Orders of, 89. Table of, 90. See Organic Remains.
Fissures, in rocks, i. 303. In igneous rocks, ii. 97. Vein, their origin, 188. Filling of, 192. Longitudinal, production of, 299. Transverse, their formation, 300. In conical elevation, their formation, 300.
Fleming, Dr., on deposits of the Frith of Tay, ii. 60.
Flinders, Captain, his account of the coral reef of New Holland, i. 332.
Flint. See Cretaceous System.
Flora, British. See Organic Remains.
Fluviatile deposits, ii. 8, et seq.
Forbes, Prof. E., on marine deposits, i. 327. His researches in the ÆEgean Sea, 337. His observations on the glacier of Montanvert, i. 14. 19. His work on the lacustrine deposits of Purbeck, 40. On the volcanos of Auvergne, 207. On mineral springs, 257, et seq.
Forchammer, Dr., his suggestion respecting the origin of pisolite, i. 210. His view accounting for the boulder formation of Denmark, 317. On deposits of lakes of Denmark, ii. 54.
Ford, Mr., his account of Cockfield Dyke, ii. 132.
Forest of Dean, i. 181.
Forests, subterranean and marine, discoveries of, ii. 57. Their antiquity, 64.
Formations, ancient valley, ii. 2.
Forster, Mr. Westgarth, his arrangement of the Newcastle coal beds, i. 168.
Forth, great valley of the, dip of stratified rocks in the, i. 37.
Fossils, and fossil remains of animals, &c. See Organic Remains.
Fourier, M., his mathematical theory of heat, ii. 264. 268. 308. 313.
Fox, Mr., on the changes of metallic bodies by electrical currents, i. 68. 135. ii. 114.195. On the mineral veins of Cornwall, 160. 164, et seq. On fissures in mineral veins, 195. His experiments on heat and the temperature of mines, 271, et seq.
France, coalfields of, i. 183. Cretaceous rocks of, 241.
Freyberg, mines of, ii. 174. Proportions of lead and silver found in, 174. Temperature of, 270.
Friendly Isles, tabular form of the, i. 332.
Friesland, lakes of, once woods, ii. 61.
Frost, effects of, as an agent of disintegration, ii. 11.


G.

Gainard and Quoy, MM., their observations on the labours of coralligenous zoophyta, i.331.
Galena, sublimation of, by steam, ii. 197.
Gallapagos Islands, volcanic origin of, ii. 230.
Ganges, analysis of the waters of the, ii. 34.
Garnets, where found, ii. 138.
Garonne, tertiary deposits of the basin of the, i. 257.
Gas, carbonic acid, in calcareous strata, ii. 129.
Gasteropoda, number of, found fossil, i. 80. Table of genera of, 82.
Gautemala. volcanos of, ii. 229.
Geneva, lake of, reference to the deposits of, as forming the delta of the Rhone, ii. 25.
Gensanne, M., his experiments on the temperature of the Vosges mine, ii. 270.
Geography, physical, of the globe, the subject considered, ii. 286. See Earth, Globe, Strata.
Geological Intersector, Professor Phillips', i. 68.
Geological Map, Professor Phillips', ii. 320.
Geological time, scale of, i. 8. Lapse of, inferred from series of rocks, 10. Nature of the scale of, 12. Terms of the scale, 12. 14. Interruptions of the series of, 16. Length of the scale, 17.
Geology, and Geological Theory, objects of, i. 1. Means of investigating, 6. How distinguished from Natural History, P. Its phenomena, how interpreted, 20. Analogy between the tertiary and modern periods of, 99. State of, ii. 277. Considered as one of the inductive sciences, 279. Errors to be guarded against in study of, 280. Phenomena of the earth, proper subjects for geological observation, 281. Leibnitzian and Huttonian theories considered, 285. Its physical geography and phenomena examined, 286, et seg. See Strata. Popular views and economical applications of, 317, et seq. Benefits conferred on mankind at large, by its pursuit, 326, et seq. See Earth.
"Geology of Yorkshire," references to, i. 137. 172. 190. ii. 112. 162. 311. 335.
Georges Gmünd, ossiferous beds of, i. 280. 3?0. Animal remains of, ii. 46.
German Ocean, peculiar shells of the, i. 269. An examination of its organic contents recommended, ii. 36.
Germany, volcanos of, ii. 223. Thermal springs of, 256.
Giant's Causeway, i. 63. 244.
Girogmagny, mines of, their temperature, ii. 270.
Glaciers and their phenomena, i. 294298. ii. 13, et seq. Their origin, ii. 12.
Gleichenberg, in Styria, trachytic mountain of, ii. 225.
Glen Coc, porphyry discovered in, i. 121.
Glen Tilt, granitic veins in, i. 109. Crystallised primary limestones of, 116. Hornblende schist of, 117.
Globe (see Earth), construction of the, how ascertained, i. 7. Age of its strata, how determined, 8, et seq. Physical changes of, what means to be taken for acquiring a knowledge of, 18. 20. General reasonings concerning the substances of, 23. Its mass, whence derived, 28. Structure of its external parts, 33. Disturbances in crust of, at close of Silurian period, 149. Disturbances at close of the Secondary period, 244. Disturbances during and after Tertiary period, 276. Waste of the surface of, ii. 9. Rain, &c., as agents of disintegration of, 10, et seq. Unstratified rocks in crust of, 71. Heat of, 72. Modern effects of heat in, 200. Experimental inquiries into heat of, 262. See Heat. Its physical geography, 286. A knowledge of its construction, &c. necessary for all the purposes of life, and benefits conferred by this knowledge on mankind, 317, et seq. 326, et seq.
Gneiss and Mica Schist systems, i. 111. Their composition, 111. Lamination prevalent in, 114. Stratification less easily traceable in, than in other systems, 115, Remains of organic life seldom traced in, 1 18. Extent to which they prevail, 119. Found prevalent in Scotland and Ireland, 119. Physical geography of, 120. Igneous rock of, 121. General inferences to he deduced from a consideration of the whole subject, 122.
Gneiss, proportion of oxygen in, i. 25. Rare in the Harz, Cornwall, and Wales, 58. Metamorphism of, how effected, ii. 143.
Golt, how and where found, i. 233, et seq.
Gordian Medal, discovery of a, at Groningen, ii. 65.
Graham, Mrs., her account of the first Chilian earthquake, ii. 214.
Graham's Island, its volcanic phenomena, ii. 214.
Grampians, dip of stratified rocks in the, i. 37. Hypozoic strata predominant in, 58. Afford an example of the granitic basis of the earth's crust, 108. Picturesque beauty of, 133, 134. Once uplifted, 151. Gneiss mountains of, ii. 321.
Granite, proportion of oxygen in, i. 25. Its composition, 25. The basis of the earth's crust, 10S. Veins of, in Glen Tilt, Cornwall, &c., 109. 121. Its rapid decomposition by carbonic acid gas, ii. 9. May have been derived from fusion of previously formed strata, 72. Once a melted fluid, 79. Great protuberances of, in the valley of theJValteline, 88. Composition of, 92. Huttonian theory of the crystallisation of, 101. Alterations produced by the proximity of, to various strata, 101, et seq. Age of, how determined, 148. Basis of the trachytic masses of Mexico, 230.
Grauwacke system. See Palæozoic Strata, Clay Slate System. Origin of the term and its application, i. 126.
Gravel, various theories accounting for the origin of, i. 298. 302. Not necessarily of diluvial origin, 301. Sir R. Murchison's examination of the Welsh border accounting for deposits of, in vales of the Dee and Severn, 301. Geographical circumstances accounting for distribution of, 301. Local origin of some sorts of, 302. Problems suggested by these theories, important for a correct view of the origin of diluvial accumulations, &c., 302. Banks of, 341.
Green sand, how and where found, i. 234. See Cretaceous System.
Green stone, how and where found, i. 121. 208.
Greenhow Hill, disturbed strata of, i. 44.
Greystone, how found, ii. 84.
Griffith, Mr., on fissures, i. 65. His map, 178. On colour of slaty rocks of S. E. Ireland, ii. 143.
Grit, millstone, an important deposit in the north of England, i. 180.
Group, erratic block, i. 281. 283.
Guadaloupe, earthquake of, ii. 246.
Guanaxiato, mines of, their temperature, ii. 272.
"Guide to Geology," references to, i. 128. 137.
Gypsum of the Triassic system, where found, i. 204. Its origin, 210.


H.

Hall, Sir James, his experiments on powdered limestone, ii. 79. His examination of mountain of Tornideon, 102. His examination of the Huttonian doctrine of the induration of rocks by heat, 129. Quotation from his "Geology of New York," i. 143.
Ham, Mr., his analysis of the waters of the Severn, ii. 34.
Hamilton, Sir W., on the eruption of Vesuvius, ii. 235.
Harcourt, Mr. W. V., his experiments on the effects of long-continued heat, i. 126. His geological investigations, ii. 42. 50.
Hardrow Force, i. 177.
Harlech sandstones, i. 130.
Harz Mountains, mica schist and gneiss of rare occurrence in, i. 58. Elevation of the, 153.
Hasenberg, basalt of, ii. 95.
Hatfield Chase, extent and drainage of, ii. 65.
Hawaii or Owhyhee, volcanic crater at, ii. 232.
Headon Hill, limestones of, i. 251.
Heat, Mr. Harcourt's experiments on effects of long-continued, i. 126. Its effects on rocks, ii. 72. 111. Its modern effects on the globe, 200. Hot springs and volcanos indicative of the presence and degree of, 200. See Volcanos, Thermal Springs, Earthquakes. Dependent on the calorific influence radiated from the sun, 263. 266. This influence not cumulative in its effects, 263. This influence modified by the refrigerating action of the planetary spaces, and the elevation of places above the level of the sea, 263, 264. The peculiar distribution of land and water, another cause productive of difference of temperature, 265. Leslie's experiments, 266. Experiments of M. Quetelet and others, 267, et seq. Daubuisson's experiments on. in mines of various depths, 270. Experiments of Mr. Fox, 271. Experiments on, in stratified rocks, by Saussure and others, 272. Experiments on, in Artesian wells, 276. Sir J. Herschel's theory of the variability of, 306. Hypotheses of various geologists accounting for changes of climate produced by solar heat, 305, 306, et seq.
Hebrides, composed of gneiss, i. 119. ii. 321.
Hecla, eruptions of, ii. 219.
Heights and depths of the earth, how ascertained, ii. 288.
Heligoland, encroachments of the sea on, ii. 33.
Kenwood, Mr., "on the shoots of mineral veins. ii. 168. 184, et seq. On the temperature of mines, 275.
Herbage, difference of, In limestone districts of England, i. 177.
Herculaneum, destruction of, ii. 213.
Herodotus, on the alluvial deposits of the Nile, i. 11. ii. 23.
Herrenschneider, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 2G7.
Herschel, Sir J., his speculations on the planetary masses, i. 31. Trilobites found by, 147. Views geology as a science, ii. 279. On the variability of solar heat, 306.
Hibbert, Dr., on the cervus megaceros, i. 320.
High Force waterfall, ii. 112.
Himalaya, height of the, i. 18. Deposits in the, 58. Application of the theory of the divisional strata of England to, 218.
Hindostan, undulations of the interior of, ii. 322.
Hippopotamus, remains of, where found, ii. 47. 68.
Hodgkinson, Mr., his experiments on the temperature of salt mines, ii. 273.
Hoffman, M., on coal of north-west Germany, i. 168.
Holderness, operation of the sea on the coast of, ii. 32. Deposits of, 54. 58.
Holland, Dr., his hypothesis respecting the Cheshire salt district, i. 212, 213.
Holland, New, coral reefs of, i. 332.
Hopkins, Mr., his remarks on the earth's solid crust, i. 28. On the rock fissures of Derbyshire, 65. On disturbances of the earth's crust, 153. 195. His theory of the formation of erratic blocks. 296. On glaciers, ii 18. On the phenomenon of cleavage, 246. On dislocations of strata and their direction, 298.
Homer, Mr., his experiments on the waters of the Rhine, ii. 33.
Hornblende, how found, ii. 84, 85. Slate, 140.
Hot springs, see Thermal Springs, ii. 200.
Huelgoat, mine of, its temperature, ii. 271.
Huel Peever mine, plan and sections of, ii. 180. et seq.
Hugi, M., his discovery of fossil remains in the Jura mountains, i. 223.
Humber, deposits at the mouth of the, ii. 32.
Humboldt, on the age of granite, ii. 148. On the new mountain of Jorulio, 204. Traces lava to summit of Peak of Teneriffe, 209. On volcanic rocks. 215, et seq. On temperature of the mines of Guanaxuato, 272. On direction of anticlinal lines, ii. 292.
Hundsruck, fossil remains of fish in the, i. 87. Elevation of, 153.
Hungary, extinct volcanos of, ii. 220. 224. 227.
Hutton, Dr., his view of Geology as a science, i. 1. 4, 5. His study of stratified rocks in Scotland and Saxony, 38. His remarks on the various opinions respecting the crust of the earth, 110. On the subterranean forests of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, ii. 66. His doctrine of the crystallisation of granite, 10J. Objections to his theory, that the induration of rocks is attributable to the action of heat, 129. His hypothesis of the earth's construction opposed to Werner, 194. His theories considered, 284.
Hvpozoic system, strata of. i. 57. Its predominance in Scandinavia, the Alps, and Grampians, 58. System considered, 111. Its composition, 111. Lamination in, 114. Stratification of, 115. Succession and thickness of, 117. Organic life discovered in, 118. Extent of, 119. Physical geography of, 120. Igneous rocks of, 121. General inferences drawn from the subject, 122.

L

Lacustrine deposits in tertiary strata, i. 273. In post-tertiary strata, ii. 1. 36. Of the Eocene period, 41. Of the Middle Tertiary period, 43. Of the Pleiocene period, 48. Modern, 53.
Ladrone Islands, volcanic chain of the, ii. 232.
Lakes, on the course of rivers, remarks on their influence in changing the earth's surface, ii. 2327. Deep. 24. Shallow, 27.
Of the Pleiocene period and their deposits, 48.
Llanberis, purple slates of, i. 130. Valley of, 134.
Llandeilo, rocks of, i. 124.136. Table of their formation, 139.
Llandovery, metamorphic slates of, i. 137.
Lamarck, M., reference to his group of echinodermata, i. 76.
Lamination, prevalence of, among schists, i. 114. In coal formations, 163.
Lammermuirs, dip of stratified rocks from the chain of the, i. 37. Silurian strata of, 147.
Lancashire, coal deposits of, i. 180.
Lancaster, position of strata at, i. 39.
Land and sea, distribution of the globe into, ii. 286. Outline of, 320.
Lands, new, their formation at the mouths of rivers, ii. 27. Displacements of, from convulsive movements of the earth, 240. 292.
Langdale, clay slate of, i. 126. 129.
Languedoc, plains of, rise of strata from, i. 37.
Lartet, M.. his discovery of remains of quadrumana, i. 100.
Laplace, his speculation on the planetary masses, i. 31.
Lava, greystone, of Calabria, analysis of, ii. 95. Diversified appearance of, 209. Composition of, 209. Curious description of its effects when liquid, 210. See Volcanos.
Lead Hills, metallic deposits of the, ii. 161.
Lead mine of Strontian, i. 122. Of Nant y Moen, and the Shelve district of Shropshire, 149.
Lead, ore, in what proportions found in the mines of Freyberg, ii. 174. "Throw" of, in mines of Aldstone Moor, 176. Lead mines of Cornwall, 176.
Lee, Mr., his contributions to geology, ii. 56. 68.
Lehman, M., extract from his work on "Mineralogy," ii. 193.
Leibnitzian theory. See Geology and Geological Theory.
Leslie, his statement of the relative weights of water, mercury, and air, at different depths below the earth, i. 27. His experiments on heat, ii, 266.
Lettry, coal mines of, their temperature, ii. 275.
Levant tin and copper mine, temperature of, ii. 271.
Lewis, serpentine found in, 121.
Lias, where found, i. 226, et seq.
Life, organic, traces of, not discoverable in gneiss and mica schist, i. 118.
Lignitic deposits in Cainozoic strata, i. 273.
Lime, proportion of oxygen in, i. 21
Limestone, proportion of oxygen found in, i. 25. Oceanic types of, 245. Changed by action of igneous rocks, ii. 126. Experiments in illustration of, 129, 130. Powdered, converted into stone, 130. Dolomitic, 133.
Limestone, carboniferous. See Carboniferous Limestone. Its extent in England and on the Continent, i. 58. Peculiarities of the districts of, in England, 176, 177.
Limestone, magnesian, limited range of, in the north of England, i. 36. Peculiarities of districts of, in England, and their extent, 176-178. See Magnesian Limestone.
Lincolnshire, fen lands of their breadth, to what cause attributed, ii. 32.
Lindley, Dr., result of his experiments on land plants, i. 70. 104.
Linnaeus, his zoological researches, i. 91.
Lipari Isles, volcanos of the, ii. 218.
Lisbon, earthquake of, ii. 241.
Logan, Mr., geological researches of, i. 144. 188.
Lomond, Loch, stratification easily found in the chloritic schists of, i. 115. Succession of strata at, 117.
Lonsdale, Mr., geological researches of, i. 155. 162.
Loss on the Rhine, deposit of, ii. 3.
London clay, its composition and position, i. 255.
London sand, i. 16. Dip of, 38.
Luc, De, quotation from, distinguishing the sciences of Geology and Natural History, i. 6. His opinion on the antiquity of the earth's strata, 13. His theory of the origin of coal, 188. His notice of the boulder formations, 291, 292. His discussions on ossiferous gravel, 298. His theory accounting for animal remains in caves, 312. On rivers and their deposits, ii. 22. 30. 33. On the subterranean forests of the Humber, 59, et seq.
Lucretius, reference to, ii. 217.
Ludlow, mudstone of, i. 136. Table of the formation, 139. Extent of the formation, 146.
Lyell, Mr., reference to his "Principles of Geology," i. 109. His speculations on the "crust" of the earth, 110. 123. 249. His views on the gradual rising of the Weald, 249. 263. His theory accounting for origin of London tertiaries,263. His researches among animal remains in various deposits, ii. 3. 23. 39. 43. 56. His speculations on the Adriatic, 28, 29. His estimate of the deposits of British estuaries, 34. Extract from, on the aboriginal forests of Hercynia, &C..65. On metamorphic rocks, 125. On the Sienite of Christiania, 144. On volcanos, 203, et sea. On the volcano of Skaptaa Jokul, 211, 212. His hypothesis on climate, 305, et seq.


M.

Macculloch, Dr., quotation from, on lamination, i. 114. Discovers Orteoceratites at Lake Eribol, 118. His map of Scotland, 114. 178. His theory accounting for waste of the earth's surface, ii. 9. On the limestone of Skye, 96. 126. His drawing of schist rock, 146.
Madagascar, volcanic character of, ii. 231.
Madeira, once volcanic, ii. 231.
Maestricht, limestone district of, i. 237.
Magnesia, proportion of oxygen in, i.24.
Magnesian limestone series (the Permian), limited range of rocks of, in N. of England, i. 36. Table of its deposits, 56. The system considered, 195. Its composition, 196. Its structures of deposition, 197. Its divisional planes, 197. Succession and thickness of its strata, 197. Its organic remains, 198. Fauna of, 200, 201. Mallet, Mr., on the dynamics of earthquakes, ii. 243, 244.
Mallow Spa, analysis of the waters of, ii. 255.
Malvern Hills, strata of, i. 39. Echinida and stellerida, zoophytes found in, 76. Abundance of fossils found in. 125. Volcanic sandstones of, 136. Consist of Silurian rocks, 148.
Mammalia, fossil remains of, i. 95. 98. Tables of, 99. In marine deposits, 272. In post-tertiary accumulations, 306. See Organic Remains.
Man, no fossil remains of, yet discovered, i. 99. Discovery of a man, in a turf pit, with tanned skin, but bones consumed, ii. 67.
Man, Isle of, composed principally of slaty rocks, i. 132.
Mantell, Dr., his researches in fossil zoology, i. 92.
Map, Geological, Professor Phillips', ii. 320.
Maranon, forests of, i. 187. Col. Sabine's observations on the sea current of the, 343.
Marine deposits of tertiary period, i. 272. See Organic Remains.
Marls, varieties of, found in Triassic system, i.204.
Martins, Dr., his examples of the glaciers of Spitsbergen, i. 297 Masses, overlying, of igneous ronks, ii. 97. Amorphous, of all strata, 108.
Mastodon, teeth of a, found at Fort M' Henry, ii. 69. Skeletons of, where found, 69.
Maunsell, Archdeacon, obtains possession of skeleton of Irish elk, ii. 56.
Mauritius, volcanic character of, the, ii. 231.
Mediterranean, tertiary deposits of the, i. 262.
Melaphyre. ii.133.
Mendip Hills, i. 17.
Meridian of least land, ii. 286.
Mersey, Captain Denham's survey of the estuary of, ii.33.

{{outdent|Mesozoic or Secondary strata, table of deposits of, i. 54. The strata considered, 203. See Triassic,

Metallic veins. See Mineral Veins.
Metalliferous deposits. See Mineral veins.
Metals, bow and where found. See Mineral Veins.
Metamorphic rocks, i. 123. ii. 125. 143.
Metamorphic slates, ii. 139.
Meteoric stones, their origin, i. 32.
Meuse, course of, compared to that of the Wye, i. 176.
Mexico, volcanos of, ii. 230.
Meyer, M., reference to his "Palæologica," i. 272. On animal remains in lacustrine deposits, ii. 46, 47; and in subterranean forests, 69.
Mica, proportion of oxygen in its composition, i. 25. Its composition,31.111. Rarely found in the Harz, Cornwall, or Wales, 58.
Metamorphism of mica schist, ii. 143. See Gneiss and Mica Schist Systems.
Michael, St., shells of, i. 324.
Middle tertiary period, deposits of the, ii. 43.
Mill Pond, N. Jersey, bleached shells found at, ii. 56.
Mineral veins, relation of, to disturbed rocks, i. 44. Found in Silurian strata, 149. Remarks on, ii. 155. Werner's distinction between "true veins" and false appearances of, 155. Their geographical distribution, 156. Their occurrence near centres of igneous action, 159. Relation of, to the substance and structure of neighbouring rocks, 163. Relation of, to one another, 171. Theory of, 177. Are posterior to the rocks which they traverse, 178. Origin of vein fissures, 188. Tilling of the fissures, 192. Recapitulation of the phenomena of, 196. A study of Geology necessary for the proper working of 331.
Minerals, proportions of oxygen contained in certain, i. 24. Crystallised, found in sedimentary strata, 123. In igneous products, their analysis, ii. 9195. Generation of new, by igneous action, 136. Their successful discovery and extraction dependent on a knowledge of geology, 331.
"Mineralogia Cornubiensis," reference to, ii. 170.
Mines, heat in, experiments on, ii. 270. See Heat, Minerals, Mineral Veins.
"Mining Record Office," origin of the, ii. 177.
Mississippi, forests of the, i. 187.
Mitchell, Mr., his theory that physical geography forms the basis of laws of geological phenomena, i. 38. On earthquakes, and their movements, 244.
Mitscherlich, geological researches of, ii. 81.
Mixed rocks, ii. 86.
Modern deposits, i. 278. ii. 53.
Moel Siabod, i. 129, 130.
Moel Tryvaen, height of, i. 322. Shells of, 322.
Molasse, dislocations of, their examination recommended by M. Beaumont, ii. 295.
Mollusca, i. 77. Tables of, 80, 81. 327. 339. See Organic Remains.
Molucca Isles, volcanic nature of the, ii. 228.
Montabusard, animal remains found at, ii. 45.
Montanvert, glacier of, ii. 14.
Monte Nuovo, its remarkable rise, ii. 204.
Monte Rossi, double cone and its height, ii. 204.
Monte Somma, ancient crater of Vesuvius, ii. 216.
Montmartre, gypsum quarries of, i. 63.
Moray Frith, uplifting of, i. 322.
Morris, Mr., on the Permian system of plants, i. 200. On deposits of the valley of the Thames, ii. 57.
Mount's Bay, vegetable deposits found at, ii. 61.
Mountains, new, formation of, by volcanic action, ii. 236.
Mourne Mountains, granite of the, i. 108.
Mudstone of Ludlow, i. 136.
Muncke, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 267.
Munster, Von, his table of ammonites, i. 84. His catalogue of animal remains of Georges Gmünd, ii.46.
Murchison, Sir R., His Silurian system, i. 124., et seq. Organic fossils described by, 140, et seq. His description of trap rocks in coal districts, 185. His British fauna, 200, 201. His opinion respecting shelly marls of Gosau, 237. His tertiary series, 258. His memoir on the Alps and Carpathians, 259. On animal remains in lacustrine deposits, ii. 47. His survey of trap rocks of Silurian system, 109. On volcanic eruptions, 214. His survey of the Ural mountains, 336. Muschelkalk of the Triassic system, i. 203.
Muschelkalk of the Triassic system, i. 203.


N.

Nant Francon, purple slates of, i. 130.
Nant-y-Moen, mineral veins of, i. 149.
Natural History, definition of, i. 6. How distinguished from Geology, 6. Remarks on its study, ii. 319.
Natural sciences, their definition, i. 1. 6.
Nebulæ, Lord Rosse's observations respecting, i. 32.
Necker, M., his geological researches, ii. 88. On mineral veins, 159, et seq.
Neptunists and Plutonists, conflicting hypotheses of the, ii. 283. See Hutton.
Newcastle coalfield, its faults, i. 42. Cleavage of its igneous rocks, 68. Order of its coal beds, 168.
Newhaven, fossil remains of fish at, 87.
New York system, subdivisions of the rocks of, i. 143.
Nile, alluvial land of, i. 11. Herodotus's account of, 11. ii. 28. Its delta, how formed, ii. 27. Analysis of its deposits, 29.
Nitrogen, amount of, yielded by warm springs of the British Islands, ii. 255.
Nordstrand, history of, ii. 33.
North Sea, tertiary deposits in the, i. 262.
Northumberland, dip of stratified rocks in, i. 37.
Northwich, salt mines of, i. 63. 213.
Notre Dame des Ports, notice of, ii. 28.


O

Oak, proper soil for, ii. 327.
Oats, Captain, his experiments on the temperature of Tresavean mine, ii. 272.
Obsidian, analysis of, ii. 94.
Ocean, Atlantic, depth of, how ascertained, ii. 288.
Ocean, German, a survey of its organic contents recommended, ii. 36.
Ocean, Indian, submarine volcano in, ii. 232.
Ocean, Northern, its division at the commencement of the carboniferous era, i. 186. Ocean, Pacific, its waters a theatre of volcanic action, ii. 232. Its islands of volcanic origin, 232. Oeningen, fossil remains found in the quarries of, i. 92. ii. 47.
Oeynhausen, M., on the alterations effected by granite on argillaceous slaty rocks of Cornwall, ii. 108. 142.
Oolites of France and Germany, their resemblance to same group in England, i. 58. See Oolitic System.
Oolitic system, tables of deposits of, i. 55. 199. 204, et seq. Its composition, 214. Its structure, 217. Its divisional planes, 217. Series of strata of, 218. Its organic remains, 222. Geographical extent of the, 226. Its physical geography, 230. Its igneous rocks, 231. General review of the system, 231.
Oppel, Von, on the "Working of Veins," extract from, ii. 192. Ordnance Survey of England and Ireland, its services to geology, ii. 338.
Organic remains in hypozoic strata, i. 118. In Palaeozoic strata, 131. In Silurian strata, 140. In Devonian system, 156. In Carboniferous system, 170. In Permian system, 198. In Triassic system, 205. In Oolitic system, 222. In Cretaceous system. 237. In Cainozoic or Tertiary strata, 264. In Post-tertiary strata, 298, et seq. ii. 41, et seq.
Orleannois, animal remains found in the freshwater beds of, ii. 45.
Oronoko, forests of, i. 187.
Orteoceratites, of Loch Eribol, i. 118.
Ossiferous caves, i. 281. 303-316.
Ossiferous gravel, i. 281. 298-302.
Ott, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 267.
Ovid, his view of the earth's being an animal breathing out flame, ii. 219.
Owen, Professor, his discoveries in fossil zoology, i. 92. 96. 98. 106. ii. 42.
Oxygen, table of proportions of, contained in certain earths, &c., i. 24. Expansion of, when liberated from its compounds, 31.
Oysters and their habits, i. 337.


P.

Pachydermata, in marine deposits, i. 272. See Organic Remains.
Pacific Ocean, a theatre of volcanic action, ii. 232. Volcanic origin of the islands of, 232. Padua, volcanic hills of, ii. 225.
Palaeontology, classical term for Organic geology, i. 2. Palæosaurus, discovery of the, i.94.
Palæotherian formation, its composition, i. 257.
Palæozoic or Primary strata, table of deposits of, i. 56. The system considered, 124. Its composition, 125. Structures of, 126. Cleavage of, 128. Succession of the strata, 128. Organic remains found in, 131. Geographical extent of, 133. Its physical geography, 133. Igneous rocks of, 134. See Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian Systems.
Paris, Basin of, convergence of dips of stratified rocks towards low ground of, i. 37. Epilimnic group of, 257.
Patterson, Mr., his experiments on the sublimation of galena, ii. 197.
Peak Cavern, i. 310. Peak of Teneriffe. lava traced to summit of, ii. 209.
Peat in lacustrine deposits, ii. 54. Bogs of Ireland, 63, 64.
Pebbly clay and sand, theories accounting for, i. 281. 298. Penine chain, faults of the, i. 39. 44. Area uplifted by, ii. 291.
Pentateuch, errors resulting from a misunderstanding of the, i. 247. Pentland, Mr., animal remains discovered by, in the Val d'Arno, ii. 48.
Permian system, table of deposits of the. i. 56. Long considered a part of the Saliferous system 195. Its composition, 195, 197. Its structures of deposition. 197 Its divisional planes, 197. Succession and thickness of its strata 197. Its organic remains, 198 Fauna of, 201. Its geographical extent, 202. Origin and aggregation of the materials of the system, 209.
Persian Gulf, volcanic phenomena of, ii. 228.
Peru, volcano in, ii. 230.
Phascolotherium of Buckland, i. 97.
Phenomena, of the earth, how to be interpreted, i. IS. 20. Considerations drawn from diluvial, 316.
Phillips, Mr., his analysis of pumice, ii. 95. On the copper and tin ores of Cornwall, ii. 170. On Tin Croft mine, 185.
Phillips, Professor, references to his Geological Intersector and Map, i. 68. ii. 320.
"Pipe" of ore, explanation of the term, ii. 168.
Pitchstone of Newry, analysis of, ii. 94, 95.
Plants, fossil remains of, i. 69. See Organic Remains.
Plas Newydd, crystallised minerals found at, i. 123. Dyke of, ii. 137.
Plastic clay group, its composition, i. 257.
Playfair, Dr., on the word stratum, i. 60. A supporter of the Huttonian theory, ii. 101, 102.
Pleiocene period, lakes of the, and their deposits, ii. 48.
Pleistocene deposits, i. 278.
Pliny the Younger, on the great eruption of Vesuvius, ii. 216.
Plomb du Cantal. ii. 64. 205, 206.
Plutonic rocks and volcanic products, distinctions to be drawn between, ii. 80.
Poisson, M., on the effects of solar heat, ii. 307.
Pompeii, destruction of, ii. 213.
Pompeiopolis, half destroyed by an earthquake, ii. 242.
Pontypool, coal district of, i. 181.
Ponza Islands, extinct volcanos of, ii. 226.
Porphyry, where found, i. 121. 134. 291. Igneous origin of, ii. 71.
Portland, Isle of, "dirt bed" of, i. 71.
Portsoy, serpentine found at, i. 121.
Post-tertiary strata, their origin and composition, i. 278. Detrital and other deposits of the, 281. Organic remains of, 298. Table of vertebral remains found in, 304. General considerations of diluvial phenomena of, 316. Zoological and botanical characters of the diluvial period, 319. Ancient marine deposits of, 321. Marine deposits of, in progress, 329. Fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of, ii. 1, et seq.
Poullaouen, mine of, its temperature, ii. 271.
Prenadillas, ejection of, by volcanos, ii. 2 1 5.
Pressure and tension, a cause of the cleavage of rocks, ii. 117. 123. The subject examined, 123, et seq.
Prestwich, Mr., his notice of trap rocks, i. 85. His observations on the London clay, 255. His theory accounting for the uplifting of Moray Frith, 322.
Primary system, table of deposits in the, i. 56. See Hypozoic and Silurian Systems.
Prony, M., his account of the Adriatic coast, ii. 28.
Pryce, Mr., on copper ore, ii. 170.
Pryme, Rev. A. de la, his description of Hatfield Chase, ii. 65. His account of remains of a man found in a turf pit, 67. His conclusion that the Romans were destroyers of the forests at the bottom of moors, now adopted by geologists, 68.
Psalmodi, account of, ii. 28.
Pterodactylus, fossil remains of, i. 98. 226.
Pucklechurch, dislocation of strata at, i. 49.
Pumice, analysis of, ii. 95.
Purbeck beds, fossil deposits in, i. 92. Lacustrine deposits of, ii. 40.
Puzzolana of Naples, its composition, ii. 214.
Pyrenees, dip of stratified rocks in the, i. 37. Offer an example of the granitic basis of the earth's crust, 108. Three depositories of iron ore in, ii. 163. Its mineral springs and their chemical analysis, 256.
Pyrogenous rocks, antiquity of, ii. 145.
Pythagoras, maxim of, ii. 125.


Q

Quadersanstein of Weinbohla, i. 244.
Quadrumana, remains of, discovered in the lacustrine deposit of Sansan, &c., i. 100. See Organic Remains.
Quartz, proportion of oxygen in, i. 25. Its composition, 31. Arrangement of, in cross courses of Cornwall, ii. 167. Cross courses of, 173.
Quetelet, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 267.
Quito, volcanos of, ii. 230.


R

Rabenstein, cavern of, animal remains found in, i. 311.
Raffles, Sir Stamford, his account of the volcanic eruptions of Java, ii. 228.
Raiatea, island of, its coral reefs, i. 332.
Railways, construction of, a knowledge of Geology necessary for, Rain, its effects as an agent of disintegration, ii. 10.
Ramsay, Mr., ordnance maps of, i. 129.
Rasleigh, Mr. P., on the deposit of Sandrycock, ii. 60, 61.
Red Sea, volcanic phenomena near the, ii. 228.
Refrigeration and its effects, ii. 264. 305, et seq.
Reliquiæ, organic, best method for comprehending, i. 103.
Remains, organic, found in various strata, i. 118. 131. 140. 156. 170. 198. 205. 222. 238. 264. 298-316. ii. 41, et seq.
Reptiles (Reptilia), fossil remains of, i. 91. See Organic Remains.
Rhine, fossil deposits in the, i. 92. 269. Amount of mud carried off by its waters, ii. 33.
Rhinoceros, skeleton of a, found in Dream Cavern, i. 311.
Rhine, delta of the, how formed, ii. 25. Deposits from the, 29.
Ribblesdale, notice of sparry cracks at, i. 64.
Richardson, Dr., his account of the Giant's Causeway, i. 244.
"Rider," explanation of the term, ii. 166.
Riley, Mr., his discoveries in fossil zoology, i. 94.
"Rise," meaning of the term, i. 36.
Riobamba, destruction of, by an earthquake, ii. 221.
Rivers, their effects in disintegrating the earth's surface, ii. 20. Lakes formed in the course of, 23. New land formed at the mouths of, 27.
Roads, their construction necessarily involves a knowledge of Geology, ii. 329.
Rock, ocean of melted, under South America, ii. 247.
Rock salt, origin of, i. 210.
Rock sandstone, its composition, i. 31.
Rock terraces in valleys, ii. 6.
Rocks of the New York system, Mr. Hall's classification of, i. 143.
Rocks, proportions of oxygen contained in certain, i. 24. Forms of masses of, 35. Position of,with respect to surface of the earth, 36. Fissures in, 303. Particles of, re-arranged by action of igneous rocks, ii. 126. Alteration of chemical nature of, produced by igneous action, 131. Argillaceous slaty, altered by the proximity of granite, 142.
Rocks, igneous, prevalence of, beneath gneiss and mica schist, i. 121. In Palaeozoic strata, 134. In Silurian system, 148. In Carboniferous system, 184. In Triassic system, 208. In Oolitic system, 231. In Cretaceous system, 243. Origin of unstratified, ii. 71. See Rocks, Unstratified. Gradations among, 87. Chemical composition of, 90. Analysis of minerals found in, 91-95. Exterior forms of the masses of, 95. Interposed beds of, 95. Overlying masses of, 97. Fissures in, 97. Dykes in, 98. Veins in, 99. Amorphous masses tinder all the strata of, 108. Internal divisions of, 108. Phenomena of, when in contact with stratified masses, 109. Alteration of the structure of, by heat, 111. Metamorphism of rocks, a phenomenon of, 125. Re-arrangement of particles of limestone rocks, a phenomenon of, 126. Alteration of the chemical nature of rocks a result of the action of, 131. New minerals formed by the action of, 136. Metamorphic slates, another result of, 139. Metamorphism of mica schist and gneiss caused by action of, 143. Antiquity of, 145. Tables of principal disturbances of stratification in connection with, 152.
Rocks, metamorphic, ii. 125.
Rocks, mixed, ii. 86.
Rocks, pyrogenous, antiquity of, ii 145.
Rocks, series of stratified, i. 9. 53. Lapse of time, how ascertained from their nature, 10. Their dip at various parts of England and the Continent, 37. Local declinations of, 39. Relation of faults to disturbed, 44. Origin of stratified and unstratified,45. Varieties of stratified,59. Secondary of Yorkshire, 66. Cleavage of stratified, 67. Historical view of stratified, in the earth's crust, 107. Phenomena attending igneous rocks when in contact with, ii. 109. Induration of, 109. Temperature of, 272. Displacements of, 289.
Rocks, unstratified, crystallisation of, ii. 47. General remarks on, 71. Their igneous origin, 71. Geological age of, 72. Composition of, 72. Mineral composition of, 80. Gradations among igneous, 87. Chemical composition of, 90. See Rocks, Igneous.
Rocks, volcanic, Scrope's synopsis of, ii. 83. Classification of, 84 87. See Volcanos.
Rodentia in marine deposits, i. 272. See Organic Remains.
Rogers, Professor, reference to his report on the succession of strata, i. 237. Tertiaries of N. America, how classed by, 264. 270. On extinct gigantic animals of North America, ii. 69. On earthquakes, 244, et seq.
Romans, woods of England destroyed by the, ii. 68.
Rose, Mr., researches of, on augite and hornblende, ii. 81.
Rosenmuller, M., his discovery of animal remains in caves of Germany, i. 312.
Rossberg Fall, ii. 20.
Rosse, Lord, his observations on Nebula, i. 32.
Rotheliegende, where found, i. 203.
Rowley Hills, basalt of. ii. 73. 109.
Rudberg, M., his experiments on heat, ii. 267.
Ruminantia in marine deposits, i. 273. See Organic Remains.
Russia, coal districts of, i. 183.


S

Sabine, Colonel, on the sea current of Maranon, i. 343.
Saddle, meaning of the word as used in geology, i. 39.
Saliferous system. See Permian and Triassic Systems.
Salisbury craigs, greenstone of, ii. 110.
Salt, origin of, i. 210. Rocks which enclose, 211. Cheshire district, 212.
Salt mines, of Northwich, i. 63. Their temperature, ii. 273. Of Bex, their temperature, 272.
Sand banks, origin accounted for, i. 341.
Sands of London, their composition, i. 16.

{{outdent|Sandstone, of Cumberland and Westmoreland, i. 16. Proportion of oxygen in, 25. Its analysis, 31. Table of deposits of new red, 55. Table of deposits of old red, 56.

Sandrycock, deposit of, ii. 60.
Sansan, remains of quadrumana in lacustrine deposits of, i. 100.
Santorini, Islands of, changes in the, ii. 236.
Saurians, Professor Owen's division of, i.92. Fossil remains of, 92, et seq. See Organic Remains.
Saussure, M., on the mountains of Switzerland, i. 38. On the strata of Buet, ii. 145. On the temperature of Bex mines, 272.
Sea Fell, height of, i. 133.
Scenery, of England, its character dependent on strata of the district, i. 176. ii. 325. Of the earth, dependent on its geological formations, ii. 324.
Sciacca, Island of, its transitory nature, ii. 222. 237.
Scriptures, Jewish, their use, i. 10.
Scrope, Mr., on volcanic rocks, ii. 83.
Sea and land, distribution of the earth into, ii. 286.
Secondary system, table of its deposits, i. 54. Its rocks, 66. Disturbances at its close, 244. See Carboniferous and following Systems.
Sedgwick, Professor, Lower Cambrian system of, i. 124. His arrangement of the clay-slate system, 124, et seq. His investigation of the Silurian system, 146. 162. His opinion respecting shelly marls of Gosau, 237. His section of the tertiary series, 258. His description of the granite veins of Trewavas Head, ii. 105. His account of the strata of the Caldew, 140.
Selwyn, Mr., reference to, i. 129.
Serpentine, where found, i. 121. Its composition, ii. 94.
Severn, fossils of the, i. 140. Deposits of gravel in valley of, 301. Its rock terraces, ii. 7. Analysis of its waters, 34.
Sewalick Hills, Hindostan, remains of quadrumana in, i. 100.
Shap, dip of stratified rocks at, i. 37.
Sharpe, Mr., his illustration of the idea, that "pressure" is a cause of cleavage, ii. 117. 120, et seq.
Shells, freshwater, found in I. of Wight, i. 77. Found in raised sea beaches, 321, et seq. Beds of, 336. Classes of, at various depths of the sea, 340. See Organic Remains.
Sheppy, fossil remains of turtles found in the clay of, i. 92.
"Shoot" of ore, meaning of the term, ii. 168.
Siebengebirge, trachytic mountains of, ii. 223.
Sienite, composition of, ii. 93. Of Christiania, 143, 144.
Sienitic granite, occurrence of, in Strontian and Ben Cruachan, i. 108.
Silica, proportion of oxygen in, i. 24. ii. 73.
Silurian System, Sir R. Murchison's classification of, i. 124. 136. Tables of deposits of, 139. 157. Its composition, 136. Its structure, 136. Succession and thickness of its strata, 138. Organic remains found in, 140. Its geographical extent, 146. Its physical geography, 148. Igneous rocks of, 148. Mineral veins found in, 149. Close of the Silurian period, and ensuing disturbances of the earth's crust, 149.
Silver ore, proportions of, found in mines of Freyberg, ii. 174.
Silvertop, Colonel, his account of the deposits of the Alhama beds, ii. 44.
Skáptaa Jokul, great eruptions of, ii. 211. 219. Mr. Lyell's description of, 212.
Skiddaw, granitic veins of, i. 109. Igneous rock of, 121. Clay slate of, 126. 129. Height of, 133.
Skye, Island of, Macculloch's account of, ii. 96. 126.
Slate system, i. 124. See Palæozoic Strata and Clay-slate System.
Slates, metamorphic, how and where found, ii. 139, 140.
Smith, Dr. W., reference to, i. 44. His notice of disturbed strata at Pucklechurch, 49. Signification attached by him to the word stratum, 60. His principles confirmed by Murchison, 140. His opinion respecting the divisional strata of England, 218.
Snow, the parent of glaciers, ii. 19.
Snowdon, Snowdonia, abundance of zoophyta in summit of, i. 75. Clay-slate of, 126. 129. Porphyry and greenstone of, 134.
Society Islands, coral reefs of the, i. 332.
Soil, or external investment of the land, an object of interest to geologists, i. 33. Its depth ex-tremely irregular, 33. Its superficial and local accumulations considered, 34. A chemical knowledge of, necessary for agriculture, ii. 326, et seq.
Solar heat, its influence on climate, ii. 305, et seq. Its variability, 306.
Solfatara, extinct volcano of, ii. 220.
Somerville, Mrs., her quotation of Leslie, i. 27.
South Sea Islands, their origin dissimilar to that of the Bahamas, &c., i. 139.
Sowerby, Mr., fossils of S. Devon, first figured by, i. 156.
Springs, effects of, as agents of disintegration, ii. 19. Thermal, see Thermal Springs.
Sponges, see Organic Remains.
Spruce fir, remarkable height of one at Fountain's Abbey, ii. 67.
Stabiæ, destruction of, ii. 213.
Staffa, basalt of, its analysis, ii. 95, 96.
Staffordshire, ironstone how found in, i. 165.
Stiperstones, disturbed strata at, i. 44.
Stones, meteoric, their origin, i. 32. Their ejection by volcanos, ii. 235.
Stonesfield, fossil remains In the oolite of, i. 92. 96, 97, 98. 106. 223. ii. 39.
Stony Middleton, waters of, their analysis, ii. 255.
Strabo, his account of the surface of Asia Minor, i. 1.
Strata of the earth, its age, how ascertained, i. 9. Declination of, 36. Unusual position of, 39. Sections of, 53.
Strata, Hypozoic, i. 111. Palæozoic, 124. Silurian, 136. Of the Devonian system, 154. Of the Carboniferous system, 162. Of the Permian system, 195. Of the Oolitic system, 199. Of the Mesozoic system, 203. Of the Tnassic system, 203. Of the Cretaceous system, 234. Of the Cainozoic, or Tertiary, system, 249. Of the post-tertiary system, 278.
Stratification, faults in, i. 40. Seldom produced in perfection, except by water. 45. Relative periods of disturbed, 49. Varieties of, 59. Less easily traceable in gneiss and mica schists, 115. Tables of principal disturbances of, ii. 152, et seq.
Stratified rocks, meaning of the term, i. 9. Their construction explained, 9. Their antiquity, 9. Their dip at various parts of England and the Continent, 37. Their local declination and unusual position, 39. Faults in, 40. Origin of, 45. Generally stored with reliquiæ of plants, &c., 47. Affected by subterranean movements, 48. Series of, 53. Varieties of, 59. Divisional structures in, 62. Cleavage of, 67. Historical view of, in the crust of the earth, 107. Phenomena attending igneous rocks, when in contact with, ii. 109. Induration of, 109. Experiments on temperature of, 272. Displacements of, 289.
Stratum, meaning attached to the word by different geologists, i. 59, 60.
Strickland, Mr., on the Silurian system, i. 147.
Strike, meaning of the term, i. 36.
Stromboli, its volcano always active, ii. 218.
Strontian, sienitic granite of, i. 108.
Stratification plain in the gneiss of, 115. Lead mine of, 122.
Structures, divisional, explanation of, i. 62. Superposed, 115. Of rocks, altered by heat, ii. 111.
Stutchbury, Mr., his discoveries in fossil zoology, i. 94. On the growth of coral, 330, et seq.
Styiia, Lower, basin of, tertiary series of, i. 258, 259.
Submarine and subterranean forests, ii. 57. Their antiquity, 64.
Subsidence, movements of, ii. 239.
Substances of the earth, analysis of, i. 23. 54. Number of elementary, 23.
Succession of strata, the law of, ii. 282. See Strata.
Sulphurets, formation of, ii. 198.
Sulphuric acid, its combination with the waters of Purace, ii. 215.
Superficial deposits, see Post-tertiary Strata.
Superposed structures, i. 115.
Surface of the earth, its age how ascertained, i. 11. Its waste, ii. 9. Aspect of, 318.
Sussex Weald, passim.
Sykes, Rev. C., his collection of fossils, i. 96.
Systems of the various strata, see Strata, Hypozoic, and other Strata.
Swinden, M. Van, his account of the Friesland lakes, ii. 61.


T.

Taafe's Well, Cardiff, analysis of the waters of, ii. 255.
Tahaa, coral reef of, i. 332.
Tahiti, coral reefs of, i. 332. 333. Extinct crater of, ii. 232.
Talcahuano, destruction of, by a wave, ii. 241.
Tarentaise, oolitic strata of, ii. 144.
Tay, Frith of, deposits of, ii. 60.
Tees, river, waterfall of, ii. 112.
Teesdale, crystallised minerals found in, i. 123.
Temperature, of the earth, see Earth, Globe, Heat. Of mineral springs, ii. 255, et seq. See Thermal Springs. Of the atmosphere, 263. Of mines, 270, et seq. Of stratified rocks, 272. Of coal mines,274. Of Artesian wells, 276.
Teneriffe, Peak of, ii. 209. 231. Weight and velocity of stones ejected from, 235.
Terraces in valleys, ii. 6.
Terrain tertiare, i. 249.
Tertiary period, table of deposits of the, i. 43. 54. Composition of the, 249, 250. Structure and stratification of, 251. Divisional

planes of, 252. Succession and thickness of, 252. Freshwater formations of, 254. Geographical extent and physical geography of, 260. Organic remains

found in, 264. Disturbances during and after, 276.
Testacea, comparative table of, i. 327. See Organic Remains.
Thames, valley of the, deposits of mammalia in, ii. 51.
Theory of mineral veins, ii. 177.
Thermal springs, their origin, temperature, and chemical properties, ii. 252, et seq. List of British, yielding nitrogen, 255. List of German, yielding carbonic acid, 256. Of the Pyrenees, 257. Heat of, derived from volcanic action, 257.; and from depths of the channels from the surface, 258. Numerous in volcanic regions as well as in ancient lines of uplifted rocks, 258. Statement of degrees of temperature of the various, 259, 260. Their quantity and temperature affected by earthquakes and volcanic violence, 261. Importance of general conclusions to be derived from a study of, 261.
Thecodontosaurus, discovery of the, i. 94.
Thuringerwald, zechstein of, i. 202.
Thylacotherium, new name for marsupials, i. 96.
Tierra del Fuego, volcano of, ii. 230.
Tignaux, tower of, ii. 28.
Time, geological, scale of, i. 8. Lapse of, how ascertained, 10. Nature of the scale of, 12. Terms of the scale, 12. 14. Interruptions of the series of, 16. Length of the scale of, 17.
Tin Croft mine, ii. 185.
Tin ore, drifted, ii. 60. At what depth found, 170. Position of oldest mines of, 171.
"Toadstone," volcanic rock, ii. 96.
Tornideon, mountain of, ii. 102.
Torre del Greco, lava of, its density, ii. 209. Destroyed by lava, 211.
Touraine, mammalia found in the marine beds of, ii. 45.
Towey, vale of, i. 139.
Trachyte, how found combined, ii. 83.
Transylvania, volcanic rocks of, ii. 224.
Trap dykes, ii. 98.
Trap rocks, passim. See Igneous Rocks, Carboniferous System.
Trebra, Mr., his experiments on temperature of the Freyberg mines, ii. 270.
Trees buried in course of a river, ii. 57.
Trenton limestones, organic remains in. i. 144.
Tresavean copper mine, its temperature, ii. 272.
Trewavas Head, phenomena of the granite veins of, ii. 105.
Triassic system, considered a part of the Saliferous system, i. 203. Mr. Conybeare's union of, to the magnesian limestone, 203. Its composition, 203, et seq. Organic remains of, 205. Its geographical extent, 206. Its physical geography, 208. Igneous rocks found in, 208. Origin and aggregation of the materials of, 209. Origin of rock salt and gypsum of, 210.
Trilobites, where found, i. 147.
Trinidad, asphaltum of, ii. 230.
Trosachs, stratification in the mica schist of, i. 115.
Trough, meaning of the geological term, i. 39.
Turf moors, ii. 62.
Tunguragua, volcano of, ii. 215. Discharge of "nioya" from the foot of, ii. 215.
Tynedale, great fault of, i. 41,42. Its length, 43.


U.

Uddevalla, vast quantities of shells found at, and their use for the making of footpaths, i. 324. Explored by Linnaeus, 327.
Ulverstone, dip of stratified rocks at, i. 37.
Undulations of the interior of the earth, ii. 322. Remarkable instances of, 323.
Unstratified rocks, i. 45. Crystallisation of, 47. See Rocks, Unstratified and Igneous.
Ural, survey of, by Sir R. Murchison, ii. 336.


V.

Val d'Arno, ossiferous beds of the, i. 280. Animal remains found in, ii. 48.
Val di Fassa (Alps), hypersthenic granite of, i. 108.
Valenciennes, M., his application of the name Thylacotherium to marsupials, i. 96.
Valley formations, ancient, ii. 2. Their origin suggestive of interesting inquiries, 4. Rock terraces in, 6.
Valparaiso, raised by convulsive movements, ii. 241.
Van Diemen's Land, corals and sponges abundant in, i. 105. Coal of, 183.
Vauquelin, M., his analysis of obsidian from Hecla, ii. 94.
Veins, mineral, in disturbed rocks, i. 44. In igneous rocks, 72. ii. 99. Werner's distinction between true and false, ii. 155. Their geographical distribution, 156. Their occurrence near centres of igneous action, 159. Relation of, to the substance and structure of neighbouring rocks, 163. Relation of, to one another, 171. Theory of, 177. Are posterior to the rocks which they traverse, 178. Origin of vein fissures, 188. Filling of the fissures, 192. Recapitulation of the subject, 196.
Verde, Cape de, volcanic in character, ii. 231.
Vermuiden, Sir Cornelius, drains Hatfield Chase, ii. 65.
Verneuil, Dr., geological labours of, i. 200.
Verschoyle, Archdeacon, on the trap dykes of Mayo and Sligo, ii. 98.
Vertebral remains, tables of, found in post-tertiary accumulations, 304.
Vesuvius, incidental reference to, i. 277. Deposition of specular iron in lava of, ii. 160. Phenomena attending its eruptions, 204. Minerals found in products of, 210. Eruption of, destroys Torre del Greco, 211. Various eruptions of. 213. 217, et seq. Discharge of boiling water from, 215. Its history very instructive, 216. Its cone of modern date, 216. Pliny's narrative of the great eruption, 216. Weight of stones ejected from, 235.
Villarica, volcano of, 230.
Virgil, reference to Æneid of, ii. 220.
Volcanic action, remarks on, ii. 201. Exhibition of the forces of, 234. See Volcanos.
Volcanic rocks, synopsis of, ii. 83. Classification of, 84 87. See Volcanos.
Volcanos, of Auvergne, and Euganean Hills and Hungary, phenomena attending violence of, i, 278. Of Etna and Vesuvius, 277, 278. See Etna, Vesuvius. Phenomena of, indicative of presence and degree of heat below the earth's surface, ii. 200. Action of, 201. Origin of, 202. Phenomena attending those in action, 208. Earthquakes premonitory of eruptions of, 208. Dispersion of ashes and stones by, 213. 235. Extinction of, 216. Account of extinct, 220. Geographical distribution of, 221. Asiatic, 227. American, 229. African, 231. Australian, 232. Of the Indian Ocean, 232. Of the Pacific Ocean, 232. Geological age of, 233. Eruption forces of earthquakes, 234. Hypothesis of volcanic action, 248.
Vosges mines, temperature of the, ii. 270.


W.

Wales, principality of, dip of stratified rocks in, i. 38. Mica schist and gneiss rarely occur in, 58. Cleavage of rocks in, 68. Slate of, 126, et seq. Surveyed by Murchison, 136. Coal fields of, 181.
Wales, New South, coal of, i. 183.
Ware, Dr. H., on the Shetland Isles, ii. 88.
Water, weight of, below the earth, i. 27.
Watt, Mr. Gregory, his experiments on the amorphous basalt of Rowley, ii. 73. 109.
Waves, Acosta on, ii. 242. See Earthquakes.
Weald of Sussex and Wealden formation, freshwater shells of the, i. 77. Deposits of the, ii. 2. References to, passim.
Weaver, valley of the, speculation respecting the, i. 212.
Weighten, ossiferous beds of, date of, unfixed, i. 280.
Weinbohla, quadersandstein of, i. 244.
Wells, Artesian, their temperature, ii. 276. A knowledge of geology requisite for discovery of, 328.
Wenlock formation, zoophytes and corals abundant in, i. 75. 138. Limestone of, 136. Table of the formation, 139.
Werner, his view of geology as a branch of mineralogy, i. 1. 4. His study of the Scottish and Saxon mountains, 38. On pyrogenous rocks, ii. 146. His distinction between "true" and "false" veins, 155. His classification of the veins of Freyberg, 171. 174. On the union between a vein and a rock, 186. On fissures in mineral veins, 194.
Westmoreland, red sandstone of, i. 16. Clay slate of, 126. Lake district of, 133.
Westphalia, organic remains of plants in, i. 72.
Wharfdale, scar limestone of, i. 63.
Whewell, Mr., allusion to, i. 21. ii. 288. 307.
"Whin Sill," in Crossfell, basaltic formation of the, ii. 96.
Whitehaven, dip of stratified rocks at, i. 37.
Wicklow Mountains, afford an example of the granitic basis of the earth's crust, i. 108. 121.
Wieliczka, salt mines of the, i. 212.
Wiesbaden, mineral waters of, their analysis, ii. 256.
Wight. Isle of, freshwater shells found in, i. 77. Marine tertiaries principally exhibited in, 254.
Williams, Mr., on mineral veins, ii. 165. On Huel Peever Mine, 180.
Wittgendorf, diluvial deposits at, ii. 69.
Wrekin, fissures in the, ii. 97, 98.
Wren's Nest, Dudley, i. 137.
Wurtemberg, salt mines of, i. 212.
Wye and the Meuse, similarity of their course, i. 176.


Y

Yoredale rocks, i. 176. ii. 6.
Yorkshire, dislocation of coal and limestone strata in, i. 50. Table of secondary rocks of, 66. Coal formations of, 167. Amount of molluscous reliquiæ found in, 173.
"Yorkshire, Geology of," quoted and referred to, i. 137. 172. 190. ii. 112. 162.311.


Z


Zechstein, where found, i. 202, et seq.
Zetland, serpentine found in, i. 121.
Zircon sienites, their transportation, i. 291.
Zoology, its use in the pursuit of geology exemplified, passim. But see Organic Remains of various Strata.
Zoophyta, fossil, i. 73. Table of, 76. See Organic Remains, Corals.
Zuyder Zee, its excavation by the sea, ii. 33.



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