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Index:A Treatise on Geology, volume 2.djvu

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A Treatise on Geology, volume 2.djvu

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CONTENTS.


TO


THE SECOND VOLUME.





CHAPTER VI.continued.
 
HISTORICAL VIEW OF STRATIFIED ROCKS.
Page
Post-Tertiary Strata, continued.
Fluviatile and Lacustrine Deposits 1
Ancient Valley Formations 2
Fluviatile Deposits in 3
Rock Terraces in 6
Fluviatile Deposits 8
Waste of the Earth's Surface 9
Effects of Rain 10
Effects of Frost 11
Effects of Springs 19
Effects of Rivers 20
Lakes on the Course of Rivers 23
Deep Lakes on the Course of a River 24
New Lands at the Mouths of Rivers 27
Estuary and Shore Deposits 31
Lacustrine Deposits 36
Classification of Fossil Mammalia 39
Eocene or Lower Tertiary Period 41
Organic Remains of the Paris Basin 41
Organic Remains of the Quarries of Binstead 42
Middle Tertiary Period 43
Fossil Remains of the upper Freshwater Beds of the Paris Basin 43
Organic Remains of various Freshwater Beds 44-47
Lakes of the Pleiocene and Diluvial Period 48
Fossil Mammalia of the upper Val d'Arno 48
Series of Deposits in the upper Val d'Arno 49
Series of Deposits at Bielbecks 50
Organic Remains at Bielbecks 50
Fossil Shells of the Valley of the Thames 51
Charlesworth's Classification of Mammaliferous Strata 52
Modern Lacustrine Deposits 53
Analysis of the Deposition 55
Subterranean and Submarine Forests 57
Buried Trees on the Course of a River 57
Series of Beds associated with Tin Ore at Sandrycock, Cornwall 60
Turf Moors 62
Antiquity of Subterranean Forests 64
General Considerations 68
 
CHAP. VII.
 
UNSTRATIFIED ROCKS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH.
 
General Remarks 71
Igneous Origin 71
Geological Age 72
Composition 72
Mineral Composition of Unstratified Rocks 80
Scrope's Synopsis of Volcanic Rocks.─Trachyte 83
Greystone.─Basalt 84
Elements of the Old Rocks of Fusion.─Division I. Felspathic 84
Division II.─Hornblende, Augite, &c Felspathic 84
Division III. Hornblendic, Augitic, &c. 85
Mixed Rocks 86
Gradations among Igneous Rocks 87
Chemical Composition of the Rocks of Igneous Origin 90
Analysis of Minerals in Igneous Products 91
Table of Varieties of Mica 92
Table of Varieties of Granite 92
Table of Varieties of Sienite 93
Table of Combinations of Felspar 93
Analysis of Serpentine 94
Table of Felspathic Compounds analogous to Granite 94
Analyses of Pumice, compact Lava of Calabria, Basalt 95
Exterior Forms of the Masses of Igneous Rocks 95
Interposed Beds 95
Overlying Masses 97
Fissures 97
Dykes 98
Veins 99
Internal Divisions of Igneous Rocks 108
Phenomena Observed where Igneous Rocks come in contact with Stratified Masses 109
Induration of Stratified Rocks 109
Alteration of the Structure of Rocks by Heat 111
Metamorphic Rocks 125
Re-arrangement of the Particles of Rocks 126
Alteration of the Chemical Nature of Rocks 131
Dolomitic Limestone 133
Generation of New Minerals 136
Metamorphic Slates 139
Succession of Metamorphic Slates 140
Metamorphic Mica Schist, Gneiss, &c. 143
Relative Antiquity of Pyrogeuous Rocks 145
Table of the Principal Disturbances of the Stratification of the British Islands, with the Igneous Rocks observed in connection therewith 152
Class I.─Before the Deposition of Old Red Sandstone 152
Class II.─Before the Deposition of the Lias 153
Class III.─Before the Deposition of the Lower Green Sand 154
Class IV.─Since the Deposition of the Chalk 154
 
CHAP. VIII.
 
MINERAL VEINS.
 
Remarks 155
Geographical Distribution 156
Occurrence of Mineral Veins near Centres of Igneous Action 159
Relations of Veins to the Substance and Structure of the Neighbouring Rocks 163
Relation of Veins to each other 171
First Class.─Oldest Tin Veins 171
Second Class.─More recent Tin Lodes 171
Third Class.─Oldest East and West Copper Lodes 172
Fourth Class.─Contra Copper Lodes 172
Fifth Class.─Cross Courses 173
Sixth Class.─More recent Copper Lodes 173
Seventh Class.─Cross Flukans 173
Eighth Class.─Slides 173
Deposits of Metallic Veins in Cornwall 174
Theory of Mineral Veins 177
Veins are of posterior Date to the Rocks which they traverse 178
Description of Huel Peever Vein 180
Origin of Vein Fissures 188
Filling of the Fissures 192
Recapitulation 196
CHAP. IX.
 
MODERN EFFECTS OF HEAT ON THE GLOBE.
Page
Remarks 200
Volcanic Action 201
Origin of Volcanos 202
Volcanos in Action 208
Dispersion of Ashes, Stones, Mud, &c. 213
Extinction of Volcanos 216
Extinct Volcanos 220
Geographical Distribution of Volcanos. 221
Asiatic Volcanos 227
American Volcanos 229
African Volcanos 231
Australian 232
Indian Ocean 232
Pacific Ocean 232
Geological Age of Volcanos 233
Volcanic Eruption Forces.─Earthquakes 234
Ejection of Ashes and Stones 235
New Mountains formed 236
New Islands raised 236
Earthquakes 242
Hypotheses of Volcanic Action 248
Thermal Springs 252
Warm Springs of the British Islands, yielding Nitrogen, &c. 255
Warm Springs of a Part of Germany, &c., yielding Carbonic Acid, &c. 256
Warm Springs of the Pyrenees 256
Warm Springs of Volcanic Countries 257
Summary of their Geological Relations to existing Volcanos 259
Experimental Inquiries into the Heat of the Globe 262
First Class of Experiments.—Metalliferous Veins 270
Tables of Temperatures of Water at different Depths in the Mines of Freyberg 270
Account of Temperatures of Water at different Depths in various Countries 271
Second Class of Experiments.—Stratified Rocks 272
Account of the Temperatures of Water at various Depths in different Mines 273
Cordier's Summary of Observations in the Coal Mines of Carmeaux, Littry, and Decise 274
Summary of Observations on Subterranean Temperatures in Rocks 275
Third Class of Experiments.—Artesian Wells 276
Tables of Temperatures of Water, with Mean Results 276
CHAP. X.
 
STATE OF GEOLOGICAL THEORY.
Page
General Observations 277
Physical Geography 286
Distribution of Land and Sea 286
Heights and Depths 288
Displacements of Stratified Rocks 289
Direction 292
Production of Longitudinal Fissures 299
Formation of Transverse Fissures 300
Formation of Fissures in a Conical Elevation 300
Faults 301
Periods of Ordinary and Critical Action 301
Primary Period.—Carboniferous Period 302
Oolitic and Cretaceous.—Periods Eocene Period of Mr. Lyell 303
Modern Period of Ordinary Action 304
Climate 305
Conclusion 315
CHAP. XI.
 
POPULAR VIEWS AND ECONOMICAL APPLICATIONS OF GEOLOGY.
 
Introductory Remarks 317
Aspect of the Earth's Surface 319
Outline of Land and Sea 320
Undulations of the Interior 322
Scenery 324
Economical Applications of Geology 326
Agriculture 326
Construction of Roads, Railways, Canals, &c. 329
Building Materials 330
Coal and other Mineral Products 331
 
INDEX.