An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter V

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CHAPTER V.


THE NOUN.


Nouns, in the Ainu language, are at the present day subject to no changes to indicate either gender, number, or case.


THE GENDER OF NOUNS.


Gender is sometimes designated by a different word; as:—

masculine. feminine.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “uncle.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “aunt.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “man.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a woman.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “father.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “mother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a he bear.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a she-bear.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a little boy.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a little girl.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a lad.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a girl.”

When an object has no special masculine or feminine form, as for instance An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a bird” (cock or hen), or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “dog” or “bitch,” and it should be necessary to specify to which sex it belongs, the words An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,” “male,” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “female,” “are placed before it; thus:—

masculine. feminine.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a cock.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a hen.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a dog.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a bitch.”

For human beings and gods, however, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “male,” take the place of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex.


THE NUMBER OF NOUNS.


The number of the noun is, in the case of animals, generally indicated by the context or verb, and is therefore mostly left unexpressed by any addition to the noun. Thus, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “baby” or “babies”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “man or “men.” However, when it is necessary to express plurality An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is used. e.g.

singular plural
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a baby.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “babies.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a horse.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “horses.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a man.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “men.”

[The word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is analyzed thus—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex a plural prefix meaning “mutual”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “appendages.” Hence An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is really “comrades.”]

With the numerals, however, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is used in enumerating animals:—Thus:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “two horses, three horses.”

But there appear to be quite a number of nouns, now regarded as singular, which inflection proves to be really plural by derivation. Thus:—

singular plural
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a finger-nail.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “finger-nails.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a finger.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fingers.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a tether.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “reins.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a fish.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fishes.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a hill.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “hills.’
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a word.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “words.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a crag.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “crags.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “water.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “waters.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a river.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “rivers.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a cloud.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “clouds.”

Also such as :—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a post.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “posts.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a relation.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “relations.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a foot.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “feet.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a tooth.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “teeth.”

The word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “an article,” “a thing,” may well be compared with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex the plural particle used in counting animals; and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to possess” with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “possessors.” The An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in this latter word sometimes appears as An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and sometimes as An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, or simple An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. The An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex given often An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in the above examples is seen to advantage in the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex which means “abundance.”

Pfizmaier, in his Erörterungen und Aufklärungen über Aino, quotes Dobrotvorsky as intimating that the Ainu language retains fragments of a plural formation in a few substantives, and quotes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a foot” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “feet”; also An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a tooth,” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “teeth” as examples. But on turning to Dobrotvorsky. I find he gives, нога, ношка, and even ногн, i.e. “foot”; “a little foot” and “feet” for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex while An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex does not occur at all! There has been a mistake made somewhere. At present I can find no genuine instance where An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is used as a plural suffix. Feet is not An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, but An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. It is quite true that Dobrotvorsky gives An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex as “tooth” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex as “teeth”; but I very much doubt the truth of this definition. “Tooth” is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex as one pleases, while teeth" is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. Moreover, I find lower down in his work that Dobrotvorsky writes Нмакъ which he translates by зудъ, “tooth.” The final hard mute ъ may represent the An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. Examples showing that ъ does sometimes represent An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in Dobrotvorsky might easily be given were it necessary, but one clear instance only shall here be produced. It is за́нъ “you,” which is unmistakably An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in Ainu.


THE CASES OF NOUNS.


The case or relation of the noun to other words in a sentence, though generally left to be gathered from the context, may, when necessary, be expressed by certain particles; thus:—

Nom: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. As, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the man is coming.
Obj: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex preceding a v.i. or without any particle when the noun is followed by the passive voice of a verb. As, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the dog barked at the man.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the man was killed.” Before a v.t. the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “to” is at times found to represent the objective case. Thus:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “he strikes,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,” “he strikes me.”
Gen: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex following the pronoun or noun; as:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “my knife”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a man’s house”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “our father.”

But although An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, expressed or understood, is often used as a possessive factor (An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex really means to possess), yet this word is very often dropped and the case is expressed by the verb “to be” like the Aryan languages, but preceded in many instances by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to.” The reason of this is evident. If instead of saying An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “I possess a father,” one says, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to me there is a father,” the word “father” is no longer a possessed object, but a subject who indicates his possessor. Compare the Russian, French, and Latin constructions: У нею́ оте́цъ есть; tibi est pater, mihi est uxor; and ce livre est a moi, and so on.

Dat: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. As:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “I am going to Sapporo.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “give it to the dog.”
Abla: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. Thus: An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “from mother”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “from father”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “I have come from Moruran.”
Instru: by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. As: An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “he killed a fish with a spear”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to cut one’s finger with a knife.”

There are certain prepositional particles such as An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, (each in its turn always retaining its own special definite root-meaning—for in the Ainu language there are no expletives) which in a way, may be regarded as indicating case. Thus:

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the sea-shore,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to the sea-shore.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the sea-shore,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “from the sea-shore.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to run away,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to flee to.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to run away,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to run away with.

When, addressing relations the words An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex are sometimes heard used in a complimentary or carressing way. Thus:—

(1) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “dear younger brother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “dear sister (younger).”
(2) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear younger brother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear child.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear master.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear elder brother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear younger sister.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear elder sister.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear father.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my dear mother.”
(3) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my honoured elder brother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my honoured younger brother.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my honoured master.”

The root meaning of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is “little” and shades off into various interpretations of a diminutive character. Such as, “tiny;” “small;” young;” “child,” e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, "a sword” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a dirk.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a bird” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a young bird.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “male” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a boy.”

The word also enters into geographical nomenclature sometimes. As:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little over-flow stream.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little precipitious valley,” “glen,” or “stream.” Nai-po, “the little glen” or “stream,” or “the little stream” (the meaning being that it comes out of a larger one).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little mountain.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex” (the meaning being that there is another An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex near at hand, or that the one An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex river flows out of the other).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little knob.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the small harbour.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the little sea-leopard.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “little stony glen.”


THE ABSTRACT NOUNS.



THE COMPOUND NOUN.


Compound nouns are extensively used by the Ainu and are formed as follows:—

(a)
By compounding two substantives together.
(b)
By compounding verbs with nouns.
(c)
By compounding adjectives with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “an article” contracted into An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex: e.g.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “heavy,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a heavy thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “large” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a large thing.”
(d)
By adding An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to the passive forms of the verbs, thus:—
verb. noun.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be eaten.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “food.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be spoken.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the thing said.”
(e)
By compounding verbs with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “shape,” “mode,” “way” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “a thing,” thus:—
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “to be” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “existence,” “mode of being.
 ,,    ,, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “existing thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to speak,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “language.”
  ,,     ,,     ,, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a speech.”

Variety and diversity of subjects are expressed by prefixing An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to nouns; Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a variety of bad habits.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “various or many diverse speeches.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “various or many things.”

Diminutives are formed by prefixing An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or suffixing An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to nouns: thus:

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a Japanese child.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a colt.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a calf.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a little bird.”

The Ainu have, as one would naturally expect, adopted a number of Japanese words, most of which are affected by the peculiarities of pronunciation which distinguish the northern dialects of Japanese. Especially to be noted is the tendency to nasalization; e.g.

japanese. ainu.
Kami, “paper.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.
Kogane, “gold.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.
Kosode, “a short sleeved garment.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.
Kugi, “a nail.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.
Tabako, tobacco. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.

The following are a few samples of Hybrid Compounds. The words which are italicised are Japanese:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a wooden idol.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a step-child.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, domestic fowls.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “colt.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a mother-in-law.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a father-in-law.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a stone idol.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a priest.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a government official.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a government road.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to collect taxes.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to have an engagement, to have business.”


PROPER NOUNS.


The following are a few examples of the way in which proper nonns are formed:—

(a). Names of the Gods.

(These are given according to the order of dignity and importance).

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the creator” (lit: the maker of places and worlds and possessor of heaven).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the goddess of fire” (also called An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex (lit: divine grandmother).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the sun god;” “the sun” itself; (lit: day luminary Deity).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the moon god;” “the moon;” (lit. black luminary Deity).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the goddess of the water;” (lit: watery Deity).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the goddess of the mouths of rivers;” (lit: The female possessor of the places where fresh and salt waters mingle).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a sea-god;” not worshipped; (lit: wild Uncle Deity).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a sea-god;” worshipped; (lit: quiet Uncle Deity).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al are together termed An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the gods of the sea.”

(b). Names of Men.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the heir of the Ancients.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the eloquent man.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the sender down of light.”

(c). Names of Women.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the quiver.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the sender down of ice.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the belle.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the female cook.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the mouth loosener.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the wise man.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the deer catcher.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the prolific one.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the selfish one.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the female misanthrope.”

(d). Names of Places.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the rat cape.” (Cape Erimo).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the cape where volcanic matter descends.” (Cape Esan).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “village by the quiet river.” (Jap. Mombetsu).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the brook by the sand road.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the village by the great river.” (Jap. Horobetsu).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the high land,” or “the high island.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the village of much dryness.” (Jap. Sapporo).