An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions

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An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States,
Canada and the British Possessions
Second Edition
 (1913) 
by Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown
Title Page and Table of Contents
an
Illustrated Flora
of the
Northern United States, Canada
and the British Possessions
From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of
Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward
to the 102d Meridian
by
Nathaniel Lord Britton, Ph.D., Sc.D, LL.D.
Director-In-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden; Emeritus Professor of Botany in Columbia University
and
Hon. Addison Brown, A.B., LL.D.
President of the New York Botanical Garden
The Descriptive Text
chiefly prepared by Professor Britton, with the assistance of specialists in
several groups; the figures also drawn under his supervision
Second Edition—Revised and Enlarged
In Three Volumes
Vol. I. ophioglossaceae to polygonaceae, ferns to buckwheat
Vol. II. amaranthaceae to loganiacea, amaranth to polypremium
Vol. III. gentianaceae to compositea, gentian to thistle
New York
Charles Scribner's Sons
1913


Copyright 1913
By Nathaniel L. Britton and Helen C. Brown,

Executrix of the Estate of
Addison Brown, deceased.

Press of
The New Era Printing Company
Lancaster, Pa.



[edit]

Contents
Introduction,
Abbreviations of the Names of Authors,
Glossary of Special Terms,
General Key to the Orders and Families,
Index to Latin Genera,
Symbols Used,
Pteridophyta (Ferns and Fern-Allies)
1. Ophioglossaceae – Adder's Tongue Family
2. Osmundaceae – Royal-Fern Family
3. Hymenophyllaceae – Filmy-Fern Family
4. Schizaeaceae – Climbing-Fern Family
5. Polypodiaceae – Fern Family
6. Marsileaceae – Marsilea Family
7. Salviniaceae – Salvinia Family
8. Equisetaceae – Horsetail Family
9. Lycopodiaceae – Club Moss Family
10. Selaginellaceae – Selaginella Family
11. Isoetaceae – Quillwort Family
Spermatophyta (Seed-Bearing Plants)
Gymnospermae (Seeds Naked)
1. Pinaceae – Pine Family — Conifers
2. Taxaceae – Yew Family
Angiospermae (Seeds Enclosed)
Monocotyledones (Cotyledon one)
1. Typhaceae – Cat-Tail Family
2. Sparganiaceae – Bur-Reed Family
3. Zannichelliaceae – Pondweed Family
4. Naiadaceae – Naias Family
5. Zosteraceae – Eel-Grass Family
6. Scheuchzeriaceae – Arrow-Grass Family
7. Alismaceae – Water-Plantain Family
8. Vallisneriaceae – Tape-Grass Family
9. Hydrocharitaceae – Frog's-Bit Family
10. Gramineae – Grass Family
11. Cyperaceae – Sedge Family
12. Araceae – Arum Family
13. Lemnaceae – Duck-Weed Family
14. Mayacaceae – Mayaca Family
15. Xyridaceae – Yellow-Eyed Grass Family
16. Eriocaulaceae – Pipewort Family
17. Bromeliaceae – Pine-Apple Family
18. Commelinaceae – Spiderwort Family
19. Pontederiaceae – Pickerel-Weed Family
20. Juncaceae – Rush Family
21. Melanthaceae – Bunch-Flower Family
22. Liliaceae – Lily Family
23. Convallariaceae – Lily-of-the-Valley Family
24. Trilliaceae – Wake-Robin Family
25. Smilaceae – Smilax Family
26. Haemodoraceae – Bloodwort Family
27. Amaryllidaceae – Amaryllis Family
28. Dioscoreaceae – Yam Family
29. Iridaceae – Iris Family
30. Marantaceae – Arrow-Root Family
31. Burmanniaceae – Burmannia Family
32. Orchidaceae – Orchid Family
Dicotyledones (Cotyledons two)
Choripetalae (Petals distinct, or none)
1. Saururaceae – Lizard's-Tail Family
2. Juglandaceae – Walnut Family
3. Myricaceae – Bayberry Family
4. Leitneriaceae – Cork-Wood Family
5. Salicaceae – Willow Family
6. Betulaceae – Birch Family
7. Fagaceae – Beech Family
8. Ulmaceae – Elm Family
9. Moraceae – Mulberry Family
10. Cannabinacae – Hemp Family
11. Urticaceae – Nettle Family
12. Loranthaceae – Misletoe Family
13. Santalaceae – Sandalwood Family
14. Aristolochiaceae – Birthwort Family
15. Polygonaceae – Buckwheat Family
———————{ Start of Volume 2. }———————
16. Amaranthaceae – Amaranth Family
17. Chenopodiaceae – Goosefoot Family
18. Phytolaccaceae – Poke-Weed Family
19. Corrigiolaceae – Whitlowwort Family
20. Nyctaginaceae – Four-O'Clock Family
21. Aizoaceae – Carpet-Weed Family
22. Portulacaceae – Purslane Family
23. Alsinaceae – Chickweed Family
24. Caryophyllaceae – Pink Family
25. Ceratophyllaceae – Hornwort Family
26. Cabombaceae – Water-Shield Family
27. Nelumbonaceae – Sacred-Bean Family
28. Nymphaeaceae – Water-Lily Family
29. Magnoliaceae – Magnolia Family
30. Annonaceae – Custard-Apple Family
31. Ranunculaceae – Crowfoot Family
32. Berberidaceae – Barberry Family
33. Menispermaceae – Moonseed Family
34. Calycanthaceae – Strawberry-Shrub Family
35. Lauraceae – Laurel Family
36. Papaveraceae – Poppy Family
37. Fumariaceae – Fumewort Family
38. Cruciferae – Mustard Family
39. Capparidaceae – Caper Family
40. Resedaceae – Mignonette Family
41. Sarltaceniaceae – Pitcher-Plant Family
42. Droseraceae – Sundew Family
43. Pooostemaceae – River-Weed Family
44. Crassulaceae – Orpine Family
45. Penthoraceae – Virginia Stonecrop Family
46. Parnassiaceae – Grass-Of-Parnassus Family
47. Saxifragaceae – Saxifrage Family
48. Hydrangeaceae – Hydrangea Family
49. Iteaceae – Virginia Willow Family
50. Hamamelidaceae – Witch-Hazel Family
51. Altingiaceae – Altingia Family
52. Grossulariaceae – Gooseberry Family
53. Platanaceae – Plane-Tree Family
54. Rosaceae – Rose Family
55. Malaceae – Apple Family
56. Amygdalaceae – Peach Family
57. Mimosaceae – Mimosa Family
58. Caesalpinaceae – Senna Family
59. Krameriaceae – Krameria Family
60. Fabaceae – Pea Family
61. Geraniaceae – Geranium Family
62. Ooxalidaceae – Wood-Sorrel Family
63. Llinaceae – Flax Family
64. Balsaminaceae – Jewel-Weed Family
65. Limnanthaceae – False Mermaid Family
66. Zygophyllaceae – Caltrop Family
67. Rutaceae – Rue Family
68. Simaroubaceae – Ailanthus Family
69. Polygalaceae – Milkwort Family
70. Euphorbiaceae – Spurge Family
71. Callitrichaceae – Water-Starwort Family
72. Empetraceae – Crowberry Family
73. Buxaceae – Box Family
74. Anacardiaceae – Sumac Family
75. Cyrillaceae – Cyrilla Family
76. Ilicaceae – Holly Family
77. Celastraceae – Staff-Tree Family
78. Staphyleaceae – Bladder-Nut Family
79. Aceraceae – Maple Family
80. Aesculaceae – Buckeye Family
81. Sapindaceae – Soapberry Family
82. Rhamnaceae – Buckthorn Family
83. Vitaceae – Grape Family
84. Tiliaceae – Linden Family
85. Malvaceae – Mallow Family
86. Theaceae – Tea Family
87. Hypericaceae – St. John's-Wort Family
88. Elatinaceae – Water-Wort Family
89. Cistaceae – Rock-Rose Family
90. Violaceae – Violet Family
91. Passifloraceae – Passion-Flower Family
92. Loasaceae – Loasa Family
93. Cactaceae – Cactus Family
94. Thymeleaceae – Mezereon Family
95. Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family
96. Lythraceae – Loosestrife Family
97. Melastomaceae – Meadow-Beauty Family
98. Onagraceae – Evening-Primrose Family
99. Trapaceae – Water-Nut Family
100. Haloragidaceae – Water-Milfoil Family
101. Araliaceae – Ginseng Family
102. Ammiaceae – Carrot Family
103. Cornaceae – Dogwood Family
Gamopetalae (Petals wholly or partly united, rarely separate or wanting)
1. Clethraceae – White Alder Family
2. Pyrolaceae – Wintergreen Family
3. Monotropaceae – Indian-Pipe Family
4. Ericaceae – Heath Family
5. Vacciniaceae – Huckleberry Family
6. Diapensiaceae – Diapensia Family
7. Prlmulaceae – Primrose Family
8. Plumbaginaceae – Plumbago Family
9. Sapotaceae – Sapodilla Family
10. Ebenacea – Ebony Family
11. Symplocaceae – Sweet-Leaf Family
12. Styraceae – Storax Family
13. Oleaceae – Olive Family
14. Loganiaceae – Logania Family
———————{ Start of Volume 3. }———————
15. Gentianaceae – Gentian Family
16. Menyanthaceae – Buckbean Family
17. Apocynaceae – Dogbane Family
18. Asclepiadaceae – Milkweed Family
19. Dichondraceae – Dichondra Family
20. Convolvulaceae – Morning-Glory Family
21. Cuscutaceae – Dodder Family
22. Polemoniaceae – Phlox Family
23. Hydrophyllaceae – Water-Leaf Family
24. Boraginaceae – Borage Family
25. Verbenaceae – Vervain Family
26. Labiatae – Mint Family
27. Solanaceae – Potato Family
28. Scrophulariaceae – Figwort Family
29. Lentibulariaceae – Bladderwort Family
30. Orobanchaceae – Broom-Rape Family
31. Bignoniaceae – Trumpet-Creeper Family
32. Martyniaceae – Unicorn Plant Family
33. Acanthaceae – Acanthus Family
34. Phrymaceae – Lopseed Family
35. Plantaginaceae – Plantain Family
36. Rubiaceae – Madder Family
37. Caprifouaceae – Honeysuckle Family
38. Adoxaceae – Moschatel Family
39. Valerlanaceae – Valerian Family
40. Dipsaceae – Teasel Family
41. Cucurbitaceae – Gourd Family
42. Campanulaceae – Bell-Flower Family
43. Lobeliaceae – Lobelia Family
44. Cichoriaceae – Chicory Family
45. Ambrosiaceae – Ragweed Family
46. Compositae – Thistle Family

[edit]


Summary.


Families.
Genera.
Species Figured.
Pteridophyta 11 31 130
Spermatophyta
Gymnospermae 2 10 28
Angiospermae
    Monocotyledones 32 251 1261
    Dicotyledones
      Choripetalae 103 526 1775
      Gamopetalae
46
411
1472
Total
194
1229
4666

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Symbols Used.
° is used after figures to indicate feet.
is used after figures to indicate inches.
is used after figures to indicate lines, or twelfths of an inch.
over syllables indicates the accent, and the short English sound of the vowel.
` over syllables indicates the accent, and the long, broad, open or close English sound of the vowel.
 
In the Metric System.
The metre = 39.37 inches, or 3 feet 3.37 inches.
The decimetre = 3.94 inches.
The centimetre = 2/5 of an inch, or 43/4 lines. very nearly
The millimetre = 1/25 of an inch, or 1/2 a line.
21/9 millimeters = 1 line.

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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1934, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 75 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.