Dravyasamgraha

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Dravyasamgraha  (1917) 
by Ācārya Nemicandra, translated by Sarat Chandra Ghoshal
The Dravyasaṃgraha is a 10th century Jain work of Ācārya Nemicandra (Also known as Nemicandra Siddhānta Cakravartin) that gives a lucid exposition of the six reals or substances as per the Jain cosmology: sentient (jīva), non-sentient (ajīva), principle of motion (dharma), of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla). A clear knowledge of what they are and their role in this universe is one of the prerequisites to enlightenment and ultimately to salvation, the reaching of which is the ultimate goal of any soul.
  1. I always salute with my head that eminent one among the great Jinas, who is worshipped by the host of Indras and who has described the Dravyas (substances) Jiva and Ajiva.
  2. Jiva is characterized by upayoga, is formless and an agent, has the same extent at its own body, is the enjoyer (of the fruits of Karma), exists in samsara, is Siddha and has a characteristic upward motion.
  3. According to Vyavahara Naya, that is called Jiva, which is possessed of four Pranas, viz., Indriya (the senses), Bal (force), Ayu (life) and Ana-prana (respiration) into the three periods of time (viz., the present, the past and the future), and according to Nischaya Naya that which has consciousness is called Jiva.
  4. Upayoga is of two kinds, Darshana and Jnana. Darshana is of four kinds, Darshana is known to be (divided into) Chaksu, Achuksu; Avadhi and Kevala.
  5. Jnana is of eight kinds, viz., Jnana and Ajnana of Mati, Sruta and Avadhi, manah-paryaya and Kevala. (It is also divided into Pratyaksha and Paroksa (from another point of view).
  6. According to Vyavahara Naya, the general characteristics of Jiva are said to be eight kinds of Jnana and four kinds of Darshana. But according to Suddha Naya, (the characteristics of Jiva) are pure Jnana and Darshana.
  7. According to Nischaya Naya, Jiva is without form; because the five kinds of colour and taste, two kinds of smell, and eight kinds of touch are not present in it. But according to Vyavahara Naya [Jiva] has form through the bondage [of Karma.]
  8. According to Vyavahara Naya is the doer of the Pudgala Karmas. According to Nischaya Naya (Jiva is the doer of) Thought Karmas. According to Suddha Naya (Jiva is the doer) of Suddha Bhavas.
  9. According to Vyavahara Naya, Jiva enjoys happiness and misery the fruits of Pudgala karmas, According to Nischaya Naya, Jiva has conscious Bhavas only.
  10. According to Vyavahara Naya, the conscious Jiva, being without Samudghata, becomes equal in extent to a small or a large body, by contraction and expansion; but, according to Nischaya, Naya (it) is existent in innumerable Pradesas.
  11. The earth, water, fire, air and plants are various kinds of Sthavara possessed of one sense. The Trasa Jivas, conches, etc., are possessed of two, three, four and five senses.
  12. Jivas possessing five senses are known (to be divided into) those having mind and those without mind. All the rest are without mind. [Jivas] having one sense (are divided into two classes) Badara and Suksma. All (of these have again to varieties each) Paryapta and its opposite.
  13. Again, according to impure (Vyavahara) Naya, Samsari Jivas are of fourteen kinds according to Margana and Gunasthana. But according to pure Naya, all Jivas should be understood to pure.
  14. The Siddhas (or liberated Jivas) are void of karmas, possessed of eight qualities, slightly less than the final body, eternal, possessed of Utpada (rise) and Vyaya (fall), and existent at the summit of Loka.
  15. Again, Ajivas should be known to be Pudgala, Dharma, Adhrma, Akasa and Kala. Pudgala has form and the qualities, Rupa, etc. But the rest are without form.
  16. Sound, union, fineness, grossness, shape, division, darkness and image, with lustre and heat (are) modifications of the substance (known as) Pudgala.
  17. As water assists the movement of moving fish, so Dharma (assists the movement of moving) Pudgala and Jiva. (But) it does not move (Pudgala and Jiva which are) not moving.
  18. As shadow (assists the staying of) the travellers, (so) Adharma assists the staying of the Pudgalas and Jivas which are stationary, But that (i.e. Adharma) does not hold back moving (Pudgalas and Jivas).
  19. Know that which is capable of allowing space to Jiva etc. to be Akasa, according to Jainism Lokakasa and Alokakasa, thus (Akasa is) of two kinds.
  20. Lokakasa is that in which Dharma, Adharma, Kala, Pudgala and Jiva exist. That which is beyond (this Lokakasa) is called Alokakasa.
  21. Vyavahara Kala (Time from the ordinary point of view) is that which helps to produce changes in substances and which is known from modifications (produced in substances), while Parmarthika (i.e. real) Kala is understood from continuity.
  22. Those innumerable substances which exist one by one in each Pradesa of Lokakasa, like heaps of jewels, are points of time.
  23. In this manner this Dravya is said to be of six kinds, according to the subdivisions of Jiva and Ajiva. The five, without Kala, should be understood to be Astikayas.
  24. As these exist, they are called "Asti" by the great Jinas, and because (they have) many Pradesas, like bodies, therefore (they are called) Kayas. (Hence these are called) Astikayas.
  25. In Jiva and in Dharma and Adharma, the Pradesas are innumerable, in Akasa (The Pradesas are) infinite and in that which has form (viz., Pudgala) (these are) of three kinds, (viz., numerable, innumerable and infinite). Kala (Time) has one (Raradesha). Therefore it is not (called) Kaya.
  26. An atom (of Pudgala), though having one Pradesa, becomes of many Pradesas, through being Pradesa in many Skandhas. For this reason, from the ordinary point of view, the omniscient ones call (it to be) Kaya.
  27. Know that (to be) surely Pradesa which is obstructed by one indivisible atom of Pudagala and which can give space to all particles.
  28. We shall describe briefly those varieties of Jiva and Ajiva also which are (known as) Asrava, Bandha, Samvara. Nirjara and Moksha with Punya and Papa.
  29. That modification of the soul by which Karma gets into (it) is to be known as Bhavasrava, as told by the Jina, and the other (kind of Asrava) is the influx of Karma.
  30. Then, it should be known that of the former (i.e., Bhavasrava) (the subdivisions are) Mithyatva, Avirati, Pramada, Yoga, Anger, etc., (which are again of) five, five fifteen, three and four classes, respectively.
  31. That influx of mater which causes Jnanavaraniya etc., it to be known as Dravyasrava as called by the Jina and possessing many varieties.
  32. That conscious state by which Karma is bound (with the soul) is called Bhava-bandha, while the interpenetration of the Pradesas of Karma and the soul is the other (i.e., Dravyabandha).
  33. Bandha is of four kinds, according to the (subdivisions, viz.,) Prakriti, Sthiti, Anubhaga and Pradesa, Prakirti and Pradesa are (produced) from Yoga, but Sthiti and Anubhaga are from Kasaya.
  34. That modification of consciousness which is the cause of checking Asrava (influx) of Karma, is surely Bhavasamvra, and the other (known as Dravyasamvra is known from) checking Dravyasrava.
  35. That Vratas (Vows), Samitis (attitudes of carefulness), Guptis (Restraints), Dharmas (Observances), Anuprekasas (Meditations), Parisaha-jayas (the victories over troubles) and various kinds of Charitra (Conduct) are to e known as varieties of Bhava-samvara.
  36. That Bhava (modification of the soul) by which the mater of Karma disappears in proper time after the fruits [of such Karma] are enjoyed [is called Bhava-Nirjara], also [the destruction of Karmic matter] through penances [is known as Bhava-Nirjara.] And that destruction [itself] [is known as Dravya-Nirjana] Thus Nirjara should be known of two kinds.
  37. That modification of the soul which is the cause of the destruction of all Karmas, is surely to be known as Bhava-moksha and (actual) separation of the Karmas [is] Dravya-moksha.
  38. The Jivas consist of Punya and Papa surely having auspicious and inauspicious Bhavas (respectively). Punya is Satavedaniya, auspicious life, name and class, while Papa is (exactly) the opposite (of these).
  39. Know that from the ordinary point of view, perfect faith, knowledge and conduct are the cause of liberation, while really one's own soul consisting of these three (is the cause of liberation).
  40. The three jewels (i.e., Perfect Faith, Perfect Knowledge and Perfect Conduct) do not exist in any other substance excepting the soul. Therefore, the soul surely is the cause of liberation.
  41. Samyaktva (perfect faith) is the belief in Jiva, etc. That is a quality of the soul, and when this arises, Jnana (knowledge), being free from errors, surely becomes perfect.
  42. Samyak Jnana (Perfect Knowledge) is the detailed cognition of the real nature of the ego and non-ego, is freed from Samsaya (Doubt), Vimoha (Perversity) and Vibhrama (Indefiniteness), and is of many varieties.
  43. That perception of the generalities of things without particularities in which there is no grasping of details, is called Darsana in (Jaina) scriptures.
  44. In Samsati Jivas, Jnana is preceded by Darshana. For this reason [in him], the two Upayogas (viz. Jnana and Darshana) do not (arise) simultaneously. But in Kevalis, both of these two (arise) simultaneously.
  45. Know Charitra to be refraining from what is harmful and engagement in what is beneficial. But according to Vyavahara Naya, Charitra (Conduct) has been mentioned by the Jina to consist of Vrata, Samiti and Gupti.
  46. That checking of external and internal actions by one who has knowledge, in order to destroy the causes of Samsara, is the excellent samyak Charitra (Perfect Conduct) mentioned by the Jina.
  47. Because by the rule a sage gets both the (Vyavahara and Nischaya) causes of liberation by meditation, therefore (all of) you practise meditation with careful mind.
  48. If you wish to have your mind fixed in order to succeed in various kinds of meditation, do not be deluded by or attached to beneficial objects and do not be averse to harmful objects.
  49. Repeat and meditate on (the Mantras), signifying the Paramesthis and consisting of thirty-five, sixteen, six, five four, two and one (letter) and other (mantras) taught by the Guru (preceptor).
  50. That pure soul existing in an auspicious body, possessed of (infinite) faith, happiness, knowledge and power which has destroyed the four Ghatiya Karmas, is to be meditated on as an Arhat.
  51. Meditate on the Siddha - the soul which is bereft of the bodies produced by eight kinds of Karmas, which is the seer and knower of Loka and Aloka, which has a shape like a human being and which stays at the summit of the universe.
  52. That sage who attaches himself and others to the practice of Virya (Power), Charitra (Conduct) and Tapa (Penance) in which faith and knowledge are eminent is to be meditated as Acharya (Preceptor).
  53. That being, the greatest of the great sages who being possessed of the three jewels, is always engaged in preaching the religious truths, is (known as) Upadhyaya (Teacher). Salutation to him.
  54. That sage who practices well conduct which is always pure and which is the path of liberation with perfect faith and knowledge is a Sadhu. Obeisance to him.
  55. When a Sadhu attaining concentration becomes void of conscious effort by meditation on anything whatever, that state is called real meditation.
  56. Do not act, do not talk do not think, so that the soul may be attached to and fixed in itself. This only is excellent meditation.
  57. As a should which (practises) penances, (holds) vows and (has knowledge of) scriptures, becomes capable of holding the axle of the chariot of meditation, so to attain that (meditation) be always engaged in these three (i.e. penances, vows and Sastras).
  58. Let the great sages, full of the (knowledge) of Sastras and freed from the collection of faults, correct this Dravya-samgraha which is spoken by the sage Nemichandra who has little (knowledge) of the Sastras.
This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.