Executive Order 12036

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Signed by President  Jimmy Carter  Tuesday, January 24, 1978 Federal Register  page & date: 43 FR 3674, Thursday, January 26, 1978
See the Notes section for a list of Executive Orders affected by or related to the issuance of this Executive Order.

Executive Order 12036 of January 24, 1978

United States Intelligence Activities

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America including the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, and as President of the United States of America, in order to provide for the organization and control of United States foreign intelligence activities, it is hereby ordered as follows:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1 Direction, Duties and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort

1 - 1 National Security Council

(3675)

1 - 2 NSC Policy Review Committee

(3675)

1 - 3 NSC Special Coordination Committee

(3675)

1 - 4 National Foreign Intelligence Board

(3676)

1 - 5 National Intelligence Tasking Center

(3677)

1 - 6 The Director of Central Intelligence

(3677)

1 - 7 Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community

(3679)

1 - 8 The Central Intelligence Agency

(3680)

1 - 9 The Department of State

(3681)

1 - 10 The Department of the Treasury

(3681)

1 - 11 The Department of Defense

(3681)

1 - 12 Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense

(3682)

1 - 13 The Department of Energy

(3684)

1 - 14 The Federal Bureau of Investigation

(3684)

1 - 15 The Drug Enforcement Administration

(3684)

Section 2 Restrictions on Intelligence Activities

2 - 1 Adherence to Law

(3684)

2 - 2 Restrictions on Certain Collection Techniques

(3685)

2 - 201 General Provisions

(3685)

2 - 202 Electronic Surveillance

(3685)

2 - 203 Television Cameras and Other Monitoring

(3685)

2 - 204 Physical Searches

(3685)

2 - 205 Mail Surveillance

(3685)

2 - 206 Physical Surveillance

(3685)

2 - 207 Undisclosed Participation in Domestic Organizations

(3686)

2 - 208 Collection of Nonpublicly Available Information

(3686)

2 - 3 Additional Restrictions and Limitations

(3687)

2 - 301 Tax Information

(3687)

2 - 302 Restrictions on Experimentation

(3687)

2 - 303 Restrictions on Contracting

(3687)

2 - 304 Restrictions on Personnel Assigned to Other Agencies

(3687)

2 - 305 Prohibition on Assassination

(3687)

2 - 306 Restrictions on Special Activities

(3687)

2 - 307 Restrictions on Indirect Participation in Prohibited Activities

(3688)

2 - 308 Restrictions on Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities

(3688)

2 - 309 Permissible Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities

(3688)

2 - 310 Permissible Dissemination and Storage of Information

(3688)

Section 3 Oversight of Intelligence Organizations

3 - 1 Intelligence Oversight Board

(3688)

3 - 2 Inspectors General and General Counsel

(3689)

3 - 3 Attorney General

(3689)

3 - 4 Congressional Intelligence Committees

(3689)

Section 4 General Provisions 4 - 1 Implementation

(3690)

4 - 2 Definitions

(3690)

SECTION 1 Direction, Duties and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort[edit]

1 - 1. National Security Council.

1 - 101. Purpose. The National Security Council (NSC) was established by the National Security Act of 1947 to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to the national security. The NSC shall act as the highest Executive Branch entity that provides review of, guidance for, and direction to the conduct of all national foreign intelligence and counterintelligence activities.

1 - 102. Committees. The NSC Policy Review Committee and Special Coordination Committee, in accordance with procedures established by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, shall assist in carrying out the NSC's responsibilities in the foreign intelligence field.

1 - 2. NSC Policy Review Committee.

1 - 201. Membership. The NSC Policy Review Committee (PRC), when carrying out responsibilities assigned in this Order, shall be chaired by the Director of Central Intelligence and composed of the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, or their designees, and other senior officials, as appropriate.

1 - 202. Duties. The PRC shall:

(a) Establish requirements and priorities for national foreign intelligence;

(b) Review the National Foreign Intelligence Program and budget proposals and report to the President as to whether the resource allocations for intelligence capabilities are responsive to the intelligence requirements of the members of the NSC.

(c) Conduct periodic reviews of national foreign intelligence products, evaluate the quality of the intelligence product, develop policy guidance to ensure quality intelligence and to meet changing intelligence requirements; and

(d) Submit an annual report on its activities to the NSC.

1 - 203. Appeals. Recommendations of the PRC on intelligence matters may be appealed to the President or the NSC by any member of PRC.

1 - 3. NSC Special Coordination Committee.

1 - 301. Membership. The NSC Special Coordination Committee (SCC) is chaired by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and its membership includes the statutory members of the NSC and other senior officials, as appropriate.

1 - 302. Special Activities. The SCC shall consider and submit to the President a policy recommendation, including all dissents, on each special activity. When meeting for this purpose, the members of the SCC shall include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Director of Central Intelligence.

1 - 303. Sensitive Foreign Intelligence Collection Operations. Under standards established by the President, proposals for sensitive foreign intelligence collection operations shall be reported to the Chairman by the Director of Central Intelligence for appropriate review and approval. When meeting for the purpose of reviewing proposals for sensitive foreign intelligence collection operations, the members of the SCC shall include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Director of Central Intelligence, and such other members designated by the Chairman to ensure proper consideration of these operations.

1 - 304. Counterintelligence. The SCC shall develop policy with respect to the conduct of counterintelligence activities. When meeting for this purpose the members of the SCC shall include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Director of the FBI. The SCC's counterintelligence functions shall include:

(a) Developing standards and doctrine for the counterintelligence activities of the United States;

(b) Resolving interagency differences concerning implementation of counterintelligence policy;

(c) Developing and monitoring guidelines consistent with this Order for the maintenance of central records of counterintelligence information;

(d) Submitting to the President an overall annual assessment of the relative threat to United States interests from intelligence and security services of foreign powers and from international terrorist activities, including an assessment of the effectiveness of the United States counterintelligence activities; and

(e) Approving counterintelligence activities which, under such standards as may be established by the President, require SCC approval.

1 - 305. Required Membership. The SCC shall discharge the responsibilities assigned by sections 1 - 302 through 1 - 304 only after consideration in a meeting at which all designated members are present or, in unusual circumstances when any such member is unavailable, when a designated representative of the member attends.

1 - 306. Additional Duties. The SCC shall also:

(a) Conduct an annual review of ongoing special activities and sensitive national foreign intelligence collection operations and report thereon to the NSC; and

(b) Carry out such other coordination and review activities as the President may direct.

1 - 307. Appeals. Any member of the SCC may appeal any decision to the President or the NSC.

1 - 4. National Foreign Intelligence Board.

1 - 401. Establishment and Duties. There is established a National Foreign Intelligence Board (NFIB) to advise the Director of Central Intelligence concerning:

(a) Production, review, and coordination of national foreign intelligence;

(b) The National Foreign Intelligence Program budget;

(c) Interagency exchanges of foreign intelligence information;

(d) Arrangements with foreign governments on intelligence matters;

(e) The protection of intelligence sources and methods;

(f) Activities of common concern; and

(g) Other matters referred to it by the Director of Central Intelligence.

1 - 402. Membership. The NFIB shall be chaired by the Director of Central Intelligence and shall include other appropriate officers of the CIA, the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Energy, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the offices within the Department of Defense for reconnaissance programs, the National Security Agency and the FBI. A representative of the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs may attend meetings of the NFIB as an observer.

1 - 403. Restricted Membership and Observers. When the NFIB meets for the purpose of section 1 - 401(a), it shall be composed solely of the senior intelligence officers of the designated agencies. The senior intelligence officers of the Army, Navy and Air Force may attend all meetings of the NFIB as observers.

1 - 5. National Intelligence Tasking Center.

1 - 501. Establishment. There is established a National Intelligence Tasking Center (NITC) under the direction, control and management of the Director of Central Intelligence for coordinating and tasking national foreign intelligence collection activities. The NITC shall be staffed jointly by civilian and military personnel including designated representatives of the chiefs of each of the Department of Defense intelligence organizations engaged in national foreign intelligence activities. Other agencies within the Intelligence Community may also designate representatives.

1 - 502. Responsibilities. The NITC shall be the central mechanism by which the Director of Central Intelligence:

(a) Translates national foreign intelligence requirements and priorities developed by the PRC into specific collection objectives and targets for the Intelligence Community;

(b) Assigns targets and objectives to national foreign intelligence collection organizations and systems;

(c) Ensures the timely dissemination and exploitation of data for national foreign intelligence purposes gathered by national foreign intelligence collection means, and ensures the resulting intelligence flow is routed immediately to relevant components and commands;

(d) Provides advisory tasking concerning collection of national foreign intelligence to departments and agencies having information collection capabilities or intelligence assets that are not a part of the National Foreign Intelligence Program. Particular emphasis shall be placed on increasing the contribution of departments or agencies to the collection of information through overt means.

1 - 503. Resolution of Conflicts. The NITC shall have the authority to resolve conflicts of priority. Any PRC member may appeal such a resolution to the PRC; pending the PRC's decision, the tasking remains in effect.

1 - 504. Transfer of Authority. All responsibilities and authorities of the Director of Central Intelligence concerning the NITC shall be transferred to the Secretary of Defense upon the express direction of the President. To maintain readiness for such transfer, the Secretary of Defense shall, with advance agreement of the Director of Central Intelligence, assume temporarily during regular practice exercises all responsibilities and authorities of the Director of Central Intelligence concerning the NITC.

1 - 6. The Director of Central Intelligence.

1 - 601. Duties. The Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible directly to the NSC and, in addition to the duties specified elsewhere in this Order, shall:

(a) Act as the primary adviser to the President and the NSC on national foreign intelligence and provide the President and other officials in the Executive Branch with national foreign intelligence;

(b) Be the head of the CIA and of such staff elements as may be required for discharge of the Director's Intelligence Community responsibilities;

(c) Act, in appropriate consultation with the departments and agencies, as the Intelligence Community's principal spokesperson to the Congress, the news media and the public, and facilitate the use of national foreign intelligence products by the Congress in a secure manner;

(d) Develop, consistent with the requirements and priorities established by the PRC, such objectives and guidance for the Intelligence Community as will enhance capabilities for responding to expected future needs for national foreign intelligence;

(e) Promote the development and maintenance of services of common concern by designated foreign intelligence organizations on behalf of the Intelligence Community;

(f) Ensure implementation of special activities;

(g) Formulate policies concerning intelligence arrangements with foreign governments, and coordinate intelligence relationships between agencies of the Intelligence Community and the intelligence or internal security services of foreign governments;

(h) Conduct a program to protect against overclassification of foreign intelligence information;

(i) Ensure the establishment by the Intelligence Community of common security and access standards for managing and handling foreign intelligence systems, information and products;

(j) Participate in the development of procedures required to be approved by the Attorney General governing the conduct of intelligence activities;

(k) Establish uniform criteria for the determination of relative priorities for the transmission of critical national foreign intelligence, and advise the Secretary of Defense concerning the communications requirements of the Intelligence Community for the transmission of such intelligence;

(l) Provide appropriate intelligence to departments and agencies not within the Intelligence Community; and

(m) Establish appropriate committees or other advisory groups to assist in the execution of the foregoing responsibilities.

1 - 602. National Foreign Intelligence Program Budget. The Director of Central Intelligence shall, to the extent consistent with applicable law, have full and exclusive authority for approval of the National Foreign Intelligence Program budget submitted to the President. Pursuant to this authority:

(a) The Director of Central Intelligence shall provide guidance for program and budget development to program managers and heads of component activities and to department and agency heads;

(b) The heads of departments and agencies involved in the National Foreign Intelligence Program shall ensure timely development and submission to the Director of Central Intelligence of proposed national programs and budgets in the format designated by the Director of Central Intelligence, by the program managers and heads of component activities, and shall also ensure that the Director of Central Intelligence is provided, in a timely and responsive manner, all information necessary to perform the Director's program and budget responsibilities;

(c) The Director of Central Intelligence shall review and evaluate the national program and budget submissions and, with the advice of the NFIB and the departments and agencies concerned, develop the consolidated National Foreign Intelligence Program budget and present it to the President through the Office of Management and Budget;

(d) The Director of Central Intelligence shall present and justify the National Foreign Intelligence Program budget to the Congress;

(e) The heads of the departments and agencies shall, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence, establish rates of obligation for appropriated funds;

(f) The Director of Central Intelligence shall have full and exclusive authority for reprogramming National Foreign Intelligence Program funds, in accord with guidelines established by the Office of Management and Budget, but shall do so only after consultation with the head of the department affected and appropriate consultation with the Congress;

(g) The departments and agencies may appeal to the President decisions by the Director of Central Intelligence on budget or reprogramming matters of the National Foreign Intelligence Program.

(h) The Director of Central Intelligence shall monitor National Foreign Intelligence Program implementation and may conduct program and performance audits and evaluations.

1 - 603. Responsibility For National Foreign Intelligence. The Director of Central Intelligence shall have full responsibility for production and dissemination of national foreign intelligence and have authority to levy analytic tasks on departmental intelligence production organizations, in consultation with those organizations. In doing so, the Director of Central Intelligence shall ensure that diverse points of view are considered fully and that differences of judgment within the Intelligence Community are brought to the attention of national policymakers.

1 - 604. Protection of Sources, Methods and Procedures. The Director of Central Intelligence shall ensure that programs are developed which protect intelligence sources, methods and analytical procedures, provided that this responsibility shall be limited within the United States to:

(a) Using lawful means to protect against disclosure by present or former employees of the CIA or the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, or by persons or organizations presently or formerly under contract with such entities; and

(b) Providing policy, guidance and technical assistance to departments and agencies regarding protection of intelligence information, including information that may reveal intelligence sources and methods.

1 - 605. Responsibility of Executive Branch Agencies. The heads of all Executive Branch departments and agencies shall, in accordance with law and relevant Attorney General procedures, give the Director of Central Intelligence access to all information relevant to the national intelligence needs of the United States and shall give due consideration to requests from the Director of Central Intelligence for appropriate support for CIA activities.

1 - 606. Access to CIA Intelligence. The Director of Central Intelligence, shall, in accordance with law and relevant Attorney General procedures, give the heads of the departments and agencies access to all intelligence, developed by the CIA or the staff elements of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, relevant to the national intelligence needs of the departments and agencies.

1 - 7. Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community. The senior officials of each of the agencies within the Intelligence Community shall:

1 - 701. Ensure that all activities of their agencies are carried out in accordance with applicable law;

1 - 702. Make use of the capabilities of other agencies within the Intelligence Community in order to achieve efficiency and mutual assistance;

1 - 703. Contribute in their areas of responsibility to the national foreign intelligence products;

1 - 704. Establish internal policies and guidelines governing employee conduct and ensure that such are made known to each employee;

1 - 705. Provide for strong, independent, internal means to identify, inspect, and report on unlawful or improper activity;

1 - 706. Report to the Attorney General evidence of possible violations of federal criminal law by an employee of their department or agency, and report to the Attorney General evidence of possible violations by any other person of those federal criminal laws specified in guidelines adopted by the Attorney General;

1 - 707. In any case involving serious or continuing breaches of security, recommend to the Attorney General that the case be referred to the FBI for further investigation;

1 - 708. Furnish the Director of Central Intelligence, the PRC and the SCC, in accordance with applicable law and Attorney General procedures, the information required for the performance of their respective duties;

1 - 709. Report to the Intelligence Oversight Board, and keep the Director of Central Intelligence appropriately informed, concerning any intelligence activities of their organizations which raise questions of legality or propriety;

1 - 710. Protect intelligence and intelligence sources and methods consistent with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence and the NSC;

1 - 711. Disseminate intelligence to cooperating foreign governments under arrangements established or agreed to by the Director of Central Intelligence;

1 - 712. Execute programs to protect against overclassification of foreign intelligence;

1 - 713. Instruct their employees to cooperate fully with the Intelligence Oversight Board; and

1 - 714. Ensure that the Inspectors General and General Counsel of their agencies have access to any information necessary to perform their duties assigned by this Order.

1 - 8. The Central Intelligence Agency. All duties and responsibilities of the CIA shall be related to the intelligence functions set out below. As authorized by the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, the CIA Act of 1949, as amended, and other laws, regulations and directives, the CIA, under the direction of the NSC, shall:

1 - 801. Collect foreign intelligence, including information not otherwise obtainable, and develop, conduct, or provide support for technical and other programs which collect national foreign intelligence. The collection of information within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;

1 - 802. Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to the national security, including foreign political, economic, scientific, technical, military, geographic and sociological intelligence to meet the needs of the President, the NSC, and other elements of the United States Government;

1 - 803. Collect, produce and disseminate intelligence on foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking;

1 - 804. Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States and coordinate counterintelligence activities conducted outside the United States by other agencies within the Intelligence Community;

1 - 805. Without assuming or performing any internal security functions, conduct counterintelligence activities within the United States, but only in coordination with the FBI and subject to the approval of the Attorney General;

1 - 806. Produce and disseminate counterintelligence studies and reports;

1 - 807. Coordinate the collection outside the United States of intelligence information not otherwise obtainable;

1 - 808. Conduct special activities approved by the President and carry out such activities consistent with applicable law;

1 - 809. Conduct services of common concern for the Intelligence Community as directed by the NSC;

1 - 810. Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to authorized functions;

1 - 811. Protect the security of its installations, activities, information and personnel by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the CIA as are necessary;

1 - 812. Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections 1 - 801 through 1 - 811 above, including procurement and essential cover and proprietary arrangements.

1 - 813. Provide legal and legislative services and other administrative support to the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.

1 - 9. The Department of State. The Secretary of State shall:

1 - 901. Overtly collect foreign political, sociological, economic, scientific, technical, political-military and associated biographic information;

1 - 902. Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States foreign policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;

1 - 903. Disseminate, as appropriate, reports received from United States diplomatic and consular posts abroad;

1 - 904. Coordinate with the Director of Central Intelligence to ensure that national foreign intelligence activities are useful to and consistent with United States foreign policy;

1 - 905. Transmit reporting requirements of the Intelligence Community to the Chiefs of United States Missions abroad; and

1 - 906. Support Chiefs of Mission in discharging their statutory responsibilities for direction and coordination of mission activities.

1 - 10. The Department of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall:

1 - 1001. Overtly collect foreign financial and monetary information;

1 - 1002. Participate with the Department of State in the overt collection of general foreign economic information;

1 - 1003. Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States economic policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities; and

1 - 1004. Conduct, through the United States Secret Service, activities to determine the existence and capability of surveillance equipment being used against the President of the United States, the Executive Office of the President, and, as authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury or the President, other Secret Service protectees and United States officials. No information shall be acquired intentionally through such activities except to protect against such surveillance, and those activities shall be conducted pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.

1 - 11. The Department of Defense. The Secretary of Defense shall:

1 - 1101. Collect national foreign intelligence and be responsive to collection tasking by the NITC;

1 - 1102. Collect, produce and disseminate foreign military and military--, related intelligence information, including scientific, technical, political, geographic and economic information as required for execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;

1 - 1103. Conduct programs and missions necessary to fulfill national and tactical foreign intelligence requirements;

1 - 1104. Conduct counterintelligence activities in support of Department of Defense components outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General, and produce and disseminate counterintelligence studies and reports;

1 - 1105. Direct, operate, control and provide fiscal management for the National Security Agency and for defense and military intelligence and national reconnaissance entities;

1 - 1106. Conduct, as the executive agent of the United States Government, signals intelligence and communications security activities, except as otherwise directed by the NSC;

1 - 1107. Provide for the timely transmission of critical intelligence, as defined by the Director of Central Intelligence, within the United States Government;

1 - 1108. Review budget data and information on Department of Defense programs within the National Foreign Intelligence Program and review budgets submitted by program managers to the Director of Central Intelligence to ensure the appropriate relationship of the National Foreign Intelligence Program elements to the other elements of the Defense program;

1 - 1109. Monitor, evaluate and conduct performance audits of Department of Defense intelligence programs;

1 - 1110. Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of tecnical systems and devices relating to authorized intelligence functions;

1 - 1111. Together with the Director of Central Intelligence, ensure that there is no unnecessary overlap between national foreign intelligence programs and Department of Defense intelligence programs and provide the Director of Central Intelligence all information necessary for this purpose;

1 - 1112. Protect the security of Department of Defense installations, activities, information and personnel by appropriate means including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors and other persons with similar associations with the Department of Defense as are necessary; and

1 - 1113. Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections 1 - 1101 through 1 - 1112 above.

1 - 12. Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense. In carrying out the responsibilities assigned in section 1 - 1101 through 1 - 1113, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to utilize the following:

1 - 1201. Defense Intelligence Agency, whose repsponsibilities shall include:

(a) Production or, through tasking and coordination, provision of military and military-related intelligence for the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, other Defense components, and, as appropriate, non-Defense agencies;

(b) Provision of military intelligence for national foreign intelligence products;

(c) Coordination of all Department of Defense intelligence collection requirements for departmental needs;

(d) Management of the Defense Attache system; and

(e) Provision of foreign intelligence and counterintelligence staff support as directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

1 - 1202. National Security Agency (NSA), whose responsibilities shall include:

(a) Establishment and operation of an effective unified organization for signals intelligence activities, except for the delegation of operational control over certain operations that are conducted through other elements of the Intelligence Community. No other department or agency may engage in signals intelligence activities except pursuant to a delegation by the Secretary of Defense;

(b) Control of signals intelligence collection and processing activities, including assignment of resources to an appropriate agent for such periods and tasks as required for the direct support of military commanders;

(c) Collection of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes in accordance with tasking by the NITC;

(d) Processing of signals intelligence data for national foreign intelligence purposes consistent with standards for timeliness established by the Director of Central Intelligence;

(e) Dissemination of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes to authorized elements of the Government, including the military services, in accordance with guidance from the NITC;

(f) Collection, processing, and dissemination of signals intelligence information for counterintelligence purposes;

(g) Provision of signals intelligence support for the conduct of military operations in accordance with tasking, priorities and standards of timeliness assigned by the Secretary of Defense. If provision of such support requires use of national collection systems, these systems will be tasked within existing guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(h) Executing the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense as executive agent for the communications security of the United States Government;

(i) Conduct of research and development to meet needs of the United States for signals intelligence and communications security;

(j) Protection of the security of its installations, activities, information and personnel by appropriate means including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors and other persons with similar associations with the NSA as are necessary; and

(k) Prescribing, within its field of authorized operations, security regulations covering operating practices, including the transmission, handling and distribution of signals intelligence and communications security material within and among the elements under control of the Director of the NSA, and exercising the necessary supervisory control to ensure compliance with the regulations.

1 - 1203. Offices for the collection of specialized intelligence through reconnaissance programs, whose responsibilities shall include:

(a) Carrying out consolidated reconnaissance programs for specialized intelligence;

(b) Responding to tasking through the NITC; and

(c) Delegating authority to the various departments and agencies for research, development, procurement, and operation of designated means of collection.

1 - 1204. The foreign intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the military services, whose responsibilities shall include:

(a) Collection, production and dissemination of military and military-related foreign intelligence, including information on indications and warnings, foreign capabilities, plans and weapons systems, scientific and technical developments and narcotics production and trafficking. When collection is conducted in response to national foreign intelligence requirements, it will be tasked by the NITC. Collection of national foreign intelligence, not otherwise obtainable, outside the United States shall be coordinated with the CIA, and such collection within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI;

(b) Conduct of counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI, and production and dissemination of counterintelligence studies or reports; and

(c) Monitoring of the development, procurement and management of tactical intelligence systems and equipment and conducting related research, development, and test and evaluation activities.

1 - 1205. Other offices within the Department of Defense appropriate for conduct of the intelligence missions and responsibilities assigned to the Secretary of Defense. If such other offices are used for intelligence purposes, the provisions of Sections 2 - 101 through 2 - 309 of this Order shall apply to those offices when used for those purposes.

1 - 13. The Department of Energy. The Secretary of Energy shall:

1 - 1301. Participate with the Department of State in overtly collecting political, economic and technical information with respect to foreign energy matters;

1 - 1302. Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence necessary for the Secretary's responsibilities;

1 - 1303. Participate in formulating intelligence collection and analysis requirements where the special expert capability of the Department can contribute; and

1 - 1304. Provide expert technical, analytical and research capability to other agencies within the Intelligence Community.

1 - 14. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. Under the supervision of the Attorney General and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may establish, the Director of the FBI shall:

1 - 1401. Within the United States conduct counterintelligence and coordinate counterintelligence activities of other agencies within the Intelligence Community. When a counterintelligence activity of the FBI involves military or civilian personnel of the Department of Defense, the FBI shall coordinate with the Department of Defense;

1 - 1402. Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, subject to the approval of the Director of Central Intelligence;

1 - 1403. Conduct within the United States, when requested by officials of the Intelligence Community designated by the President, lawful activities undertaken to collect foreign intelligence or support foreign intelligence collection requirements of other agencies within the Intelligence Community;

1 - 1404. Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence, counterintelligence and counterintelligence studies and reports; and

1 - 1405. Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to the functions authorized above.

1 - 15. The Drug Enforcement Administration. Under the supervision of the Attorney General and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may establish, the Administrator of DEA shall:

1 - 1501. Collect, produce and disseminate intelligence on the foreign and domestic aspects of narcotics production and trafficking in coordination with other agencies with responsibilities in these areas;

1 - 1502. Participate with the Department of State in the overt collection of general foreign political, economic and agricultural information relating to narcotics production and trafficking; and

1 - 1503. Coordinate with the Director of Central Intelligence to ensure that the foreign narcotics intelligence activities of DEA are consistent with other foreign intelligence programs.

SECTION 2 Restrictions on Intelligence Activities[edit]

2 - 1. Adherence to Law.

2 - 101. Purpose. Information about the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons and their agents is essential to informed decision-making in the areas of national defense and foreign relations. The measures employed to acquire such information should be responsive to legitimate governmental needs and must be conducted in a manner that preserves and respects established concepts of privacy and civil liberties.

2 - 102. Principles of Interpretation. Sections 2 - 201 through 2 - 309 set forth limitations which, in addition to other applicable laws, are intended to achieve the proper balance between protection of individual rights and acquisition of essential information. Those sections do not authorize any activity not authorized by sections 1 - 101 through 1 - 1503 and do not provide any exemption from any other law.

2 - 2. Restrictions on Certain Collection Techniques.

2 - 201. General Provisions.

(a) The activities described in Sections 2 - 202 through 2 - 208 shall be undertaken only as permitted by this Order and by procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Those procedures shall protect constitutional rights and privacy, ensure that information is gathered by the least intrusive means possible, and limit use of such information to lawful governmental purposes.

(b) Activities described in sections 2 - 202 through 2 - 205 for which a warrant would be required if undertaken for law enforcement rather than intelligence purposes shall not be undertaken against a United States person without a judicial warrant, unless the President has authorized the type of activity involved and the Attorney General has both approved the particular activity and determined that there is probable cause to believe that the United States person is an agent of a foreign power.

2 - 202. Electronic Surveillance. The CIA may not engage in any electronic surveillance within the United States. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall engage in any electronic surveillance directed against a United States person abroad or designed to intercept a communication sent from, or intended for receipt within, the United States except as permitted by the procedures established pursuant to section 2 - 201. Training of personnel by agencies in the Intelligence Community in the use of electronic communications equipment, testing by such agencies of such equipment, and the use of measures to determine the existence and capability of electronic surveillance equipment being used unlawfully shall not be prohibited and shall also be governed by such procedures. Such activities shall be limited in scope and duration to those necessary to carry out the training, testing or countermeasures purpose. No information derived from communications intercepted in the course of such training, testing or use of countermeasures may be retained or used for any other purpose.

2 - 203. Television Cameras and Other Monitoring. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall use any electronic or mechanical device surreptitiously and continuously to monitor any person within the United States, or any United States person abroad, except as permitted by the procedures established pursuant to Section 2 - 201.

2 - 204. Physical Searches. No agency within the Intelligence Community except the FBI may conduct any unconsented physical searches within the United States. All such searches conducted by the FBI, as well as all such searches conducted by any agency within the Intelligence Community outside the United States and directed against United States persons, shall be undertaken only as permitted by procedures established pursuant to Section 2 - 201.

2 - 205. Mail Surveillance. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall open mail or examine envelopes in United States postal channels, except in accordance with applicable statues and regulations. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall open mail of a United States person abroad except as permitted by procedures established pursuant to Section 2 - 201.

2 - 206. Physical Surveillance. The FBI may conduct physical surveillance directed against United States persons or others only in the course of a lawful investigation. Other agencies within the Intelligence Community may not undertake any physical surveillance directed against a United States person unless:

(a) The surveillance is conducted outside the United States and the person being surveilled is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power, engaging in international terrorist activities, or engaging in narcotics production or trafficking;

(b) The surveillance is conducted solely for the purpose of identifying a person who is in contact with someone who is the subject of a foreign intelligence or counterintelligence investigation; or

(c) That person is being surveilled for the purpose of protecting foreign intelligence and counterintelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure or is the subject of a lawful counterintelligence, personnel, physical or communications security investigation.

(d) No surveillance under paragraph (c) of this section may be conducted within the United States unless the person being surveilled is a present employee, intelligence agency contractor or employee of such a contractor, or is a military person employed by a non-intelligence element of a military service. Outside the United States such surveillance may also be conducted against a former employee, intelligence agency contractor or employee of a contractor or a civilian person employed by a non-intelligence element of an agency within the Intelligence Community. A person who is in contact with such a present or former employee or contractor may also be surveilled, but only to the extent necessary to identify that person.

2 - 207. Undisclosed Participation in Domestic Organizations. No employees may join, or otherwise participate in, any organization within the United States on behalf of any agency within the Intelligence Community without disclosing their intelligence affiliation to appropriate officials of the organization, except as permitted by procedures established pursuant to Section 2 - 201. Such procedures shall provide for disclosure of such affiliation in all cases unless the agency head or a designee approved by the Attorney General finds that non-disclosure is essential to achieving lawful purposes, and that findings is subject to review by the Attorney General. Those procedures shall further limit undisclosed participation to cases where:

(a) The participation is undertaken on behalf of the FBI in the course of a lawful investigation;

(b) The organization concerned is composed primarily of individuals who are not United States persons and is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power; or

(c) The participation is strictly limited in its nature, scope and duration to that necessary for other lawful purposes relating to foreign intelligence and is a type of participation approved by the Attorney General and set forth in a public document. No such participation may be undertaken for the purpose of influencing the activity of the organization or its members.

2 - 208. Collection of Nonpublicly Available Information. No agency within the Intelligence Community may collect, disseminate or store information concerning the activities of United States persons that is not available publicly, unless it does so with their consent or as permitted by procedures established pursuant to Section 2 - 201. Those procedures shall limit collection, storage or dissemination to the following types of information:

(a) Information concerning corporations or other commercial organizations or activities that constitutes foreign intelligence or counterintelligence;

(b) Information arising out of a lawful counterintelligence or personnel, physical or communications security investigation;

(c) Information concerning present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting, which is needed to protect foreign intelligence or counterintelligence sources or methods from unauthorized disclosure;

(d) Information needed solely to identify individuals in contact with those persons described in paragraph (c) of this section or with someone who is the subject of a lawful foreign intelligence or counterintelligence investigation;

(e) Information concerning persons who are reasonably believed to be potential sources or contacts, but only for the purpose of determining the suitability or credibility of such persons;

(f) Information constituting foreign intelligence or counterintelligence gathered abroad or from electronic surveillance conducted in compliance with Section 2 - 202 or from cooperating sources in the United States;

(g) Information about a person who is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power, engaging in international terrorist activities or narcotics production or trafficking, or endangering the safety of a person protected by the United States Secret Service or the Department of State;

(h) Information acquired by overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons;

(i) Information concerning United States persons abroad that is obtained in response to requests from the Department of State for support of its consular responsibilities relating to the welfare of those persons;

(j) Information collected, received, disseminated or stored by the FBI and necessary to fulfill its lawful investigative responsibilities; or

(k) Information concerning persons or activities that pose a clear threat to any facility or personnel of an agency within the Intelligence Community. Such information may be retained only by the agency threatened and, if appropriate, by the United States Secret Service and the FBI.

2 - 3. Additional Restrictions and Limitations.

2 - 301. Tax Information. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall examine tax returns or tax information except as permitted by applicable law.

2 - 302. Restrictions on Experimentation. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall sponsor, contract for, or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The subject's informed consent shall be documented as required by those guidelines.

2 - 303. Restrictions on Contracting. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall enter into a contract or arrangement for the provision of goods or services with private companies or institutions in the United States unless the agency sponsorship is known to the appropriate officials of the company or institution. In the case of any company or institution other than an academic institution, intelligence agency sponsorship may be concealed where it is determined, pursuant to procedures approved by the Attorney General, that such concealment is necessary to maintain essential cover or proprietary arrangements for authorized intelligence purposes.

2 - 304. Restrictions on Personnel Assigned to Other Agencies. An employee detailed to another agency within the federal government shall be responsible to the host agency and shall not report to the parent agency on the affairs of the host agency unless so directed by the host agency. The head of the host agency, and any successor, shall be informed of the employee's relationship with the parent agency.

2 - 305. Prohibition on Assassination. No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination.

2 - 306. Restrictions on Special Activities. No component of the United States Government except an agency within the Intelligence Community may conduct any special activity. No such agency except the CIA (or the military services in wartime) may conduct any special activity unless the President determines, with the SCC's advice, that another agency is more likely to achieve a particular objective.

2 - 307. Restrictions on Indirect Participation in Prohibited Activities. No agency of the Intelligence Community shall request or otherwise encourage, directly or indirectly, any person, organization, or government agency to undertake activities forbidden by this Order or by applicable law.

2 - 308. Restrictions on Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities. Agencies within the Intelligence Community other than the FBI shall not, except as expressly authorized by law:

(a) Provide services, equipment, personnel or facilities to the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (or its successor agencies) or to state or local police organizations of the United States; or

(b) Participate in or fund any law enforcement activity within the United States.

2 - 309. Permissible Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities. The restrictions in Section 2 - 308 shall not preclude:

(a) Cooperation with appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose of protecting the personnel and facilities of any agency within the Intelligence Community;

(b) Participation in law enforcement activities, in accordance with law and this Order, to investigate or prevent clandestine intelligence activities by foreign powers, international narcotics production and trafficking, or international terrorist activities; or

(c) Provision of specialized equipment, technical knowledge, or assistance of expert personnel for use by any department or agency or, when lives are endangered, to support local law enforcement agencies. Provision of assistance by expert personnel shall be governed by procedures approved by the Attorney General.

2 - 310. Permissible Dissemination and Storage of Information. Nothing in Sections 2 - 201 through 2 - 309 of this Order shall prohibit:

(a) Dissemination to appropriate law enforcement agencies of information which indicates involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws;

(b) Storage of information required by law to be retained;

(c) Dissemination of information covered by Section 2 - 208 (a)-(j) to agencies within the Intelligence Community or entities of cooperating foreign governments; or

(d) Lawful storage or dissemination of information solely for administrative purposes not related to intelligence or security.

SECTION 3 Oversight of Intelligence Organizations[edit]

3 - 1. Intelligence Oversight Board.

3 - 101. Membership. The President's Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB) shall function within the White House. The IOB shall have three members who shall be appointed by the President and who shall be from outside the government and be qualified on the basis of ability, knowledge, diversity of background and experience. No member shall have any personal interest in any contractual relationship with any agency within the Intelligence Community. One member shall be designated by the President as chairman.

3 - 102. Duties. The IOB shall:

(a) Review periodically the practices and procedures of the Inspectors General and General Counsel with responsibilities for agencies within the Intelligence Community for discovering and reporting to the IOB intelligence activities that raise questions of legality or propriety, and consider written and oral reports referred under Section 3 - 201;

(b) Review periodically for adequacy the internal guidelines of each agency within the Intelligence Community concerning the legality or propriety of intelligence activities;

(c) Report periodically, at least quarterly, to the President on its findings; and report in a timely manner to the President any intelligence activities that raise serious questions of legality or propriety;

(d) Forward to the Attorney General, in a timely manner, reports received concerning intelligence activities in which a question of legality has been raised or which the IOB believes to involve questions of legality; and

(e) Conduct such investigations of the intelligence activities of agencies within the Intelligence Community as the Board deems necessary to carry out its functions under this Order.

3 - 103. Restriction on Staff. No person who serves on the staff of the IOB shall have any contractual or employment relationship with any agency within the Intelligence Community.

3 - 2. Inspectors General and General Counsel. Inspectors General and General Counsel with responsibility for agencies within the Intelligence Community shall:

3 - 201. Transmit timely reports to the IOB concerning any intelligence activities that come to their attention and that raise questions of legality or propriety;

3 - 202. Promptly report to the IOB actions taken concerning the Board's findings on intelligence activities that raise questions of legality or propriety;

3 - 203. Provide to the IOB information requested concerning the legality or propriety of intelligence activities within their respective agencies;

3 - 204. Formulate practices and procedures for discovering and reporting to the IOB intelligence activities that raise questions of legality or propriety; and

3 - 205. Report to the IOB any occasion on which the Inspectors General or General Counsel were directed not to report any intelligence activity to the IOB which they believed raised questions of legality or propriety.

3 - 3. Attorney General. The Attorney General shall:

3 - 301. Receive and consider reports from agencies within the Intelligence Community forwarded by the IOB;

3 - 302. Report to the President in a timely fashion any intelligence activities which raise questions of legality;

3 - 303. Report to the IOB and to the President in a timely fashion decisions made or actions taken in response to reports from agencies within the Intelligence Community forwarded to the Attorney General by the IOB;

3 - 304. Inform the IOB of legal opinions affecting the operations of the Intelligence Community; and

3 - 305. Establish or approve procedures, as required by this Order, for the conduct of intelligence activities. Such procedures shall ensure compliance with law, protect constitutional rights and privacy, and ensure that any intelligence activity within the United States or directed against any United States person is conducted by the least intrusive means possible. The procedures shall also ensure that any use, dissemination and storage of information about United States persons acquired through intelligence activities is limited to that necessary to achieve lawful governmental purposes.

3 - 4. Congressional Intelligence Committees. Under such procedures as the President may establish and consistent with applicable authorities and duties, including those conferred by the Constitution upon the Executive and Legislative Branches and by law to protect sources and methods, the Director of Central Intelligence and heads of departments and agencies of the United States involved in intelligence activities shall:

3 - 401. Keep the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate fully and currently informed concerning intelligence activities, including any significant anticipated activities which are the responsibility of, or engaged in, by such department or agency. This requirement does not constitute a condition precedent to the implementation of such intelligence activities;

3 - 402. Provide any information or document in the possession, custody, or control of the department or agency or person paid by such department or agency, within the jurisdiction of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives or the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, upon the request of such committee; and

3 - 403. Report in a timely fashion to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate information relating to intelligence activities that are illegal or improper and corrective actions that are taken or planned.

SECTION 4 General Provisions[edit]

4 - 1. Implementation.

4 - 101. Except as provided in section 4 - 105 of this section, this Order shall supersede Executive Order 11905, " United States Foreign Intelligence Activities," dated February 18, 1976; Executive Order 11985, same subject, dated May 13, 1977; and Executive Order 11994, same subject, dated June 1, 1977.

4 - 102. The NSC, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General and the Director of Central Intelligence shall issue such appropriate directives and procedures as are necessary to implement this Order.

4 - 103. Heads of agencies within the Intelligence Community shall issue appropriate supplementary directives and procedures consistent with this Order.

4 - 104. The Attorney General shall have sole authority to issue and revise procedures required by section 2 - 201 for the activities of the FBI relating to foreign intelligence and counterintelligence.

4 - 105. Where intelligence activities under this Order are to be conducted pursuant to procedures approved or agreed to by the Attorney General, those activities may be conducted under terms and conditions of Executive Order 11905 and any procedures promulgated thereunder until such Attorney General procedures are established. Such Attorney General procedures shall be established as expeditiously as possible after the issuance of this Order.

4 - 106. In some instances, the documents that implement this Order will be classified because of the sensitivity of the information and its relation to national security. All instructions contained in classified documents will be consistent with this Order. All procedures promulgated pursuant to this Order will be made available to the Congressional intelligence committees in accordance with Section 3 - 402.

4 - 107. Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this Order shall apply to activities both within and outside the United States, and all references to law are to applicable laws of the United States, including the Constitution and this Order. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to apply to or interfere with any authorized civil or criminal law enforcement responsibility of any department or agency.

4 - 2. Definitions. For the purposes of this Order, the following terms shall have these meanings:

4 - 201. Communications security means protective measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications of the United States Government related to national security and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications.

4 - 202. Counterintelligence means information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage and other clandestine intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, but not including personnel, physical, document, or communications security programs.

4 - 203. Electronic Surveillance means acquisition of a nonpublic communication by electronic means without the consent of a person who is a party to an electronic communication or, in the case of a nonelectronic communication, without the consent of a person who is visibly present at the place of communication, but not including the use of radio direction finding equipment solely to determine the location of a transmitter.

4 - 204. Employee means a person employed by, assigned to, or acting for an agency within the Intelligence Community.

4 - 205. Foreign Intelligence means information relating to the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations or persons, but not including counterintelligence except for information on international terrorist activities.

4 - 206. Intelligence means foreign intelligence and counterintelligence.

4 - 207. Intelligence Community and agency or agencies within the Intelligence Community refer to the following organizations:

(a) The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA);

(b) The National Security Agency (NSA);

(c) The Defense Intelligence Agency;

(d) The Offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs;

(e) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;

(f) The intelligence elements of the military services, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Energy, and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA); and

(g) The staff elements of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.

4 - 208. Intelligence product means the estimates, memoranda and other reports produced from the analysis of available information.

4 - 209. International terrorist activities means any activity or activities which:

(a) involves killing, causing serious bodily harm, kidnapping, or violent destruction of property, or an attempt or credible threat to commit such acts; and

(b) appears intended to endanger a protectee of the Secret Service or the Department of State or to further political, social or economic goals by intimidating or coercing a civilian population or any segment thereof, influencing the policy of a government or international organization by intimidation or coercion, or obtaining widespread publicity for a group or its cause; and

(c) transcends national boundaries in terms of the means by which it is accomplished, the civilian population, government, or international organization it appears intended to coerce or intimidate, or the locale in which its perpetrators operate or seek asylum.

4 - 210. The National Foreign Intelligence Program includes the programs listed below, but its composition shall be subject to review by the National Security Council and modification by the President.

(a) The programs of the CIA;

(b) The Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the General Defense Intelligence Program, and the programs of the offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance except such elements as the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense agree should be excluded;

(c) Other programs of agencies within the Intelligence Community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or by the President as national foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities;

(d) Activities of the staff elements of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.

(e) Activities to acquire the intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations by the United States military forces are not included in the National Foreign Intelligence Program.

4 - 211. Physical surveillance means an unconsented, systematic and deliberate observation of a person by any means on a continuing basis, or unconsented acquisition of a nonpublic communication by a person not a party thereto or visibly present thereat through any means not involving electronic surveillance. This definition does not include overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons.

4 - 212. Special activities means activities conducted abroad in support of national foreign policy objectives which are designed to further official United States programs and policies abroad and which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities, but not including diplomatic activity or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.

4 - 213. United States, when used to describe a place, includes the territories of the United States.

4 - 214. United States person means a citizen of the United States, an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, an unincorporated association organized in the United States or substantially composed of United States citizens or aliens admitted for permanent residence, or a corporation incorporated in the United States.


Signature of Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter 
The White House,
January 24, 1978.

Notes[edit]

Revoked by
Amended by
Supersedes
See Related


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).