Our Sister Republic

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Our Sister Republic  (1870) 
by Albert S. Evans


Col. Albert S. Evans.jpg

THE AUTHOR.

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OUR SISTER REPUBLIC:


A GALA TRIP

THROUGH

TROPICAL MEXICO


IN 1869-70.

ADVENTURE AND SIGHT-SEEING IN THE LAND OF THE AZTECS,
WITH PICTURESQUE DESCRIPTIONS OF THE
COUNTRY AND THE PEOPLE,

AND

REMINISCENCES OF THE EMPIRE AND ITS DOWNFALL.

BY

COL. ALBERT S. EVANS.



WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS.


PUBLISHED BY SUBSCRIPTION ONLY.



HARTFORD, CONN:
COLUMBIAN BOOK COMPANY.

W. E. BLISS, TOLEDO, OHIO.


A. L. BANCROFT & COMPANY, San Francisco, Cal.

1870.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by
 
ALBERT S. EVANS,
 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
 

 
Entered also at Stationer's Hall, London, England.
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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TO HER


WHO TRHOUGH ALL MY WANDERINGS HAS EVER BEEN

PRESENT IN MY MIND, AND WHOSE LOVE HAS

BEEN THE GUIDING STAR OF MY LIFE,


MY WIFE,


THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED, IN TESTIMONY OF

UNCHANGING AFFECTION.

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INTRODUCTORY LETTER

FROM HONORABLE WILLIAM H. SEWARD.


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Auburn, August 6th, 1870.

My Dear Colonel Evans:—

Your book on Mexico contains the observations which you made while a member of the party with which I traveled through that magnificent and interesting Country. Received and entertained there as a guest of the Republic, I have practiced in regard to Mexico, since my return to the United States, the same delicacy which I expect a friend whom I have been entertaining to practice when he has left my house. For this reason I cannot sanction either your observations or your deductions.

I am at liberty, however, to say that your details of our travels are full and accurate; your account of the resources and capacities of the country is not exaggerated; your pictures of Mexican society will be thought by the public too highly colored: I think that your error lies on the other side. The Statesmen of the country deserve all the praise you have bestowed upon them. Your style is attractive, the book is spirited, and I think it calculated to be useful.

Sincerely,

your friend and well-wisher,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

Colonel Albert S. Evans,  San Francisco, Cal.

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PREFATORY

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This work embodies the observations of the Author on Mexico and her people, made while traveling as one of the party of the Hon. Wm. H. Seward, in 1869-70.

Through the kind partiality of Mr. Seward, and the liberality of the Government and Citizens of Mexico, the Author undoubtedly enjoyed greater facilities for seeing the country and its inhabitants, than have been accorded to any other traveler for many years.

I have endeavored to give an impartial description of what I saw and heard in that land of wonder and romance, avoiding neither the lights nor the shadows of the picture.

I had been familiar with the people of Mexico, a portion of their country, and much of their history, for many years; had sympathized with them in their noble struggle against invasion, and the infamous attempt of European rulers to subvert free, government and plant despotic institutions on the soil of America; against the bigoted, superstitious and intolerant party of conservatism, which steadfastly opposed the education of the masses and all progress; against slavery, and the remnants of monarchical institutions handed down to them as a part of the curse of Old Spain, and was prepared to make many allowances for errors and short-comings, in view of the obstacles in the way of the country's progress, and the trials through which the nation had been called upon to pass.

The journey was in many respects the most remarkable one on record. No private citizen—whatever might have been his former station in life—ever received such an ovation as was given to Mr. Seward, by the people and Government of Mexico. From the Pacific to the Atlantic,—over a journey of some twelve hundred miles,—it was one grand triumphal march, and all classes and parties joined in the demonstration. Seeing much to praise, something to blame, and much to excuse as the inevitable result of the acts of those who administered the Government and shaped the destinies of Mexico before the present generation came upon the field of action, I can safely say that the balance was decidedly on the right side and that I came away with more respect for the people, more sympathy for a nationality struggling—sometimes blindly, but always earnestly and persistently—along the path of progress, and more hope for the future of that much misunderstood and much misrepresented Republic, than I had when I entered it.

The journey was one of the most pleasing episodes of my life, and the memory of the friendships established, and the unceasing kindness and consideration received at the hands of Mr. Seward and the other members of his party, and the people of the country through which we traveled, will be a source of heartfelt enjoyment through all coming years.

I have not aimed at writing, a comprehensive, statistical, and historical work on Mexico, but have left that task to other and abler pens, giving only what came under our personal observation, and endeavoring to show the reader, the country and the people as we saw them.

In a land where nature has lavished all her wealth with tropical prodigality, where the scenery is grand and beautiful beyond description, and every step is over historic ground, and amid scenes around which the romance of centuries has accumulated, I could not fail to see much to interest the reader and make the story of such a journey worthy of perusal, whatever my abilities as a writer might be.

The relations between Mexico and the United States must become more intimate as years elapse. The interests of the two Republics are growing, every day, more nearly identical. Nature and republican institutions have made us allies, and an injury inflicted upon one must be felt by the other, as well, in the end. If what I have written shall assist my countrymen in forming a more just and favorable idea of Mexico than they have hitherto entertained, I shall have every reason to be more than satisfied with the result of my labors.

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Sister Republic - Illustrations p09.jpg

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Portrait of the Author,Frontispiece,

Hon. William H. Seward Traveling in Mexico,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
The Golden Gate,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
Beach and Houses at Manzanillo,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
Portrait of Señor Luis Rendon,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
Señor Huarte's House at Colima,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
A Tortilla Maker,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
Portrait of Col. Sabas Lomeli of the Jalisco Guard,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
The Barranca De Beltran,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
Indians from Michoacan going up to Guadalajara,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
Bride and Groom entering the Church,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
Hacienda in the Mountains of Jalisco,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
Effects of Taking a Drink,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
The Grand Cathedral of Guadalajara,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
Blind Girl in the Hospicio,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125
The Great Cemetery of Bethlem,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
A Mexican Cart,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
Indian Embroiderers and their Work,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
Indian Statuary Makers of Tonilla,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
A Sunday Bull-Fight at Guadalajara,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
145
Gutierrez, the Terror of Jalisco,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
160
The Grateful Guava Merchant,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
161
Venta de los Pagarros,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
Church of San Juan de los Lagos,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
166
The Reservoirs and Promenade at Guanajuato,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
183
Portrait of Florencio Antillon, Governor of Guanajuato,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
187
The Ancient Castle of Grenaditas,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
190
The Tarantula of the Mines,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
210
The Execution of Maximilian,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
236
What is left of the Empire,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
238
The Mexican Girl and her Blind Father,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
243
Maneuvering for a Pig-Skin,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
245
Family Resemblance: — A Reminiscence of White Pine,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
247
Interior of Mr. Seward's House in Mexico,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
251
Portrait of Senorita Dona Rosa Mancillas,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
Portrait of Senorita Dolores Mora,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
Portrait of Senorita Luz Acosta,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
Portrait of Senorita Soledo Juarez,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
Portrait of Senorita Maclovia Hill,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
Termination of the San Cosme Aqueduct,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
259
The Policemen of Mexico—A Street Scene,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
262
Portrait of Matias Romero, Minister of Hacienda,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
269
Chapultepec,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
271
Portrait of Don Sebastian Lerdo De Tejada, Minister of Foreign Relations,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
274
Portrait of Ignacio M. Altamerano, the Indian Orator,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
287
The Pueblo at Taos,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
305
Portrait of Don Benito Juarez, President of Mexico,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
306
Portrait of Maximilian,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
310
Portrait of Carlotta,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
311
Broken Plate from Chapultepec,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
312
The Great Cathedral of Mexico,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
341
Flagellantes entering the Chapel twenty years ago,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
345
A Mexican Beggar — "Tengo Nada Senor,"
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
370
The Earthenware Seller,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
The Mexican Water Carrier,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
372
The Orange Seller,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
373
The Poultry Seller,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
374
The Vegetable Seller,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
375
Cholula, and the Aztec Pyramid,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
428
Our Aztec Musicians at Cholula,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
434
The Needle Palm or Spanish Bayonet,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
448
Sunday Amusement at Vera Cruz—Bull and Bear Fight,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
490
The Ranchero and his Pig,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
504
The Horse and the Zapilotes,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
506

page

 
 
 
 

CONTENTS.

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Page.

 

Good-Bye to San Francisco—Chinese Sailors—Voyage down the Coast—Verdureless Mountains—Sunday Service at Sea—Wreck of the Golden City—Signal Rockets—The Montana—Meeting of Steamers at Night—Cape St. Lucas—Within the Tropics—A Desolate Region—Castor—Oil Whales—A Tropical Sunset at Sea—El Mar de Cortez—Arrival at Manzanillo—The Guest of Mexico—Washed up by the Sea—Sights and Scenes on Shore—Battle of Sharks and Alligators—Visitors from Colima—Gov. Cueva—Productions of Manzanillo—Tropical Fruits—Embarkation and Passage of the Flotilla up the Laguna de Cayutlan—A Charmed Circle—The Wealth of the Tropics—Wild-Flowers, Parrots and Alligators—Our Indian Rowers—Scene on the Beach—Dejected Mules—Crossing the Rio de Santa Maria—Indian Population—Battle-Ground of San Bartolo—The great Hacienda of La Calera—Life in the Tropics—Senor Huarte—Rural Mass and Sunday Scenes—Pigeon-English—Departure from La Calera—Our Coach and Six—The Custom-House Guard—Water Bearers of Mexico—Colima the Beautiful,

...49

 
 

Colima—Night Entrance to the Ancient City—The Music of Cortez—Is it a Revolution?—In Grenada or Damascus—View from the Balcony—The Valley of Colima—Picturesque Scenes on the Streets—The Plaza and Markets—The Gardens of the Tropics—Their Flowers and Fruits—The People and Resources of Colima—Productions of the Country—The Cocoa-nut—Agua de Cocoa—Coffee and Chocolate—Linoloe—Honors to Mr. Seward—Invitation to the Palace—A Brilliant and Beautiful Scene—The Ball and Banquet—Eloquent Address of Gov. Cueva—Mr. Seward's first Speech in Mexico—A Grand Fandango—The Cotton Factories and the Operatives—Ravages of War—Visit to the Public Schools—The State-Prison and Prisoners—Curious Christening Ceremonies—The Guard of Jalisco and their Commander,

...69

 
 

Farewell to Colima—Painful Scene at the U. S. Consulate—Departure of the Grand Cavalcade—The Country and the People—The Barranca

Country—Mr. Seward's Palanquin—Magnificent Scenery—Dinner with Gov. Vega at Tornila—The great Volcano of Colima—The Foot-Hills of the Sierra Madre—Tortilla Makers—Our Escort—The Guard of Jalisco on the March—Hacienda de San Marcos—Wild Night Scene—The Cavalcade by Torch Light—Great Barranca de Beltran—Fate of Gen. Arteaga—Historic Ground—Passage of the last of the Barrancas—Atenquiqui—An Indian Runner—Commerce of the Road—Crossing the Sierra Madre—Zapotlan—Soap-Factories—"Going the whole Hog"—A Mexican Wedding Party—Floral Decorations—Anecdote of Rojas—A Monopoly of Crime—How Local Revolutions are Managed—Victims of the Pronunciamentos,

94

 
 

Under a Cloud—Saints, Festivities and Bull-Fights—Wayside Crosses—A Land of Brigands, Plagiaros and Blood—Wholesale Shooting of Outlaws—A Magnificent Valley—Our Welcome at Seyula—Visit to the Public Schools—Interesting School Exhibition—Sunday Evening Ball—Mexican Beauties—The Birds of the Tropics—Indian Villages—Reception at Zacoalco—Battle Field of La Coronea—Defeat of the Imperialists—General Martinez—A terrible Pun—A Mexican Fonda and Mexican Cooking—Great Sugar Hacienda del Plan—Strange Sights on the Road—Kneeling Men and Women—The Century Plant—Tequila and its Effects—A Swell-Head—First View of Guadalajara—Reception and Entrance into the City—Guadalajara by Moonlight—The Old, Old Song,

116

 
 

Churches of Guadalajara—A Retreat from the World—The Music of Bells—The Great Cathedral—A Magnificent Altar—Paintings and Statuary—Strange Superstitions—Well-preserved Bishops—Great Hospital of San Miguel de Belan—Sisters of Charity—The Hospicio of Guadalajara and its Sixteen Hundred Inmates—The Chapel of the Hospicio—Public Schools of Jalisco—Girl's and Boy's High School—Library of Thirty Thousand old Books—School of Useful Arts—Musical Talent—Primary Schools—Beautiful Embroidery—The great Cemeterio de Bethlem—The Paseo de San Pedro—"A Pleasant Place to Visit"—Insecurity of Life and Property—A strange State of Society—Indian Embroiderers—Indian Statuary Makers of Tonila—Cotton Factories—The Theatre and Opera House—Sunday Bull-Fight—The Programme—The Amphitheatre—A Quiet Bull and his Fate—A Cowardly Bull—Enraged Audience—A Game-fellow—Lively Times—The Bull-Riders—The Bones of the Dead Past—Farewell Banquet to Mr. Seward—Eloquent Addreses—The Belles of Guadalajara,

155

 

Departure from Guadalajara—Killing Bandits—Ancient Bridge—Falls of the Rio Grande—Zapotlanejo—Results of Revolutions and Invasions—The Bridge of Calderon, where Hidalgo was Defeated—How the Indian Patriots Fought—Scene of one of Rojas' Butcheries—The Terror of Jalisco—Buying out an Establishment—The Grateful Merchant—TepotitIan—Jalos—Great Disproportion of the Sexes—Venta de Los Pagarros and how they Kill Robbers There—Great Central Plateau of Mexico—St John of the Lakes—Its great Church, and What I Saw in It—A Scene of Bewildering Beauty—Lagos and Its Churches—A Well-preserved Roman, and My Conclusions—Scenes in the Market Place—Pig-headed Mules—Arrival at Leon—The City and the People—Discounting a Miracle—The Feast of All-Saints—Pockets Picked and Charity Misconstrued—Narrow Escape from Bandits"—Tis Distance Lends Enchantment"—The Mines of La Luz—A Touching and Characteristic Scene—The Foot-Hills of Guanajuato,

180

 
 

Guanajuato— First View of the Triple City—Marfil—The Reservoirs—Senor Rocha and His Works—La Presa—El Buffa—The Silver District of Guanajuato— Statistics of the State—Improvements—Schools and Colleges—Gov. Antillon—The Mint and What is Done There—Castle of Grenaditas and its History—The Fate of Hidalgo— Street Peddlers and Their Wares—How the Poor People Live—Curious Scenes at the Markets—Heavy Stealings—Severe on the Clergy—College Examination—Beneficiating Silver Ores—The Great Mine of San Jose de Valenciano which has Produced Eight Hundred Million Dollars—Ruin and Desolation—A Deserted Mining Town—Immense Subterranean Works—The Great Shaft—A Game Padre—Fearful Murder—The Gentlemen of the Road—Generous Brigands—A Foreign Innovation—Mine of the Serrano—In the Tunnel—Pyrotechnical Display of Indescribable Grandeur—The Lower Depths—Sights Under Ground—How People Live and Die There—A Speechless Auctioneer,

211

 
 

Departure from Guanajuato—A Sand-River—A Beautiful and Fertile Country—Feudal Castles in the Nineteenth Century—Salamanca—The Late General Doblado—The Game of the Country—Celaya—Interesting Relics—A Mexican Woolen Factory—Artesian Well—Fountains—Salvatierra—A Chance for Railway Builders—Hacienda of Fifty Thousand Acres—A Poverty Stricken Population in the Richest Land on Earth—Abundance of Old Churches—Great Need of a Continental Railway—A Better Time Coming—Approach to the Historic City of Queretaro,

220

 

Arrival at Queretaro—All Quiet—How the Aqueduct was Built—The "Hercules" Cotton Factory and its Surroundings—First Class Operatives—The Procession of the Host—The Englishman's Mistake—That same old Mulo Story—Welcome to Mr. Seward—Scene of the Downfall of the Empire of Mexico—Popular Opinion of Maximilian and Carlotta—The Siege of Queretaro—Position of the Contending Armies—Desperation of Maximilian's Situation—His Offer, to Abandon His Army to Secure His Own Personal Safety—An Immediate Assault at all Points ordered by Escobedo—Was Lopez a Traitor?—Last Scene in the Conflict—How Maximilian Was Taken—His Hopes for Pardon—Conversation between Maximilian and Miramon—The Scene at the Cerro De Las Campanas—Execution of Maximilian, Miramon and Mejia—Was It Right, or Was It Not?—Visit to the last Scene in the Tragedy of the Empire of Mexico—All that Is Left of the Empire,

238

 
 

From Queretaro to Mexico—A Magnificent Agricultural Country—San Juan del Rio—Old Lava Fields—The Land of the Maguey—The Century Plant and what it Produces—Arroyo Zarco—The Rural Guard—Tepeji Del Rio—First View of the Valley of Mexico—The Blind Man and His Daughter—Lake Zupango—Pulque and the Pulqueries—Pig-Skins and How Procured—A Startling Resemblance—Reminiscence of White Pine—The Story of Downton and Gerry—A Family Resemblance—Sad Results of Business Reverses—The Valley of Mexico—Reception of Mr. Seward by the Cabinet of the President—Welcome to the Capital as the Nation's Guest by the Citizen President, Benito Juarez—In the City of Montezuma,

251

 
 

Mexico and Its Surroundings—Insecurity of the Roads—Excursion to La Canada—Visit to Tacubaya—The House of Gen. Urega, and Who I Found There—The American Cemetery—A Startling Inscription—The Gate of the Beam—The Grand Canal and Floating Gardens of Mexico—Scene of Guatamozin's Defeat—Church and Tree of the Noche Triste—The San Cosme Aqueduct—An Aztec Idol—How Police Matters are Managed—A Polito Thief—Popocatapetl and the Woman in White—The Survey by General Ochoa—Interior of the Crater—How Cortez Procured Powder—Dinner with Matias Romero—Dinner with the Family of President Juarez at Chapultepec—The Palace and Its Surroundings—Souvenirs of Maximilian—Poor Carlotta—The Feast of Belshazzar—

View from the Verandah of Chapultepec—Molina del Rey, Contreras and Churubusco—The Alameda of Mexico,

274

 
 

Revelings in the Halls of the Montezumas—Dinner at the House of Señor Lerdo—Toasts in Honor of President Grant—Address by Mr. Seward—Grand Banquet at the Palacio Nacional—What Was Said and Done There—An Era of Good Feeling—Speech by President Juarez—Speech by U. S. Minister Nelson—Mr. Lerdo's Response—Mr. Seward's Address—Altamerano the Indian Orator and His Eloquence—The Great Speech of the Occasion—Other Speeches and Toasts—Improvisional Poetry,

294

 
 

Excursion up the Grand Canal—A Small Water Party—A Jolly Time All Around—Picnic at an Indian Village—An Exciting Scene on the Return Trip—Free Baths and no End of Fun—Circus in an Old Convent—Opera and Theatre—Grand Closing Ball and Banquet—The Most Brilliant Scene Witnessed in America—Toasts and Speeches—The Darien Ship-Canal—Don Benito Juarez—His Personal Appearance and Characteristics—Curious Tradition and Coincidences—View of the Valley from Tacubaya,

308

 
 

Amid the Ruins of Empires—Behind the Scenes after the Play—Plunder from the Palace of Chapultepec—The "Theatrical Effects" Imported by Maximilian—His Carriages, Pictures, Plate, and Household Wardrobe—The Farce He Played in—Court Costumes and Imperial Decorations—His Gold and Silver Plate—His State Carriage and Billiard Tables—Maximilian's Court and Empire—His Fatal Mistake—The Archives of Mexico—Maximilian's Arrival in Mexico—The Mask Removed—The Black Flag Decree—The Apologists of Maximilian—The Records of the Empire and What They Prove—The Victims of the Black Flag Decree—Letters written by Generals Arteaga and Salazar just before Their Execution—Remonstrance of the Belgians—Aztec Relics—The Great Sacrifical Stone, etc.—A City Under a City—American Origin of the Aztecs—The House of Hernando Cortez—National Monte de Piedad of Mexico—The Model Pawnbroker's Shop of the World—Five Millions Dollars Worth of Jewels and Plate in one Room—The Sword of General Valencia and Jewels of Isabella the Catholic, on Pawn—A Commentary on Human Pride and Ambition,

341

 

Religion and the Arts—Our Lady of Guadaloupe—How the Virgin Appeared as an Indian "Woman to Juan Diego—Story of the Apparition and the Erection of the Church and Chapel—Our Lady of the Remedios—The Shrine of Guadaloupe, and the great Annual Pilgrimage to it—A Visit to the Church—Scenes Outside and Inside—Sale of Books and Charms—The old Bell-Makers—The Offering of a Spanish Rover—The Miraculous Fountain—Boring for Oil—A Religious Picnic—Home of the Inquisition and Plaza de San Domingo—The Protestant Missions in Mexico—Protestantism—Statement of Rev. H. Chauncey Riley and His Appeal for Funds in Aid of the Work—The National School of Art and Design—Pictures Old and New—The Art Galleries—Department of Coins and Medals—The College of Mines—Rare Collection of Minerals,

364

 
 

Social Condition and Customs—The Women of Mexico—Their Character and Social Condition—Curious Phases of Social Life—The Children of Mexico—Trade of the City—The Beggars—The Ancient Customs and Superstitions of Southern Europe—The Evil Eye—Hospitable Treatment of Guests—Courtesy Misconstrued—The Story of Uncle Freddy, alias Washington the Second—Norton the First—The Chinese Princess—How Uncle Freddy Became the Guest of Mexico—Foreigners in Mexico—Sharp Business Transactions—Devotion of the Women and Their Sympathy for the Unfortunate—How Mr. Fitch was Swindled—Honoring the Uniform—Mr. Seward's Fossil Elephant and what became of it—Politeness of the Servants—Census Taking in Mexico,

391

 
 

The Soldiers of Mexico—The Invalid Corps—The Press—Literary and Musical Attainments—A Persevering Printer—Immigration—Public Improvements—The Great Need of Mexico—The Political Situation—Its Hopeful and its Discouraging Aspects—Moral Responsibility of the United States—Advocates of Annexation—A Plea for Mexico,

405

 
 

Departure from the Capital—By Rail to Puebla—The Pulque Country—The Pyramids of Tehuacan—Battle Field of Otumba—The Grandest Mountains of the Continent—Orizaba, Popocatépetl, La Muger En Blanco and the Malinchi—The City of Puebla by Daylight and Moonlight—War's Desolation—Siege and Capture of Puebla—Cinco De

Mayo—The Pronunciamento of the Sierra—Excursion to the Ancient City of Tlaxcala—The Castles of the Four great Chiefs of the Tlaxcalan Republic—The Banner of Cortez and Ancient Archives—The Secret of the Gold Placers—The Virgin of Tlaxcala—The Oldest Church on the Continent—The Miracle of Tlaxcala—Carrying Dead-Heads—An Excursion to Cholula—Novel and Enthusiastic Reception—The Music of Other Days—Mr. Seward's Address to the Cholulans—Time's Revenges—Strange Commingling of the Past and Present—The Great Pyramid—A New Theory Concerning It—The Cathedral of Puebla—Its Wonderful Wealth and Beauty—Other Objects of Interest—Buried Treasure—An Imposition—Guatamozin's Last Will—Protestantism in Puebla,

440

 
 

From Puebla to Orizaba—Last Diligence Ride in Mexico—Amazoc and Its Iron-Workers—Eccentricities of the People—Bargaining for Spurs—A Mexican Bridge-Builder—An Aztec Tower and Sun-Dial—Daring Feat of a Guerrilla,—The Home of the Palm and the Maguey—A Colored Gentleman in Mexico—Buying Cigars—The Rural Guard—A Change of Scene—Las Cumbres—Wonderful Scenery—Descent into the Tierra Caliente—Orizaba,

452

 
 

A City with a Past and Future but No Present—Grass-Grown Streets—The Indian Packers and How They Take in Ballast—Battle-Scarred Churches—Outrages Committed by Maximilian's Troops—The French Colonel—A Woman's Revenge—Curious Christmas Festivities—Playing the Devil—A Whole Community Gambling—Stoicism of the Losers—The Falls of the Rincon Grande—A Tropical Paradise—Hacienda de San Antonio and How They Make Sugar—Coffee Plantations—Resources of Mexico—The Great Conducta—Its Encampment at Orizaba and March to Vera Cruz—How Silver is Carried and Handled in Mexico—The Indian Specie-Counters at Vera Cruz—Reminiscence of the Mexican War,

473

 
 

Resting at Orizaba—Ascent of the Sierra Borregas—Visit to an Indian Village—Departure for Vera Cruz—Magnificent Scenery of the Chiquihuite Pass—The Great Railway Bridge—Reception at Vera Cruz—The Specialities of the City—Souvenirs of Past Conflicts—The Zapilotes—A Lively Hotel—Lotteries—The Chain-Gang—A Private Quarrel—Curious

Statistics—An Unpopular Institution—Steamer Arrival—A Mixed Cargo—Sunday Amusements in Vera Cruz—Bear and For Bear—How the California Bear Sampson Entertained the Mexican Bull—Amateur Bull-Fighting—The Amateur's Story of His Experiences—The Castle of San Juan de Ulloa—What it was and What it is—A Great Work in Ruins—The Dungeons and Political Prisoners—The Fate of General Castillo—"Who Enters Here Leaves Hope Behind—Mementoes of the Last French Invasion—The Perplexities of the Author—The Ranchero and His Pig—The Horse and the Zapilotes—Which Whipped?

508

 
 

Mr. Seward's Farewell Letters to the Members of the Juarez Government and Others—Voyage from Vera Cruz to Yucatan—Sisal—Its People, Trade and Specialities—The Highest-Roofed Theatre on Earth—Visitors from Merida—Letter from the Governor of Yucatan—Our Last View of Mexico Adios!

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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).