des Camacho, and to the 95th Psalm (op. 46). He also arranged the scherzo from the string octett (op. 20) for full orchestra to replace the minuet and trio of his symphony in C minor on the occasion of its performance by the Philharmonic Society, as noticed above.
6. Schumann. For four hands : Overture, scherzo, and finale; Symphony No. 2 (C major); Overture to 'Hermann und Dorothea.' Madame Schumann has arranged the quintett (op. 44) for four hands, and the accompaniments to the opera of 'Genoveva' for two hands.7. Brahms has arranged Nos. 1, 3, and 6 of his 'Ungarische Tanze,' originally published as piano pieces for four hands, for full orchestra. He has also arranged his piano string quintett (op. 34) as a 'Sonata' for four hands on two pianos, and his two Orchestral Serenades for Piano, a quatre mains.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
[ M. C. C. ]
ARRIGONI, Carlo, a lutenist, born at Florence at the beginning of last century, whose only claim to notice is his possible antagonism to Handel. He is said by Fétis and Schoelcher to have been engaged, with Porpora, as composer to the theatre at Lincoln's Inn, which was started as an opposition to Handel in 1734, and to have produced there in that year an opera called 'Fernando' without success; but it is impossible to discover on what this is grounded. That Arrigoni was in London at or about that date is possible, and even probable, since a volume of his 'Cantate da Camera' was published there in 1732; and in Arbuthnot's satire 'Harmony in an Uproar,' the 'King of Arragon' is mentioned amongst Handel's opponents, a name which Burney ('Commemoration') explains to mean Arrigoni. But on the other hand the impression he made must have been very small, and his opera becomes more than doubtful, for the names neither of Arrigoni nor Fernando are found in the histories of Burney or Hawkins, in the MS. Register of Colman, in the newspapers of the period, nor in any other sources to which the writer has had access. It is in accordance with this that Arrigoni is mentioned by Chrysander in connection with Arbuthnot's satire only ('Händel,' ii. 343).In 1738, taking a leaf out of his great antagonist's book, he produced an oratorio called 'Esther,' at Vienna, after which he appears to have retired to Tuscany, and to have died there about 1743.
[ G. ]
ARSIS AND THESIS. Terms used both in music and in prosody. They are derived from the Greek. Arsis is from the verb αίρω (tollo, I lift or raise), and marks the elevation of the voice in singing, or the hand in beating time. The depression which follows it is called θέσισ (deposilio or remissio).
When applied to beating time, arsis indicates the strong beat, and thesis the weak: for the ancients beat time in exactly the reverse way to ours, lifting the hand for the strong beat and letting it fall for the weak, whereas we make the down beat for the strong accents, and raise our hand for the others.
When applied to the voice, a subject, counterpoint, or fugue, are said to be 'per thesin,' when the notes ascend from grave to acute; 'per arsin' when they descend from acute to grave, for here again the ancient application of the ideas of height or depth to music was apparently the reverse of our own.A fugue 'per arsin et thesin' is the same thing as a fugue 'by inversion,' that is to say, it is a fugue in which the answer to the subject is made by contrary motion. (See Fugue, Canon, Inversion, and Subject). The terms arsis and thesis may be regarded as virtually obsolete, and are practically useless in these days.
[ F. A. G. O. ]