Franklin's favourite saying at each progress of the American insurrection. The burden of the song was then as follows:—
'Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira!
At a later period the burden, though more ferocious, was hardly more metrical:—
'Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira!
The tune—the length and compass of which show that it was not composed for the song—was the production of a certain Bécour or Bécourt, a side-drum player at the Opera; and as a contre-danse was originally very popular under the title of 'Carillon national.'
[ G. C. ]
CALAH, John, born 1758, was organist of Peterborough Cathedral in the latter part of the last century. He composed some cathedral music, still in use, and died Aug. 4, 1798.
[App. p.575 adds "in 1781–1785 he was organist of the parish church and master of the Song-school at Newark-upon-Trent. Correct the date of his death to Aug. 5."]
[ W. H. H. ]
CALANDO (Ital.), diminishing, i.e. in tone; equivalent to diminuendo or decrescendo, and often associated with ritardando.
CALASCIONE or COLASCIONE (Ital.; Fr. Colachon). The name of a fingerboard instrument of the lute kind belonging to Lower Italy. The calascione is strung with two catgut strings tuned a fifth apart. The body of it is like that of an ordinary lute, but it is relatively smaller towards the neck. Of all fingerboard instruments the calascione is most like the NFR (vocalised by different interpreters as nofre, nefru, or nefer) of the old Egyptian monuments; but it would be a bold hypothesis to derive the modern instrument from one used in such remote antiquity, the long-necked Egyptian lute having been depicted as early as the fourth dynasty—according to Heir Lepsius anterior to 3000 B.C. The strings of the calascione are touched with a plectrum, rarely by the fingers. The fingerboard has frets of ivory. About 1767 the brothers Cola [App. p.575 "Colæ"] were noted performers on it. [See Bandora.]
[ A. J. H. ]
CALDARA, Antonio, was born at Venice in 1678, where he studied music under Legrenzi. He remained for many years a simple singer in the Ducal Chapel of S. Marco, but was in 1714 appointed Maestro di Cappella at Mantua. Thence in 1718 he went to Vienna, where the emperor Charles VI made him one of his vice-chapel-masters. In 1738 he returned to Venice, where he lived in retirement until his death in 1768 [App. p.575 "Aug. 28, 1763, on the authority of Paloschi and Riemann"]. These are the dates in his career which are given by Fétis, and which he defends against Gerber and Antoine Schmidt, who say that he died at Vienna in 1736. He was a laborious composer both for the church and the stage. But his worth is hardly equal to his fecundity. A certain solemnity of manner in some measure redeems his church music; but his operas are essentially of that order which when once laid aside are laid aside for ever. He wrote no less than 69 operas and oratorios, and dramatic compositions in the nature of one or the other. The catalogue of his church music is equally lengthy, and includes a number of cantate on sacred subjects for one, two, and three voices, with elaborate orchestral accompaniments.
[ E. H. P. ]
CALIFE DE BAGDAD. Opera in one act, words by Saint-Just, music by Boieldieu; produced at the Opera Comique Sept. 16, 1800, and still a favourite, after many hundred representations.
CALL, Leonard de, born in 1779; a guitar player and composer of harmonious and pretty part songs, which were greatly in fashion in Germany at the beginning of the century, and contributed much to the formation of the 'Männer Gesangvereine' in that country. Some pleasing specimens will be found in 'Orpheus.' De Call is also known for his instruction book for the guitar. He died at Vienna 1815.
CALL CHANGES. Ringers are said to be ringing call changes when the conductor calls to each man to tell him after which bell he is to ring, or when the men ring changes with the order in which they are to ring written out before them. When such changes are rung, each change is generally struck consecutively from ten to a hundred times.
[ C. A. W. T. ]
CALLCOTT, John Wall, Mus. Doc., was born November 20, 1766, at Kensington, where his father carried on the business of a bricklayer and builder. Whilst a school-boy he had frequent opportunities of examining the organ at Kensington church, and having funned an acquaintance with the organist became a constant visitor to the organ-loft on Sundays. There he acquired his knowledge of the rudiments of music. His