a mere modern fiction. The tune however quickly crossed the Channel. It is found in 'La Lire Maçonne … de Vignolles et du Bois … a la Haye' as early as 1766, and it is worth noting that the first bar has there taken its present form, and that the close is as follows:—
It was employed as the Danish National Air, to words which afterwards became 'Heil dir im Siegerkranz!' (Flensburger Wochenblatt, Jan. 27, 1790.) As a Berlin 'Volkslied' the words first appeared in the 'Spenersche Zeitung,' Dec. 17, 1793, and both words and music have since become the Prussian and German National Air.
Mr. Chappell has quoted more than one additional occasional stanza as well as parody of 'God save the King.' But perhaps none are so curious as the extra stanza which is said to have been sung at Calais at the banquet given in honour of the Duke of Clarence, when, as Lord High Admiral of England, he took Louis XVIII. across the Channel:—
God save noble Clarence,
The tune was a great favourite with Weber. He has introduced it into his Cantata 'Kampf und Sieg' (No. 9) and his 'Jubel Overture,' and has twice harmonised it for 4 voices—in D and B♭ (both MS.—Jähns, Nos. 247, 271). With Beethoven it was at least equally a favourite. He wrote 7 variations on it for Piano (in C; 1804), and has introduced it into his Battle Symphony; and à propos to the latter the following words are found in his journal: 'I must shew the English a little what a blessing they have in God save the King' (Nohl, 'Beethoven-Feier,' P. 55). Our own Attwood harmonised it in his anthem 'I was glad' for the coronation of George IV, as he did 'Rule Britannia' for the coronation of William IV.
Since these pages were in print Mr. Cummings has published an investigation of the subject in the Musical Times (March to August, 1878) more complete than any preceding it. I have only been able to avail myself of his copy of Bull's Ayre, and must refer my readers to the Musical Times for the rest.
[App. p.650 "Add that the version made by Harries for use in Denmark appeared in the 'Flensburgsches Wochenblatt' for Jan. 27, 1790, and begins 'Heil Dir, dem liebenden.' It is expressly stated to have been written for the melody of 'God save great George the King.' The Berlin form, beginning 'Heil Dir, im Siegerkranz,' is by Balthasar Gerhard Schumacher, and was published in the 'Spenersche Zeitung,' Berlin, Dec. 17, 1793. See a paper by A. Hoffman von Fallersleben in his 'Findlinge,' Leipzig, 1859.
Besides the authorities quoted in vol. i., and Mr. Cummings's papers, see an article by Major Crawford in Julian's 'Dictionary of Hymnology,' P. 437."]
GOETZ, Hermann, born at Königsberg, Dec. 17 [App. p.650 "Dec. 7"], 1840, died at Hottingen, Zürich, Dec. 3, 1876, a composer of some performance and greater promise. Though evidencing great musical ability at an early age, he did not receive any regular instruction till he was 17. After passing some time at the University of Königsberg, he at length decided on a musical career, and placed himself at the school of Stein at Berlin, where he was the pupil of Bülow in playing and Ulrich in composition. In 63 he succeeded Kirchner as organist at Winterthur, supporting himself also by teaching, and embracing any musical work that fell in his way. Meantime he was engaged in the composition of an opera adapted by J. V. Widmann from The Taming of the Shrew, and entitled 'Der Widerspänstigen Zähmung.' It was, after much delay and many disappointments (not unnatural with the first work of an unknown composer), produced at Mannheim Oct. 11, 1874. Its success, however, was great and rapid; it was played at Vienna (Feb. 75), Leipzig, Berlin, and a dozen other towns in Germany, and has recently (1878) been published in English (Augener. For a full analysis of the work see the M. Mus. Record for 1878). It was followed by a Symphony in F, also successful, and by a second opera, 'Francesca di Rimini' (Mannheim, Sept. 30, 1877). This, however, was not finished when its author, long a prey to ill health, died, as already stated. The first two acts were finished, and the third fully sketched; it has been completed, in compliance with Goetz's last request, by his friend Franck, and produced at Mannheim, Sept. 30, 1877. Besides the above works Goetz has published a P.F. trio, a quartet, and various Pianoforte pieces. [App. p.650 "Add to works mentioned in article:—Cantata 'Nänie' (Schiller) for chorus and orchestra, op. 10; Cantata 'Es liegt so still' for male chorus and orchestra, op. 11; six songs, op. 12; and 'Genrebilder,' six pianoforte pieces, op. 13. His posthumous works include a setting of Psalm cxxxvii. for soli, chorus and orchestra, first performed in England by the London Musical Society, June 27, 1879; Quintet in C minor for piano and strings (with double bass); a piano sonata for four hands, concertos for piano and violin; and several songs and vocal quartets."]
GOLDBERG, Johann Gottlieb, the dates and places of whose birth and death are unknown, was a pupil of Sebastian Bach, and one of the most remarkable players on clavier and organ of the middle of the 18th century. He was brought to Bach from Königsberg by Count Kaiserling, the Russian ambassador, of whose establishment he appears to have been a member. Bach held him up as his cleverest and most industrious pupil, and with reason, for to immense executive power he joined an extraordinary facility of improvisation, and of playing the most difficult music at sight. His works (as named by Gerber) are not important, and remain in MS.:—a Motet and a Psalm for voices and orchestra; Preludes and Fugues; 24 Polonaises with Variations; 2 Concertos; a Sonata, and a few Trios for Flute, Violin, and Bass—all exhibiting a certain melancholy, and strong individuality. During the Seven Years War (1756–63) he was 'Kammer-musikus' to Count Brühl. Bach's Thirty Variations were written for Goldberg at the request of Count Kaiserling (in exchange for a golden goblet and 100 louis d'or), and he was accustomed to play them nightly to the Count to lull him to sleep. They are sometimes known as the Goldberg Variations.
GOLDMARK, Karl, born May 18, 1832 [App. p.651 "May 18, 1830"], at Keszthely on the Flatten See, Hungary, of Hebrew parents. Was a pupil of Jansa, the violinist, at Vienna, and in 47 entered the Violin and Harmony classes of the Conservatorium there. His studies however were interrupted by the revolution of 48, and he probably owes more to his own perseverance than to the schools. Since that time he has been chiefly in Vienna, excepting a short residence at Pesth. Hellmesberger acted as a good friend, and gave
- If the tune is alike in the 1st and 2nd (1775) editions. See Tappert to Mus. Wochenblatt, Aug. 31. 1877.
- There seems to be some uncertainty whether these names are correct.