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enriched and developed its capacities with the versatility of true genius. Like those which Mozart wrote after studying the orchestras of Munich, Mannheim, and Paris, Haydn's later symphonies are the most copious in ideas, the most animated, and the most delicate in construction. They have in fact completely banished those of his predecessors.
The Quartet he also brought to its greatest perfection. 'It is not often,' says Otto Jahn, 'that a composer hits so exactly upon the form suited to his conceptions; the quartet was Haydn's natural mode of expressing his feelings.' The life and freshness, the cheerfulness and geniality which give the peculiar stamp to these compositions at once secured their universal acceptance. It is true that scientific musicians at first regarded this new element in music with suspicion and even contempt, but they gradually came to the conclusion that it was compatible not only with artistic treatment, but with earnestness and sentiment. 'It was from Haydn,' said Mozart, 'that I first learned the true way to compose quartets.' His symphonies encouraged the formation of numerous amateur orchestras; while his quartets became an unfailing source of elevated pleasure in family circles, and thus raised the general standard of musical cultivation.
Encouraged partly by the progress made by Emmanuel Bach on the original foundation of Kuhnau and Domenico Scarlatti, Haydn also left his mark on the Sonata. His compositions of this kind exhibit the same vitality, and the same individual treatment; indeed in some of them he seems to step beyond Mozart into the Beethoven period. His clavier-trios also, though no longer valuable from a technical point of view, are still models of composition. On the other hand, his accompanied divertimenti, and his concertos, with a single exception, were far surpassed by those of Mozart, and have long since disappeared.
His first collections of Songs were written to trivial words, and can only be used for social amusement; but the later series, especially the canzonets, rank far higher, and many of them have survived, and are still heard with delight, in spite of the progress in this particular branch of composition since his day. The airs and duets composed for insertion in various operas were essentially ephemeral productions. His canons—some serious and dignified, others overflowing with fun—strikingly exhibit his power of combination. His three-part and four-part songs—like the canons, especial favourites with the composer—are excellent compositions, and still retain their power of arousing either devotional feeling or mirth.
His larger Masses are a series of masterpieces, admirable for freshness of invention, breadth of design, and richness of development, both in the voice-parts and the intruments. The cheerfulness which pervades them does not arise from frivolity, but rather from the joy of a heart devoted to God, and trusting all things to a Father's care. He told Carpani that 'at the thought of God, his heart leaped for joy, and he could not help his music doing the same.' And to this day, difficult as it may seem to reconcile the fact with the true dignity of church music, Haydn's masses and offertories are executed more frequently than any others in the Catholic churches of Germany.
Frequent performances of his celebrated Oratorios have familiarised every one with the charm and freshness of his melody, and his expressive treatment of the voices, which are invariably supported without being overpowered by refined and brilliant orchestration. In these points none of his predecessors approached him. With regard to his operas composed for Esterház, we have already quoted his own opinion; they attained their end. Had his project of visiting Italy been fulfilled, and his faculties been stimulated in this direction by fresh scenes and a larger sphere, we might have gained some fine operas, but we should certainly have lost the Haydn we all so dearly love.
When we consider what Haydn did for music, and what his feelings with regard to it were—the willing service he rendered to art, and his delight in ministering to the happiness of others—we can but express our love and veneration, and exclaim with gratitude, 'Heaven endowed him with genius—he is one of the immortals.'
The Haydn literature contains the following books and pamphlets:
Biographical Sketches, by himself (1776), made use of by De Luca in Das gelehrte Oesterreich'(1778), also in Forkel's 'Musikalischer Almanach for Deutschland' (1783), the 'European Magazine' (London 1784); Burney's 'History of Music,' vol. iv. (1789); Gerber's Lexicon' (1790), with additional particulars in the 2nd edition (1812); 'Musik-Correspondenz der teutschen Filarm. Gesellschaft' for 1792, Nos. 17 and 18 by Gerber; 'Journal des Luxus und der Moden' (Weimar 1806), article by Bertuch; Mayer's 'Brevi notizie istoriche; delta vita … di G. Haydn' (Bergamo 1809); Kinker's 'Der Nagedachtenis van J. Haydn' (Amsterdam 1810); Griesinger's 'Biographische Notizen' (Leipzig 1810): Dies' 'Biographische Nachrichten' (Vienna 1810); obituary in the 'Vaterland. BlTemplate:A;tter für den öst. Kaiserstaat' (Vienna 1809); Arnold's 'Joseph Haydn.' etc. (Erfurt 1810, 2nd edition 1825), and 'Mozart und Haydn' (Erfurt 1810); Framery's 'Notice sur J. Haydn,' etc. (Paris 1810); Le Breton's 'Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de Haydn' (Paris 1810)—first appeared in the 'Moniteur,' then as a pamphlet reprinted in the 'Bibliographie musicale' (Paris 1822), translated into Portuguese with additions by Silva-Lisboa (Rio Janeiro 1820); 'Essai historique sur la vie de J. Haydn' (Strassbourg 1812); Carpaul's 'Le Haydine,' etc. (Milan 1812, 2nd edition enlarged, Padua 1823); 'Lettres écrites de Vienne en Autriche, etc.' L. A. C. Bombet (Paris 1814), republished as 'Vie de Haydn, Mozart, et Metastase,' par Stendhal (Paris 1817); Grosser's 'Biogr. Notizen' (Hirschberg 1836); Ersch und Gruber's 'Allg. Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Künste 2nd section, 3rd part' (Leipzig 1808), with a biographical sketch by Fröhlich; the article in Fétis' 'Biographie univ. des Musiciens'; 'Allg. Wiener Musikzeitung' (1843); 'J. Haydn in London 1791 and 1792.' von Karajan (Vienna 1861); 'Joseph Haydn und sein Bruder Michael.' Wurzbach (Vienna 1811); Ludwig's 'Joseph Haydn' (Nordhausen 1867); C. F. Pohl's 'Mozart und Haydn in London' (Vienna 1867); C. F. Pohl's 'Joseph Haydn' (from the archives at Eisenstadt and Forchtenstein, and other new and authentic sources), vol. i. B. & H. 1875.-Critiques:—by Triest in the 'Leipziger allg. mus. Zeitung' 1801; 8chubart's 'Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst' (Vienna 1806); Reichardt's 'Vertraute Briefe' (Amsterdam 1810); Nägell's 'Vorlesungen über Musik' (Stuttgart and Tübingen 1826); Musik. Briefe … von einem Wohlbekannten (Lobe) (Leipzig (1852), Letter 28; Riehl's 'Musikal. Charakterköpfe' (Stuttgart 1862); 'Joseph Haydn und seine fürstlichen Mäcene,' by Dr. Lorenz, in the 'Deutsche Musikzeitung' for 1862; 'Brief Haydn's an die Tonkünstler-Societät' (Signale 1865); 'Musikerbriefe,' by by Nohl (Leipzig 1867); annals of the 'Wiener Diarium' (afterwards the 'Wiener Zeitung').
- Bombet and Stendhal are pseudonyms of Henri Beyle, who stole freely from Carpani. The first of three pamphlets was translated into English (by Gardiner). 'The Life of Haydn in a series of letters.' etc. (London, John Murray, 1817. Boston 1829). Mondo's French translation of Carpani's larger work appeared in Paris 1837.