But a stronger influence acting on the two musicians is to be found, we think, in the history of the religious movements of the time. Palestrina lived in Rome at a time when zealous Catholics were engaged in vigorous internal reforms as a defence against the march of Protestantism. Lassus too was at a court the first in Europe to throw in its lot with this counter-reformation. The music of the two composers breathes a reality of conviction and an earnestness which is made necessary by the soul-stirring spirit of the time. To Lassus, it is said, strong offers were made by the court of Saxony to induce him to come over to the work of the Protestant Church. Fortunately for the art he remained true to his convictions, and was spared from being spoilt, as many of his fellow-countrymen were, by devoting themselves to those slender forms of composition which were thought suitable to the reformed religion.
Lassus himself saw no violent break separating his music from that of his predecessors, as we may infer from the list of composers whose works were performed in the Munich chapel. In that list the name of Josquin appears in capital letters, for it meant then what the name of Bach means now; and Lassus, with his softer and more modern grace, looked up with reverence and imitated, as well as his own individuality would allow him, the unbending beauty of the glorious old contrapuntist in the same way as Mendelssohn in later times looked up to and longed to imitate the Cantor of the Thomas-schule.
Orlando spent his life in Germany, then by no means the most musical country or the one most likely to keep his memory alive. Palestrina, whose life of suffering and poverty contrasts strongly with Orlando's affluence and position, had at least the good fortune to plant his works in the very spot where, if they took root at all, time would make the least ravages on them. The name and works of Palestrina have never ceased to live in the Eternal City; and while the name of Lassus is little known among musical amateurs, every one is acquainted with the works of his contemporary. How much is really known of Palestrina's music we do not venture to question, but the more the better for Lassus. As soon as the world really becomes familiar with the music of the Italian, the next step will lead to the equally interesting and beautiful works of the Netherlander. Then by degrees we may hope for glimpses into that still more remote period when the art of counterpoint, in the hands of Josquin, first began to have a living influence on the souls of men.
[ J. R. S.-B. ]
LAST JUDGMENT, THE. The English version, by Prof. Taylor, of Spohr's oratorio 'Die letzten Dinge.' Produced at Norwich Festival Sept. 24, 1830. Given by the Sacred Harmonic Society, July 11, 1838, also July 23, 1847, Spohr conducting.
[ G. ]
LATROBE, Rev. Christian Ignatius, eldest son of Rev. Benjamin Latrobe, superintendent of the congregations of the United (Moravian) Brethren in England, was born at Fulnec, Leeds, Yorkshire, Feb. 12, 1758. In 1771 he went to the college of the United Brethren at Niesky, Upper Lusatia, returned to England in 1784, took orders in the same church, became secretary to the Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, and in 1795 was appointed secretary to the Unity of the Brethren in England. Although Latrobe never followed music as a profession he cultivated it assiduously from an early age. His earlier compositions were chiefly instrumental; three of his sonatas, having met with the approval of Haydn, were published and dedicated to him. His other published compositions include Lord Roscommon's translation of the 'Dies Iræ,' 1799; 'The Dawn of Glory,' 1803; Anthem for the Jubilee of George III., 1809; Anthems, by various composers, 1811; Original Anthems, 1823; 'Te Deum, performed in York Cathedral'; 'Miserere, Ps. 51'; and 'Six Airs on serious subjects, words by Cowper and Hannah More.' He edited the first English edition of the Moravian Hymn Tunes. But his most important publication was his 'Selection of Sacred Music from the works of the most eminent composers of Germany and Italy,' 6 vols. 1806–25, through the medium of which many fine modern compositions were first introduced to the notice of the British public. He died at Fairfield, near Liverpool, May 6, 1836.
Rev. John Antes Latrobe, M.A., his son, born in London in 1792 [App. p.697 "1799"], became organist at Liverpool, and was composer of several anthems. He took orders in the Church of England, and was incumbent of St. Thomas's, Kendal, and honorary canon of Carlisle. He was author of 'The Music of the Church considered in its various branches, Congregational and Choral,' London, 1831. He died at Gloucester Nov. 19, 1878.
The following are the contents of Latrobe's valuable Selection, arranged alphabetically. The pieces are all in vocal score, with compressed accompaniments: some to the original text, some to translated words.
Abos. Stabat Mater, T. from Stabat.
Alberti, P. Salve Redemptor, C.—Salve.
Do. O God, be not far. A.—Do.
Do. O Jesu, Salvator! C.—Do.
Astorga, O quam tristis, T.—Stabat.
Do. Quis est homo. D.—Do.
Do. Blessed be the power, C.—Do.
Do. Fac me penitentum, D.—Do.
Do. Recordare. A.—Do.
Do. Cum sitiam, C.—Do.
Bach. C. P. E. O come, let us worship, C.—Anthem.
Do. O Lord, hide not. A.—'Israelites.'
Do. He opened the rock. C.—Do.
Bassani. Sanctus. C.—Requiem.
Do. Recordare. C. & S.—Do.
Boccherini. Fac ut portem. A.—Stabat.
Do. Stabat Mater. A.—Do.
Do. Recordare, T.—Do.
Do. Inflammatus, A.—Do.
Borri, B. Laudaums Te, A.—Mass.
Do. Domine. T.—Do.
Borri, B. Quoniam, T. from Mass.
Do. Christe, C.—Do.
Brassetti. Praise the Lord, C.—Confitebor.
Cafaro, P. Stabat Mater, D. & C.—Stabat.
Caldara. Benedictus, T.—Mass.
Do. Et Incarnatus, A.—Do.
Do. Agnus, D.—Do.
Do. Et incarnatus, C.—Mass.
Do. Crucifixus, D.—Do.
Do. Et resurrexit, C.—Do.
Do. Agnus, C.—Do.
Ciampi, F. O my God, A.—Miserere.
Do. Ecce enim, D.—Do.
Do. Cor mundum. D.—Do.
Danzi. Salve Redemptor. C.—Salve.
Do. Agnus Dei. C.—Mass.
Durante. I will call, A.—Lamentatio.
Do. O remember, C.—Do.
Do. Omnis populus, C.—Service for Passion Week.
Do. Quaerens me. D.—Requiem.
Do. Agnus. C.—Litany.
Felici. Orch è nate, D.—Oratorio.
Galuppi. Sacro horrore, D.—Oratorio.
- A.=Aria; D.=Duet; T.=Terzetto; Q.=Quartet; Qu.=Quintet; C.=Coro; Ch.=Chorale; M.=Motet; Of. Offertorium; S.=Solo.