��Teresa, that by her desire Prince Esterhazy had the whole apparatus sent to Vienna for the amusement of the Court. In London, fantoccini were playing between the years 1/70 and 80 at Hickford's large Rooms in Panton Street, Hay- market, Marylebone Gardens, and in Piccadilly. In Nov. 1791 Haydn was present at one of these performances l in the elegant little theatre called Variete"s Amusantes, belonging to Lord Barry- more, in Savile Row. He was much interested, and wrote in his diary, ' The puppets were well- managed, the singers bad, but the orchestra toler- ably good.' The playbill may be quoted as a f.pecimen.
Dancing and music.
A comedy in one act, 'Arlequin valet.'
��Spanish Fandango. Concertante, Pleyel. A comedy in one act,
the music by Saccnini and
��The favourite opera (5th time)
' La buona Figliuola,' To conclude with a Pas de the music by Piccini.Giordani deux a-Ia-mode
and Sarti. \ de Vestris and Hillisberg.
Leader of the band : Mr. Mountain.
First hautboy : Sgr. Patria.
To begin at 8 ; the doors open at 7 o'clock.
The theatre is well aired and illuminated with wax.
Refreshments to be had at the Rooms
of the theatre. Boxes 5/. Pit 3/.
A critic in 'The Gazetteer' says: 'So well did the motion of the puppets agree with the voice and tone of the prompters, that, after the eye had been accustomed to them for a few minutes, it was difficult to remember that they were puppets.'
Fantoccini are by no means to be despised even in these days. They give opportunity for ' many a true word to be spoken in jest' ; they show up the bad habits of actors, and form a mirror in which adults may see a picture of life none the less true for a little distortion. [C.F.P.]
MARITANA. Opera in 3 acts, founded on Don Cesar de Bazan ; words by Fitzball, music by W. V. Wallace. Produced at Drury Lane by Mr.Bunn, Nov. 15, 1845. [G.]
MARKULL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, born Feb. 17, 1 8 1 6, near Elbing, Prussia. He studied composition and organ playing under Friedrich Schneider, at Dessau; became in 1 8, j6 principal organist at Dantzig and conductor of the 'Gesang- verein ' there. Markull also enjoys reputation as a pianist, and has given excellent concerts of chamber music. He has composed operas, oratorios, and two symphonies, and many works for the organ, and contributes musical articles for Dantzig journals. [H. S. 0.]
MARPURG, FUIEDBICH WILHELM, eminent writer on music, bcrn 1718 at Marpurgshof, near Seehausen, in Brandenburg. Little is known of his musical education, as Gerber gives no details, although Marpurg furnished him with the history of his life. Spazier ('Leipzig musik. Zeitung,'
> See Pohl's ' Haydn In London,' p. 102.
��" 553) sa y s that i Q J 74^ he was secretary to General Rothenburg in Paris, and there asso- ciated with Voltaire, Maupertuis, D'Alembert, and Rameau ; and Eberhard remarks that his acquaintance with good society would account for his refined manners and his tact in criticism. The absence in his works of personality and of fine writing, then so common with musical authors, is the more striking as he had great command of language and thoroughly enjoyed discussion. His active pen was exercised in almost all branches of music composition, theory, criticism, and his- tory. Of his theoretical works the most cele- brated are the 'Handbuch beim Generalbatse, und der Composition,' founded on Rameau's system (3 parts, 1757-8, Berlin) ; 'Der kritische Musicus an der 2 Spree" (Berlin, 1750), contain- ing on p. 129 a lucid explanation of the old Church Modes ; the ' Anleitung zur Singecom- position' (Berlin, 1758), and the 'Anleitung zur Musik' (Berlin, 1763), both still popular; the 'Kunst das Clavier zu spielen' (1750); the 'Versuch iiber die musikalische Temperatur' (Breslau, 1776), a controversial pamphlet in- tended to prove that Kirnberger's so-called funda- mental bass was merely an interpolated bass; and the ' Abhandlung von der Fuge,' 62 plates (Berlin 1753-54; 2n( l edition 1806; French, Berlin 1756), a masterly summary of the whole science of counterpoint at that period, with the solitary defect that it is illustrated by a few short examples, instead of being treated in connection with composition. This Marpurg intended to remedy by publishing a collection of fugues by well-known authors, with analyses, but he only issued the first part (Berlin, 1758). Of his cri- tical works the most important is the ' Historisch- kritische Beitrage,' 5 vols. (Berlin, 1744-62). Among the historical may be specified a MS. ' Entwurf einer Geschichte der Orgel,' of which Gerber gives the table of contents ; and the 'Kri- tische Einleitung in die Geschichte der Ton- kunst' (Berlin, 1751). A.jeu d'esprit, 'Legende einiger Musikheiligen von Simon Metaphrastea dem Jiingeren' (Cologne, 1786), appeared under his pseudonym. Of compositions he published, besides collections of contemporary music, '6 Sonaten fur das Cembalo' (Nuremberg, 1756); ' Fughe e capricci ' (Berlin, 1777) : and ' Versuch in figurirten Choralen,' vols. i and 2 ; ' Musikal- isches Archiv,' an elucidation of the ' Historisch, kritischen Beitrage,' was announced, but did not appear.
Marpurg died May 22, 1795, in Berlin, where he had been director of the government lottery from 1 763. [F.G.]
MARSCHNER, HEINBICH, celebrated Ger- man opera-composer, born Aug. 16, 1796, at Zittau in Saxony. He began to compose sonatas, Lieder, dances, and even orchestral music, with no further help than a few hints from various musicians with whom his beautiful soprano voice and his pianoforte playing brought him into contact. As he grew up he obtained more
2 The Spree Is the river which flows (or rather creeps) through Berlin.