of execution as a violinist. After travelling for some time he settled in Lille, where he was well received, and still more so at the Concerts Spirituels in 1737. Having achieved success in Paris as a violinist and composer of popular chambermusic and organ pieces (for Balbâtre), Mondonville attempted the stage, but his first opera, 'Isbe' (Académie, April 10, 1742), failed. In 1744 he succeeded Gervais as Surintendant de la Chapelle du Roi, and under court patronage he produced, at the Académie 'Le Carnaval du Parnasse' (Sept. 23, 1749), an opéra-ballet in 3 acts, containing some graceful music. When the contest between the partisans of Italian and French music, known as the Guerre des Bouffons, arose in 1752 in consequence of the success of 'La Serva padrona,' Mondonville, a protégé of Mme. de Pompadour, was chosen champion of the national school; and his opera 'Titon et l'Aurore' (Jan. 9, 1753) owed its success largely to this circumstance. 'Daphnis et Alcimadura' (Dec. 29, 1754), a pastoral in the Langue d'Oc, in which he introduced many Provencal airs, completed his popularity; and of this he made use to procure his appointment as director of. the Concerts Spirituels. That post he occupied for seven years (1755–62), showing great ability both as an administrator and conductor, and producing at the Concerts with much success three short oratorios, 'Les Israelites au Mont Oreb,' 'Les Fureurs de Saül,' and 'Les Titans.' 'Les Fêtes de Paphos' (May 9, 1758), originally written for Mme. de Pompadour's private theatre, was the only opera performed at the Académie during the same period. His last operas, 'Thésée' (1767) and 'Psyché' (1769, a mere adaptation of the 3rd act of 'Les Fêtes de Paphos'), were unsuccessful.
There is a good portrait of Mondonville in pastel by Latour, now in the possession of M. Ambroise Thomas. The physiognony is that of a man, cunning, patient, and fond of money; the arch of the eyebrows indicating a musician gifted with melody, and a good memory. He holds a violin in his hand; possibly a hint from the artist that posterity would rank the virtuoso and conductor higher than the composer. However this may be, his music has long been forgotten.
His son (born in Paris, 1748, died there 1808), had some reputation as a violinist and oboist.
[ G. C. ]
MONFERRINA, a dance of the Monferrate of Piedmont. It is a kind of country dance. One of the few specimens which we have succeeded in finding is the composition of Signor Piatti, and begins as follows:—
[ G. ]
MONIUSZKO, Stanislaus, born May 5, 1819 [App. p.719 "1820"], in Lithuania, received his first musical instruction from Aug. Freyer in Warsaw, and in 1837 went to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Rungenhagen for three years. He first came into notice as a composer through his opera 'Halka,' given in Warsaw 1858 [App. p.719 "1846"], by means of which he obtained the post of Kapellmeister. He afterwards wrote two other operas, 'Die Gräfin' and 'Der Paria,' [App. p.719 "date of production 1869 and numerous operettas"] and several masses; also a fantasia 'Das Wintermärchen,' and several books of songs. He died in 1872 [App. p.719 "June 4"].
[ J. A. F. M. ]
MONK, Edwin George, Mus. Doc., born at Frome, Somerset, Dec. 13, 1819, was initiated in music by his father, an amateur. He studied pianoforte playing at Bath under Henry Field, and organ playing under George Field. He then went to London and learned choral singing in Hullah's classes, and solo singing from Henry Phillips. After holding several appointments as organist in his native county he went to Ireland in 1844, and became organist and music master of the newly-formed College of St. Columba, and at the same date commenced the study of harmony and composition under Mr. G. A. Macfarren, whose invaluable teaching he enjoyed for several years. In 1847 he settled in Oxford, and was concerned in the formation of 'The University Motett and Madrigal Society.' In 1848 he obtained the appointments of lay precentor, organist and music master at the new College of St. Peter, Radley, and graduated as Mus. Bac. at Oxford. In 1856 he proceeded Mus. Doc., his exercise being a selection from Gray's ode, 'The Bard,' which he published in the same year in vocal score. In 1859 he was appointed successor to Dr. Camidge as organist and choirmaster of York Cathedral. He has published a service, several anthems, a 'Veni Creator Spiritus,' and other pieces, and various secular compositions, and has edited 'The Anglican Chant Book' and 'The Anglican Choral Service Book'; also, with the Rev. R. Corbet Singleton, 'The Anglican Hymn Book,' and, with Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, 'The Psalter and Canticles pointed for chanting' (two series), and 'Anglican Psalter Chants.' He is the compiler of the libretti of Professor Macfarren's oratorios, 'St. John the Baptist,' 'The Resurrection,' and 'Joseph.'
[ W. H. H. ]
MONK, William Henry (no relation to the preceding), was born in London in 1823. 'He considers that his first musical impressions of any value were derived from the performances of the Sacred Harmonic Society, at which, for many years, he was a constant attendant.' He studied under Thomas Adams, J. A. Hamilton, and G. A. Griesbach. After filling the office of organist at Eaton Chapel, Pimlico; St. George's Chapel, Albemarle Street; and Portman Chapel, St. Marylebone, he was appointed in 1847 director of the choir in King's College, London, and in 1849 organist. In 1874, upon the resignation of Mr. John Hullah, he became Professor of Vocal Music in the College. He was early associated with Mr. Hullah in his great work of popular musical education. In 1851 he became Professor of Music at the School for the Indigent Blind. In 1852 he was appointed organist of St. Matthias, Stoke Newington, where a voluntary choir, under his direction, has ever since sustained a daily