in waltzes. 'It is danced,' says a traveller, 'in couples, each pair being quite independent of the rest. The respective partners face each other; the guitar twangs, the spectators accompany, with a whining, nasal drawling refrain, and clapping of hands. You put your arm round your partner's waist for a few bars, take a waltz round, stop, and give her a fling round under your raised arm. Then the two of you dance, backward and forward, across and back, whirl round and chassez, and do some nautch-wallah-ing, accompanying yourselves with castanets or snapping of fingers and thumbs. The steps are a matter of your own particular invention, the more outrés the better; and you repeat and go on till one of you tires out.' Every province in the North has its own Jota, the tune and style of which have existed from time immemorial. Thus there is a Jota Aragonesa and a Jota Navarra, quite different in melody and accompaniment, but always in three-time. Of the former, a better example could hardly be given than that which forms the chief subject of Glinka's orchestral overture or piece 'Jota Aragonese.'
Of the Jota Navarra, an equally good and simple specimen is to be found in the second part of Sarasate's Spanish Dances (op. 22).
The Jota is much played in the North of Spain, and wherever it is heard a dance is sure to be the instant result.
[ G. ]
JOULE, Benjamin St. John Baptist, born at Salford, Nov. 8, 1817, studied the violin under Richard Cudmore, and the organ, singing, and theory, under Joseph John Harris. From May 8, 1846, to March 20, 1853, he was organist and choir-master at Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, and from April 28, 1849, to Oct. 3, 1852, also held a similar position at St. Margaret's, Whalley Range, Manchester. Since March 27, 1853, he has been honorary organist of St. Peter's Church, Manchester. He is also President of the Manchester Vocal Society, and author or compiler of 'The Hymns and Canticles pointed for Chanting,' 1847; 'Directorium Chori Anglicanum,' 1849; a very comprehensive 'Collection of Words of Anthems,' 1859; a pointed Psalter; and other works connected with choral service, several of which have reached many editions. He has also lectured on Church Music, and been a contributor to various periodicals. He was music critic to 'The Manchester Courier' from 1850 to 1870.
[ W. H. H. ]
JUBILATE—the first word of the Vulgate version—is the Psalm (100th) which is given as an alternative to the Benedictus, to follow the second lesson in the morning service of the Anglican Church. The ancient custom of the church was to read lessons and psalms alternately, and psalms so used were called responsories. The Jubilate was specially used in this manner in the offices of Salisbury and York, so its adoption in the reformed service was only a perpetuation of ancient custom in the churches of England. Amalaritis also (a.d. 820) speaks of it as used in Lauds apart from its ordinary occurrence in the order of the Psalms. Nevertheless it did not appear in Cranmer's Prayer-book of 1549, but was added in the revised edition which was made in the reign of Edward VI, 1552. Consequently there is no chant given for it in Marbeck's first adaptation of ancient chants to the English service called 'The Book of Common Praier Noted,' which was published in 1550.
It is curious that the Jubilate is much oftener used than the Benedictus, which is looked upon quite as the exception. One of the most distinguished clerical writers on the choral service of the church, Mr. Jebb, has observed that the Benedictus is so infinitely preferable in every respect that it is impossible to attribute the preference which is given to the Jubilate to any other motive than its being shorter. In confirmation of this view it is interesting to note that while the enthusiasm of the Reformation was still hot, the great musicians of that time, Tallis, Byrd, and Farrant, chose the incomparably more beautiful and more appropriate, but longer, Benedictus; but when that enthusiasm was worn away hardly anything but the shorter Jubilate is to be met with. If we take for instance the most famous collections of the ancient services of the church in their order, we find three settings of the Jubilate in Barnard's collection, eight in Boyce's, and no less than fifteen in Arnold's.
Handel set the Jubilate for the thanksgiving service which was held after the Peace of
- Major Campion. 'On Foot In Spain.' 1879, p. 157.
- This is quite Oriental.